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Contents:

1 Articles and one, a little/a few, this, that


1. a/an (the indefinite article)
2. Use of a/an a/an is used:
3. Omission of a/an a/an is omitted
4. a/an and one
5. a little/a few and little/few
6. the (the definite article)
7. Omission of the
8. Omission of the before home, before church, hospital, prison, school etc and before work, sea and town
9. this/these, that/those (demonstrative adjectives and pronouns)

2 Nouns
10. Kinds and function
11. Gender
12. Plurals
13. Uncountable nouns (also known as non-count nouns or mass nouns)
14. The form of the possessive/genitive case
15. Use of the possessive/genitive case and of + noun
16. Compound nouns

3 Adjectives
17. Kinds of adjectives
18. Position of adjectives: attributive and predicative use
19. Order of adjectives of quality
20. Comparison
21. Constructions with comparisons (see also 341)
22. than/as + pronoun + auxiliary
23. the + adjective with a plural meaning
24. Adjectives + one/ones and adjectives used as pronouns
25. many and much (adjectives and pronouns)
26. Adjectives + infinitives
27. Adjectives + infinitive / that-clause / preposition constructions

4 Adverbs
28. Kinds of adverbs
29. The formation of adverbs with – ly
30. Adverbs and adjectives with the same form
31. Comparative and superlative adverb forms
32. far, farther/farthest and further/furthest
33. much, more, most
34. Constructions with comparisons (see also 341)
35. Adverbs of manner
36. Adverbs of place
37. Adverbs of time
38. Adverbs of frequency
39. Order of adverbs and adverb phrases of manner, place and time when they occur in the same sentence
40. Sentence adverbs
41. Adverbs of degree
42. fairly and rather
43. quite
44. hardly, scarcely, barely
45. Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs
46. all, each, every, everyone, everybody, everything (for all and each, see also 48)
47. both
48. all/both/each + of and alternative constructions
49. neither, either
50. some, any, no and none (adjectives and pronouns)
51. someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing
52. else placed after someone/anybody/nothing etc.
53. another, other, others with one and some
54. Interrogative adjectives and pronouns
55. Affirmative verb after who, whose etc. used as subjects
56. Examples of the use of who, whom, whose, which and what
57. who, whom, which and what as objects of prepositions
58. Uses of what
59. which compared with who and what
60. Interrogative adverbs: why, when, where, how
61. ever placed after who, what, where, why, when, how
62. Possessive adjectives and pronouns
63. Agreement and use of possessive adjectives
64. Possessive pronouns replacing possessive adjectives + nouns
65. Personal pronouns
66. The position of pronoun objects
67. Uses of it
68. you one and they as indefinite pronouns
69. Use of they/them/their with neither/either, someone/everyone/no one etc.
70. Reflexive pronouns
71. myself, himself, herself etc. used as emphasizing pronouns

Relative pronouns and clauses


72. Defining relative clauses
73. Relative pronouns used in defining relative clauses
74. Defining relative clauses: persons
75. Defining relative clauses: things
76. Cleft sentences: it + be + noun/pronoun + defining relative clause
77. A relative clause replaced by an infinitive or a participle
78. Non-defining relative clauses
79. Non-defining relative clauses: persons
80. an, all, both, few, most, several, some etc. + of + whom/which
81. Non-defining relative clauses: things
82. Connective relative clauses
83. what (relative pronoun) and which (connective relative)
84. The importance of commas in relative clauses
85. whoever, whichever, whatever, whenever, wherever, however

Prepositions
86. Introduction
87. Alternative position of prepositions
88. Omission of to and for before indirect objects
89. Use and omission of to with verbs of communication
90. Time and date: at, on, by, before, in A, at, on
91. Time: from, since, for, during A from, since and for
92. Time: to, till/until, after, afterwards (adverb)
93. Travel and movement: from, to, at, in, by, on, into, onto, off, out, out of
94. at, in; in, into; on, onto
95. above, over, under, below, beneath etc.
96. Prepositions used with adjectives and participles
97. Verbs and prepositions
98. Gerunds after prepositions
99. Prepositions/adverbs

10 Introduction to verbs
100. Classes of verbs
101. Principal parts of the active verb
102. Active tenses
103. Negatives of tenses
104. Interrogative for questions and requests
105. Negative interrogative
106. Auxiliaries and modal auxiliaries
107. Auxiliaries: forms and patterns
108. Auxiliaries in short answers
109. Agreements and disagreements with remarks
110. Question tags
111. Comment tags
112. Additions to remarks Form and use in the formation of tenses
113. Form and use in the formation of tenses
114. be + infinitive
115. be to denote existence, be + adjective
116. there is/are, there was/were etc.
117. it is and there is compared

Have
118. have as an auxiliary verb
119. have + object + past participle
120. had better + bare infinitive
121. have + object + present participle
122. have meaning 'possess' and 'suffer (from) pain/illness/disability'
123. have meaning 'take' (a meal), 'give' (a party) etc.

Do
124. Form
125. do used as an auxiliary
126. do used as an ordinary verb

May and can for permission and possibility


127. may used for permission: forms
128. can used for permission: forms
129. may and can used for permission in the present or future
130. could or was/were allowed to for permission in the past
131. Requests for permission (see also 283)
132. may/might for possibility
133. may/might + perfect infinitive
134. could as an alternative to may/might
135. can used to express possibility
136. can and be able for ability
137. can/am able, could/was able A can and be able
138. could + perfect infinitive
139. ought: forms
140. should: forms
141. ought/should compared to must and have to
142. ought/should with the continuous infinitive
143. ought/should with the perfect infinitive
144. must and have to: forms
145. Difference between must and have to in the affirmative
146. need not and must not in the present and future
147. need not, must not and must in the present and future
148. need: forms
149. Absence of obligation: forms
150. Difference between need not and the other forms
151. must, have to and need in the interrogative
152. needn't + perfect infinitive
153. needn't have (done) compared with didn't have/ need (to do)
154. needn't, could and should + perfect infinitive
155. to need as an ordinary verb, meaning 'require'
156. must used for deduction
157. must (deduction) compared to may/might
158. have/had used for deduction
159. can't and couldn't used for negative deduction
160. will and should for assumption
161. The auxiliaries dare and used
162. Used
163. used as an adjective: to be/become/get used to

The present continuous tense


164. Form
165. The spelling of the present participle
166. Uses of the present continuous tense
167. Other possible uses of the present continuous
168. Verbs not normally used in the continuous tenses
169. feel, look, smell and taste used in the continuous forms
170. see and hear used in the continuous forms
171. think, assume and expect used in the continuous forms

The present simple tense


172. Form
173. The simple present used to express habitual action
174. Other uses of the simple present tense

The past simple tense


175. Form
176. Irregular verbs: form
177. Use for the relation of past events

The past continuous tense


178. Form
179. Main uses of the past continuous tense
180. Other uses of the past continuous
181. Past continuous as an alternative to the simple past

The present perfect tense


182. Form and use
183. The present perfect used with just for a recently completed action
184. The present perfect used for past actions whose time is not definite
185. The present perfect used for actions occurring in an incomplete period
186. The present perfect used for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete period
187. The present perfect used with for and since
188. it is -t- period + since + past or perfect tense
189. Further examples of the use of the present perfect and simple past

The present perfect continuous tense


190. Form
191. Use
192. Comparison of the present perfect simple and continuous
193. Some more examples of the present perfect and the present perfect continuous

The past perfect tense


194. Form and use
195. Past and past perfect tenses in time clauses
196. Use of the past perfect in indirect speech

The past perfect continuous tense


197. Form and use

The future
198. Future forms
199. The simple present used for the future
200. A note on the meaning of future with intention
201. will + infinitive used to express intention at the moment of decision (see also 205 E2 and E3)
202. The present continuous as a future form
203. The be going to form
204. The be going to form used for intention
205. Comparison of the use of be going to and will + infinitive to express intention
206. The be going to form used for prediction

The future simple tense


207. Form
208. First person will and shall
209. Uses of the future simple
210. will contrasted with want/wish/would like
The future continuous tense
211. Form and Use
212. The future continuous used as an ordinary continuous tense
213. The future continuous used to express future without intention
214. The future continuous and will + infinitive compared
215. Examples of various future forms
216. The future perfect and the future perfect continuous

The sequence of tenses


217. Subordinate clauses
218. The sequence of tenses

The conditional
The conditional tenses
219. The present conditional tense
220. The perfect conditional tense
221. Conditional sentences type 1: probable
222. Conditional sentences type 2
223. Conditional sentences type 3
224. Special uses of will/would and should in if-clauses
225. if + were and inversion of subject and auxiliary
226. if, even if, whether, unless, but for, otherwise, provided, suppose
227. if and in case
228. if only
229. Conditional sentences in indirect speech
230. Habits expressed by will, would
231. should/would think + that-clause or so/not
232. would for past intention
233. shall I/we? in requests for orders or advice, offers,
234. shall in the second and third persons
235. that . . . should after certain verbs
236. it is/was + adjective + that . . . should
237. Other uses of should

The infinitive
238. Form
239. Uses of the infinitive
240. The infinitive as subject
241. The infinitive as object or complement of the verb
242. Verb + how/what/when/where/which/why + infinitive
243. The infinitive after verb or verb + object
244. The infinitive after verb + object
245. The infinitive after verbs of knowing and thinking etc.
246. The bare infinitive after verbs and expressions
247. The infinitive represented by its to
248. Split infinitives
249. The infinitive used as a connective link
250. The infinitive used to replace a relative clause
251. The infinitive after certain nouns
252. The infinitive after too, enough and so ... as
253. Introductory or final infinitive phrases
254. The continuous infinitive
255. The perfect infinitive
256. The perfect infinitive continuous

24 The gerund
257. Form and use
258. The gerund as subject
259. Gerunds after prepositions
260. The word to
261. Verbs followed by the gerund
262. Verbs + possessive adjective/pronoun object + gerund
263. The verb mind
264. The perfect gerund (having worked, having spoken etc.)
265. The passive gerund

25 Infinitive and gerund constructions


266. Verbs which may take either infinitive or gerund
267. Verbs taking infinitive or gerund without change of meaning
268. regret, remember, forget
269. agree/agree to, mean, propose
270. go on, stop, try, used (to)
271. be afraid (of), be sorry (for), be ashamed (of)

26 The participles
272. The present (or active) participle
273. Present participle after verbs of sensation
274. catch, find, leave + object + present participle
275. go, come, spend, waste, be busy
276. A present participle phrase replacing a main clause
277. A present participle phrase replacing a subordinate clause
278. The perfect participle (active)
279. The past participle (passive) and the perfect participle (passive)
280. Misrelated participles

27 Commands, requests, invitations, advice, suggestions


281. Commands expressed by the imperative
282. Other ways of expressing commands
283. Requests with can/could/may/might I/we
284. Requests with could/will/would you etc.
285. Requests with might
286. Invitations
287. Advice forms
288. Advice with may/might as well + infinitive
289. Suggestions

28 The subjunctive
290. Form
291. Use of the present subjunctive
292. as if/as though + past subjunctive
293. it is time + past subjunctive (unreal past)

29 care, like, love, hate, prefer, wish


294. care and like
295. care and like
296. would like and want
297. would rather/sooner and prefer/would prefer
298. More examples of preference
299. wish, want and would like
300. wish + subject + unreal past
301. wish (that) + subject + would

30 The passive voice


302. Form
303. Active tenses and their passive equivalents
304. Uses of the passive
305. Prepositions with passive verbs
306. Infinitive constructions after passive verbs

31 Indirect speech
307. Direct and indirect (or reported) speech
308. Statements in indirect speech: tense changes necessary
309. Past tenses sometimes remain unchanged
310. Unreal past tenses (subjunctives) in indirect speech
311. might, ought to, should, would, used to in indirect statements
312. could in indirect statements
313. Indirect speech: pronoun and adjective
314. Expressions of time and place in indirect speech
315. Infinitive and gerund constructions in indirect speech
316. say, tell and alternative introductory verbs
317. Questions in indirect speech
318. Questions beginning shall I/we? in indirect speech
319. Questions beginning will you/would you/could you?
320. Commands, requests, advice in indirect speech
321. Other ways of expressing indirect commands
322. let's, let us, let him/them in indirect speech
323. Exclamations and yes and no
324. Indirect speech: mixed types
325. must and needn't

32 Conjunctions
326. Co-ordinating conjunctions: and, but, both . . . and, or, either ... or, neither . . . nor, not only . . . but also
327. besides, however, nevertheless, otherwise, so, therefore, still, yet, though
328. Subordinating conjunctions: if, that, though/although, unless, when etc.
329. though/although and in spite of (preposition phrase), despite (preposition)
330. for and because
331. when, while, as used to express time
332. as meaning when/while or because/since
333. as, when, while used to mean although, but, seeing that

33 Purpose
334. Purpose is normally expressed by the infinitive
335. Infinitives of purpose after go and come
336. Clauses of purpose
337. in case and lest

34 Clauses of reason, result, concession, comparison, time


338. Clauses of reason and result/cause
339. Clauses of result with such/so . . . that
340. Clauses of concession
341. Clauses of comparison
342. Time clauses

35 Noun clauses
343. Noun clauses (that-clauses) as subject of a sentence
344. that-clauses after certain adjectives/participles
345. that-clauses after certain nouns
346. Noun clauses as objects of verbs
347. so and not representing a that-clause

36 Numerals, dates, and weights and measures


348. Cardinal numbers (adjectives and pronouns)
349. Points to notice about cardinal numbers
350. Ordinal numbers (adjectives and pronouns)
351. Points to notice about ordinal numbers
352. Dates
353. Weights, length and liquid measure

37 Spelling rules
354. Introduction
355. Doubling the consonant

38 Phrasal verbs
356. Gg
357.