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Chiller Market

Chiller Market In India:

Total Estimated Market for 2011:


Emerging Trends in improving 875,000 TR
Energy Efficiency in Chillers Various Types of Chillers & Available Range:

Centrifugal

Type of Chiller
Oil-free Centri

Screw

Scroll

50 100 150 200 250 500 1000 3000


Cooling Capacity, (TR)
Energy Efficiency Summit, 2011 |1 CONFIDENTIAL |2

Selection of Chillers Energy Efficiency


(AHRI-550/590)
Segment Applications Drivers Type of Chilled Water System Coefficient of Performance (COP)
- Ratio of the rate of heat removal to the rate
Contractor/ Commercial, Equipment, Specs, Scroll/ Screw, DX type
of energy input
Builder Shopping Malls First Cost Standard AHU - Measured at full load (100% capacity) under
Equipment, Specs, Screw/ Centri/Turbocor, Flooded type standard rating conditions
Consulting Large Offices, IT
Life Cycle Cost AHU & Pumps with VFD
Engineers, Parks, Integrated Part-Load Value (IPLV)
Developers/ VSD Centrifugal, Oil-free Centri, - Equipment is selected to meet the load
Hotels, System & Building under maximum operating conditions IPLV = 0.01*A + 0.42*B + 0.45*C + 0.12*D
Architects Hospitals Variable Air & Water integrated with
Design - In actual, equipment operate at part load for
BMS
most of the run time A: EER at 100% capacity
Reliability, Scroll/ Screw, DX type - IPLV represents a single number figure of
Industrial & Data Centres B: EER at 75% capacity
Redundancy, Precision Control AHU merit expressing part load efficiency on the
Special basis of weighted operation at various load C: EER at 50% capacity
Applications Temp Control, capacities D: EER at 25% capacity
Process Cooling Scroll/ Oil-free Centri, DX/Flooded type
Efficiency
Plant Efficiency (Not covered in AHRI-550/590)
Other considerations- - Auxiliary equipment (such as pumps, fan & blowers) and design conditions (such as 'appoach
•Regulatory Requirements- Eco-friendly Refrigerants, Certification, etc. temperatures') can have have substantial effects on overall plant efficiency
•Compliance to ECBC, Green Building, ASHRAE90.1 etc. - Staging of multiple chillers for the best plant efficiency & operation of isolation valves with variable
•Noise Level water flow can be managed with intelligent Plant Manager System.

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Energy Efficiency Regulations DX & Flooded Evaporators
Energy Conservation Building Code Category DX Evaporator Flooded Evaporator
(ECBC): Construction • Shell & Tube Type • Shell & Tube Type
• Refrigerant Flows through Tubes • Water Flows through Tubes
- Launched by Ministry Of Power, Govt of • Water Flow through Shell • Refrigerant in Shell
India in May 2007; revised in May2008 • Inner Grooved Tubes • Tubes with fins from both Inside & Outside
• 5 - 10oC superheat • Negligible superheat
- Applicable to buildings or complexes that Cost • Lower • High
have a connected load of 100kW or greater • Limited Refrigerant Quantity • Large Refrigerant Quantity
or a contract demand of 120kVA or greater Efficiency • Low due to lower evaporating temp • High due to higher evaporating temp

- Under voluntary adoption in the country Air-cooled • 1.15 ~ 1.2 IKW/TR • 1.05~ 1.08 IKW/TR
Water-cooled • 0.72 ~ 0.8 IKW/TR • 0.57 ~ 0.65 IKW/TR
REFRIGERANT
- Code defines minimum energy efficiency GAS
level for HVAC systems, components & WATER OUT WATER IN
44°F 54°F
controls
REFRIGERANT
Code recommends: 1) variable Speed GAS
ASHRAE 90.1
drives for water circulation pumps, AHU
- Define Minimum Energy Efficiency of HVAC
motors and cooling tower fans, 2) 2-way 35°F
systems 510F
isolation valves for load balancing and REFRIGERANT
- Provide robust framework for ECBC guidelines LIQUID IN REFRIGERANT
3) VAV diffusers, low pressure drop duct COOLER APPLICATION LIQUID IN

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Constant Speed Compressors- Tandem


District Cooling Systems Scroll Chillers
•A ‘tandem scroll’ consists of two identical scroll
compressors linked in parallel to function as
one compressor.

• It increases the operating efficiency, whenever


the chiller operates under ‘part load’ conditions.

• Power savings up to 20% can be achieved by


utilizing the entire condenser area for heat
rejection, even when one compressor in the
circuit is in operation.

Cost Effective Hydronic Circuits


- Lower pump size, smaller pipe diameters
- Lower Pumping Cost
- Cooling coils must be oversized Higher Installation Cost
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Performance: Tandem Scroll Vs Screw Advantages of Scroll over Screw
• Performance of scroll chillers & screw chillers similar at ARI part load test Service & Maintenance
Design
conditions, hence rated COP & IPLV values are comparable. - Simple design, Highly trained serviceman not
- Lower Sound Level : Quiet operation
required.
- Low Starting Current : Smaller Generator - Due to multiple circuits, complete shutdown is
• Performance of scroll chillers is significantly better than that of screw chillers Screw Chiller : 450 Amps for 110TR not necessary for servicing.
Scroll Chiller : 360 Amps for 120TR - Redundancy during failure.
during part load operation at high ambient conditions, which are common in - Runtime equalization of compressors - enhanced
- DOL starting: Less Switchgear
life of compressors.
India. - Only three connections: Suction, Discharge &
- Low weight compressor- ease of
Oil Equilizer. handling/replacement.
At ARI Reduced Ambient At 35C Constant Ambient
Reliability
- Oil is on suction side at lower temperature : No oil
cooling required.
- Better operating envelope: can operate at high
condensing temperature.
- No Liquid Injection required for motor cooling
- Unloading of chiller by switching off compressors;
no moving part for unloading.

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Variable Speed Compressors: Oil-free


Centrifugal Chillers Compressor: Oil Free, Magnetic Bearings
Soft-Start
• Compressor speed
(<2amps Inrush)
adjusts automatically to match 2 stage centrifugal
the load and current operating Inverter speed compressor
conditions so that optimum control
efficiency is gained.
Pressure and
• Primary capacity control is done temperature
using the onboard VFD and only
sensors
use the Inlet Guide Vanes to
Synchronous
supplement VFD controls. IGVs
brushless DC
prevent surge conditions at low
motor Inlet Guide
turndown. IGVs normally
operate at the 110% position. Vanes

• The slower the compressors,


the greater the efficiency. As "Best In Class" Sound Level
speeds is reduced, energy
consumption is reduced by the
72 dBA at 1m Motor and
bearing control
cube.

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Magnetic Bearing System Advantages of Oil Free Compressor
Percentage of Oil in the System
•A study was conducted by
ASHRAE to determine the
average quantity of oil as a

Chiller
The rotor shaft is held in position percentage in older chillers.
with ten separately controlled Average oil quantity was found
to be 12.88%.
electro-magnetic cushions which
continually change the strength
to keep the shaft centrally
positioned.

Loss
Efficiency
Percentage of Oil in the System

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Part Load Efficiency Overall Benefits


1
• 100% Oil Free eliminates oil
system maintenance costs.
0.8 • R134a Refrigerant meets
Montreal protocol and is not
0.6
subject to phase-out.
kW/Ton

• Magnetic Bearings eliminate


frictional losses.
0.4
• One moving part assures
long service life.
0.2 • Unmatched Efficiency as low
Oil-free Centri Centrifugal W/C Screw W/C Recip as 0.36 kw/ton IPLV.
• Low In-Rush Current reduces
0
20% 40% 60% 80% 100% installed cost and peak load.
Percent Load • Lowest Noise- Only 72 dBa.
Performance of Centrifugal Chiller with VSD will be similar to Oil-Free Centri. Chiller

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Efficiency of Central Plants
- Simply selecting a high efficiency Thank You
chiller does not guarantee high
system performance. Energy consumption Running costs

- Auxiliary equipment (AHUs,


cooling towers, pumps, control
valves, fan & blowers) and design
conditions (appoach temperatures)
can have have substantial effects
on overall plant efficiency.
Environment Comfort
- Attention to overall system design
& auxiliary components is critical to
achieving optimal performance &
comfort.

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