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Faculty Of nursing

1st semester
Doctorate degree
2018-2019

Critical Thinking

By : Elham M. Elsiedy
Aml Kamal
Sabah mohamed
Supervized by Prof.Dr. Samia
Adam
OBJECTIVES

At the end of this lecture the candidate will be able


to:

 Define: Thinking, critical thinking, and critical


thinking skills.
 Identify the importance of critical thinking
 Mention types of thinking.
 Mention dimensions of critical thinking
o Cognitive skills and
o Affective dispositions
 Identify critical thinking approaches
 Apply critical thinking process.
 Respect critical thinking skills.
 Enumerate critical thinking standards
 Analyze the barriers to critical thinking
 Identify the characteristics of critical thinker.
 Identify the teaching strategies that can be used to
promote critical thinking

OUTLINE:
 Introduction.
 Definitions:
o Thinking.
o Critical thinking.
o Critical thinking skills.
 Importance of critical thinking
 Types of thinking.
 dimensions of critical thinking
o Cognitive skills and
o Affective dispositions
 Critical thinking approaches
 Critical thinking process.
 Critical thinking skills.
 Critical thinking standards
 Barriers to critical thinking
 Characteristics of critical thinker.
 Teaching strategies that can be used to promote
critical thinking

CRITICAL THINKING
INTRODUCTION.

The word “critical” comes from the Greek word kritikos, meaning “critic”.
To be critical means to question, to make sense of, to analyze. By being critical,
one examines his or her own thinking and the thinking of others. The term
“critical” is often thought of in a negative, destructive way; however, using it to
describe thinking can portray a positive process in which one challenges one’s
thinking and the thinking of others (Chaffee, 1994).
Critical thinking theoreticians agree that the intellectual roots for
critical thinking primarily began with Socrate’s form of questioning. Many
definitions about critical thinking are presented by some experts. Ennis (2015)
states that critical thinking is a way of reflective thinking that makes sense or that
is based on logic focusing on determining what to believe and to do.

Critical thinking in nursing is a purposeful, self-regulatory judgment


associated in some way with clinical decision making, diagnostic reasoning, the
nursing process, clinical judgment and problem solving. It is characterized by
analysis, reasoning, inference, interpretation, knowledge and open-mindedness. It
requires knowledge of the area about which one is thinking and results in safe,
competent practice and improved decision making, clinical judgments and
problem solving (Gloudman, 2013).

Critical thinking has two dimensions, critical thinking skills and critical
thinking disposition. While the first dimension emphasizes on cognitive strategies,
the second dimension focuses on the attitudinal elements and the internal motives
for problem solving. Critical thinking skills are kind of cognitive skills by nature.
An ideal critical thinker must possess such skills. Without a positive attitude
toward critical thinking, critical thinking never occurs or if it does, it is below the
standard levels. As such, having a tendency for critical thinking is a critical part of
critical thinking (Mahbobi et al., 2013).

DEFINITIONS:

Thinking

Thinking is a mental or intellectual activity involving an individual’s


subjective unconscious. It can refer either to the act of thinking or the resulting
idea or arrangement of ideas.

Critical thinking
Critical thinking is the practice of processing information in the most
skillful, accurate and rigorous manner possible leading to the most reliable, logical
and trustworthy conclusion upon which one can make responsible decisions about
one’s life behavior and actions (Indar, 2017).

Critical thinking is a practical activity based on the balanced search for


reason through skills and dispositions; the skills and dispositions are, respectively,
the competence to perform certain action and desire to perform a certain action.
The skills are usually assessed: interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and judgment
based on evidence. CT is the way of thinking regarding any subject, content, or
issue in which the thinker improves the quality of his thinking. In health, CT plays
an important role in the academic and professional performance and is considered
the basis for the development of clinical reasoning and decision making
(Carbogim, 2016).

Critical thinking is a process of ability to identify problems and raise


questions, gather and collecting data and evidences to support answers and
solutions, data interpreting and evaluate alternative solutions and implement
solutions for the best results. The individual with critical thinking is accustomed
to curiosity, has real reasoning of the circumstances, has good information about
the situation, has open mind, is flexible, has fair evaluation, is honest about his
own errors, is cautious in judgment, is ready for review, acts regularly about
complicated issues, is focused on search process, perseveres in search for
information related to the subject (Sharifi, 2017).

Critical thinking skills

Critical thinking skill is the process of using the mind to search for meaning
and understanding of a case that is seen, heard, remembered, or read, make
considerations and decisions, solve problems. There are six aspects of critical
thinking skill and indicators, The indicators and the aspects of critical thinking
skill include formulating problems, giving arguments, making deduction, making
induction, evaluating, and to deciding and implementing (Nurisya, 2017).
IMPORTANCE OF CRITICAL THINKING

Critical thinking is important as it plays a central role in the life of nurses in


the acquisition of problem solving, decision making and communication skills and
it is required in the working environment. It is not only necessary for
undergraduates but also required for every one when understanding, analyzing,
evaluating and judging and making decisions; CT will help undergraduate learners
to make them well-versed evaluators (Kumar, 2016).

Critical thinking needs to be a central and vital component of nursing


practice. Its significance for nursing is that improved critical thinking skills can
also improve educational theory and psycho-motor nursing skills. Critical thinking
disposition and skills can have a positive effect on patient care and outcomes
(Gezer, 2017).

Redhana (2013) stated that critical thinking was a useful characteristic in


learning at every level .Students need to repeatedly practice their thinking skills
even though this skill is already part of their way of thinking. Regular practice that
the students do will have an effect on the efficiency and automation of their
thinking skills.

TYPES OF THINKING

 Creative thinking
 Critical thinking

Creative thinking

It is combination of knowledge and imagination, it occur when the


conscious thinking of brain, and spontaneous pattering and imagining of the RT
brain Artists considered creative thinker. We take sponge approach, we absorb
every idea , every bit of information on anything any thought and every angle

Critical thinking
Use filter approach we evaluate the clarity of argument, release out
hypothesis , check for consistencies and note the congruence of the logic from one
step to another

DIMENSIONS OF CRITICAL THINKING

The dimensions of critical thinking comprise of both (a) cognitive skills


and (b) affective dispositions. Facione, Facione and Sanchez 42 state that having
the requisite cognitive critical thinking skills is essential to being a good critical
thinker. The concept of critical thinking is also associated with a set of personal
attitudes or dispositions that can be used to describe an individual who is inclined
to use critical thinking.

(A) The Cognitive Critical Thinking Skills Can Be Understood As:

♦ Interpretation: accurately interpreting problems as well as objective and


subjective data from common information sources, related to the care of the
patient;

♦ Analysis: examining ideas/arguments in problems, objective and


subjective data and possible courses of action related to the care of the patient;
♦ Inference: querying claims, assessing arguments (recognizes faulty
reasoning) and reaching conclusions which are appropriate to the care of the
patient;

♦ Explanation: clearly explaining and defending the reasoning in which an


individual arrives at specific decisions in the context of the health care of the
patient;

♦ Evaluation: evaluating information to ascertain its probable


trustworthiness as well as its relevance to particular patient care situations; and

♦ Self-Regulation: constantly monitoring one’s own thinking using


universal criteria. For example, clarity, precision, accuracy, consistency,
logicalness, significance etc. and correcting oneself as appropriate in the context
of caring for patients.

These skills are employed interactively in the reflective reasoning process


of making a judgment of what to believe or do. Therefore, in thinking critically, a
person not only tries to determine judiciously what to do or what to believe, a
person is also able to apply the core critical thinking skills to one another. In other
words, one may analyze one’s own inferences, explain one’s own interpretation or
evaluate one’s own analysis

(B) An Individual’s Disposition Is Explained As:

♦ Open-minded: having an appreciation of alternate perspectives and


willingness to respect the right of others to hold different opinions. Understanding
other cultural traditions in order to gain perspectives on self and for others;

♦ Inquisitive: curious and enthusiastic in wanting to acquire knowledge,


wanting to know how things work, even when the applications are not
immediately apparent;
♦ Truth-Seeking: courageous about asking questions to obtain the best
knowledge, even if such knowledge may fail to support one’s preconceptions,
beliefs or interests;

♦ Analytical: Thinking analytically and using verifiable information.


Demanding the application of reason and evidence and the inclination to
anticipate consequences;

♦ Systematic: valuing organization and a focused and diligent approach to


problems of all levels of complexity; and

♦ Self-Confident: trusting one’s own reasoning and inclination to utilize


these skills, rather than other strategies, in order to respond to problems. For
example, making decisions based on scientific evidence and responding to the
values and interests of individuals and society.

Facione, Facione and Sanchez 42 and Chen worth 43 state these


dispositions or attributes/attitudes or habits of mind could be considered as the
elements of a process of reasoning in an individual’s character that propels or
stimulates an individual towards using critical thinking. Without these dispositions
the engagement of critical thinking will not occur. This conceptualization of
critical thinking was developed by a panel of experts of the critical thinking
Delphi Project from the American Philosophical Association. 44

Although there are varying definitions for critical thinking, the definitions
described above reflect certain unique elements. Critical thinking is associated
with elements such as knowledge, active argumentation, reasoning, initiative,
intuition, application, analyzing complex meanings, identification of problems,
envisioning alternatives and making contingency related value judgments.

Critical thinking is substantially larger than the sum of its parts, because it
is a process that promotes attitudes to continuously explore, redefine or
understand. All these factors contribute to a process of purposeful reasoned
interaction between a person and their interaction with a situation or surrounding
circumstances. Bittner and Tobin explain that the critical thinking process is
multifaceted and further state that “it is similar to an umbrella under which many
types of thinking flow, depending on the situation”

CRITICAL THINKING PROCESS

CRITICAL THINKING APPROACHES

The theoretical foundations of critical thinking are addressed by three


academic disciplines: education, philosophy, and cognitive psychology.

The educational approach: conceptualizes critical thinking based on


Bloom’s taxonomy which consists of six levels in the cognitive domain, in this
taxonomy there is a hierarchical structure at the bottom of which there is the
“comprehension” level and at the top there is the “evaluation” level.

The highest three levels here (analysis, synthesis and evaluation) are
believed to represent critical thinking ,this approach seems more advantageous in
terms of applicability to education as it relies on years of observations classroom
experiences and student learning (Ekinci, 2017).
Bloom categorized intellectual behavior into six levels of thinking,
knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The
hierarchical progression identifies the lower level to higher level of cognitive
processing; the first three levels of Bloom’s taxonomy require basic recognition
such as knowledge, comprehension and application, while the other three levels
require students to use higher order thinking skills where higher order thinking
skills of analyses, synthesis and evaluation are applied by students in their
learning process. Gradually, through that experience, students become problem
solver, thoughtful decision maker and life-long learner (Sulaiman et al., 2017).

The philosophical approach, this approach considers critical thinkers as an


ideal type focusing on what people are capable of doing under the best
circumstances. This ideal type is conceptualized in terms of the formal logic
systems used in philosophical thought. The issue with philosophical approaches is
that they tend to be built on the requirements of formal logical systems (Khan,
2017).
The cognitive psychological approaches, the basic cognitive skills that
constitute the core of critical thinking are interpretation, analysis, evaluation,
inference, explanation and self-regulation. Critical thinking requires synthesis and
evaluation more than practice or analysis this suggests that it is not enough only to
develop individuals’ thinking skills in order to achieve success in the educational
and professional area instead, it necessitates preparing learning settings that
enable the use of these skills (Yildiz, 2017).

CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS


According to Facione (2015) the core critical thinking skills include
interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation and self-regulation.

Interpretation; is to comprehend and express the meanings or significance


of a wide a variety of experiences, situations, data events, judgments, conventions,
beliefs, rules, procedures, or criteria. Interpretation includes the subscales of
categorizations, decoding significance and clarifying meanings, recognizing
problems and describing it without bias (Hasanin, 2012).

Analysis, the process of analysis of the concept took place based on its
substitute terms and related concepts, attributes, antecedents, implications and
involves five stages. In the first stage, the concept of interest was identified, in the
second stage, the works were identified using the search strategy, in the third
stage, for collection of the relevant data, identification of the attributes and the
contextual concept in the fourth stage, for analysis basis of the data and
identification of their characteristics, in the fifth stage, implications or hypotheses
for continuity of the development of the concept were listed (Carbogim, 2016).

Analysis, reasoning and evaluation in health services are very important


which meets the need for “care based on the best available evidence” and thus
promoting care quality and output (Sharifi, 2017).

Evaluation; is the systematic assessment of the design, implementation or


results of an initiative for the purposes of learning or decision-making. An
evaluation should be as systematic and impartial as possible. An evaluation is
methodical, providing information that is credible, reliable and useful to enable
the incorporation of lessons learned into decision-making process of users.
Evaluation is based on empirical evidence and typically on social research
methods, thus on the process of collecting, synthesizing evidence and conclusions
made in evaluations encompass both an empirical aspect and a normative aspect
(Cheryl, 2016).

Inference; means to identify and secure elements needed to draw


reasonable conclusions to form hypotheses, to consider relevant information and
the consequences flowing from data, statements, principles, evidence, judgments,
beliefs, opinions, concepts, descriptions, questions, or other forms of
representation. As sub-skills of inference the experts list querying evidence,
conjecturing alternatives and drawing conclusions (Faccione, 2015).

Explanation; the experts define explanation as being able to present in a


coherent way the results of one’s reasoning. This means to be able to give
someone a full look at the big picture: both “to state and to justify that reasoning
in terms of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological and
contextual considerations upon which one’s results were based. The sub-skills
under explanation are describing methods and results, justifying procedures,
proposing and defending with good reasons one’s causal and conceptual
explanations of events or points of view, presenting full and well-reasoned,
arguments in the context of seeking the best understandings possible (Faccione,
2013).

Students explain and present believable results in various formats using


web tool. They cite data sources using document, file, data, photo, audio or video
sharing. This activity enhances determining the credibility of sources and
observations and facilitates the planning induction experiments and predicting
probable consequences; students analyze, interpret and draw conclusions from the
data obtained via document sharing. This activity aims to enhance inferring and
judging inductive conclusions, teachers and students share opinions between
groups. They ask questions and offer suggestions to facilitate understanding using
comment functions incorporated in web tools. This activity helps to determine the
credibility of sources and observations (Thaiposria & Wannapiroon, 2017).

Self-regulation; means self-consciously to monitor one’s cognitive


activities, the elements used in those activities and the results educed, particularly
by applying skills in analysis and evaluation to one’s own inferential judgments
with a view toward questioning, confirming, validating or correcting either one’s
reasoning or one’s results. The two sub-skills here are self-examination and self-
correction (Faccione, 2015). The essence of critical thinking is the interpretation,
analysis, inference, evaluation, explanation and self-regulation

Table (I) critical thinking skills


N Skill Description
o
1 Interpretation The primary definition of interpretation is the act of making sense of various inputs.
Interpretation requires that we clarify the purpose, issue, problem/question and meaning.

2 Analysis Analysis means to break down, examine, or otherwise explore the issues, available
information, arguments, etc. With analysis, we must manipulate, process, or otherwise
make active changes to the inputs to make better sense of them.
3 Evaluation To evaluate means to determine the merit, value, efficacy, advantages, worth,
authenticity, validity, impact, or significance, of something (e.g., the evidence, claims,
assumptions, biases, perspectives, etc.)
4 Inference This broad term covers reasoning coupled with the use of evidence and standards that
together are necessary for synthesizing, coming to a conclusion, making decisions,
identifying alternatives, generalizing, planning, predicting, etc.
5 Explanation Communicate the outcomes of thinking such as stating results, justifying procedures,
(Communication) explaining meaning, presenting arguments, etc. This is considered critical thinking
because of the mental processes involved in designing a well written (or spoken)
message.
6 Self-regulation During all of the above (and sometimes following the thinking as well), reflect, self-
(Metacognition) examine, pose questions about thinking, self-correct, etc.
Muhlisin, A., Susilo, H., Amin, M. & Rohman, F. (2016): Improving critical thinking skills of college students
through RMS model for learning basic concepts in science. Asia-Pacific Forum. Science Learning and Teaching
Article 17(1),5-6

CRITICAL THINKING STANDARDS


Her are nine Intellectual Standards we use to assess
thinking: Clarity, Accuracy, Precision, Relevance, Depth, Breadth, Logic, Sign
ificance, and Fairness. Let’s check them out one-by-one.

Clarity forces the thinking to be explained well so that it is easy to


understand. When thinking is easy to follow, it has Clarity.
Accuracy makes sure that all information is correct and free from error. If
the thinking is reliable, then it has Accuracy.
Precision goes one step further than Accuracy. It demands that the words
and data used are exact. If no more details could be added, then it has Precision.
Relevance means that everything included is important, that each part
makes a difference. If something is focused on what needs to be said, there is
Relevance.
Depth makes the argument thorough. It forces us to explore the
complexities. If an argument includes all the nuances necessary to make the point,
it has Depth.
Breadth demands that additional viewpoints are taken into account. Are all
perspectives considered? When all sides of an argument are discussed, then we
find Breadth.
Logical means that an argument is reasonable, the thinking is consistent
and the conclusions follow from the evidence. When something makes sense step-
by-step, then it is Logical.
Significance compels us to include the most important ideas. We don’t
want to leave out crucial facts that would help to make a point. When everything
that is essential is included, then we find Significance.
Fairness means that the argument is balanced and free from bias. It pushes
us to be impartial and evenhanded toward other positions. When an argument is
objective, there is Fairness.
BARRIERS TO CRITICAL THINKING

 An over-reliance on feelings or emotions


 Self-centred or societal/cultural-centred thinking (conformism, dogma and
peer-pressure)
 Unconscious bias, or selective perception
 An inability to be receptive to an idea or point of view that differs from your
own (close-mindedness)
 Unwarranted assumptions or lack of relevant information
 Fear of being wrong (anxious about being taken out of your ‘comfort zone’)
 Poor communication skills or apathy
 Lack of personal honesty
CHARACTERISTICS OF CRITICAL THINKER
Critical thinkers are typically individuals that engage in productive and
positive activity, in that they are actively involved with life, perceive themselves
as creative and being are creative in aspects of their personal, professional and
political lives. Further, critical thinkers view their thinking as a process, rather
than as an outcome. a critical thinker is continually questioning assumptions of
right and wrong .This is because critical thinking is not static, it does not bring a
person to a position of Critical thinkers are always mindful of how assimilated
assumptions shape their perceptions, understandings and interpretations of
themselves and the world around them ( Simpson, 2017).

As regard the characteristics of critical thinking (Paul, 2012) stated that


critical thinkers are reasonable and rational which based on reason and logic rather
than prejudice, preference, self-interest, or fear. It is reflective in which the person
who think critically does not jump to conclusion or make a hurried decision rather
critical thinker takes the time to collect data and then think in a matter through in a
disciplined manner, weighing facts and evidences.

The ideal critical thinker is habitually inquisitive, well-informed,


trustful of reason, open-minded, flexible, fair minded in evaluation, honest
in facing personal biases, prudent in making judgments, willing to
reconsider, clear about issues, orderly in complex matters, diligent in seeking
relevant information, reasonable in the selection of criteria, focused in inquiry and
persistent in seeking results which are as precise as the subject and the
circumstances of inquiry permit (Thomas, 2017).

TEACHING STRATEGIES THAT CAN BE USED TO PROMOTE CRITICAL


THINKING

There are a variety of teaching strategies that instructors can use to improve
student learning. It is of great importance to select appropriate teaching strategies
in nurse education to make the training more appealing and more effective (Jie,
2016).
Scaffolding, a strategy commonly used to develop CT skills within the
context of the infusion method is the use of scaffolding. In an educational setting,
scaffolding refers to a temporary and supportive structure provided by the teacher
to help students accomplish a task that they otherwise would not have been able to
accomplish at all or as readily. Scaffolding can also assist students by reducing
frustration and enabling them to become independent learners with less stress
(O'Connor, 2014).

Scaffolding consists of three components: contingency, fading and transfer


of responsibility. ‘Contingency’ necessitates that the teacher determine the
students' current level of competence and then tailor the support to the students'
needs. ‘Fading’ involves the gradual withdrawal of teacher support, leading to the
third characteristic- the ‘transfer’ of responsibility for the performance of the task
from teacher to student -leading eventually to the student taking more control over
his learning (Weinstein, 2017).

Close reading of texts, is an essential tool in developing critical thinking.


Through the process of textual analysis, students actively engage with the text,
learn to identify its purpose and clarify the important ideas being conveyed.
Active engagement in textual study facilitates questioning, summarizing and
connecting ideas from one text to another (Paul and Elder, 2012).

Lecture; it is teaching strategies available in classroom teaching, the oldest


and most widely used method today is the lecture. Lecturing is a straightforward
way to impart knowledge to students quickly. The lecture has many advantages,
including the ability to provide information to a large number of students and
cover a large amount of material quickly while using class time efficiently in a
cost-effective manner. The lecture is a way to introduce new material, continue
discussion on a topic, and sum up course content, as well as present large blocks
of complex and confusing information. However, some people believe that
lecturing is ineffective as an instructional method (Jie, 2016).
Mind map; is an effective graphical technique and becomes a universal key
to unlock the potency of all brains. This is due to the fact that mind map activates
all brain skills in Neo cortex or left and right brain, the utilization of mind map
during the learning assists students make connection of information of previous
materials toward materials being learned. Respondent utilizing mind map are able
to remember, organize and frame the reflection of their-own past experiences.
There are many experts who recommend the utilization of mind map in learning.
The use of mind map was intended to develop the students’ critical thinking skills
(Pudelko et al., 2012). Besides, in order to develop students’ thinking skill it is
necessary to use mind map learning model (Keles, 2012).

Mind map can be used together with other techniques that suit to the
philosophy of constructivism. This technique relies on images or graphics and
their interrelationship with pictures, words, numbers, logics, and colors forming it
a unique way. Mind map is a technique that stimulates the left and right brains that
functions to make thinking process more visible, to give comprehensive and detail
illustration of a thing all together, to ease in organizing, understanding information
effectively and systematically and to develop creative and innovative thinking
skills as well as strengthening memories (Fuad et al., 2017).

Collaboration; integrating meaningful learning experiences that promote


critical thinking skills are essential in cultivating a classroom of learners. One way
we do this is by actively involving the students in their learning through
collaborative work. This helps the students take ownership of the learning and
think critically about issues. Our student-centered learning environments are
varied, flexible to accommodate the needs of learners and provide ongoing
opportunities to build a collaborative community of students and staff. Our
environments promote collaborative, individual, small and large group learning
(Lange, 2014).

PQ4R strategies, learning strategies that can be used to enhance students'


critical thinking skills include (preview, questions, read, reflect, recite, review).
PQ4R strategy has the potential to improve students' critical thinking skills
because they play a role in empowering effective problem-solving skills. In
addition students gain an understanding of the material presented, ask questions,
carry out reading, link the information, create new understandings with their own
sentences, evaluate and make conclusions from their learning results. As a student
centered learning, PQ4R strategy gives the opportunity to the students to build
their own knowledge (Setiawati, 2017).

Blackboard learn or web based learning, blackboard is a Web-based


learning management system (LMS) designed to support fully online courses or
provide a space for face-to-face course supplementation. Blackboard provides
many types of tools and features for enriching the learning experience. Learning
solutions are educational delivery methods that provide people with the
knowledge and skills they need to enhance performance and achieve
organizational goals (Sharma, 2017).

Active learning classroom, active learning classrooms are designed to


promote the concept of “active learning” in person classroom environments of any
size, for virtually any type of course. Active learning involves the engagement of
students and educators in the learning process through collaborative classroom
activities and reflection (Naboris, 2012).

Questioning is an important way to stimulate students to think critically.


Questions can be classified into two general categories: lower-level questions and
higher-level questions. Lower-level questions, also known as factual questions,
call for recognition or recall of factual information previously presented by the
teacher. Questions at the higher level require students to manipulate previously
learned information to create a response; these questions go beyond memory ,
factual information and require students’ greater effort to infer, analyze and
evaluate. The level of student thinking generally relates to the level of questions
that the teachers pose; if teachers systematically raise the level of their questions,
students tend to raise the level of their responses correspondingly (Orlich et al.,
2013).

The art of questioning is a learned technique which should be taught to the


teachers prior to giving them courses and classes that require critical thinking
skills. In this regard, teaching thinking skills to teachers was not an easy task and
they needed super-vised and guided instructions throughout the planning and the
implementation phase of critical thinking skills in their classrooms. She explained
that since the teachers themselves lacked critical thinking skills they could not
self-teach and self-instruct to explore other critical thinking pedagogies than the
ones taught to them by the instructor. The more an individual’s critical thinking
skill is developed and polished, the more one becomes inquisitive and creative
(Nauman, 2017).

Group discussion is a teaching technique that involves an exchange of


ideas with active learning and participation by all concerned. Group discussion
has been regarded as an effective way to facilitate deep learning and CT
development because discussions require students to think , clarify their ideas and
they also provide students with the perspectives and insights of others through
exchanging ideas. Effective group discussions depend on the provision of group
goals to learn something, individual accountability and student engagement. In
order to promote CT it is crucial to instruct students the ground rules and skills for
group discussion such as listening attentively, asking and clarifying questions
(Zhao, 2016).

Simulation is described as a strategy not a technology to mirror, anticipate


or amplify real situations with guided experiences in a fully interactive way. In
broad, simple terms a simulation is a person device or set of conditions which
attempts to present and solve the problems authentically. Methods in clinical
simulation can be used are Role play, skit, Standardized patients, Models, Three
dimensional simulations like manikins, Virtual reality simulations, Computer
simulations, Video interactions etc. Simulators are used to present concept and
practice to nursing students in a very interactive way (Sharma, 2017).

E-learning: This method helps students in adaptation of different distance


learning technologies for self-directed, active learning and refocusing from
educator to the subject through internet. E-Learning involves all kinds of
electronic media by utilizing all the potentialities of information technology. E-
Learning has a truly vast perspective. The learner is connected to professional and
experts both in and outside organization. He can select activities from a personal
learning menu. All lessons can be learned in just one click. Teachers who are
giving online lectures are real with vast experiences without going to school,
without spending single rupee for enrollment that is the wisest thing to do if we
are not financially equipped (Kalaivani, 2014).

Online discussion forums are environments supported by technology to


facilitate instructor and student interaction through asynchronous and synchronous
dialogue. The online forums encompass a text-based written technological
communication strategy to support information dissemination and interpersonal
interaction across geographic and temporal boundaries. When utilized the online
learning component of a course the discussion forum offers learners extension of
their learning and interactions away from the classroom environment. The
asynchronous nature of the online discussion forum cultivates depth , reflection in
the learners and supporting its value in developing critical thinking (Swart, 2017).

Role playing; is a dramatization of an event or situation. The situation


usually presents a problem or difference of opinion among two or more
individuals or circumstances. The learners act out a problem in a completely
spontaneous manner. In role playing the student represents and experiences a
character known in everyday life. Role playing is a particularly useful strategy for
practicing clinical communication skills and dealing with conflict. Role playing
can be used to teach communication in nursing education courses. At the
beginning of a role playing activity, the activity's goal should be established (Jie,
2016).

Differentiated Science Inquiry (DSI): The development of Differentiated


Learning (DI) model, in this model the differences on students' needs to achieve
maximum learning goals become the primary considerations. By designing
learning activities that are based on students’ need, students’ problems in learning
can be solved. There are six phases in an inquiry cycle: First inquisition,
beginning from a question to investigate, second acquisition, brainstorming for
possible answers, third supposition, selecting statement to assess, fourth
implementation, designing a plan, fifth summation, collecting evidence and
drawing conclusion and finally six exhibitions, sharing and communicating
findings (Fuad et al., 2017).

NURSE ROLE AS A CRITICAL THINKER

1. Teach nurses critical thinking skills by integrated thinking strategies into


curricula.

2. Construct a commercial critical thinking instrument specific for nursing to


evaluate critical thinking skills in nurses.

3. Utilize critical thinking evaluation instruments to assess nurse educators


teaching
Situation
 Situation(1): During the long shift Mis/Marwa ICU head nurse find out
that the patient called ahmed didn't take his medication at 6 AM and by
asking the night charge told her that the nurse Hoda was assigned for
this patient and and found she was busy with other patient and when
mis/Marwa talk with Hoda ,Hoda spoke with improper way
 Questions:
 Delineate what is the problem in this situation and what is the cause of it?
 What is your reaction if you the head nurse of this unit?
 What is the action you will take also ?
 Analyse the behavior of the nurse Hoda?
 What is your opinion in the behavior of the nurse and charg?
 Follow the problem solving technique to resolve this problem?