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Echoes Practice Lesson 9

Repertoire:

Echoes

Song Analysis Table: Echoes


Tone Set DRMS
Range P5
Rhythm Set Eight notes, Eighth rest
Form Call and response

A Song’s Pedagogical Use Table:


Melody M-S Relationship, Improvisation, Orff
Rhythm Off beats, Running Eighth notes
Other Movement, Orff, game, recorders

Other info:
Science connections: Echoes, sound waves

Citation: Thompson, Beth. “Echoes.” Beth's Notes, Creative Commons, 12 June 2018,
www.bethsnotesplus.com/2014/05/echoes.html.

Pattern Work:

n/a

Objectives:

Students will identify and discuss how echoes are made.

Students will perform song Echoes with correct pitches and rhythms

Students will aurally identify timbre of peer voices with eyes closed
Standards:

MU:Pr4.1.2a Demonstrate and explain personal interest in, knowledge about, and purpose of varied
musical selections.

MU:Pr4.2.2b When analyzing selected music, read and perform rhythmic and melodic patterns using
iconic or standard notation.

MU:Pr6.1.2a Perform music for a specific purpose with expression and technical accuracy.

MU:Pr6.1.2b Perform appropriately for the audience and purpose

MU:Re7.2.2a Describe how specific music concepts are used to support a specific purpose

Materials:

Echoes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QehpWi_tvio

Worksheet:

Echoes
Instructions: Students will fill in the blanks as teacher reads the worksheet.

Answer key (highlighted words are words to ask students for definition)

An echo is the sound you hear when you make a noise and the sound wave reflects off a distant object.

Besides the fun of hearing your words repeated, echoes can be used to guess the distance of an object,
its size, shape and speed.

Special effects can be created with echoes bouncing off certain types of surfaces.

Hearing echoes
Sound is a wave made from vibrating matter. The sound wave travels through matter—especially air—
in a straight line. When the wave hits a different material, some of it is reflected, absorbed and passes
through the material. In the case of a sound wave in air hitting a solid wall, most of the sound is
reflected.
If the wall is relatively flat, perpendicular to the source of the sound, and far enough away (but not too
far), then you can hear the reflected wave or echo. If the sound comes back in about 0.1 second or
longer, you can readily hear the echo.

Since sound travels at approximately 1000 feet per second (or about 300 meters per second) and if the
wall was 50 feet (or 15 meters away), the sound would return in 0.1 second.

That is enough time to be able to hear the difference between the noises you made and the reflected
sound.

Using echoes

Echoes can be used to tell how far away an object is, how fast the object is moving, and even its shape.

Measuring distance

By knowing the speed of sound and measuring the time it takes to hear the echo, you can calculate the
distance of the object.

A sonar device sends out a sound and figures out the distance of an object. Submarines use sonar to find
objects under the water, including other submarines. The "ping" sound heard in a submarine comes
from the sonar device sending out a sound wave under water.

Fishermen also use sonar to find schools of fish. Since this is an electronic device, the time it takes for
the wave to return can be much less than the 0.1 second required to hear an echo.

That may mean a school of fish are 15 meters away.

Sonar and radar work on the same principle but use different types of waves.

Bats can find moths

Bats use echoes to find good tasting moths, while flying around at night. The bat sends a sharp click or
chirping sound and then hears and processes any echoes off other objects in the area. Bats have large
ears that are very sensitive to sounds in certain waves.

Their brains are also able to process the sound of the echo coming off a flying moth to determine how
far away it is, which direction and how fast it is flying, and the size of the moth. It continues to send out
sound and receive echoes until it zeroes in on the moth and has a good meal.

Ancient people used these effects

Echoes from the great Mayan pyramid at Chichen Itza, Mexico sound like the quetzal bird that is found
in the Mayan area. The shape of each riser on the pyramid's staircase measures over 10 inches, which is
too steep for easy climbing but a perfect dimension to create the chirp.
Rock paintings from ancient Native Americans in Utah's Horseshow Canyon and Arizona's Hieroglyphic
Canyon are mainly found at sites with good echoes. The placement of rocks in the areas also affects the
quality of the echoes.

Some rock paintings in the French Caves of Font-de-Gaume and Lascaux have special echoes. Clap in
front of a painting of horses and the echo sounds like thundering hoof-beats. But if you clap in front of a
painting of a cat, almost no echo returns.

Walk by picket fence


If you walk by a picket fence that is near the sidewalk, you can hear the pinging echo of the noise you
make. You can also sometimes hear this weird effect near a flight of stairs.

Summary
Echoes are the reflection of sound from relatively flat object that is far enough away that you can hear
the time difference. Echoes are used to measure distance, speed, and the shape of objects.

Activity #1

1. T plays youtube clip and asks students if they heard any special sounds. (echoes)
2. T hands out worksheet and explains that we will be learning about echoes.
3. T reads worksheet and has students fill in the blanks and explains big words that are highlighted
on teacher copy.

Activity #2

1. T has s sit in circle and joins circle on the floor.


2. T starts patting legs in half notes.
3. T gestures for students to join.
4. T sings first line of echoes
5. T gestures for s to repeat
6. T corrects and repeats
7. S repeats
8. T sings next line of song
9. S repeats
10. T corrects and repeats
11. S repeats
12. T sings next line of song
13. S repeats
14. T corrects and repeats
15. S repeats
16. T sings next line of song
17. Ss repeats
18. T corrects and repeats
19. S repeats
20. T sings next line of song
21. S repeats
22. T corrects and repeat
23. S repeats
24. T sings final line of song
25. S repeats
26. T corrects and repeats
27. S repeats
28. T sings first two lines of song
29. S repeats
30. T corrects and repeats
31. S repeats
32. T sings next two lines of song
33. S repeats
34. T corrects and repeats
35. S repeats
36. T sings final two lines of song
37. S repeats
38. T corrects and repeats
39. S repeats
40. T sings full song
41. S repeats
42. T corrects and repeats
43. S repeats
44. T hmmm I think this song would work better if we sang it differently. What do you think? We
should sing it as a call and response! Very good class. What should the two groups be? First line
should be call and echo should be response. Well done!
45. Split class into two groups and sing through song with appropriate parts.
46. Switch parts and repeat.
47. Well done class lets play a game!

Activity #3

1. While in the circle T explains activity:


2. S will spread out around the room staying away from the corners.
3. S will cover their eyes and T will pick one or two students depending on student ability.
4. The chosen students will quietly get up and move to separate corners of the room.
5. S with eyes closed will sing call portion of song while students in the corners will sing response.
6. At the end of the song Ss with eyes closed will guess who is in the corner and what corner they
are in.
7. Ss will move around room.
8. Ss in corner will pick one or two more students to go in the corners and game continues until all
students have had a chance to be in the corners

Assessment: Students turn in worksheet on echoes, students are able to follow along and fill in blanks.
Students are able to identify timbres of their peers voices and location within the room.

Checklist
Name Concept Mastery Developing Need Review

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