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July 2014 2 Vol 24 No 7 2 www.racecar-engineering.com 2 UK £5.95 2 US $14.50

9 770961 109104
LE MANS 2014

Techno wars

How Audi, Porsche and Toyota have tackled
the World Endurance Championship challenge

Century racer Extreme DS3 Marussia magic

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8 Clash of the Titans
Peter Wright talked to the major Le Mans
manufacturers to assess their game is this year

5 Ricardo Divila
Motor racing isn’t just about the racing bit
7 Mike Blanchet
A brief history of innovation in motorsport

16 Marussia MR03 TECHNICAL
Still considered the ‘newcomers’ to F1, Marussia
is lacking in points, but has reasons to be cheerful 55 The Consultant
26 Rebellion R-One Calculations and three-link suspensions
The first LMP1-L to hit the track in competition, we 59 Databytes
talk to the team, and quiz Toyota about its power unit How a CAN bus system really works
30 Ligier JS P2 63 Aerobytes
A welcome return for the classic marque, in the form of First sight of the Tiga CN cars
an Onroak Automotive collaboration for LMP2 66 Sentronics fuel flow meter
36 Dunlop car of the future Another sensor hits the marketplace
Celebrating 125 years, Dunlop has launched an online 69 Hidden technology at Le Mans
campaign to establish the car of 2139. Here’s our entry From power boxes to sensors, we look into the technology
44 Porsche 956/962 75 Simulation
The German firm returns to Le Mans with the 919, so we Why the hard way round will always beat a shortcut
take a look back at its most successful racing car ever
80 Tech update
51 Citroën DS3 The University of Cranfield investigates hydrogen racing
Two different rallycross contenders, and two different
engine layouts, originating from the same base car
84 Industry news
Nissan launches LMP1 programme
90 Racecar people
We talk to BTCC boss Alan Gow, plus the latest
Race Moves, sponsorship deals and more
95 ASI
The launch of a low-carbon initiative at
the Autosport Engineering Show
97 Products
A look at the latest products and services
98 Bump stop

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July 2014 # www.racecar-engineering.com 3

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Unit A, Sawtry Business Park, Sawtry, Cambs PE28 5GQ Tel:  

Racing’s vicious circle

Keep spending, and remain competitive enough to keep the sponsors interested

n my early days of racing in be excellent in his home country. the number of spectators as Some manufacturers have
Europe, I used to drive myself This scenario has come round a percentage of the world’s made a very successful use of
to the circuits, which gave me time and time again, with the cost population. The return from each other sports to enhance the brand
a lot of time to think. Nowadays, of racing now having escalated fan is several orders of magnitude – Ferrari being the prime example,
I fly to most of them, and apart to the realms that only major bigger than that achieved by not using any advertising at all,
from catching up with sleep, there manufacturers can pay for it, the the spectators at the first GP at but trading on name recognition
is still some time available. odd billionaire being too transient Silverstone in 1950. related to sport. Others have
It is an occupation most of us in his enthusiasms to be a Keeping the audience interest used a full spectrum approach by
do not take seriously enough. Ideas trustworthy long-term Maecenas. by esoteric methods – ie double integrating all channels of media
are easy – they have no mass, and It has also brought in a mode points for the last race to ensure to sell their image.
they are unaffected by gravity. But of racing which is biased towards that the championship goes to the Branding is a slippery concept,
most importantly, they don’t cost giving sponsors entertainment but still primordial. Name
anything except the sugar your and a nice day out at the track, recognition plus image helps sell a
neurones need. However, that is but only if the surroundings are product. ‘What is in a name,’ asked
not a small affair, considering the sanitised and suitably VIP labelled. the Bard, ‘a rose by any other name
brain is 2 per cent of the body mass, Nothing wrong with that – a shall smell as sweet…’ But how else
yet consumes 20-30 per cent of the product is being sold, even if only do we explain the Skoda Octavia,
calories and oxygen you intake. image and vapourware – but the based on the same platform and
Inevitably, my next thought plain truth is that a standard F3 running gear as the Audi A3, but
will generally be about what team now has a structure better also the Audi TT, VW Golf, VW
the managing bodies of racing presented, financed and crewed Jetta, VW Eos, VW Tiguan, VW
are thinking about the future of than a top F1 team of the 1970s. Touran, VW Scirocco, SEAT León,
motor racing. The start of the The emphasis of presentation SEAT Toledo, SEAT Altea, selling
racing season in GTs brought us is not a necessity, merely an for a different price and a different
to the usual sandbagging seen escalating vicious circle of costs. As market, but intrinsically the same
in Goldilocks racing, where cars teams fight to rake in paying drivers car? Why does Porsche keep on
from different manufacturers and sponsors, the peripherals start selling the 911, which is light years

go through the usual motions of increasing, much as the toppings removed from the original product
being weighed and restricted so added to the American hamburger, Michelin star food is de rigueur in motor but retains its 1950s brand image?
they are not too fast and not too that now when ordered with racing paddocks around the world Of course it includes the peril
slow, but just right. ‘everything’ can be a problem to that your brand gets thrashed by
Having killed off several eat in a low headroom building. But wire – is logically justified, much other brands, bringing negative
championships by dominating they do not intrinsically increase as our sporting instincts might connotations to your image, which
them, I can understand the need the performance or improve the bridle at it. Remember: racing is is why when they are involved in
for a certain balance in production driver experience. It seems that now an entertainment business racing, manufacturers will throw
classes, where diverse cars aimed more money is spent on track event rather than a sport. everything into the pot and more,
at different markets have different and corporate guest buildings than F1 differs from football – and to prevail. A perfect mechanism
performance when translated into on track facilities. other team sports – because the for price escalation.
racing versions. The sight of a series of fruits of the audience appeal So there you have it, sport
But the pinnacles of racing immaculate truck cabs lined up does not percolate back to the sponsoring is logically untenable,
should be only restricted by the with the associated semi-trailer teams themselves. The relative but very effective in reality,
goal of going as fast as possible, behind it in the paddock gives percentages of income that with the caveat that you win.
within some accepted engine me more an impression of a vast goes to them is a much smaller Accepting these constraints
type, with a given capacity, or almost inevitably leads us to
the quantity of energy that can Racing is now an entertainment the conclusion that ultimately
be used during a race. Artificial the return from spectators be
maybe, but so is all sport, and business rather than a sport shared equitatively between the
even wars are bridled somewhat participants, therefore financing
by the Geneva Convention. logistical exercise than something fraction of the pot, with the added the base of the sport by having
There is a slew of Goldilocks dedicated to sport. The crowning aggravation that motorsports the organising entity receiving a
racing – not too fast, not too touch, rapidly proliferating now, is – due to the sheer costs of the proportion of it and redistributing
slow, just right for the amateurs the immaculately trimmed potted equipment – dwarfs sports where it to build up the grass roots,
who finance the racing. Only shrubs flanking the passage the principal ingredient is the creating the next generation
some classes are not in thrall between the obligatory pair of individual sportsman, sportsmen of participants and crew at a
to the paying gentleman driver, artics in the back of the pits. that are exceedingly well paid, reasonable cost. So we reach the
but maybe his surrogate – the Perhaps the reasonable way admittedly, but still – percentage- ultimate conclusion – motor racing
driver that brings sponsorship, is to look at the cost of racing wise relative to turnover – quite must be wrested from the
and whose driving talents might relative to the world’s GNP, or small in the total costs. banks. Easy, n’est ce pas?

July 2014 B www.racecar-engineering.com 5


Advanced engineering
Evolution and innovation has always driven racing – but what’s the next giant leap?

eering into the cockpit of men weren’t having all the glory. reliability often suffered. Some of the DFV engine as a fully-stressed
the latest Porsche 919 Having found that going like a the ‘engineering’ took place member and ratcheting up the
LMP1 at Silverstone, I was dingbat on the straights wasn’t ad hoc on the shop floor – engineering game anew. This
struck by the ever-increasing key to winning on a track with it was a time of some retraction concept became the standard,
complexity of instrumentation, real corners – the importance of from the outstanding work of including in IndyCar and sportcar
displays, cameras and so on. handling and braking hit home. Oh the 1930s. Mercedes returned to racing, through into the 1980s.
How totally different from to be a talented engineer in those GP racing in the mid-1950s and New CAD-CAM tools permitted
its proclaimed ancestor, the exciting times – perhaps working innovation re-appeared, but more complicated fabrications and
revered 917. Even in its day, at the sharp end of aeroplane detail engineering was as much billet-machined parts, encouraging
this brute was remarkable for development as the day job, doing a cause of it cleaning up in higher engineering standards
the sheer starkness of its cabin the same for racing machines sportscar competition as well. even in production racecars,
with the absolute minimum of in the evenings and weekends. Their brief interlude shook up typified by Lola and others.
instrumentation and controls. It Rose-tinted spectacles? Probably. the sport and made it more
prompted me to acknowledge the The real seismic shift in professional. Vanwall undertook THE AERO ERA
quality of racecar engineering racecar engineering occurred serious aerodynamic research When wings and ground-effect
that we now take for granted, as in the 1930s via the fearsome into drag reduction, Jaguar had meant that aerodynamics
well as how this has moved in Silver Arrows. With massive R&D already led the way at Le Mans. began to dominate racecar
cycles over the last century. facilities behind them, Mercedes- performance, the peripheral tools
The very first racing Benz and Auto Union brought such as moving ground wind
automobiles produced around science into the sport, replacing tunnels became of much greater
the turn of the 20th century a largely artisan approach. It all importance, inserting a new
were crude, heavy and still became a bit serious, but the cars layer of engineers not directly
influenced by their horse-drawn laid the foundation for design for concerned with the car design
carriage ancestors. Cast iron two decades to come – low and itself. Honeycomb aluminium,
chassis and engine parts were streamlined due to stiffer twin- then carbon composite
prevalent. But surely there has tube chassis and dry-sumped monocoques and bodywork/
never been a time in motor blown vee-engines, limited-slip wings became essential, bringing
racing when inventors and differentials, hydraulic brakes a significant advance in fit and
engineers could have such a clean and more supple independent finish as well as scope for more
sheet on which to work, when suspension. Not a bad move with complex shapes.
fundamental concept, design and over 640bhp on tap. The sheer Just as science changed motor

manufacture was so open, free quality of the open chequebook racing engineering, so too did
and ready to be discovered? engineering impresses even now. Advanced wind tunnels have helped technology. The advent of the
The first world war drove After 1945, Alfa’s 158 pre-war with aerodynamic development micro-chip brought the most
advances in materials and hope for taking on the Silver up-to-date computer technology
processes, and designers of Arrows dominated initially. New Ferrari, meanwhile, upped their into racecar engineering and
racing machines on both sides of regulations banning supercharging game overall and designed a operation, including use of
the Atlantic took advantage. This meant that engine development very effective GP car. sophisticated simulation tools. Yet
represented a huge engineering then focused on better breathing, When Cooper proved that further layers of engineering have
step forward – away from the increased compression and higher you don’t have to be fancy to been required, and a further step
previous ‘blacksmith’ approach – RPM, with Ferrari and Maserati be fast with its mid-engine F1 up in racecar quality achieved.
and promoted a variety of leading the way. Lighter multi- cars, racecar engineering took a And not just at the highest level –
often eccentric solutions to tube spaceframe construction backward step again. The cars Dallara’s F3 customer chassis for
the objective of going faster. took over but designers had learnt were crude – no beautiful forgings instance is a little jewel.
The hum of lathes and from the past, using De Dion rear and machining, instead an Energy efficiency is where we
milling machines now filled the and front wishbone suspension. inelegant if rugged tube chassis are now, racing cars incorporating
workplaces. What fun the creators However, with nothing like the and simple suspension parts, energy recovery power units
must have had – along with the same resources and driven by some from road car parts bins! and software control of many
inevitable blood, toil, tears and commercial as well as sporting Nevertheless this set the pattern, elements that were previously
sweat that anything to do with considerations, equally there was in increasingly refined form, until unimaginable. In the search for
racecars entails. Supercharged nothing like the same attention Lotus introduced the monocoque optimising every performance
motors, higher compression to testing and detail, and chassis, soon combining this with advantage, engineering quality
and more revs - imagine some has reached a new high, the
of the spectacular test-bed
explosions that took place in
The real seismic shift in racecar latest F1 Silver Arrows, as with
the LMP Audi (Auto Union),
fume-filled sheds around Europe engineering occurred in the 1930s superior even in context to their
and America… danger wasn’t fabulous 1930s forebears.
just on the track! The engine via the fearsome Silver Arrows Where will it go next?

July 2014 J www.racecar-engineering.com 7


The question
of equivalence EoT has caused headaches for
teams, but could result in some
close and fascinating racing


“The handicappers have learnt a trick or two, and

they know that the only time the true performance
will be displayed by the competitors is at Le Mans”
8 www.racecar-engineering.com  July 2014
aving spent several The FIA’s two new-for- Because the ACO wants to combinations are balanced.
years running the 2014, prime championships – attract manufacturers to Ricardo Divila’s brilliant
FIA’s GT Balance F1 and WEC – are both balanced Le Mans, they have offered synopsis in April’s RCE set out
of Performance formulae, to a greater or lesser them the opportunity to to explain this in plain English.
(BoP) programme extent, but one is not allowed showcase the diverse solutions By these means, diesel
that enabled the phenomenal to call it BoP. In the name to their road cars’ environmental and gasoline; NA and turbo;
growth of GT3, I gained an of cost control and close racing, challenges in a way that gives V4, V6, and V8; exhaust gas
intimate insight into the F1 has very restrictive technical an equal opportunity to be energy recovery or not; single
intricacies of trying to provide regulations permitting only competitive and win races. and twin ERS-K’s; flywheel,
a close competition among major developments in the ‘Bring what you’ve got, and battery and ultracap energy
extremely technically diverse induction-combustion-exhaust we will balance it.’ Of course, storage systems; 2WD and
cars, raced by highly skilled and system and in the integration it’s not BoP, but rather EoT – or 4WD are all permitted and
competitive people. of ERS systems, which mainly Equivalence of Technology – and encouraged, and given equal
It was a game that involves software. If not a mighty complex thing EoT chances of winning Le Mans
someone named ‘Fool the messed about with by people turns out to be. and the WEC. Manufacturers
Handicapper’. The handicapper with other agendas, this will The EoT regulations run to must declare what they
(the FIA) can pretty accurately produce close performance seven pages of definitions, will run, including how
balance the demonstrated from the four powertrain rules, equations, and much recovered energy
performance of each car, using suppliers in the long term, references, plus additional they will use per lap, and
sophisticated simulation and even if Mercedes’ technology files of Parameters, Sensor have their arrangements
validation tools. However, and its ability to integrate Lists, Fuel Flow Metering homologated each year. But
the skilled competitor will try combustion engine, electric Processes, Torque Metering the handicappers have learnt
and stay one step ahead by power systems and chassis is Processes, Powertrain-ERS and a trick or two: they know
dribbling out, race by race, the currently 1-1.5 seconds/lap Weight Parameters. These are that the only time the true
performance he has up his ahead of everyone else. combined by computations of performance will be displayed
sleeve, only demonstrating In contrast, the WEC Fuel technology factor (FTF), by the competitors is at
enough to stay under the regulations, jointly drawn up K technology factor (KTF), ERS Le Mans, because Le Mans
handicapper’s radar. Some by the FIA and ACO, approach incentives, and penalties for
of the chief protagonists were the issue very differently – trying to fool the handicapper,
very good at it. and for very good reasons. and so the various technology

The 2014 Audi R18 and Toyota

TS040 toughing it out during
round 2 of the WEC in Belgium

July 2014  www.racecar-engineering.com 9


PORSCHE’S TRICK SUSPENSION he left in the middle of a game

claiming urgent business to attend
to back at the ranch. His seat was
quickly taken by Gasoline Toyota,
a player with a very different style
to Diesel Audi. Just recently, the
saloon doors swung open, and in
swaggered Gasoline Porsche – a
seasoned gambler who has been
away playing some of the other
games in town. Now related
by marriage to Diesel Audi, he
sits across the table close to
Gasoline Toyota. The only sign
that Diesel Audi acknowledges
that the stakes have just gone up
significantly is that his eyes have
narrowed to the gap between a
piston and its liner at full power.
Why are the two gasolines sitting
so close? Could they possibly see
each other’s cards?


The dealer is ACO, owner of

orsche has developed what is considered to be a trick suspension system. It attempted to patent the the saloon. Recently, however,
system in Korea, but the patent was rejected. Unfortunately our Korean is not sufficient to work out he has been using card decks
why the application failed. ‘This looks like a self-levelling system to me,’ says our technical consultant supplied by the new sheriff, FIA,
Peter Wright. ‘The description seems to indicate that the levelling cylinder is in series with a spring, which who has stated his intention to
connects to each end of the ARB. The suspension seems to meet the regulations, provided it has fixed ensure fair play, and consequently
characteristics.’ At the Spa 6 hours, Porsche had a rear damper failure, yet was able to change it quickly. fewer shootings.
‘Changing a connected actuator is quite an issue, as the volume of hydraulic oil in the connecting hoses Each player is dealt three
is critical,’ says Wright. ‘Also, any air in the system would affect it.’ initial cards: the Technical
Regulations, the Sporting
Regulations, and the EoT
is the event that counts to the final tweaking of the figures may fuel flow sensor, as well as the regulations. They are the same
marketing departments, and have occurred subsequent to the stability of the torque sensor, and for all players. Each places
the other races are really just test, with the final publication one must hope that these issues his bet, registered in a process
preludes to Le Mans and R&D of Appendix B on 7 April 2014. are resolved before they dictate known as homologation. The
for the following year. After Le Hence the need for the threat the result of the sporting contest. next part is a little strange – each
Mans, the Endurance Committee of penalties, ie ‘don’t you dare To go off somewhat on a flight player gives the dealer a card
of the WEC issues the EoT in the exceed your supplied data!’ of fancy, there is a big game that with his performance secrets
form of a table of fuel energy per takes place at the ACO saloon. It is listed on it, and the dealer gives
lap and instantaneous maximum POWER STRUGGLES not the biggest game in town, but him back a card with his energy
fuel flow for each ‘class’, diesel To enable such a system, each there are some high rollers at the allocation detailed. This is
and gasoline, and the selected car is effectively a mobile table. The game is called LMP1, what’s known as the Appendix
ERS energy/lap: Appendix B of powertrain dynamometer. The a Franco-German adaptation of B card. What is odd is that after
the Technical Regulations. This power of the combustion engine poker, and it has been played for they have handed in theirs, all
is then firm for 12 months, until and ERS motor/generator(s) a number of years now. There are the players see each others’
after the next Le Mans. are continuously measured and only ever two or three big players performance cards, and the
Of course, this is not going to telemeted to the FIA/ACO, along who are prepared to bet large Appendix B cards dealt by ACO
work for the first year of these with the instantaneous and stakes, but there are always a (what influence does the sheriff
regulations, 2014. Originally the accumulated fuel flow figures. few smaller gamblers with smaller have?). In previous years, players
Endurance Committee stated that There are two new key sensors stashes, which they lose. The big have been able to add to their
it would monitor performance – fuel flow rate and torque – to winner of the last few years is bets before the final showdown
through testing, the first two go along with all the usual ones Diesel Audi, and in some years he at Le Mans, where the winner
races and the Le Mans test in of RPM, temperatures, electrical has had no other big gambler to takes all. This year, something’s
order to finalise the EoT for Le volts and amps. Doubts have been play against. A couple of year’s happened and Diesel Audi’s eyes
Mans this year. It would even cast over the maturity of the Gill ago there was Diesel Peugeot, but have narrowed to such an extent
impose penalties if necessary that his pistons may seize.
during the race. Under pressure
from the manufacturers, they
One must hope that issues with the All the manufacturers have
been deeply involved in drawing
have fixed the EoT just prior to
the Ricard test in March, based
fuel flow and torque sensors will up the Technical Regulations and
the EoT process and equations.
on data supplied to them by the be resolved before they dictate the As you would expect, although
manufacturers and following they are head-achingly complex
homologation of each car. Some result of the sporting contest and so dependent on critical

10 www.racecar-engineering.com F July 2014

    "  !     #" "










Figure 1: preliminary Appendix B figures for the run-up to 2014 Figure 2: the latest, and final, figures for Le Mans 2014

sensors, they are also very high efficiency is not rewarded. the minimum allowed to the (this is of course the assumption
soundly based. Without this Giving away too much efficiency manufacturers, and that in the I made earlier). This has been
level of complexity it would not technology in 2014 doesn’t latest, 07/04/2014 Appendix B achieved by changing the
be possible to fairly balance make sense as it can be fed in they are made to be exactly combination of FTF and KTF by
the performance of such wildly from the start of 2015, under equivalent. This required me to 1.6 per cent in favour of gasoline
different technology packages. a new period of homologation, make a small correction to apply compared to diesel. Both then
I will try and put the EoT into a and run at Le Mans that year to the latest data available, but gain 0.225MJ/lap at the wheels
single, short paragraph (if Genesis with 2014 EoT energy only 0.5 per cent. per MJ of the ERS selected – a
1 can describe the creation of the allocations. The real efficiency significantly increased incentive
World in under 800 words, how challenge starts in 2015. The SWITCHING SUMS – until 6MJ, where gasoline
can the EoT take more?). ACO says it doesn’t want to see I have assumed that the ERS again jumps an extra 0.8MJ/per
It basically states that: any big steps in technology energy/lap is measured pretty lap. Why? Possibly because in
the energy density of diesel introduced in 2015, defined close to the output of the motor/ practice only the gasoline cars
will be balanced against that of as greater than 2 per cent. But generator(s), and so I have could possibly run at 8MJ and the
gasoline; the efficiency of the surely that is the point of the given it 100 per cent efficiency, FIA/ACO wanted to provide a big
state-of-the-art diesel engine competition? Surely at some give or take some mechanical incentive for them to do so.
will be balanced against that of With the unanimous view
a gasoline engine; the weight of
the state-of-the-art diesel engine
Manufacturers will eventually want among manufacturers that 1MJ of
ERS equates to 0.5secs per lap at
will be balanced against that to show that their technologies Le Mans, this means that 0.25MJ/
of a gasoline engine, because lap at the wheels equates to
this dictates the mass available are better than the competition 0.5secs per lap. On this basis, using
for energy storage within the the earlier 04/12/2013 Appendix
minimum weight; there will be point manufacturers will want to transmission losses. Applying the B figures, Audi had 63.5MJ per
an incentive to select the higher show that their technologies are same correction factors to the lap at the wheels having selected
levels of energy storage. After actually better than the others? 04/12/2013 Appendix B figures, 2MJ ERS, and Toyota and Porsche
computation according to natural In December 2013, the FIA gives the plot shown in Figure 1. would have had 62.8MJ, both
laws, a table of instant and per first published a preliminary It would appear that the 0MJ having selected 6MJ. Advantage
lap fuel energy flows, and fuel Appendix B for the run-up to ERS Privateers’ cars have been Audi, by 1.4secs per lap.
tank sizes listed for each fuel 2014 – see Figure 1. To make balanced, even though there are According to the latest
type and ERS class will be issued, sense of these numbers, I have no diesels, and that the FTF and 7/4/2014 Appendix B, Audi has
as Appendix B. turned them into MJ of energy/ KTF used have favoured the diesel 62.8MJ per lap at the wheels
The potential problems lie lap available at the wheels, at the stage when these figures compared to the gasoline cars’
in the different timings of the plotted against ERS class for were published. The slope, or ERS 63.7MJ. Audi’s advantage 1.4secs
homologation period (February/ diesel and gasoline. To do this, in incentive, is small at 0.05MJ at the per lap has, theoretically at least,
March each year for 12 months) the absence of knowledge of the wheels per MJ ERS, until gasoline turned into 1.8secs per lap deficit
and the EoT period (post-Le factors that the FIA has applied, gets to 8MJ, at which level it – or nearly 4 laps after 24 hours.
Mans each year for 12 months). I have had to make a couple of catches up with the original No wonder their trigger finger
On top of this, there has been assumptions. In the early draft deficit to diesel. It is on these is getting twitchy. They made a
some difficulty in establishing of the regulations, the BSFC figures that Audi chose just 2MJ of decision to select to run at 2MJ
Appendix B figures for all of values used for the diesel and ERS, and that makes some sense – ERS based on one set of figures,
2014 through to post Le Mans gasoline engines were stated, more on this decision later. and found themselves at a
2015. The mismatch of cycles along with the energy density The latest, and final figures significant disadvantage according
does not encourage competitors of the two fuels to be used at for the 2014 Le Mans give a very to the final figures. The fact that
to be highly fuel-efficient this Le Mans. From this, one gets different picture – see Figure 2. the final figures represent a pretty
year. The Brake Specific Fuel the fuel energy available at The 0MJ ERS figures give good balance between diesel and
Consumption (BSFC), as calculated the wheels, give or take some 0.8MJ/lap more to diesels, possibly gasoline hybrids is probably of
from the data generated by mechanical transmission losses. to compensate for greater weight. little comfort to them.
the mobile dynamometers in I then assumed that the FIA has The manufacturers, who must Now let’s look at how and
each car, are all balanced out set out to balance diesel against have hybrid systems, become why Audi went for such a low
in the FTF calculation, and so gasoline at 2MJ ERS, which is equal at their base line 2MJ ERS ERS selection, and only a single

July 2014 E www.racecar-engineering.com 11


Le Mans, and because its systems

No ERS ERS OPTIONS proven technology. That is the
Released Energy MJ/Lap 0 <2 <4 <6 <8 other reason why I consider Toyota
Released Power kW 0 Not limited Not limited Not limited Not limited to be the dark horse. Toyota has
Car Mass kg 850 870 870 870 870 focused on aero development,
Petrol Energy MJ/Lap 150.8 146.3 141.7 137.2 134.9 which is likely to be a significant
differentiator in 2014, where
Max Petrol Flow kg/h 95.6 93 90.5 87.9 87.3
everything else is balanced.
Petrol capacity carried l 66.9 66.9 66.9 66.9 66.9
Fuel Technology Factor - 1.061 1.061 1.061 1.061 1.061
Porsche intended to go to
K Technology Factor - 1 0.983 0.983 0.983 1
8MJ, but testing showed up a
Diesel Energy MJ/Lap 142.1 140.2 135.9 131.6 127.1 cooling issue in the electrical
Max Diesel Flow kg/h 83.4 83.3 81 78.3 76.2 system – they didn’t say if it was
Diesel capacity carried l 54.8 54.8 54.8 54.8 54.8 in the MGU, battery storage, or
on-board electronics. When Toyota selected
6MJ, they heaved a sigh of relief
and went for 6MJ as well.
Apart from the ERS class,
No ERS ERS OPTIONS Porsche has gone its own way
Released Energy MJ/Lap 0 <2 <4 <6 <8 in most things. After an initial
Released Power kW 0 Not limited Not limited Not limited Not limited severe vibration problem with
Car Mass kg 850 870 870 870 870 the V4, a redesign has given
Petrol Energy MJ/Lap 157.2 147.0 143.3 139.5 138.0 them a compact engine with
Max Petrol Flow kg/h 100.9 94.3 91.9 89.5 88.5 apparently good power. Their
ERS-H system is unusual in that
Petrol capacity carried l 68.3 68.3 68.3 68.3 68.3
on-board the second turbine is separated
from the turbocharger and it
Fuel Technology Factor - 1.074* 1.074 1.074 1.074 1.074
alone drives the MGU (actually
K Technology Factor - 1 0.987 0.987 0.987 1
just a GU!). Just how much peak
Diesel Energy MJ/Lap 146.4 138.7 135.2 131.7 128.5
power this is rated at, and how
Max Diesel Flow kg/h 84.6 80.2 78.2 76.1 74.3 many MJ per lap it harvests from
Diesel capacity carried l 54.3 54.3 54.3 54.3 54.3 the exhaust are not divulged.
on-board I was told that these devices are
rated at 90kW, but do not
ERS, where two are permitted. but the rear biased weight high very effective in traffic, a key necessarily run at this level.
Though wary of saying so directly, up in the car compromises other element of the 24-hour race Porsche has demonstrated
Audi has never been overly keen performance parameters. With at Le Mans. Although very speed, but are speaking
on hybrids, believing them to be a no direct feed from the MGU-H to different to the Porsche, Toyota’s cautiously about reliability.
drift away from true efficiency and the MGU-K, additional inefficiency gasoline competitor, they are The vibration issues lost them
only viable on road cars to enable is introduced compared to the considered to be in the same six months development and
CO2 targets to be met. arrangement permitted in F1. class, and the car with the best they are only newly returned to
For endurance racing, they The uncertain reliability of an FTF and KTF is used to set endurance racing at LMP1 level.
do not like equalisation of the 100,000rpm, hot electric machine gasoline vs diesel equivalency. The team has many F1 people
minimum weight irrespective of also made them lean away from The second best suffers in in it, not surprising considering
technology. Hybrid technology deciding to race with it. The comparison. Pascal Vasselon Alex Hitzinger’s recent history,
is heavy, and costs 0.4 secs/lap original Appendix B numbers warned me not to assume that and they are all adjusting to the
per 10kg at Le Mans, and they indicated that 2MJ would be the Toyota’s big, NA V8 was any different demands of 12 times
would rather run light; hybrid sufficient, delivered through the less efficient than Porsche’s tiny, the life of many components. But
systems must justify their mass. front wheels. Discovering it might turbo GDI V4. As he explained, they are learning fast.
Diesel technology is also heavy not be was a surprise, and Audi big lazy engines are the way One could believe that the
(30 to 50kg heavier compared to does not like surprises this close to go for racing, which is 60 performance success of the cars
gasoline) and adding ERS is yet to the start of the season, and to 70 per cent full throttle. is simply down to the engineers,
more mass. Audi has also put a particularly post-homologation. Downsized turbos are better for particularly the software
premium on reliability, enabling Toyota, my dark horse for part-throttle road use. Which developers. As in F1, that would
them to win Le Mans on more than 2014, was originally thought engine is actually more fuel be to overlook the enormous
one occasion when they have not to be going for 8MJ, with their efficient, he declined to say. contribution of the drivers, and to
had the fastest car. The decision two powerful ERS-K systems. Toyota has chosen 6MJ, underestimate their importance
to select the 2MJ ERS class must With over 1000cv available for perhaps based on the predicted to the development of the cars,
have been taken by Audi quite some of the lap, the car will be ability to recover brake energy at both in the simulator and on the
early on, as down-rating the track. Listening to them speaking,
motor/generator, flywheel storage,
cooling etc could not easily be
Audi has never been overly keen and sometimes not saying things
at Ricard was revealing. With
done at the last minute. on hybrids, believing them to be a only Audi’s drivers having
They tested with an ERS-H previous experience of a 4WD
unit fitted to the turbocharger, drift away from true efficiency LMP1, the Toyota and Porsche

12 www.racecar-engineering.com J July 2014


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Porsche planned to go to 8MJ in the WEC, but following cooling problems, they were relieved to join Toyota in the 6MJ category

drivers hinted at not really allowance per lap. It is not only shown a little of what they can do We will not get the answers to
liking the way the torque was essential to not use too much with the hands they hold, but they the reliability question: is Porsche
delivered to the front wheels. fuel, but also not to use too little. will not have shown everything. ready for 24 hours against two
Being used to exiting a corner on The allowance is per lap, and Perhaps the most important thing manufacturers who are racing
the throttle, balancing the rear underuse cannot be recovered demonstrated is the reliability and relatively proven technology?
axle with steering, the torque later – very different from F1, repeatability of the key sensors – We may learn whether the 6MJ
fed into the front wheels results where the total allowance is for fuel flow and torque – to provide cars are faster than a 2MJ one,
in understeer. The power of the whole race. a fair sporting contest. The FIA and whether Toyota’s 1000cv
these new cars, particularly the fuel flow meter specification calls shows up under race conditions as
Toyota, means that they must be NEED TO KNOW for ±0.25 per cent, and Gill has a real benefit. I hope we will get
straight before unleashing full Of course the engineers wish to delivered this. a result that promises a fantastic
throttle – and then ‘whoosh!’ help the drivers drive accurately Audi’s diesel requires two technical contest in the WEC this
This is more typical of the way to the fuel schedule, and all sensors to determine net fuel flow year. And yet, there may be more
heavy, powerful cars are driven, manner of displays are being rate, and the return line sensor to the contest than just winning
and yet the most efficient evaluated. The trick is to give runs at cylinder head temperature, the prize of Le Mans, or the World
use of fuel is to maintain a the driver just the information which is around 100degC. Each title. There is talk of the contest
high cornering speed, as with he needs without distraction, car also carries a spare sensor for between Audi and Porsche being
an underpowered racing car: particularly at night. Ultimately comparison with the main fuel flow more than the VW Board hedging
remember Mini vs Galaxy? the control of fuel use is down reading. Questions posed to the its bets on both gasoline and
The smaller tyres for 2014 to the driver, and he can always manufacturers about these sensors diesel. Whichever goes home to
and the lower brake temperatures override the software to demand resulted in a tightening of the Germany with the prize will have
due to greater brake energy absolutely full power in a lips. If it proves necessary at any achieved an enhanced technical
recovery means less grip, which situation where safety is involved. point to revert to the engine’s own status within the Group – a
is not helped by less downforce. The cars are now homologated fuel flow systems, ie the injection status that may affect technical
That has also limited the amount and the EoT values issued. By the systems, the accuracy falls to leadership as the industry
of brake energy that can be time you read this, the first two ±1-2 per cent, not good enough to progresses further into new road
recovered. Drivers have had races at Silverstone and Spa will regulate a sporting contest. 1 per car technologies.
to re-learn tyre temperature have taken place and each of the cent power equates to about 0.5 There is also honour at stake.
management. Some claim that the three leading competitors will have seconds per lap at Le Mans. Porsche is the Le Mans legend,
simulator is not variable enough Audi the interlopers. Even if
to teach the driver to manage
the fuel consumption. They
Is Porsche ready for 24 hours Cologne-based Toyota steals
it from under their noses, it
believe that drivers can learn against two manufacturers who promises to be a Teutonic contest.
very quickly on track and become Who’ll be left standing when the
very accurate at sticking to the are racing proven technology? gunsmoke clears?

14 www.racecar-engineering.com @ July 2014


on a budget
They might lack the financial might of some of their F1 rivals, but
Marussia’s engineering talent is looking to punch above its weight



“We always strive to give our people

freedom for creativity – and they come
up with some very nice solutions”

16 www.racecar-engineering.com  July 2014

he Marussia Formula1 team 2014 Formula 1 grid. ‘This car is the biggest of the systems that link up to the power
started life in 2009 as Manor step we have ever had from the perspective unit we have to do ourselves by regulation –
Grand Prix, an offshoot of the of innovation,’ says Dave Greenwood, that means all of the cooling, the pipework,
well-known Manor Motorsport Marussia F1’s chief engineer. ‘I think the plumbing and pumps. That’s all got to
junior formula team. Before it scope of innovation on the car is testament integrate with the Ferrari bits, which is
had ever taken to the track, investment to the people we have on the team. We not easy. It has placed a huge emphasis
from English entrepreneur Richard Branson work them incredibly hard, but strive to give on our electronics guys.’
saw it rebranded as Virgin Racing. Then, them the freedom for creativity and they The only significant external sign of the
in 2011, the organisation became part of come up with some very nice solutions.’ work that the Marussia engineers have done
the nascent Russian supercar constructor Much of that innovation has been on that integration is around the roll hoop
Marussia Motors.Its latest car – named the focused on integrating the Ferrari 059/3 and air box inlet of the car, which does not
MR03 – took to the track for the first time at power unit into the back of the car, a big feature exposed supports like every other
the Jerez circuit during the official 2014 F1 task for a team that only utilised a ‘KERS’ car on the grid, but instead has an additional
pre-season test. hybrid system for the first time in 2013. pair of cooling ducts routed around the roll
At first glance the red and black machine ‘Obviously there is help from Ferrari with structure. ‘We have done something there –
was a fairly conservative design, at least the whole power unit but there is also a a bit of innovation – and that’s what you
externally. But the bodywork masked what change in skills from our side in order to have to do to move forwards. We are really
is one of the more interesting cars on the integrate that,’ Greenwood continues. ‘All happy with what we have done there,’

July 2014  www.racecar-engineering.com 17


Pictured above is the rear end of the MR03 with bodywork and heat shields removed. The exhaust layout is of particular interest – the headers curve
around the cylinder head, and then join together in a collector (one on each side linking three pipes). Downstream of the collectors, the pipes then split
in two. The Ferrari turbocharger is reportedly split in a similar – though less extreme – way to the Mercedes design, with the MGU-H sat between the two
sides of the turbo. The pipes heading down to the turbo can be seen here. The other pipe heads upwards to a unit thought to be the wastegate. The left
bank pipes enters this housing at its base, while the right bank enters it above. A single exit pipe joins with the pipe leaving the turbocharger.

says Greenwood. ‘You can see the of the year but are now testing many with differing demands especially with the power unit,
trend of what’s behind the roll things that gain back downforce and locations. For efficiency and in some areas that actually
hoops, and ours is about providing at the expense of cooling.’ reasons, the MR03 has not means reducing some cooling.
ducting for some coolers. We While it could be expected placed them all in the sidepods ‘Some of the electronic
determined that it was the best that the turbocharger itself would of the car, unlike some of its boxes are over-cooled, so we
way to minimise the cooler be the most taxing part of the rivals. Nonetheless, the sides are finding ways of reducing that
volume within the sidepods of power unit to cool – especially of the car are still exceptionally and getting some performance
the car. It works really well, and as it is buried deep in the bell crowded. ‘The sidepods are back. But the big task now is
we will use the same concept in housing region between the V6 clearly different from side to side the mapping,’ says Greenwood.
2015. We are not the only ones engine and the transmission – – there’s a lot to package in there ‘When I say that, I do not mean
to do it, but ours is the biggest the engine mapping specifically,
and we are using it to cool two
really key systems.’
“We were conservative, but we’re but rather the way that the
ERS is working, the diff and the
now trying to get more downforce general torque mapping for driver
KEEPING COOL demand. We are collaborating
Cooling the new-for-2014 at the expense of cooling” with Ferrari on that and it’s a
power units is no easy task, big area of performance to
as demonstrated by some of Greenwood claims that other like intercoolers, watercoolers, oil unlock. That’s what we are
the very public difficulties areas were a headache for coolers and gearbox coolers,’ adds concentrating on, going into the
experienced by other, bigger Marussia. ‘One of the biggest Greenwood. ‘There are coolers second quarter of the season.’
teams. But the Marussia has, challenges is the amount of for the hybrid system, including As the MR03 uses the Ferrari
according to Greenwood, been electrical boxes – there’s a huge the energy store and both MGUs, carbon fibre transmission, it
fairly strong in this department. number of them, and cooling and all of them require different shares its inboard suspension
‘The car cools well and the data them is a big deal. The turbo is types of cooling. Aerodynamically pickup points and turbo housing
we got from Ferrari was fine – no a factor too, but we have not the sidepods have very similar with the Ferrari F14-T as well
holes needed to be cut once the really been involved with that performance, then it’s just as the Sauber C33. It is the first
car started running,’ he says. as it is very integrated with the differences on how it’s laid out.’ time a Marussia – or Virgin – has
‘We have worked massively hard engine and gearbox.’ With the cooling issue largely used a composite main case,
on it, and everything has been All of the different solved, Greenwood, chief designer but it has not provided many
evaluated in terms of downforce subsystems of the power unit John McQuillam and the rest of challenges for the team. ‘It is
vs cooling. That said, we were have meant that the car needs a the Marussia team are looking at identical to the casing used by
slightly conservative at the start large number of heat exchangers, ways of improving performance, Ferrari,’ says Greenwood. ‘We buy

18 www.racecar-engineering.com < July 2014



n Formula 1, most teams use other teams. We improved it a
friction material from either lot at the Bahrain test, but it’s a
Carbon Industrie or Hitco, major area of focus still.’
with a few – including Marussia One of very few areas of
– also using Brembo when the modern racecar design that there
situation demands. In theory this is not a particular trend on is
means that the braking of the brake caliper position. On the rear
car should not really be a factor, of the MR03, the caliper sits at
but the introduction of the new almost the lowest possible point,
hybrid power units in 2014 has but at the front it is mounted
raised a number of issues with a at the rear of the caliper rather
car’s braking system. than at its base. ‘I don’t think you
‘There are big elements to will find a consensus on where
what is going on in braking with they should be positioned,’ says The Ferrari 059/3, 1.6-litre V6 engine, which has a single turbo
us,’ says chief engineer Dave Greenwood. ‘It’s something of
Greenwood. ‘There is the pure designer preference. Mounting at it from them and then from that at the front. The MR03 is
generation of braking torque, the base of the disc gives you a point we add our external and unique in modern top level car
by which I mean the front lower cg, and they are striving to internal suspension. But it’s not construction in that it features a
axle that is totally driven by always go in that direction. But something where we have had to metal front bulkhead – everything
the brake disc and caliper. The there is the factor of ease of use do anything different due to the else in F1 and LMP racing has
material is something we look at to consider too. You need to be change of material – all of that a carbon fibre front. It houses
and experiment with different able to bleed your brakes, your work is done by Ferrari.’ the inboard suspension pickup
suppliers. We work a lot with one bleed nipple needs to be a high One area where the Marussia points, steering racks and master
supplier in particular and develop point and a very low slung caliper differs to the other two Ferrari- cylinders as you might expect.
some of their products so we are is harder to bleed. powered cars in 2014 is the ‘We realised that we could
totally happy with that element. ‘But the bottom line is that it rear wing support. At the get a much better designed car,
‘On the rear axle, however, is something that the designers opening races of the year, both which was lighter, stiffer and
the brake torque is generated do when they are creating the the Sauber and the Ferrari had better tolerances with
by the engine, the brakes and upright and working with the used near-identical twin pylons, a machined bulkhead,’ says
the MGU-K. That’s much more caliper supplier. Aerodynamically,
complicated, and the control of
the rear caliper is determined
the way you do the internal
ducting inside the drums is also
“We got a car which was lighter,
by the brake-by-wire system. something that is looked at, and stiffer and had better tolerances
There are a lot more elements these things are getting more
to getting the braking right this and more complex, but that with a machined bulkhead”
year compared to 2013, and the development has a lot of effect.
control systems related to it are We do a lot of work on the brake but the Marussia had a single Greenwood. ‘It’s machined from
very complicated. In the early dyno, and it’s a much more pylon which split at the base billet, then bonded to the chassis.
part of the season we struggled repeatable process than using to allow the exhaust to pass It’s not that complex and it’s a
a lot with it, but so did many the car at a test.’ through it, then attached to nice solution. It’s not something
the same mountings on the we will move away from any time
top of the transmission casing soon either. Doing the bulkhead
that the other two cars use. this way has solved a lot of little
‘We term the rear wing support issues. When you have carbon
a Y-lon, as it is an inverted Y parts with inserts, you can always
in shape,’ says Greenwood. ‘We have annoying issues as time
evaluated all of the different goes on, but when you do this it
options – both single and twin all goes away. We have not found
pylons – and found that this was any weight penalty either.’
the best compromise in terms
of structural support for the THE JOYS OF SPRING
rear wing and minimum impact At the top of the bulkhead
un the underside of the rear between the torsion bars, a
wing.’ Interestingly, McLaren spring damper unit can be seen
independently developed a mounted across the car. This
near-identical concept, and at the unit plays a key role in the car’s
Spanish Grand Prix – doubtless suspension layout. ‘It is no secret
inspired by its customer – that everyone on the grid has an
adopted a layout very similar to interlinked suspension system
that of the MR03. that incorporates Cambridge
But while the inboard rear inerters front and rear,’ says
suspension is largely defined Greenwood. ‘The way you get
by the transmission supplied by all of those elements working
the Italians, things are different together is a way you can get

20 www.racecar-engineering.com ; July 2014


The front bulkhead is machined from billet, unique in current top level racecar The Marussia shares its transmission with the Ferrari F14-T and the Sauber C33.
construction. Note the spring damper unit between the torsion bar holes The MR03 is the first car with which Marussia has used a composite main casing

Close-up view of the Y-lon rear wing support The nose is defined jointly by regulations and aerodynamic demands

performance. It’s not just ride- ‘Reliability has been the says Greenwood. ’Generally of coolers fitted to the cars, it
driven either – it’s about securing strong part of the car so far,’ speaking, lighter components are is inevitable that they will be
the best aero platform too, says Greenwood. ‘I think we are less reliable, so we have achieved unequal in weight side to side.
the way you can move the car pleased with the design from reliability with the car on the ‘At the moment we don’t look
through the aero maps. You the car weight point of view. weight limit. We are where we at side to side weight distribution
find a spot where the car has We hit our targets, we have want to be, and that’s testament at all,’ says Greenwood. ‘Generally
the most downforce and that’s had a few non-finishes in to John McQuillam, [deputy chief weight is such a challenge with
where you want to run it as races, but they tend to be for designer] Rob Taylor and the these cars, you would balance
much as possible. Then you have accident damage rather than gang of designers have done a the car left or right for each track
the way that the car shifts going unreliability. Reliability has great job from that point of view.’ if you could. But this year it has
through a corner, and the way been strong with both the power In 2014, as in previous years, just been about getting things
you make the suspension work unit and the chassis.’ the weight distribution of to the weight limit. With this
is to optimise where the car is in the cars is tightly restricted, year’s car it’s been hard to get
terms of ride height. That unit LIGHTER WEIGHT something that was originally there because there was no data
combines lots of elements that Weight has been a major problem introduced in 2011 to ease to go on, and as a result it was
you would normally separate, and for some cars on the grid in Pirelli into F1 as the sole tyre something we were very worried
it allows us to have something 2014, notably the Sauber C33, supplier, but the regulation has about during the build.
that gives us gains in ride and which although mechanically is remained even though the car ‘Ultimately we have been
aero performance with as little very similar to the MR03, was weights have changed. This fairly successful. The weight
weight as possible.’ overweight at the first races of means that this season every car distribution is roughly where
One of the few things carried the year. Greenwood, however, must have a weight distribution we wanted it to be, though
over from the 2013 MR02 is reveals that this has not been a resulting in no less than 319kg there is always some room for
its reliability, which saw rookie problem for Marussia, or rather it on the front axle and 375kg at improvement. One thing you
driver Max Chilton finish every was one that the team solved the rear. With a minimum weight don’t want to do is add weight to
race of the season, a trend he has before the season. ‘Normally of 691kg, this gives teams just get to the distribution window
continued into 2014 (up to and when you talk about reliability, a 7kg window to work with. and we have not had to do that,
including the Spanish Grand Prix). you talk about weight as well,’ Meanwhile, with the number so that’s good. We are at the

“This year has been about getting things to the weight limit. There
was no data to go on, which we were worried about during the build”
22 www.racecar-engineering.com A July 2014


Marussia MR03
Chassis construction
Carbon fibre composite
Front suspension
Carbon-fibre wishbone and
pushrod suspension elements
operating inboard torsion bar
and damper system
Rear suspension
Carbon-fibre wishbone and
pushrod suspension elements
operating inboard torsion bar
and damper system
Fronts: 245/660-13
Rears: 325/660-13
Brake system
Carbon/carbon discs and pads
The rear end of the MR03 with heat shielding and transmission removed – many interesting things to see here with rear brake-by-wire system,
AP Racing
and while we are happy with
Marussia F1 team-designed
downforce in high speed corners, hydraulic PAS
we have a lot to do in terms of
Fuel system
generating downforce in the ATL Kevlar-reinforced rubber
braking zone,’ says Greenwood. bladder
‘We lost the effect of exhaust Electronic systems
blowing, so we are working to get MAT SECU TAG 320/
more downforce in that area – it Scuderia Ferrari
has an impact on how we perform Seatbelts
on track too. Monza, for example,
is not a great venue for us, but Engine
Ferrari 059/3 1.6-litre six cylinder
Barcelona with lots of medium single turbo. V6 90 degree. Bore
and high speed corners was 80mm, stroke 53mm, 4 valves per
better – it’s the aero dominated cylinder, 500 bar-direct injection
The MR03’s roll hoop is the only one on the grid without exposed supports. circuits and not the braking ERS
Instead it features a pair of cooling ducts behind the driver’s head dominated tracks that we are Battery energy per lap 4MJ,
looking forward to. I think our MGU-K power 120kW, MGU-K
max revs 50,000rpm, MGU-H
minimum weight at the end of places – especially high speed relative performance will improve max revs 125,000rpm
the race. But next year’s car corners,’ says Greenwood. ‘But at tracks like Silverstone.’
Dimensions and weight
will be much easier because we’ll we are not getting the benefit of The Marussia MR03 is perhaps Overall width: 1800mm
know what we had in reality the aero in low speed corners. It the strongest car yet produced Wheelbase: 3700mm
and not in the virtual world as is a problem that is exaggerated by what is still seen as one of Radio
was the case with this one.’ by a related issue with the car’s Formula 1’s new teams, but the Riedel
stopping power. We feel that obvious deficit in resources has
AERO DEVELOPMENT braking is one of the big areas led to a equally obvious deficit in
With a quarter of the 2014 that we need to concentrate on – on-track performance, which is
season completed, things all the team in F1 now have GPS why the team’s management is
have not gone quite as well allowing them to look at all of the keen on the introduction of a cost
as Marussia might have hoped. other cars. That is an area where cap. The team’s job list is as long
It remains locked in a battle we are poor. We are looking to as any better funded team, but it
with the Caterham team that find gains – there is significant lap doesn’t have the same resources
commenced right back in time to be had there, and if we to work through it.
2010, not for points but for find those gains than we should If a cost cap does happen,
the highest finishing position. be regularly in Q2.’ then the next Marussia – for
Generally, however, the MR03 has The car’s aerodynamic deficit the 2015 Formula 1 season and
finished better than its in low speed scenarios also has a created by this team that has
green painted rivals. factor in the braking performance. shown its ability to innovate on a
‘Our aero performance is not ‘These cars are different to what relatively tiny budget – could be
bad, and we are strong in certain we are used to aerodynamically much further up the grid.

“Our aero is strong in certain places, especially high speed corners,

but we are not getting the benefit from it in low speed corners”
24 www.racecar-engineering.com D July 2014

May the force

be with you
The Swiss Rebellion team linked up with ORECA to design its new
R-One LMP to take on the might of the manufacturers at Le Mans



26 www.racecar-engineering.com  July 2014

“We have a very efficient

ith a budget that is as the fuel was not available, and

engine and we’re seeing dwarfed by the major

motor manufacturers
we decided it was not worthwhile to
test using different fuel.

a significant improvement competing at Le Mans,

the Rebellion team has taken a mighty
‘These dyno tests enabled us
to decide on the mechanical package
on our 2013 figures” step and developed its own car
with the help of French team ORECA –
and settings that include intake lengths
and cam timing, as well as allowing
the R-One – to contest the World us to validate our calculation data
Endurance Championship. with actual testing data. After those
Like a starfighter coming up August tests we finalised the specs
against an Imperial Class Star Destroyer, of the engine – items such as exhaust
the R-One has a few tricks to help it and intake length, cam timing and
compete. The non-hybrid column of the compression ratio.
now famous Appendix B is for privateers ‘We decided on a completely
only, and contains some incentives to new intake system. It has double
help the privately-developed cars. injection with two injectors per
The LMP1-L cars can compete cylinder, one on the top and one on the
at 850kg, 20kg lighter than the bottom. This configuration improved
hybrid cars. They are allowed to the engine response when the engine
use their fuel faster than the is running in lean mode.
hybrids, closing the performance ‘After those tests, we also began
gap. However, by the calculations in production of the new parts and ran the
Appendix B, the non-hybrid cars updated engine on the dyno again in
are only able to complete 12 laps at January 2014. In total we used around
Le Mans on a tank of fuel, compared 2000 litres of fuel during these tests, in
to 13 for the hybrids. order to achieve calibration results as
All of the LMP1 cars have to specific as I want to be.
run with a restricted fuel flow, ‘All in all, we are happy with the
meaning that the Toyota customer results. We have a very efficient engine
engine that powered the Rebellion and this is a significant improvement on
team’s Lolas in 2013 had to be our 2013 figures. We are still optimising
extensively reworked for 2014. the details of engine settings and
‘The basis of the engine is the in particular we are now working to
2013 RV8KLM engine used by improve engine response.’
Rebellion Racing, which was a high-
compression engine specifically tuned CHOICE OF GEARS
for an air restrictor at the intake air The gearbox chosen was Xtrac’s
entrance,’ says Ralf Richter, project 1159 transverse LMP ‘box, featuring
leader for TMG’s customer engine seven gears which allows more
programme. ‘When we saw the new flexibility in this fuel-sensitive era
regulations for 2014, one of the first of racing. Launched as an LMP1-L
decisions we had to make was to version for use in 2014, the gearbox
optimise the compression ratio for also has a geartrain system on the
the new regulation where engines front to make it compatible for LMP1-H,
run without an air restrictor. a hybrid system which can be used
‘In April 2013 we began immediately, but which is likely to
development of the 2014 engine using be debuted in 2015 at the earliest.
calculation and simulation techniques Through thorough use of a wide
at TMG. The target was to understand range of available in ‘out bevel and
what is needed to maintain high final drive ratios’, all engine
performance while improving the fuel permutations can be accommodated,
efficiency. In 2013 we were running and the gearbox is capable of handling
over 10,000rpm and we wanted to up to 820Nm of torque. Gears are
reduce this because high revs means selected through Megaline’s new
high consumption. direct drive e-motor. ‘For 2014, for
‘We started to look at the cam the first time there are Formula 1-
timing, the intake length and the style crash tests, with rear impact,
compression ratio. From these side push off and wheel tether
calculation results we could complete mountings,’ says Xtrac’s technical
a optimised package which delivered director Adrian Moore. The gearbox
improved efficiency without a negative has been designed with a future
impact on performance. LMP2 application in mind, and the
‘The first dyno run was in August anticipation is that the category
2013, using the correct E20 fuel as will also introduce crash-testing.
specified in the 2014 regulations. Getting the engine ready
It was not possible to do this earlier to run lean was one aspect

July 2014 A www.racecar-engineering.com 27


of the car’s development, but TECH SPEC

the ORECA team also had to
work on an all-new chassis, Rebellion R-One
suspension and aerodynamic Type: Le Mans Prototype (LMP1-L)
kit to reduce drag and conform Chassis: carbon fibre composite
to the new regulations. At Spa, monocoque
there was a clear resemblance Bodywork: carbon fibre composite
to ORECA’s previous prototypes, Length: 4650mm
including headlights that were Width: 1900mm
clearly based on the Peugeot Height: 1050mm
908 HDi FAP, the windscreen that Weight: 850kg
appeared to come from the Steering: hydraulically assisted
Lola and the aerodynamics Windscreen: polycarbonate
have a clear nod towards Powertrain: Toyota
ORECA’s own ORECA 01. Designation: RV8KLM-L
However, says ORECA’s chief Due to the fuel flow restrictions, the 2013 RV8KLM Toyota customer engine Configuration: 90deg V8
designer Christophe Guibbal, has been extensively reworked for the Rebellion’s current campaign Capacity: 3.4-litre
the car concept and components Power: over 500PS
are completely new due to Weight: +/- 120kg
the new regulations. Engine management: TMG
‘The target for the car was Lubrication: dry sump
to reduce the drag and work on
Fuel: Shell petrol
the engine intake to achieve this,’
Lubricants: Shell
said the Frenchman. ‘We started
the project exactly 363 days Gearbox: Xtrac transversal with
seven gears, sequential
before the first roll out – the first
CFD model was produced at the Clutch: Carbone AP racing
end of May 2013.’ Differential: Xtrac viscous
mechanical locking differential
IN WITH THE NEW Suspension: independent
‘I don’t understand why front and rear double wishbone,
people say that there is carry- pushrod-system
over from previous prototypes,’ In the regulations, LMP1-L cars including the R-One can run 20kg lighter than Dampers: PKM
added Guibbal. ‘The windscreen is hybrids, as well as using their fuel faster to close the performance gap Brakes: Brembo ventilated
a completely new design due to carbon disks
the new chassis. We don’t use the year at least, to 800kg – a weight Front disks: 380mm
same headlights as the Peugeot, that ORECA believes it could Rear disks: 337mm
but we do use the same concept, comfortably achieve with the car. Tyres: Michelin radial
as we had to compromise to ‘We have almost had to Front tyres: 31/71-18
achieve the price, the efficiency steer the ORECA course to Rear tyres: 31/71-18
and to reduce the weight on the meet the timeline, so we haven’t Rims: OZ Magnesium forged
front axle. We used a chrome had the opportunity to debate,’ wheels
Front rims: 13x18in
surface treatment on the carbon says Rebellion team manager
Rear rims: 13x18in
to make it work.’ Bart Hayden. ‘Like any new car,
Reducing the weight of the it will evolve. We were able to
car was the key target for the carry forward a lot of information all the steering components. This
design team and there were regarding the ECU, but we also tidied up the front design,
some hurdles that were thrown had to have a lot of software Xtrac 1159, a hybrid capable gearbox but the car remains complex,
in their way, namely the side written into it to have what with sophisticated electronics
intrusion panel that has been we wanted for fuel saving – it we are seeing on the track, but delivered through the Cosworth
introduced for the first time this was significant. From the aero the initial data looks good. We Pectel unit.
year, but which adds weight. ‘It and suspension concepts, there are quietly optimistic. The big The first competitive run for
was important that we achieved was very little carry forward challenge will be reliability.’ the car was the Spa 6 hours in
a good design of the chassis,’ from the Lola due to the narrow Another area for development May, a show that was treated
said Guibbal. ‘It was not easy tyres, and so on. was the front suspension and as a test session rather than
to save weight, but we have ‘They really led on the design pedal box. By regulation, the box to be able to show the car’s
touched on all parts to hit the targets. We challenged them a is larger this year, which affects potential. One car completed the
target.’ The team was apparently little bit, but they are confident everything from the front aero to race, another was stopped due
successful – at the car’s first race in the numbers. Where we are suspension design, and the team to an electrical problem. There
in Spa the Rebellion team was behind is that we haven’t had took the opportunity to tidy up is still a long way to go in the
privately calling for a reduction in track time to correlate what the the design of the dampers, third development of this car, but
the minimum weight, for the first computer is saying with what element spring, anti-roll bar and early signs are promising.

“Like any new car, it will evolve. From the aero and suspension concepts
there was very little carry forward from the Lola due to the narrow tyres”
28 www.racecar-engineering.com G July 2014

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Ligier returns
to Le Mans
Having spent recent years in German Formula 3, the classic French brand
revisits high-profile racing with an assault on LMP2 at the Circuit de la Sarthe


“Once we knew we were aiming for LMP2,

we only had six months – and you really
need a year to create a car like this”

30 www.racecar-engineering.com  July 2014

“Once you have all the moulds and tooling
for LMP1, you can also do LMP2 – but
you have to make a different body”

igier is perhaps and it seemed that the company
best known as a would focus purely on road cars
Formula 1 team and after that. However, in 2005
manufacturer of Ligier acquired Automobiles
microcars, but the Martini (its neighbour at the
firm actually started out by Magny-Cours circuit) and
building sportscars. The popular released a new Formula 3
team in its patriotic blue colours design – the JS47. While it
of France contested the Le Mans only contested the German
24 Hours every year between Championship, it helped Nico
1970 and 1975, before focusing Hülkenberg into Formula 1
on grand prix racing. after he used it to good effect
Ligier’s racing activities came in the 2006 season.
to an end shortly after winning The revival of the Ligier
the 1996 Monaco Grand Prix, brand caught the attention

July 2014  www.racecar-engineering.com 31


of entrepreneur Jacques Nicolet, cut costs a bit. Once you have the
who encouraged the organisation moulds and tooling for LMP1 you
to develop a new sportscar for can save money to do LMP2 – but
the CN category. The result was you have to do a different body.’
the Ligier JS49, which went on Onroak have worked closely
to dominate the class and sell in with the RUAG wind tunnel and
great numbers. aero consultancy in Switzerland
In early 2014, it was revealed for a long time, developing its
that the Ligier name would Pescarolo 01s in both the LMP1
be returning to Le Mans with and LMP2 classes, and continued
a brand new LMP2 design that work for the Ligier. ‘We did
developed by Nicolet’s Onroak a combination of work starting
Automotive firm which had with CFD and moving to the
previously reworked the Pescarolo wind tunnel,’ Bouvet says. ‘In
01 into the Morgan LMP2. ‘This The JS P2 was developed by prototype constructor Onroak Automotive aerodynamic terms there is a
is the first chassis for Onroak, fine line between a coupé and
but its not really the first car,’ On the face of it it may seem it was merely a case of changing the open car. Some is in favour
says Thierry Bouvet, technical a slightly strange decision – after the stickers and the engine to of a coupé, and some in favour
director at Onroak. ‘The Morgan all, the Morgan LMP2 is still a allow the car to race in LMP2. of the open car – it’s always a
used the Pescarolo chassis, but very competitive design, and it’s But in reality the aerodynamic compromise. There is a reduction
everything else was Onroak. something that confused the regulations between the two in drag with a coupé, but you are
There were not many parts left designers at first. ‘Why would he classes are very different, and not talking a massive amount.’
from that car really, so yes – this want to do this when we already this meant that Bouvet and He adds that he does not feel
is the first complete car.’ have an open car which is working his team had to push hard to that just using a closed car gives
quite well?’ laughs Bouvet. ‘We complete the design in time for any clear advantage: ‘A coupé
STEPPING DOWN thought that at first, but then the 2014 season. throws up a lot of complexities,
But the Ligier programme did not when you think about gentleman ‘In aerodynamic terms, the windscreens, demisters and
start life aimed at the junior Le drivers, they are all about safety 2014 P1 cars are hugely different wipers. It’s why it takes people a
Mans Prototype category – Nicolet and want a roof over their heads. – the only real similarity on the long time to go coupé – look at the
had wanted to contest the top You can understand that, so this body are those parts that are on Audi R15. When Peugeot already
class. ‘We started perhaps a year- was an obvious way to do that.’ the monocoque,’ he says. ‘The had a coupé, Audi decided not to.’
and-a-half ago,’ says Bouvet. ‘The With a LMP1 design on the reason the ACO allowed the In order to meet the tight
drawing office started to design a board, it may have seemed that chassis to work in both is really to deadlines, many mechanical
2014 rules LMP1, and then in the design elements of the Morgan
middle of 2013, it became clear
that LMP monocoques could be
“In aerodynamic terms there is a LMP2 were integrated into the
new car. ‘At the rear, the car is
used in LMP2. From there Jacques
decided it would be a good way to
fine line between a coupé and the traditional,’ says Bouvet. ‘We kept
the same gearbox casing as the
get a coupé in the class.’ open car – it’s always a compromise” Morgan, so that means that the

32 www.racecar-engineering.com @ July 2014


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Below: the JS P2 in the RUAG

wind tunnel in Switzerland
Bottom: the car in testing
at Le Mans in March 2014

rear suspension is very similar. We the cost cap when you design
had only a short time to do the the car. But the cap is not where
new car – once we knew it was it should be, €450,000 would
P2 we only had six months and be a more reasonable price. Of
you really need a year for this. We course our car meets the cap of
decided to keep the gearbox from €370,000 in 2014, but when
a reliability point of view – we you look at a season budget,
know what we have got and that the cost cap element is nothing.
it works. You can’t quite take the I think it’s really good to have a
rear end off a Morgan and put it cap however because it stops
on a Ligier, but almost.’ people going crazy, but it should
The braking and chassis be raised a little bit. If someone
electronics also carry over ignores the cap they could be
from the older design. The front very strong, but people must
end, however, is a different story be very careful about this as it
with a new 2014 monocoque Nissan as we had those engines Bouvet insists that the Ligier could kill the class. The rules
built at HB Composites which arranged already.’ complies. ‘The car meets the are set so that if anyone is too
features some up-to-date As the car was originally cost cap, but if you want to sell strong, BoP will bring them back,
design trends including legality developed for the LMP1 class, the car it has to be right, and it so that they would be very strong
bumps to meet the minimum there may be some questions can so easily be wrong if you for one race only. But the BoP
chassis height rules and torsion about its legality in terms of don’t do everything the right way,’ has never been used.’
bar front suspension. ‘We the cost cap used in LMP2 – but he says. ‘You have to think about The Ligier JS P2 is set to
have a torsion bar front end, make its race debut in the
and it is much better in terms Le Mans 24 Hours, a tough ask
of packaging,’ says Bouvet. for an all-new car.

‘Obviously, it is lighter.’ few days before the so we tried to find a cost- ‘We wanted to race at
At the rear of the tub, Ligier JS P2 was rolled out effective way of doing that. The Silverstone and Spa, but we
installations have been done at Magny-Cours, another ACO want a roof for LMP3 too, could not do it properly. If we
for both Honda and the popular new Ligier appeared – the JS55 – but the car is not fully compliant rushed and did things badly, we
Nissan LMP2 engines – and a new closed FIA CN design. with the LMP3 rules – it is a CN would rather do it properly and
the latter brand has some ‘The idea of the JS55 is to car. The JS53 can be converted do lots of testing,’ says Bouvet.
involvement with the project. ‘The take the existing car JS53 Evo to a JS55. The aero development ‘For me as a Frenchman, it was
difference between the Nissan and put an LMP2 roof on the was done in CFD, and when the not special to design a Ligier,
and Honda are the bell housing top,’ says Bouvet. ‘The roof is car was developed there were mainly because we did the car
and some work on the cooling not structural at all – it has a no aero rules, it was done to and then later found out that
side, but housing the turbo is tubular frame. Again it’s because check that it worked rather than it was to be a Ligier! But the
quite different,’ Bouvet says. gentleman drivers want a roof, to get performance.’ name means a lot for some
‘We are using the Zytek-tuned people, and that’s nice.’

34 www.racecar-engineering.com > July 2014



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© Copyright 2014 - Arrow Precision


Future forecast
Ambitious engineering concepts feature in Dunlop’s project, which imagines
how motorsport might look in the year 2139. Here are our predictions…


yre company Dunlop brought to life in a forthcoming not science fiction – the designs construction of racecars in the
has launched a social computer game. and concepts detailed here are future. With ultra-light, ultra-thin,
media-based project Exploring this subject is based on current technological ultra-tough and ultra-strong
– the Future Race a fascinating exercise that development in the motorsport, composite materials, many
Car Challenge. It is highlights some clear directions defence and aerospace industries. current and foreseen limitations
a collective design project that that the motorsport and high-end of car design will no longer be
explores the future of racecars, engineering industry is already CHASSIS a factor. In the car’s bodywork
with the focus on the year 2139. working on. Here we reveal our THE LIVING SKIN there will be widespread use
The best submissions will be own vision of what racing will Materials technology will be of ‘smart materials’ which will
incorporated into one, final design be in 125 years time. But this is a key factor in the design and change shape and position as the

36 www.racecar-engineering.com 4 July 2014

conditions demand. So, on high required, as will the openings for One technique being developed involving the development
speed sections the bodywork combustion air – if indeed there is by the University of Sheffield of supramolecular polymer
will be configured for low drag, such a requirement. In the event in England is a thermoplastic systems. Hayes, a lecturer in
while in cornering the bodywork of a crash, the bodywork will – to self-healing system developed by aerospace engineering, explains:
will create maximum downforce. an extent – be self-repairing. Dr Simon Hayes, which employs ‘Upon impact, there is generally
This active adaptive bodywork Defence companies have a thermoplastic dissolved in a substantial matrix damage in
will also see the car breathe been researching these ideas thermosetting resin system, which the form of matrix cracks and
through constantly changing for a number of years, and some can be induced to heal when delamination. In this event,
ducts like a fish’s gills, cooling such as QinetiQ have proposed heated. He is also working on by and large the cracks are
slots will appear and disappear as its introduction into Formula 1. alternative methods of healing closed, rather than open. In our

July 2014 1 www.racecar-engineering.com 37


system, application of heat to veins and capillaries, all capable this an exceptionally efficient demand. So, strong fibres could be
the panel will enable the soluble of transmitting smart fluids design. These techniques made to stand on end to increase
thermoplastic to mobilise and that are routed where required will likely be commonplace in grip on the ground and fold flat to
diffuse through the thermosetting with fuel, coolant and hydraulic production car design in 2139 as reduce drag on the top of the tyre,
network. As the crack faces are fluids all moving simultaneously well. With its integral electronics, or sweep away water. Imagine it
closed, some of the thermoplastic through the same system without it could also be possible to as a miniature Eiffel Tower, if the
chains will diffuse across the crack contaminating one another. High change the branding and colour base columns were to be squeezed
face, and so upon cooling the crack voltage electrical power and low scheme of the car. together, you’d expect the height
will be bridged and mechanical would obviously increase. At a
performance is recovered. To date Many people assume that in 125 scale from microns to millimetres,
we can recover between 40 per microstructures such as this
cent and 70 per cent of the pre- years everyone will have flying would offer enormous potential
damaged strength.’
While the research is at a cars – but this seems quite unlikely for variable grip that could be
precisely controlled at high speed.’
purely experimental stage, in 125 With climates likely to change
years time such a concept is likely voltage electrical control supplies STAYING ON THE ROAD significantly by 2139, racing in
to be commonplace – and indeed could be distributed through the TYRES adverse conditions seems to be a
in many cases it may be partially car’s skin using the same concept. Many people assume that in 125 certainty, but some technologies
automated. ‘As well as the solid- bf1systems of Norfolk, England years everyone will have flying now in development could have a
state self-healing technology, we has been offering its patented cars, but this actually seems quite significant impact on road holding,
have a self-sensing system which wire in composite concept for unlikely unless there is a major according to Pearson. ‘Graphene
uses changes in resistance to some years now and with the technical breakthrough that is will be especially useful as it
monitor the location and extent passage of time, it is likely that not yet forecast. So it is probable allows water to pass through, but
of damage,’ says Hayes. ‘This not only will some wiring be built that the cars will still have wheels is super strong, so graphene flakes
can follow the changes in the into the bodywork, but in fact and tyres of some kind. Dunlop in tyres would give excellent grip
panel arising during healing some if not all of the onboard commissioned professional in the wet,’ he says. ‘This material
and detect subsequent impacts. computational equipment as futurologist Dr Ian Pearson to look would allow more of the tyre
In addition, because we have well. This could also see the car into what the racing tyre of 2139 surface to stay in contact with
electrical contacts, we can apply become much more intelligent, will be, and he believes that the the road surface and still let water
a power source to them and with a large portion of the car’s tyres, too, will have the ability to through to be diverted, possibly
cause the panel to heat locally data analysis, component lifing change their properties in use. via graphene foam-filler materials
in the region of damage.’ and even simulation built into the ‘Electronically controlled or tubes. Such materials would be
As well as the self-healing bodywork. This could reduce or materials might be built into the difficult and expensive to make
sensing systems, all of the even eliminate the need for race tyres as well, enabling variable today, but firstly car racing is a
2139 car’s electronic and fluid engineers as the car itself will grip and wear trade-offs,’ he high budget sport, and secondly,
connections will be integrated know the best setup, and learn the explains. ‘Polymer gels linked could 3D printing will allow tyres to be
into the bodywork. Fuel lines, driver’s preferences. easily make a short, fat component fabricated in layers and include
cooling pipes and all of the As the bodywork is so strong become a longer thinner one. If very complex fill structures.
electronic systems will run and adaptable, it becomes the millions of these are laid down Thirdly, the costs of doing this will
through it, with the bodywork most important component of using 3D printing as tyres are inevitably decrease.’
also able to change and reroute the car, also acting as the chassis made, then as the tyre wears, new The tyres may also change
systems if one area is damaged – a sort of super-monocoque. layers of micro-spikes could come shape for aerodynamic reasons.
or destroyed. Within the material Almost every part of it becomes to the surface, and these could Some tyre-makers are already
there could be a honeycomb of structural in some way, making be withdrawn or protruded on experimenting with sidewall

38 www.racecar-engineering.com : July 2014


shape to reduce drag and reduce systems. Using electron pipes piezoelectric energy harvesting. climb so high that the race
brake cooling. Yokohama, for and other compact accelerators Motorsport’s rule-makers will would no longer be a spectacle,
example, has been experimenting to bombard a gas with electrons continue to be driven by the it would be a pure engineering
with dimpled sidewalls and fins would make it into a plasma, and production car and vehicle market, exercise. For racing to be exciting
to improve airflow around the superconducting coils could create and will likely place a major focus it needs a human in the loop, not
wheels. But while pure flying cars enormous electromagnetic fields on energy efficiency as a result. only for the facts that humans
may not be on the agenda with to propel it. Computer gamers Purely electric vehicles will not are fallible, but also for the
the very high speeds expected, it already have a very familiar name likely feature in 2139 due to perception of danger.
is unlikely that the car will spend for this – it is essentially a plasma ongoing issues with energy In 2139 there will still be racing
all of its time fully grounded. To rifle, or cannons. Newton’s laws of generation, and even if many drivers as a result, but they will be
reduce rolling resistance in some motion dictate that as the cannon nuclear power stations started nothing like the drivers of the 21st
situations, the car may actually fires a high speed pulse out of construction today and the entire century, at least in physical terms.
skim over the surface using wings the rear end, the car gains equal power distribution infrastructure With the much higher speeds and
in ground effect, rather like the forward momentum.’ started to be re-developed, it is g-loadings, the limits of human
famous ‘Ekranoplan’ – although on But it is likely that in 125 unlikely that electric cars would performance will be reached in
a much smaller scale. years there will be several power be a mass-market solution in 125 terms of reaction times and ability
solutions vying for superiority. years time. In 2014, some race to withstand sustained G loadings,
PROPULSION The chassis constructors of 2139 circuits struggle to keep the lights so to push these limits the drivers
THE POWER STRUGGLE will have to design their cars to on during races! themselves will be enhanced. Parts
Propulsion is a very difficult area accept propulsion systems using of their bodies will be removed and
to predict, as even in 2014 it is concepts like the Woodward DRIVERS replaced with mechanical versions
a grey area. Pearson suggested effect, nuclear photonic rockets, THE ENHANCED HUMAN to increase capabilities, using
that plasma thrusters could be nuclear turbines, and new concept It has been suggested that the drugs to improve attentiveness,
employed. ‘With room temperature combustion engines, as well as racecar of the future will be a stamina and reduce fear. The
superconductivity, extremely plasma thrusters. fully automated drone, but this driver’s limbs could be augmented
powerful electric engines and What seems certain is that the is almost certain not to happen. with strengthening members or
plasma thrusters could be built, cars will feature very efficient Drones would not create an indeed replaced altogether with
and undoubtedly others so far energy recovery systems. Hot exciting racing series as they mechanical versions. Inside the
unimagined,’ he explains in his parts of the cars will feature would execute every manoeuvre brain, artificial electronics could
Dunlop report. ‘Plasma thrusters energy recovery systems such to perfection, they would never not only improve functions such
could be a lot of fun, offering as thermoelectric generators, make errors and the speeds would as recall and emotion, but they
lots of potential propulsion steam turbines and perhaps even

QinetiQ’s self-repairing concept suggests that a car would pass through

a beam of heat, energising the composite structures to repair themselves


he most glamorous racing advanced cars and sub-orbitals
league in the world sees show off their vehicles, while
some of the most famous the rich and famous network in
brands and drivers competing the exclusive track pods.
on the toughest tracks around The cars are cutting-edge
the world. From courses like Le single seat designs, which look
Mans, Indianapolis and Monaco fast even standing still. Purpose-
with their roots in historic built to the GP800 technical
tracks, to purpose-built modern regulations, these are the most
venues like Sino Speedway and advanced machines in existence.
Eurasiaring, this series is where Propulsion comes from a range
manufacturers of the most of unrestricted power units.

40 www.racecar-engineering.com ? July 2014

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could also control and record will lead to shortages in resources, further improving their ability downloaded, and that person could
other factors, interacting directly while off-planet exploration to withstand high G loads. Crash live on in the digital world.’ It may
with some of the car’s systems, will likely lead to the creation helmets will be smaller, again mean that in 2139, should death
meaning that the hands and feet of substantial colonies on local rather more like that of a modern occcur, a driver’s essence remains,
are free to operate the control celestial bodies such as the moon, fighter pilot, but with the addition and so could continue to race after
column and pedals. The cockpit Mars, and Titan. Most of these will of a head-up display which is death. The same could be true for
would then as a result be almost be focused on mining to supply controlled directly by the driver’s the top engineers and designers
entirely free of other controls, the Earth with the minerals and brain as with other systems on who could remain alive with their
though some would probably still resources it requires, but many will the car. They will also feature brains as part of a biomechatronic
appear as backups. also provide living room for major the perfect mix of breathing air, system. In other words, Adrian
These biomechatronic humans populations. There are already actively adapted by the demand Newey could continue designing
would be almost perfect drivers, serious companies setup with the recorded by the electronics cars for hundreds of years to come.
able to react faster and withstand intention of going asteroid mining embedded in the brain.
more than natural humans. in the near future. The cockpit itself will be a GRAND PRIX 2139
Enhancing humans has been Danger in sport will be more removable section mounted inside THE FASTEST SHOW ON EARTH
on the sporting agenda for many acceptable in 2139 and that the chassis. If an accident of The tracks where races are
years, and even with recent means that there will be more of extreme violence is recorded (or held are likely to be somewhat
crackdowns on performance- it, and the cars built will be less indeed imminent), the car would different to now. They will likely
enhancing drugs, the problem defined by safety regulations automatically eject the whole be surfaced and have a large
is still rife. It has even been than now. However, the stronger cockpit pod into the air where it number of banked corners. In
suggested that some runners materials used, and some basic would parachute to the ground. some cases they would be built
should have their legs surgically clothing will still provide drivers ‘It’s hard to say how final death off-shore as the surrounding land
removed and replaced with Oscar with some protection. G-Suits actually will be,’ adds Pearson. is too overcrowded. Spectators
Pistorius-style blades which are similar to those used by fighter ‘Perhaps a person’s consciousness would sit much closer to the
believed to improve speed, and pilots will be used by all drivers, – or major parts of it – could be tracks than they do now as
that athletes should be able to strong polymer membranes
take all the drugs they like. Some protect the fans from being hit
of course were squeamish and by debris or errant cars, giving
certainly the practice would not a thrill unseen in motorsport in
be acceptable in the early-21st the 21st century.
century, but by the 22nd, life and Races would be held all around
health may not be valued as highly. the Earth, with most having short
Whether you like it or not, durations of perhaps only 5-15
death – or the perception of minutes. There may be many
mortal danger – is one of the key races on a single evening. For
attractions of motorsport. That those at home, the traditional
will not change and it is another race broadcast would continue,
major reason that the driver will but using far more advanced
remain a part of the system. By technology using methods yet to
2139 the population of Earth may be fully explored yet, but three
have grown hugely, in fact almost dimensional holographic projection
doubling according to the UN. This QinetiQ proposed new driver information systems, such as head-up displays is certainly a possibility (and
already being experimented
with). Races would be filmed
using camera-equipped UAVs,

his series has grown up to the methane lakes and frozen seen as the most prestigious which could position themselves
from the mining colonies tundra of Titan. Due to the event on the calendar. in far more dangerous positions
on the moon, Mars, Titan, varied gravitational and thermal The technical regulations than a human cameraman could
Phobos and Deimos. Using the conditions, the series is seen as state that the vehicles must ever be placed, resulting in race
abundant number of prospecting the perfect proving ground for share the chassis and power unit coverage more like a Hollywood
rovers, bored residents of the the various exploration buggies with a mass production planetary film than a sportscast.
mining settlements on the on the market. exploration vehicle, the crew must Signals from the driver’s
various celestial bodies started There are two types of race: wear exploration suits in case of eyeballs could be captured by
to race each other. Over the 2000km full course classics accident or the vehicle requiring electronics in their brain and
years the vehicles began to be where the cars run point-to-point a repair. It must also carry beamed via the broadcaster to the
modified for racing purposes, and as fast as they can, and the enough breathable air onboard to television viewer’s brain – they
after a series of accidents which 1000km colonial short course complete the full event unless the would then ‘see’ exactly what
damaged valuable prospecting races where 20 laps of a roughly race is on a colonial short course the driver saw without the need
equipment, a formal racing class 50km course must be completed. where refuelling and re-gassing for onboard cameras. Sponsor
was established. These races start and finish in can be conducted. messages, timing and scoring
The rugged all-terrain specially constructed arenas on A/T Rover racing is looked information could replace the
characteristics of these vehicles the edge of the larger colonies. down upon by most elite people, driver’s head-up display for the
see two-man crews tackle a huge A single 500km race takes but is hugely popular among viewers at home.
range of hostile terrain, from the place every year on Earth in workers such as those on the
rocky wastes of Cydonia, Mars, California, and this Baja race is mining colonies. For more 2139 predictions, visit

42 www.racecar-engineering.com B July 2014






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Enduring memories
Porsche returns to top tier sportscar racing after an absence of 16
years, but 1982 saw the beginning of an era that defined the brand

IMAGES: John Brooks

hile the arrival of of circumstances. First, there Secondly, there was the The rest, as they say, is history:
the 919 Hybrid was the sorry state of the arrival of Berlin-born American Jacky Ickx and Derek Bell won
marks the return of World Sportscar Championship Peter W Schutz at the helm of the 24 Hours with ease, and
Porsche to the top which, since its inception in Porsche in January 1981. When that sixth Le Mans win made
echelon of sportscar racing for 1976, had attracted just three he took stock of Porsche’s Schutz sign off on Porsche’s
the first time since 1998, it has manufacturers – Porsche, racing plans for 1981, he was next motorsport project for
in fact been more than 30 years Renault and Alfa Romeo. appalled to hear that, as per his 1982 and beyond: Type 956.
since Porsche last developed The first two, after competing predecessor’s decision, Porsche
a thoroughbred prototype against each other in the was to concentrate on running LONG-DISTANCE REVIVAL
racecar capable of winning the inaugural season – which Porsche the 924 Carrera GTR in the Earlier in Paris, the FISA had
Le Mans 24 Hours outright. easily won – decided to just GT class, as the front-engined been pondering over the next
And while the 919 Hybrid is concentrate on Le Mans, while Porsches were earmarked to generation of sportscars needed
certainly capable of eventually Alfa pulled out after winning succeed the 911 model. to revive the interest in long-
dominating the global sportscar the 1977 season when entries Not only did Schutz get rid distance racing. The working
scene, it will, however, be barely made the double-digits. of that plan by deciding that group quickly agreed that the
impossible to ever achieve the Once Renault had won the 1978 the 911 should be kept alive, new class of cars should have
same level success that its edition of the French endurance but he also ordered technical the same grace and elegance
predecessor enjoyed. For that classic, it, too, retired from director Norbert Singer to come as those vehicles from a decade
car, the Porsche 956/962, is, sportscar racing to concentrate up with a plan to win Le Mans or so earlier – the Porsche 917
and doubtless forever will be, on F1, while Porsche called it a outright. Singer, never short and Ferrari 512 – but should also
the most successful purpose- day a year before later trying its of a brilliant idea, suggested incorporate technical challenges
built competition vehicle in luck at the Indy 500. Henceforth, dusting off the 936s which had for the future. The first part was
automotive history. the WSC would become the been stored under tarps, and achieved by using more or less
Key to the success of the playground of privateers, some drop the engine from the firm’s the same outer dimensions of
956/962 was a unique set more ambitious than others. aborted Indy project in the back. those cars of the early 1970s

44 www.racecar-engineering.com  July 2014

“At Porsche we always looked
for a kind of material which you
could weld – even magnesium”

– the cockpit dimensions of Work on Porsche’s Type 956 the car. This was impossible wanted to have an overview, on
the Group C cars were actually had started in the summer of with a spaceframe, hence the who we could ask and where
defined by measuring up a 917 in 1981, which left Singer and his obligatory monocoque – and we could get the right answers.
the Porsche Museum – while the men with less than a year to stressed engine – that Singer This was done in half a day,
latter part was met by stipulating come up with a worthy successor and Horst Reiter had to design. and then we started learning
that the fuel consumption of of the likes of the 917, 935 and But, as R&D boss Helmuth Bott to build our first monocoques,
these cars would be limited, 936 to win Le Mans. Needless to famously said to Derek Bell because you had to learn how
in return for allowing engine say, they did just that. when discussing the latter’s to do it, how to glue and rivet
manufacturers to run whatever contract: ‘We’ve never designed these parts together, how you
type and size of engine they MATERIAL THINKING a monocoque before, but we’ve treat the materials and so on.
liked. In fact, then as now, it had For the first time in the also never been wrong before!’ This we learned in four weeks.
been the ACO that had first come company’s racing history, ‘I went to Dornier in We did some measurements on
up with the idea of limiting the the 956 would not feature a Ludwigshafen and asked them parts, bending them to check
amount of fuel, ie energy, to be spaceframe chassis, but an for the basics, because an torsion and stiffness, comparing
used way back in 1949, when aluminium monocoque. The aeronautic company is the best materials, thickness, which kind
they first ran their race again reason for steering away from you can ask,’ Singer says. ‘In of rivets and so on. We actually
after the second world war, when what Porsche knew best was those days you had a kind of never changed the chassis.
resources such as fuel were still that a few years earlier the aluminium which we wanted We had to adapt to the longer
in short supply. Then, the number concept of ground effects to use for the monocoque but wheelbase of the 962, but in
of laps between each fuel stop had been pioneered in F1, which you couldn’t weld. And at principle it was always the same.’
was defined by the regulations, whereby the underfloor of the Porsche we always looked for a The engine for the 956 was
while now the amount of fuel car was sculpted to mimic an kind of material which you could the same as that which had
available was set in stone: 600 inverted wing shape in order weld, even magnesium. But since propelled Porsche to victory
litres for 1000km or 6-hour races, to generate downforce from you needed a certain stiffness, the previous June – the mixed-
and 2500 litres for Le Mans. the air passing underneath we had to ask Dornier. We just cooled, 2649cc, Type 935/76.

July 2014  www.racecar-engineering.com 45


The Porsche 962 of Al Holbert, Derek Bell and Al Unser Jr at the 1986 Daytona 24 Hours

With its twin KKK turbochargers, the honour of rolling out chassis winner was expected to cover the end of the season, the queue
mechanical Kugelfischer injection 001, late on the afternoon at least 1100km in six hours. was only getting longer. Porsche
and 7.2:1 compression ratio it of 27 March 1982 – and not Since the works Lancias had decided to build a dozen 956s for
delivered a more than ample unexpectedly discovered that the been built to the grandfathered customers, in exactly the same
620bhp at 1.3bar of turbo boost. car had no vices. A few days later Group 6 regulations, they could technical spec the works cars
Aerodynamically, the 956 Ickx and Bell put the car through run without fuel limitations, and had been at the end of the 1982
resembled an elegant crossover its paces in a five-day test at therefore were the only real season – bar the Bosch Motronic
between a 917 and a 1977-spec Paul Ricard, where the only real candidates for victory. Ickx and engine management system
936. At the front, the car featured issue discovered was the need for Bell knew they were in for a long which had been developed over
a rather blunt nose, with two air better cooling for the radiators, afternoon, but for Porsche this the course of the season. Not
intakes for the front brakes and intercoolers and rear brakes – an race had always been considered surprisingly the entire ‘Who’s
an inverted wing-shaped floor easy fix. After some more details a ‘live test’ more than anything Who’ of 1980s sportscar racing
right underneath the front axle were altered and tested, the else anyway. The turbo boost had sent a 620,000 Deutschmark
to generate additional downforce, car made its race debut in the was reduced to 1.0bar in practice, (£258,000) cheque to Porsche
soon known as the Singer Dent. Air Silverstone 6 Hours that May. The with the drivers instructed not to buy a 956: Alain de Cadenet,
to the intercoolers and radiators team had signed a sponsorship to rev over 6000rpm – instead of John Fitzpatrick, Preston Henn,
was fed through two large NACA Richard Lloyd, Reinhold Joest,
ducts located in the horizontal top
of each door, with air for the rear
At Le Mans in 1982, Porsche put in Dieter Schornstein, Jürgen
Lässig… even Universal Pictures
brakes and gearbox intercooler its most dominant performance, had ordered a couple for a (later
supplied through a single central aborted) John Frankenheimer
NACA in the engine cover. with three 956s on the podium movie centred on Le Mans.
The single-element rear wing The works team soon
sat high between large endplates, deal with tobacco company 8200rpm – and use fifth gear as regained control, but later in
supported by two aluminium Rothmans, for this race and Le much as possible. All this reduced the season at Brands Hatch,
struts sitting on the trailing edge Mans, with an option to extend the power to 580bhp and the another team beat the factory
of the engine deck. The engine the agreement for the remainder 956 was duly beaten by three courtesy of an unfair advantage
deck stopped midway of the of the season after the French laps by the winning Lancia. Yet as well as a clever idea. In
maximum allowed rear overhang, classic. Rothmans had come close at Porsche no one was unhappy typical British weather, the John
but the wing sat almost entirely to signing with the Lola team, about the result, quite au Fitzpatrick 956 benefitted from
behind it, positioned there to work whose car been ready long before contraire: everything looked good superior Goodyear rain tyres,
best with air funnelled through the 956, but in the end decided for next month’s race in France. but Fitz had also figured out
the venturi and therefore generate to risk it with Porsche. It would In Le Mans, Porsche put on its how to get rid of the undertray
maximum downforce. prove to be a wise decision. most dominant performance yet, cooling slots which upset the
From the outset, Singer had with the three Rothmans Porsche airflow through the venturi and
designed a low downforce variant ENDURING DOMINANCE 956s with racing numbers 1, 2 so influenced the overall handling
for Le Mans. In this version the Ickx put the 956 on pole by over and 3 finishing in first, second of the car. By installing two
956 was referred to as a ‘longtail’ a full second over the works and third, having absolutely aluminium fans driven through
but was in fact of the same Lancia, and although the 956 obliterated the opposition along the turbochargers via a small
length as the standard model. looked like the car to beat, Messrs the way. Porsche duly entered the bypass, Fitzpatrick could seal
For Le Mans the engine deck Singer, Bott and [Peter] Falk remaining races of the 1982 WEC the slots and vastly improve
was lengthened to the maximum knew all too well that they would season, and won them all, as well the way that the car behaved.
permitted 480cm with the rear have no chance at all to win first as the Manufacturers and Drivers’ For the 1984 season, Porsche
wing sitting low over it, with the time out. The rules allowed the titles. Privateer teams had been built another six customer
venturi were adapted to match. same amount of fuel for 1000km knocking on Porsche’s door to 956s for European teams, but
Chief of Porsche customer and six-hour races, and on the buy customer 956s even before also the US-derivative needed
motorsports, Jürgen Barth, had ultrafast Silverstone track the the car had been built, and by to attack the IMSA GTP series.

46 www.racecar-engineering.com I July 2014

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After endless negotiations the IMSA-spec 962 to their

between Porsche and IMSA, the Group C needs by grafting the
latter feared another German rear end of a 956 to the front
domination if they allowed the of a 962, therefore creating
956 in as it was and issued the 962C. The success story of
regulations which required the Group C Porsche continued
the pedals of the car to sit over the next few years, with
behind the front axle centre the 956/962s scoring 39
line – quite unlike the 956. World Championship wins, five
Twin-turbocharged engines Manufacturers/Teams titles
were equally handicapped by the and as many Drivers titles. The
sliding scale weight charts used opposition from Jaguar and
by IMSA. Bott, Falk and Singer Sauber-Mercedes and the lack
responded swiftly and developed of development of the 962C
a ‘long-wheel base’ variant of the The John Fitzpatrick Porsche 956 in the wet at Brands Hatch in 1982 post-1987 meant that the cars
956, equipped with an air-cooled, from Weissach were no longer the
single-turbo engine from the 935. dominating factor. Porsche had
Porsche immediately sold cars to embarked on a disastrous IndyCar
stalwarts Bruce Leven, Bob Akin, programme which required all
Al Holbert and Preston Henn, but of its motorsports resources,
since delivery only started in April though Singer was allowed to
it was a March-Chevrolet which do some basic development
won the championship. However, again in 1989 and 1990. Yet by
five wins from the 13 races in then the renown of the 962 and
which the 962 participated gave 962C were such that in fact more
the competition a clear indication customer cars were built and sold
of what was to come. Indeed, over in 1990 – when the cars had zero
the next decade, the 962 would chance of winning – than in any
score a massive 55 IMSA GTP The following year at Brands Hatch, the Sorga SA Porsche 956 of year before.
wins, including six Daytona 24 Bob Wollek and Stefan Johansson, which finished sixth But even when overtaken by
Hours and four Sebring 12 Hours. the competition, the technology
Over in Europe, the 956s is spoil [the effectiveness] of their accidents in one these and the regulations, the 962 kept
continued to dominate the WEC. the rear wing. So you get less monocoques. In the US, too, coming back for more, and would
While the factory continuously downforce on the rear and to team owner Jim Busby was actually get more. In 1994, thinly
developed its works cars and the driver it feels like he has looking at a ‘cottage industry’ veiled as a roadgoing GT car, the
sold on these enhancements more grip on the front. It they’d honeycomb monocoque to 962 again won Le Mans for a
to the privateers once they’d lowered the rear wing it would replace one of his crashed cars, record seventh time. In January
proved their worth, some still have had the same effect.’ but when Al Holbert – Porsche’s 1995, 13 years after the first
decided to go down their own By Spa, the Lloyd 956 US motorsports director and 956 hit the track, the 962 – now
engineering path. One such featured another novelty, though 962 team owner/driver – heard as a spyder – won Daytona for
owner was Richard Lloyd, who not one immediately visible about Busby having ordered a the sixth time, an unprecedented
had hired the services of former to the naked eye, and one which monocoque from Californian Jim feat. By then, the 956/962 had
F1-designer Nigel Stroud to would start a trend among Chapman, he quickly made a also refined ABS and developed
first improve the aerodynamics privateers. Since Brands, the deal to make it his and use it to PDK for both track and road
of the car (the 956/962 was Canon Porsche had been stripped secure the 1985 title. Though use. Engines had gone from
conceptually understeering) and and rebuilt around an aluminium Holbert always claimed to have 2.6-litre, mixed-cooled to 3.2-litre,
then do something about the honeycomb monocoque that built his own monocoques for water-cooled units and fuel
chassis stiffness. Stroud had designed. It was said his ‘HR-spec’ 962s, they had consumption had been reduced
The solution to the first to be stiffer and safer, something actually been fabricated by by 15 per cent.
problem made its debut at the Jonathan Palmer could testify Fabcar and Chapman. In total, between 1982 and
Brands Hatch WEC round, when a year later at the same track. 1991, exactly 114 Porsches
the Canon-sponsored 956 of Indeed, the fatal accidents of SUCCESS STORY 956, 962 and 962C have
Lloyd sported not only a twin- Stefan Bellof, Manfred Winkelhock When the FISA applied the been built by the factory or its
element rear wing, but also an and Jo Gartner in 1985 and ’86 same rules regarding the subcontractors, with roughly the
add-on front wing. The front made many privateer teams run position of the pedals to the same number built by privateer
wing (actually the rear wing for honeycomb monocoques built World Championship from 1 teams on monocoques from
on an F3 car) was said to dial by the likes of Fabcar, Chapman January 1985 onwards (though private constructors. Together
out the understeer and when or TC Prototypes, even though 956s could be run until the end these cars ran in over 500 races,
Jonathan Palmer and Jan Lammers it’s highly unlikely any of the of the 1986 season), Porsche winning 290 of them between
dominantly won the race, all three would have survived immediately decided to adapt 1982 and 1999. And unless
the 956s – bar the works cars – Porsche decides to sell the 919
ran homemade front wings six
weeks later in Spa. The reason
Even when overtaken by the Hybrid en masse at the end of
the current season, it is quite
the works cars didn’t run front
wings was made clear by Singer:
competition, the technology and inconceivable that these numbers
will ever be bettered, regardless
‘What you do with a front wing regs, the 962 kept coming back of motorsports discipline.

48 www.racecar-engineering.com H July 2014


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Vive la difference
Innovation is key in rallycross, and two World Rallycross teams have
taken very individual approaches to going racing with the Citroën DS3

itroën has been a modified that a lot,’ he says. ‘There are now no standard mounts
mainstay of rallycross is so much that has changed between the suspension and the
for many years. The that there is nothing left of the original body – it’s all new. By
AX, BX, Xsara and C4 is run by one of Loeb’s old rivals original car. We changed the roll regulation we have to use the
models were all regular – Petter Solberg, the 2003 World cage, subframes, arms, uprights, same point, and our new mounts
sights in the top category of Rally Champion, and the other engines and transmission.’ Using are in those areas.’
the sport, and often campaigned is run by the leading family of production shells to build rallycross The dampers on the car are
by the pseudo-works team of British Rallycross, the Dorans. supercars is becoming standard supplied by Reiger, and while
Swede Kenneth Hansen. But with The two organisations have practice, initially as the small the LD engineers are cagey
Hansen joining Peugeot in 2014 very different approaches to mostly amateur teams did not about the exact specification,
and Citroën turning its attention car design and it provides one of have access to the works designs, they concede that they are not
to WTCC, its customer teams the most fascinating rivalries in but today they have found ways to simple off-the-shelf units.
have been left to go it alone the World Championship. While exploit the open rulebook beyond ‘It is something slightly
in the newly formed FIA World the LD Citroëns are visually the scope of WRC chassis. different to the Reigers used by
Rallycross Championship. similar to those run by the ‘The shells on this year’s cars the Marklund VWs,’ Reunanen
Two outfits are campaigning works team in the World Rally started life as production cars says. ‘We probably have special
Citroën DS3s in the full World Championship, they are anything that we strip and dip and start dampers, but I’m not admitting it!’
Championship, neither of which but according to the team’s lead again, but the next shells we The Finn has done a lot of
are based on the last Hansen engineer, Toni Reunanen. will use will be bought from work on calculating the correct
Citroën – Sébastien Loeb’s DS3 XS ‘When we started this Citroën,’ adds Reunanen. ‘We get suspension geometry, but it is
which contested (and dominated) programme we set out with an the standard body, put it in a jig not yet fully optimised. ‘First we
a single event in 2013. One team MTechnologies-built DS3 – but we and change many things. There calculated all of the roll centres,

Petter Solberg celebrates after

the first round of the 2014 FIA
World Rallycross Championship
at Montalegre, Portugal

July 2014 = www.racecar-engineering.com 51


turbochargers. You can use two

turbos per event, so it becomes
like a setup tool.’

The engine is mounted in a
transverse position and the near-
universal Sadev transmission
is also employed. But the
differences are in the details,
according to Reunanen. ‘We use
the same Sadev housing as most
other people, but while it looks
the same, it’s not the same. The
ratios, diffs, ramps and final drive
are all different. You do see some
driver preferences in how you set
the diffs as well.’
The installation of the
transmission has meant that
in 2014 the LD Citroëns do not
fully comply with the technical
regulations. ‘Our cars are slightly
outside the rules due to a small
cut in the chassis rail which
we use to accommodate the
Alcon brakes are a common feature in both team’s offerings. Pictured above is a Solberg car. gearbox,’ says Reunanen. ‘But
LD, meanwhile, claims that it has ‘something a little special in the discs that nobody else has’ in 2013 it was allowed, and in
2015 it will be allowed, but in
then we work out what we have 2014 the rules say that it is not.
to do,’ says Reunanen. ‘This It is not a problem.’
year we have new uprights and
suspension arms – we had to POSITIONAL SENSE
improve the handling.’ The biggest obvious difference
The size of the LD drivers is between the LD Motorsport
another variable. Liam Doran is a Citroën and the Solberg DS3s
tall, solidly-built Englishman while comes with the engine position.
Derek Tohill is a slight Irishman. While the English team has opted
But due to the DS3’s compact for the traditional transverse
design, Reunanen doesn’t see position, Solberg’s engineers
this as a problem. ‘Driver size and have gone for a longitudinal
weight does not change the car layout, something that does not
that much, because we are so far impress Reunanen.
under the weight limit. We still ‘Doing it longitudinally is old
have to use the ballast.’ technology. Perhaps there is an
The brakes, too, were Polish driver Krzysztof Skorupski in one of the LD Motorsport Citroën DS3s advantage – it depends on the
also meant to be something a track. We believe that transverse
little special, according to the basically – aerodynamics is the big The DS3s must use the is better, others do not. There
team – but the season was area in rallycross which is quite regulation PSA group engine block, are big differences in what you
upon them too fast. ‘We had open and underdeveloped,’ says though LD has them prepared by can achieve, but right now in
planned to move to different Reunanen. ‘As the cars spend a lot the English tuner Julian Godfrey. terms of lap time there is nothing
brakes but the lead times were of time sideways at relatively low ‘We are always finding new in it. There is nothing the same
too long, so the Alcon caliper speeds, there is not much research things to do with him, like between our cars and the Solberg
we are using is OK, it’s cost done. There’s a lot to gain there, different turbos,’ says Reunanen. cars. I think they are using old
effective, and it works. We have but it’s really expensive to do. The ‘It depends on the tracks – on technology. Perhaps there are
something special in the discs dimensions of our wing are limited, some of them we just need those in this paddock who know
that nobody else has, so while and we cannot mount it like the pure power, and on others how far some other cars are from
it looks like everyone is using WRC cars do either.’ driveability, so you need different the regulations.‘
the same Alcon, there is actually Pernilla Solberg, Solberg team
a lot more going on.’ CEO and wife of Petter, strongly
One of the reasons that the “Positioning the engines disagrees that the longitudinal
LD DS3s look rather like the works
WRC versions is the fact that some
longitudinally is old technology. layout is old technology, and
argues that it actually gives them
of the body components have
been carried over. ‘The wings we
Perhaps there is an advantage – a number of freedoms in terms
of car design. ‘One of the biggest
run come from the Citroën WRC it depends on the track” advantages of the longitudinal

52 www.racecar-engineering.com ; July 2014

Unlike the LD team cars, Solberg’s Citroën DS3s have their engines mounted longitudinally, requiring major surgery to the bulkhead area

layout is that you can find more modify the chassis to accept a you could only use homologated different lengths and positions.
suppliers to do gearboxes. You longitudinal engine. We open up parts off the shelf. Here you It’s the same concept, but slightly
also have engine builders that the bulkhead, and put in a tunnel can be more inventive and do different detail. The engines in the
prefer it. We have a Swedish to accommodate the gearbox and your own things. cars are different too – one is done
gearbox from a company called exhaust. The roll cage is done by ‘I’m really proud of our by Julian Godfrey, and then we
Unic – it’s a very good system Ingvar. So when it gets to us, it’s uprights. They are really have Pipo in Petter’s car. Pipo now
from a good guy who has been a almost a rolling chassis.’ beautiful, with lots of small look after both as it was silly to
friend of ours for a long time. We details that are made locally. The have two suppliers in the awning,
like to have local suppliers, and HOMEGROWN RACING dampers are from Holland though, but Julian still provides parts. We
many things on our cars are made The Solberg team is one of those from Reiger. We also use Öhlins have steel blocks rather than the
around where we live.’ that sits between professional on one car. We like to try different aluminium blocks used by Loeb.’
As is the case with the LD and amateur. Running out of things, but they are both good. As is common throughout
cars, the Solberg Citroëns are small premises at the family The most important thing is to the RX field, aerodynamic
built up from production cars home, the team is capable of have suppliers willing to help.’ development in the Solberg cars
rather than WRC shells, despite running with the best in the The two Solberg DS3s do owes much to cars Petter Solberg
the team having access to the world and is revelling in the not only differ in terms of the has driven in the past. ‘The rear
works version from its now freedom of the RX Supercar damper suppliers – there are a wing on the car is our own,’ says
defunct rallying programme. ‘We class. ‘The thrill about this sport number of other subtle variations. Pernilla. ‘It’s Petter’s idea from
start from a totally bare shell, is that you can build and design ‘The two cars are not the same rallying and is inspired by the
bare metal and we take that to all of the uprights and things overall,’ says Solberg. Subaru WRC. We have not
Ingvar Gunnarsson in Sweden yourself,’ adds Pernilla. ‘In the ‘In terms of suspension, they done CFD and wind tunnel
and he starts to reinforce the WRC where we were before, have wishbones that are slightly work on it.’
areas where we are allowed to
change things, especially in order
to accommodate the engine,’
“In the WRC you could only use For more information on the
World Rallycross Championship,
please download our complimentary
says Pernilla. ‘The Citroën DS3s
from the factory come with
homologated parts off the shelf. digital supplement at

a transverse engine, but we Here you can be more inventive”

July 2014 6 www.racecar-engineering.com 53
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Correctly defining
your calculations
Making sure your sums are right when your design is non-standard
Mark Ortiz Automotive is a
chassis consultancy service QUESTION I know phi is considered to then by definition reduce the
primarily serving oval track and I have been reviewing my lateral be the angle of roll around the elastic load transfers front and
road racers. Here Mark answers load transfer calculations using x axis by definition (SAE axis rear? In my long ago education
your chassis setup and handling one of your newsletters, which system) and is usually presented in physics, I was taught that
queries. If you have a question provided a good summary of the as being around the NRA on a torque= r*F*sin(theta) is the cross
for him, get in touch. applicable calculations and variable symmetrical car, but do you still product of the position vector ro
E: markortizauto notation scheme for presenting the consider the NRA and phi to be on and the force. I have worked this
calculations for elastic, geometric the car centreline for a car with, out with the assumption that the
and unsprung load transfer. for arguments sake let’s say, a high position vector goes from the point
T: +1 704-933-8876
It has occurred to me that left side percentage which offsets intersected on the NRA by the
A: Mark Ortiz,
I am not sure where you, if at the cg substantially to the left of moment arm rcgsx to the cg with
155 Wankel Drive, Kannapolis all, define the neutral roll axis centre when viewed from the rear? two forces acting on the cg, that
NC 28083-8200, USA based on your chosen coordinate In your video Minding Your of lateral inertial reaction to lateral
system. The x axis is defined Anti you use two diagrams acceleration and that of the sprung
as one half rear track (at least from RCVD from the chapter on mass mS acting downward. This
that is what I usually use with wheel loads, one side view to results in very different values for
a beam axle rear) longitudinally illustrate the locations of the cg, the roll angle phi and the resulting
with positive forward in the roll centres, roll moment arm and elastic load transfer front and rear.
direction of travel and the y axis
laterally at one half the average
wheelbase with positive y to the Should there be a correction added
driver’s right and z down with the
axis system on the ground plane.
to the calculation for roll angle
I realise that you consider
the front and rear roll centre
based on a significantly offset cg?
height locations to be undefined
laterally (undefined in y) and I NRA and another for a wheel Now, to get all this to square
agree with that. What puzzles me pair in a banked condition with with our total vehicle load
is the calculation of the sprung an offset cg to illustrate your transfer delta – Fz=m*ay*t – we
mass roll angle phi which is then point about how the forces act on would also have to correct total
used to work out the front and these respective point parallel to load transfer by an amount
rear elastic load transfer. It’s not the ground plane, very effectively m*(cg offset distance).
the calculation or the resulting in my opinion, and I agree.
load transfer that I question, But should there be a THE CONSULTANT SAYS
Lateral load transfer in the British rather where you consider the roll correction added to the calculation Considering a simple two-
Touring Car Championship angle phi to be located? for roll angle based on a dimensional front-view half-car
significantly offset cg? model (in the y-z plane), the
If the NRA and phi remain on lateral offset of the cg (its y
the x axis which we have defined coordinate) does result in a roll
as the car track centreline then torque, but only in response to z
the sprung weight of the car is axis accelerations. (If we like, we
acting, in this example, downward can consider gravity to be a form
at some distance to the left our x of acceleration, as has become
axis as viewed from the rear. common nowadays.)
If this is so, doesn’t mS acting Y axis (transverse or
at the cg create a moment that lateral) ground plane forces
would reduce our total sprung act horizontally, and the
moment MeS = mS*ay*rcgsx accelerations that result from
by an amount equal to mS*(cg them produce inertial reaction
offset distance)? Which would forces at the cg that likewise
then reduce the roll angle and have a horizontal line of action.

July 2014 F www.racecar-engineering.com 55


We can consider the roll In more general terms, if we on a flat surface, but only if we take moments about the
moment about the ground plane, have a force applied to a body because it affects what their further contact patch than about
which is reacted suspension at some application point, with values are statically. It does the nearer one. This shows up
geometry and by elastic devices some line of action, we can move not affect how much they as higher scale readings on the
(springs and anti-roll bars). the application point to any other change from static. Having the nearer wheels. But this moment
We can also consider only the location along that line of action cg towards the inside of the turn does not change in response to a
component reacted by the elastic and the forces and moments on is definitely beneficial, because pure y force at the cg.
devices, which is commonly the body will not change. it results in more equal tyre With independent suspension,
represented as moment of the This does not mean that loading when cornering. the amount of geometric anti-
sprung mass inertia force about the y location of the cg has no However, it does not accomplish roll usually varies somewhat
the roll axis. Either way, if the effect. It does influence yaw this by reducing load transfer, depending on the distribution of
acceleration is purely horizontal, moments in response to x axis or roll. It merely introduces a y axis ground plane force at the
the centripetal force acts accelerations. It does influence static inequality of loading that contact patches. Since cg offset
horizontally, and the centrifugal roll moments in response to z partially compensates for the affects this distribution, it can
inertia force does too. The axis accelerations. It affects dynamic load transfer. affect front and rear lateral load
moment arm then is simply the roll moments through dips, over The action of gravity on transfer distribution. However, it
vertical (z axis) distance between crests, and in banked turns. It the offset cg does introduce is impossible to generalise about
the two. It doesn’t matter what affects what the right and left a moment about the track such effects. They will depend on
the y location of the cg is. wheel pair loads are in cornering midpoint, or a greater moment the geometry of the particular car.

An effective three link solution?

Evaluating the pros and cons of an interesting late model suspension

QUESTION small birdcage with a clevis at the and braking, for a given top link of the link are what matter.
We race ARCA/Main Event Racing front of it. The front of the link height. This can be addressed The length just affects how
Series outlaw late model oval has a regular rod end. by mounting the top link higher, much the angle changes as the
track asphalt race cars throughout The top link is shown very but the entire system gets taller. suspension moves.
Michigan, Indiana and Ohio. One high above the axle, but this is That’s acceptable if there’s room, Mounting the coilovers
of the newer chassis builders has adjustable. The front end heights but there’s no advantage. There ahead of the axle has more
been very successful. One of the of all three links appear to be is some advantage in mounting effect when we use a compliant
main differences on their cars adjustable. The brake calipers the lower links as low as possible pull bar for the top link, or a
is the design of rear three link appear to be on clamped brackets, and the upper as high as possible, compliant torque arm. But the
suspension. The trailing arms are which is customary on such cars. in terms of reduced friction and setup in the pictures has rigid
much shorter, they attach to the I don’t see any big advantage wear at the rod ends. In general, links. If the side view swingarm
rear end axle tube housings and or disadvantage to making the any desired combination of length is short, the spring-to-axle
they also float on the tube similar lower link pivot exactly about the anti-squat, anti-lift, and roll steer motion ratio in ride gets smaller.
to a dirt car bird cage suspension. That makes the wheel rate in ride
They also run the rear springs in
front of the rearend with large
Mounting the coilovers ahead of softer compared to the wheel
rate in roll, a bit like having a
spring rates 650LR, 750RR or soft the axle has more effect when we wider spring base or having an
150lb springs with bump stops on anti-roll bar. However, this effect
both the LR and RR. use a compliant pull bar for the top is dependent on the adjustment
My question is: do you think of the side view swingarm
this is a advantage over the link, or a compliant torque arm length, and that complicates
traditional three link suspension, adjustment of the car.
if so why? By running the axle tube centre. Without can be had with high or low Overall, I’d have to say that
trailing arms and springs this the clevis, the link would try mounting of the lower links. this design is more of a harmless
way, how does it change wedge to locate the axle laterally and There’s a slight weight saving gimmick than a real advantage.
or wheel loads? a bind would result, but with in keeping the brackets short, but It doesn’t do anything that can’t
the clevis I don’t see any the brackets don’t weigh much be done by other means, but it
THE CONSULTANT SAYS reason that it should create any compared to the rest of the axle. doesn’t do anything awful, and
The questioner’s pictures problems. On the other hand, I Where length is concerned, it looks different. If a builder’s
show what appears to be a don’t see that it does anything there isn’t any huge difference cars are well supported and
conventional three-link pavement that couldn’t be done with a between two feet and three setup, and have a feature
car rear end with a long Panhard clamp bracket and a conventional feet, for the amounts of wheel that just makes them visibly
bar and coilovers, except that as link with rod ends front and rear, travel seen in pavement cars. different, that feature can sell
he notes, the links are all raised and it’s a little less adjustable. When you start getting up to cars, because people will tend
compared to most such layouts, Raising the lower links four feet, sometimes the links to assume that the difference
and the lowers are about two increases the loads on them will bend instead of the rod ends they can see is what makes
feet long. The lowers attach to a and on the top link under power moving. The angle and height the cars successful.

56 www.racecar-engineering.com = July 2014


Racing with a
CAN-do attitude
The growth of electronics calls for efficient, durable wiring solutions
Databytes gives you

odern racecars can have a device. The CAN bus needs to needs to have a two decimal place
essential insights to help
lot of electronic devices have ends of line or terminators precision. This means in the 0s and
you to improve your data
that all need to which can be done using 120 Ohm 1s world that we need a minimum
analysis skills each communicate with one another in resistors. These can either be of 4 significant figures as the value
month, as Cosworth’s order to work efficiently. Good wired directly into the bus or – in cannot be transmitted as a floating
electronics engineers share examples of this are the new most cases – CAN devices have a point number. This is best
tips and tweaks learned generation of Le Mans prototypes, software option that allows the explained by imagining a value of
from years of experience where teams are free to choose user to choose whether it is – say – 5.67 bar pressure. The
with data systems whichever control and monitoring terminated or not. transmitting device will send out
systems they want – and Without going too deeply into 567 and on the receiving end the
therefore may end up with several the principles of how a CAN bus value is divided by 100 to get the
different suppliers. Controller Area works, we can look at some of the correct number. In this case, it is
Network (CAN) was originally basics of how data is transported best to use two bytes to represent
developed for road car use, but and manipulated. In essence we this value even though the full
has since been adopted by racecar have 0s and 1s aligned into bytes scale will not be used.
manufacturers as a very efficient to form different numbers. For
way of linking devices together. simplicity it’s best to work in ON THE BUSES
CAN bus wiring is a simple chunks of bytes – 8, 16, 32 and 64 Now that the value has been
solution, and can be extremely bits. This gives us plenty of options determined, it is necessary to look
robust – providing certain rules are when it comes to sending various at the structure. A CAN bus holds
adhered to. There are only two values. In essence, one byte (8 bits) frames or packets that each has to
wires – CAN high and CAN low allows us to send anything from have a unique identifier. In
– which need to be a twisted pair, 0-255, two bytes 0-65535 and so motorsport, the 11-bit identifier is
while any spurs should be no on. Take an example of a simple most common, although the
longer than 30cm. If multiple value, such as oil pressure, to be extended 29-bit identifier is also
CAN bus wiring is relatively devices are on the bus, they need transmitted in bar over to another sometimes used. Each packet is
simple and – if certain rules are to be wired in a daisy chain where device. The expected value is in the able to hold 64 bits of information,
adhered to – is very robust the wires go in and out of each range of around 0-10 bar and it so it is for example possible to send
four channels using 16 bits each or
eight channels using 8 bits each.
The ID of a packet serves not only
as its identifier but also denotes
the hierarchy – the lower the
packet ID, the higher priority it has
on the bus. This can be of
significance when designing the
CAN bus layout and which IDs each
device should use. It goes without
saying that when designing a
racecar electronic layout it is
important to spend time mapping
all the CAN IDs that will be present
on each CAN bus. Cars have often
not started because there is an ID
clash and the ECU thinks that the
gearbox is engaged, meaning the
car goes nowhere.
There are several different
ways to write the code needed for
a CAN packet. The most convenient
format is known as dbc – this
format makes the CAN packets

July 2014 < www.racecar-engineering.com 59


very easily readable and many

automotive systems allow a direct
import or use of a dbc file. Other
methods include XML and C code,
but these normally require a
compiler of some sorts in order to
generate code usable by control
systems. Some control system or
logger configuration tools also have
proprietary systems that allow the
user to define the CAN stream. In
any of the cases there are a few
standard variables that need to be
configured – baud rate is the speed
of the CAN bus and needs to be the
same for any device on that bus.
The maximum speed is 1Mbit/s,
and this is the most commonly
used speed. The packet identifier
type – either standard (11 bit) or
extended (29 bit) – effectively
controls how many unique
identifiers are possible.

Then there is the endianness. This
is always a bit of a hot topic even
If multiple devices are on the though it is relatively simple.
bus, they need to be wired in a Endianness is either big or little
daisy chain where the wires go and refers to the location of the
in and out of each device most significant byte. There are
two different methods of declaring
endinness – little endian or big
endian. The confusion comes up
Example of an XML code snippet defining a CAN packet: when those two refer to Intel or
Motorola, little endian and big
BaudRate=”1000000” endian respectively so named
Timeout=”1”> after the architecture used by
<CanStream.Packets> each company’s processors.
<CanPacket Id=”357” Length=”64” Rate=”50” Endianness is all about how a
PacketType=”Standard” number is stored in memory
Endianness=”Big” – where the largest component of
BitNumbering=”FollowsEndianness”> the number is kept and ditto for
the smallest. Standard numbering
<CanPacket.Contents> for humans is big endian, and if we
<Channel Name=”RPM” look at the number 234 we know
Start=”48” Length=”16” DataType=”U16” ScaledDataType =”F32” that the left most digit 2 has the
Quantity=”angular velocity” Unit=”rpm” /> largest value. If, however, we
normally used little endian format
<Channel Name=”Injector Mass” the same number would be 432. It
Start=”32” Length=”16” DataType=”U16” should therefore be clear that the
Quantity=”mass” Unit=”mg” ScaledDataType =”F32”/> endianness is quite important!
We have only just scratched the
<Channel Name=”Lambda” surface here, but this knowledge
Start=”16” Length=”16” DataType=”U16” is enough to get you going
Quantity=”user type” Gain=”0.01” ScaledDataType =”F32” /> where using and debugging
CAN buses is concerned.
<Channel Name=”Ign Timing”
Start=”0” Length=”16” DataType=”U16”
Quantity=”angle” Unit=”°”
Gain=”0.1” ScaledDataType =”F32” />
Produced in association
</CanPacket.Contents> with Cosworth
</CanPacket> Tel: +44 (0)1954 253600
</CanStream.Packets> Email: ceenquiries@cosworth.com
Website: www.cosworth.com

60 www.racecar-engineering.com < July 2014








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Two times a Tiga

We revisit open top CN sports racers in the MIRA tunnel with
an evaluation of very different solutions to the same problem

e start a new study this approximately 25 per cent less increasing speed, with Tiga A’s
month on two distinct than Tiga B’s. However, being –CLfront increasing more than
open top Group CN sports shorter overall too, its plan area its –CLrear decreased. In contrast,
Simon McBeath offers racers that share a well-known was also some 15 per cent less Tiga B’s –CLfront increased only
aerodynamic advisory name but little else. Both cars are than Tiga B’s. So how would very slightly, but its –CLrear
services under his own now branded ‘Tiga’ after LMP2 the aerodynamic data stack up decreased more. It was curious
brand of SM driver and businessman Mike between the cars? that the –CLrear values on either
Aerotechniques – www. Newton acquired the Tiga name in car should decrease at all with
sm-aerotechniques.co.uk. 2012 and – with neighbours Orex SPEED SENSITIVITY increasing speed – the opposite
In these pages he uses Competition and aerodynamics Let’s look first of all at the might have been expected.
data from MIRA to discuss consultant James Kmieciak baseline data as the cars arrived However, Tiga A’s rear end
– commenced development at the MIRA wind tunnel, running may not have aerodynamically
common aerodynamic
programmes on these CN cars. at 60mph and 80mph to see if changed much at all as speed
issues faced by
Tiga CN212A, based on an there was any sensitivity to speed increased, so that the gain at
racecar engineers
earlier Chiron design, in blue, in the data. See Table 1. the front end produced a small
red and white (see Picture 1), Looking at how the two cars’ mechanical loss at the rear. Tiga
and Tiga CN212B, an update data changed with speed, there B’s response is harder to explain,
Produced in association with
and evolution of a WFR design, are similarities and differences the decrease in –CLrear being
in orange (see Picture 2), differ as the flows developed. In both larger than could be explained
most obviously in the location of cases, increasing speed saw simply by the mechanical effect
their rear wings, Tiga A’s being CD decrease, -CLfront increase; of the small increase in -CLfront.
very low. Dimensionally the cars -CLrear decrease, %front Pictures 3 and 4.
Tel: +44 (0) 24-7635 5000 are very different too, Tiga A increase and –L/D increase. The The other striking aspect of
Email: enquiries@mira.co.uk being some 220mm narrower. principle difference was that Table 1 is the big difference
Website: www.mira.co.uk The combination of narrow width overall –CL increased on Tiga A, between the coefficients of the
and the low wing location meant but decreased on Tiga B with two cars. However, to make fair
that Tiga A’s frontal area was
Table 2: comparing Tiga A and Tiga B in similar balance states
Table 1: baseline aerodynamic coefficients at 60mph Car Balance CD.A -CL.A -CLfront.A -CLrear.A -L/D
and 80mph; changes are in ‘counts’, where 1 count = Tiga A 21.6%front 0.785 1.562 0.338 1.224 1.990
a coefficient change of 0.001 Tiga B 21.5%front 0.740 1.833 0.394 1.437 2.477
Tiga A CD -CL -CLfront -CLrear %front -L/D Tiga A 35.2%front 0.738 1.319 0.464 0.855 1.787
60mph 0.725 1.414 0.268 1.146 19.0% 1.950 Tiga B 34.0%front 0.789 2.079 0.706 1.372 2.635
80mph 0.719 1.427 0.291 1.135 20.4% 1.985
Change -6 +13 +23 -11 +1.4% +35 Table 3: comparing the Tigas with the Ligier JS49
Tiga B CD -CL -CLfront -CLrear %front -L/D Car Balance CD.A -CL.A -CLfront.A -CLrear.A -L/D
60mph 0.502 1.381 0.366 1.014 26.5% 2.751 Tiga A 35.2%front 0.738 1.319 0.464 0.855 1.787
80mph 0.493 1.371 0.374 0.996 27.3% 2.781 Tiga B 34.0%front 0.789 2.079 0.706 1.372 2.635
Change -9 -10 +8 -18 +0.8 +30 Ligier 35.3%front 0.771 1.973 0.696 1.277 2.557

Picture 1: Tiga A’s front view highlights its small frontal area. Picture 2: Tiga B presents is a more conventional CN car layout –
From this angle in particular, the rear wing is almost invisible note that the dummy driver was installed during testing!

July 2014 G www.racecar-engineering.com 63


Picture 3: yes, there was a wing tucked down there at the back
Picture 5: Tiga A’s concave nose; compare to the gentle convex shape
inboard of the wheel pods in Picture 3

Picture 4: Tiga B’s wing exploited the maximum permitted height

Table 4: nose section data, with changes in counts

Tiga A CD -CL -CLfront -CLrear %front -L/D Picture 6: dive planes produced an unusual response on Tiga A
Convex 0.719 1.427 0.291 1.135 20.4% 1.985
Concave 0.720 1.433 0.310 1.123 21.6% 1.990 Table 5: data with and without dive planes; changes in counts
Change +1 +6 +19 -12 +1.2% +5 Tiga A CD -CL -CLfront -CLrear %front -L/D
No DPs 0.677 1.210 0.426 0.784 35.2% 1.787
With DPs 0.691 1.225 0.430 0.794 35.1% 1.773
comparison between two tested in 2008, and this month is Change +14 +15 +4 +10 -0.1 -14
different cars, data in similar no exception! Table 3 shows data
balance states has been used, from the Ligier in a similar 35 per
and coefficients multiplied by cent-plus condition to the Tigas. was used in each case, and Table and even more unusually the rear
frontal area have also been used From this we can see that Tiga 4 shows how the data compared. also gained a small amount of
as these are directly proportional B and the Ligier were in the same The concave nose section was downforce. Ordinarily we would
to the measured forces. See ballpark, with Tiga B generating therefore slightly better for front expect a bigger front gain and
Table 2 for further comparisons in 2.3 per cent more drag and 5.4 per downforce and overall downforce, either little change or a loss of
two different %front conditions. cent more downforce, -L/D being with essentially no difference in downforce at the rear. Is it possible
We can now see more clearly 3.1 per cent better overall. Against drag. The relatively modest 6.5 per then that the rear wing, in its very
that the two cars actually the background of applicable cent increase in front downforce low location, actually benefitted
produced fairly similar levels of regulations, this represents a would have reflected a loss of from the fitment of dive planes in
drag, within 6 per cent or 7 per modest gain over five or six years. some positive pressure on the this case? Dive planes generally
cent, this despite the much smaller splitter’s upper surface with the create vorticity that rolls down the
frontal area of Tiga A, and that NOSE JOBS convex nose vs a gain in positive sides of the car, so perhaps this
Tiga B generated more downforce Tiga A came with two different pressure on the upper surface of was adding downwash ahead of
than Tiga A in either balance state nose designs. First was the the concave nose section. the low wing and increasing mass
shown here – especially so in the convex shape in which it was Later in the session, after a flow to it? The change was minor,
34-35 %front condition. Part of baseline tested, with gentle significant change of rear wing but fascinating nevertheless.
the reason for this is that Tiga convex sections between the location, pairs of dive planes were
A was only able to produce 35 wheel pods and the central installed on each front corner Next month we’ll look at some
%front when the rear wing was chassis cover, and a bluff vertical of the concave nose, Picture 6. interesting front end changes
adjusted to generate less rear face above the rear of the The data between comparable to Tiga B, together with some
downforce, whereas getting splitter’s upper surface. The configurations, in Table 5, show other intriguing and sometimes
Tiga B to the 34 %front level alternative had gentle concave some interesting responses. surprising alterations.
involved the addition of significant sections between the wheel pods The dive planes added 14
front downforce – this will be and central chassis cover with counts of drag and 15 counts Racecar Engineering’s thanks to
explored further next month. no bluff panel above the splitter, of total downforce, so were not Mike Newton at Tiga Racecars,
I have made frequent the concave sections extending a very efficient addition in this Dave Beecroft and crew at Orex
reference in recent Aerobytes forwards to the splitter’s leading instance. Unusually, the gain in Competition and James Kmieciak
columns to the Ligier JS49 CN car edge Picture 5. The same splitter front downforce was very small, at Percam Engineering

64 www.racecar-engineering.com @ July 2014


Our innovative design and precision performance engineering makes us

your perfect Motorsport partner. Our world-class engineers are
committed to delivering world class services where your exacting
requirements will be mirrored by our exacting standards.

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www.titan.uk.net Dynamic Engineering


A sense of economy
With one fuel flow sensor already homologated and introduced for F1 and WEC,
Sentronics have emerged with a rival solution, set to undergo testing after Le Mans

Track testing of the ultrasonic fuel flow sensor began in November 2011 in a Core
Autosport ALMS LMPC car at Palm Beach International Raceway. Pictured left to
right: David Aronson, Neville Meech, Dan Partel, Jamie Jones and Andrew Burston

fficiency’ is the BY ANDREW COTTON so than ever when measuring in contact with the fuel, which
buzzword of fuel flow rates. Using our has helped us to control thermal
motorsport this year. understanding of ultrasonics in expansion and optimise accuracy
Key to measuring a consortium of sensor an environment we understand across the temperature range.
the efficiency of the engines manufacturer Reventec, well has enabled us to develop We’ve employed PFC seals where
is a super-accurate fuel flow precision machining firm a product suitable for multiple needed and avoided the use of
sensor, as required for Formula Mikina Engineering, electronics categories, from F1 to GTs. plastic or composite parts within
1 and World Endurance teams specialists Polyhedrus and ‘Numerous considerations the fluid flow chamber.’
and engine manufacturers in Hyspeed LLC, which oversees are required to design a device Meech was part of the original
competition this season. marketing and finance. Former which will be robust and easy to team developing the fuel flow
One sensor has already been lead motorsport engineer at Gill use, remain consistent over time sensor currently used in Formula
homologated and introduced, but Sensors, Neville Meech, has co- in variable conditions and above 1 and LMP1 racing, but left to
there is another that is coming ordinated the effort to create all be affordable, especially in form Reventec in mid-2013. From
to market, one developed under a new sensor. lower categories. So, we set out premises in the same building
the radar, but which is priced ‘We remain convinced that the to build a device which would as Mikina Engineering, Reventec
to meet the needs of different ultrasonic measurement principle be simple, make appropriate use was soon up and running with
series, including not only F1 and is the best way of accurately of available materials, and lend its own products and Mikina
WEC but also DTM, Australian V8 measuring fuel flow,’ says Meech. itself to different series through manufacturing components.
Supercars, and even GT racing. ‘Reliability, repeatability and multiple specification levels. One The final technical piece was
The new fuel flow sensor, accuracy are the key criteria for example of this is the use of a put in place when Meech called
which may be tested by teams any sensor in motorsport, more single material for critical parts on Polyhedrus, a small team
after Le Mans and which will of electronic hardware and
undergo final track testing
between Le Mans and the
“Reliability, repeatability and software experts that had
previously worked for clients
next WEC round in Austin in accuracy are the key criteria for such as Siemens and the UK
September, is designed and Ministry of Defence. Having
built by Sentronics Limited, any sensor in motorsport” worked closely with Hyspeed

66 www.racecar-engineering.com < July 2014

From left, Reventec’s Neville Meech and Jamie Jones, and former Hyspeed technical director Andrew Burston, founder and head of Calibra technology

Calibra about adjusting the

levels of calibration to match
the needs of each series. We
are also committed to offering a
comprehensive warranty and
the kind of service and support
that motorsport customers
expect. As racers ourselves,
CAD image of prototype Sentronics ultrasonic fuel flow sensor we know what that entails.
‘If we can deliver a pro-
since 2010 on the ultrasonic fuel manufacture its own ultrasonic ‘Efficiency gains in the efficiency solution to limiting
flow sensor concept, agreement piezo transducers. ‘We aren’t design and manufacture of peak power and balancing
was reached in late 2013 to experts in transducer design,’ the sensor, expanding into performance for less than it
form a joint venture and create says Meech. ‘We contacted more motorsport markets and costs to make a car less
a new sensor aimed at realising a specialist, presented our accepting a longer-term return efficient by adding air restrictors,
Hyspeed’s original vision of fuel problem and asked how they on our investment all help us drag or ballast, then we will
flow control as a tool for pushing could help. They have 40 years on the pricing front,’ says Dan be able to support markets
efficient engine development of experience, specifically in Partel, chairman of Sentronics. down to F3 and GT3 – even
and performance balancing at all bespoke transducers. Working ‘We plan to produce a range Formula 4. Why not?’
levels of motorsport. with them has resulted in of models to suit different Partel added: ‘We are
an aerospace-grade, volume- markets. Australian V8s are not confident that we’ve come
LIGHTWEIGHT TECHNOLOGY production transducer which going to be able to justify F1 up with a second-generation
Sentronics has been able gives us the confidence prices for a flow sensor, even ultrasonic fuel flow sensor that
to produce a compact yet robust and support we need in this though they have real challenges represents a real improvement
sensor that weighs in at around critical area.’ balancing performance across in both performance and
250g, half the maximum weight Sentronics intends to offer five engine manufacturers. value. Now we are in the final
permitted by the FIA. The fuel the sensor for F1 and WEC use ‘So in addition to F1 and development phase, which
line and electrical connectors at a very competitive price, which WEC, we are targeting second- includes further bench and track
are also to FIA specification, includes an initial calibration and third-tier championships testing with OEMs. We
making the device a potential by Calibra Technology – the looking to implement fuel flow are currently presenting
drop-in replacement for the FIA’s homologated calibration control with sensors whose the sensor to sanctioning
sensor currently used in F1 service provider. Sentronics also capabilities are tailored to their authorities worldwide with
and WEC. However, unlike its detailed plans to produce lower needs and priced accordingly. a view to adoption for 2015
competition, Sentronics does not cost sensors for other series. We have also been speaking to and beyond.’

July 2014 = www.racecar-engineering.com 67

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The increasing strains of endurance racing, with ever-growing amounts of
information being transmitted, calls for strong management and control systems

BY GEMMA HATTON supply – the module is advanced

enough to decide the best cause
of action. This may be switching

hen the Audi R18 the circuit on and off, or re-
E-Tron Quattro flies distributing the current supply to
past the pit lane, the avoid a current drain. An example
equivalent of 10,000 is found in the starter motor of
A4 size pages (20Mb) of data is any vehicle, where hundreds
sent to the pit wall – the result of of amps are required. The PCM
teams now being able to monitor shuts down other EMS (Engine
over 1000 parameters on the car. Management System) circuits
With the continuous until the engine has reached the
integration of hybrid technology required cranking speed, and the
in our championships, electronics circuits can be switched back
are quickly becoming the most on again – and then the engine
vital part of a racecar, with can be fired. The power box, as
components such as MGUs and Ole Buhl Racing's PCM2, which is specifically suitable for Le Mans 24 Hour it is also known, offers further
battery invertors requiring their racing applications due to the high number of power outputs (48), four advantages of simplifying the
own individual control units. This individually programmable CAN buses and 64 CAN inputs wiring looms by replacing untidy
places a huge processing demand wiring and so results in an overall
on the primary ECU (electronic reduction in weight.
control unit). For example, the One of the best suited
current F1 specification ECU designs for applications such as
is now capable of dealing with the Le Mans 24 Hours utilises 48
4000 MIPS (million instructions channels, as Ole Buhl highlights.
per second) as opposed to a ‘Our PCM2 is the top of the
standard Internal Combustion range and offers all the features
Engine ECU that processes a a professional GT or Prototype
mere 400 MIPS – and the rate team requires,' he says. 'These
of development in motorsport customers usually have between
is only accelerating. As the two and five spare channels, so
complexity of these on-board there is definitely a demand for
electronics further increases, Flow overview describing how a power control module (PCM) works a power box with such a high
it is no wonder that ‘electrical number of outputs.’ This is the
failures’ are becoming the cause "GT and prototype customers underlying reason why the PCM2
of more DNFs, as we have has been so successful, together
recently seen with in Formula 1 usually have between two and with four CAN ports and 30
and in sportscar racing. additional analogue and digital
The Power Control Module five spare channels on a PCM" inputs. ‘This gives the ability
(PCM) is therefore an important to have direct inputs hardwired
part of the electrical ‘brain’ of the status of all the outputs such The PCM exchanges data into the box to monitor sensors,
the car, especially in endurance as current draw and temperature,' with all the other power modules switches, speeds, and the
racing such as the Le Mans 24 says Ole Buhl, managing director around the car via multiple CAN conditions of these inputs can
Hours where reliability is top of Ole Buhl Racing, which is ports to monitor the activity and be written by the team, offering
priority. The PCM is a solid state renowned worldwide for its performance of the complete incredible flexibility. We have not
module, which means that it uses advanced PCM designs. 'Then there electrical system. Therefore yet had to say no to a customer’s
integrated circuit assemblies as is a microprocessor that controls every data value or packet that desired control strategy.’
memory to store data. It replaces the logic behind the controlling of is recorded can be exported and To deal with the demands of
relays and circuit breakers to the current draw and the switching shared over the complete CAN a 24 hour racer, the PCM2 has
protect the electrical circuitry – of outputs, so you can make very network. If there is a problem a continuous output maximum
similar to a fuse. ‘It also monitors sophisticated control strategies.’ – such as a spike in the current current of 300A and an in rush

July 2014 A www.racecar-engineering.com 69

BF1 systems Infra Red Tyre Pressure and Temperature Monitoring System The GT bf1systems TPMS 'learning' package includes the digital antenna,
(IRTPTMS) wheel sensor mounted in the wheel rim Mini Analyser, Low Frequency Trigger, ECU and wheel sensor

the bf1systems Tyre Pressure design proving, for example, spin

An example of the R Series Monitoring Systems (TPMS) testing at 300mph at 100degC,’
fuel cell level sensors from Gill comes into its own. says Shingleton. ‘Now, our wheel
used in Formula 1 and WEC ‘It is no good having a system sensors are lasting between
which is anything other than two to potentially five seasons,
bulletproof in reliability, because depending on usage. One of our
the difference between finishing competitors who uses batteries,
the race or crashing out, can be cannot achieve one year of racing
just driving past the pit entry with their sensor. This, combined
with a rear tyre slowly deflating with the lack of external aerials,
and the system not notifying the means that our sensor is less
team,’ says James Shingleton, likely to be damaged during tyre
business development manager mounting and dismounting, so our
at bf1systems. There are four TPMS wheel sensors are the most
current of 1000A, however Ole Buhl are developing alongside components that make up the reliable on the market.’
this can be much higher. ‘We combining more power modules technology. First is the wheel At 22 hours into a race, when
have listed the maximum throughout the car. sensor itself, which is mounted exhaustion is a major issue ,
current very conservatively in on the back of a custom valve teams want systems that are
our specifications,' says Buhl, SENSORS SENSIBILITIES and transmits tyre pressure, air easy to use. A ‘positioned’ TPMS
'and are now increasing this A tyre is compressed 6500 temperature and other diagnostic is used for LMP cars, where
recommended load because the times over one lap of the Le data such as battery life each wheel sensor is assigned
PCM2 can handle so much more.’ Mans circuit – just one example wirelessly to two or four digital to a particular corner of the
The latest Ole Buhl model of the huge demands placed on antennas mounted on the car. An car. For GT, a ‘learning’ TPMS
is the PCM2_Lite, which has endurance racing tyres. Michelin's ECU collects, processes and then is implemented, providing a
34 channels and is the first latest specification can withstand communicates this data to the fit-and-forget solution where
to utilise environmentally 120 times its own weight, the logger and car’s display via a high the system automatically learns
sealed, lightweight automotive equivalent of a 75kg person speed CAN bus. This system can the positions of the sensors, and
connectors as opposed to the supporting a load of nine tons, be seen on Nissan, Aston Martin, removing the need to manually
traditional mil-spec connector for and with the constant drive for Ferrari and Porsche GT cars. re-assign sensor IDs.
cost-effectiveness. ‘Whereas our reliability these tyres can now The wheel sensors in particular A Low Frequency (LF) trigger
competitors have distinguished cover 35 per cent more distance have been designed to operate is located in each wheel arch
between low and high power than tyres from 10 years ago. at extreme temperatures (max and broadcasts a request signal
outputs, we have everything set However, regardless of the +150degC) for long durations over a one metre range, and any
up for high power outputs for effectiveness of the compound, because these conditions are wheel sensor within the range
flexibility,' says Buhl. 'As well as the behaviour of the tyre needs not just experienced when the responds by emitting a radio
two CANs there are 18 inputs to be continually analysed car is running, but also when frequency (RF) datagram back
which we are very proud of to ensure ultimate reliability the wheels are in tyre ovens, to the antennas. The ECU then
because they can be configured as throughout race conditions. This tents and heaters. ‘This is why uses each LF trigger to determine
either digital or analogue within is where technologies such as our sensors undergo demanding which sensors are fitted to the
the software – a unique feature.’ car and continues to request
As with all electronic
components, the push for higher
At 22 hours into a race when datagrams from the wheel
sensors, even when the car is
performance leads to more data exhaustion is an issue, teams stationary. When the vehicle
storage and transfer in more starts moving, the system checks
compact devices, something that want systems that are easy to use the wheels it has learned by

70 www.racecar-engineering.com E July 2014




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using accelerometers within developed to not only deal with

the sensors to filter out any these tough environments, but to
non-moving wheels (eg spare also deliver continuous real-time
wheels fitted to the car), and measurement data.
soon learns to focus on data One example of a new
from a complete set of moving innovation from Gill Sensors is
sensors. When the wheels on the GS position side rotary sensor
the car are changed, the system – ideal for measuring either shaft
will automatically learn the new position, grip throttle sensing or
sensors fitted to the car, so no gearbox shafts. It uses induction
user interaction is required. technology to sense the position
of a metallic ‘activator’ which
MOTOR MONITORS is mounted to the moving
To assist the TPMS, teams also object. As well as measuring
use the Mini Analyser, which uses position through 360deg, it
an RF receiver and LF transmitter provides a 300rpm speed of
to interrogate wheel sensors rotation, boasts an accuracy of
mounted in wheels, or on rims +1 per cent and can operate in
with no tyres, allowing engineers The GS Position side rotary temperatures between -40degC
to check tyre pressures and sensor offers an innovative and +160degC. Due to no moving
temperatures when the wheels solution for measuring shaft parts, mechanical wear is minimal
are on or off the car. There is position with no moving parts in question measures the fuel – another factor behind the high
also a Garage Monitoring System resulting in the highest reliability flow rate and is manufactured by reliability of such sensors.
which allows the status of up Gill Sensors, which is the official Overall, the winners of
to 240 tyres to be continuously ECU/antenna box, reducing the supplier for the F1 Championship endurance races are not
recorded. Here, an antenna components required on the car; as well as the WEC. necessarily the fastest, but
is mounted in the garage to saving further weight.’ As well as withstanding to stand a chance of winning,
receive datagrams transmitted There are over 200 sensors temperatures exceeding the cars must cross the finish
by the wheel sensors when on a modern F1 car, and similar 100degC, sensors can experience line. Being able to effectively
they are stationary or have been for endurance cars. And following 50g of shock in under 60 monitor the status of thousands
interrogated by a Mini Trigger, Daniel Ricciardo’s F1 Melbourne milliseconds, high acceleration of parameters in a racecar
which is then processed by the demotion from second to last place, loads to 10KHz, and the build- throughout an entire race is
ECU and transferred to the PC the world of sensor technology up of oil and dirt ingress at essential to achieve the highest
software. Alarms are set for has come to the forefront of the racing speeds up to 350km/h. levels of reliability, which is
minimum and maximum pressures motorsport world. The sensor Therefore, sensors have to be the only road to success.
and temperatures, so if a sensor
falls outside these limits, it is
immediately highlighted on the
screen, allowing teams to ensure Oils: Le Mans drivers cover the valvetrain. For example, the you can understand the drive to
that all their tyres are at the approximately 5400km, the pressure exerted on the cams develop the most efficient fuel.
optimum condition, all the time. equivalent of completing a 20 is equivalent to having two Shell’s V-Power will be
‘Four years ago, we introduced race F1 season in only one day. elephants stood on a stiletto fuelling all the Le Mans racers,
the InfraRed Tyre Pressure and The demands on endurance heel during part of the cycle, with Audi going down the
Temperature Monitoring System racing engines are astronomical which equates to around 10 tons diesel route and Toyota and
(IRTPTMS) which utilises a wheel and therefore require the best acting on a square cm.’ Porsche sticking with gasoline.
sensor containing an infrared lubrication to maintain the The oil responds to this ‘To improve efficiency and
temperature sensor that can effectiveness of the components. pressure by getting thicker and reduce fuel consumption, it is a
measure the internal tyre carcass The Audi R18 e-tron Quattro reducing the metal-to-metal combination of three things: the
temperature and report this in races with Castrol Edge Fluid contact, so it is the oil's response fuel properties, enabling a new
real time. While this is currently Strength Technology Oil and has to temperature and pressure that engine design and the energy
used mainly by F1 teams, we are been tested under simulated is so crucial. The test proved that recovery storage systems,’ says
seeing it filter down into other race conditions for over double Fluid Strength Technology Oil Richard Karlstetter, racing fuels
formulae who are seeing the the distance of the Le Mans was 40 per cent stronger and technology manager at Shell.
benefits for chassis setup, and 24 Hours. The oil constantly had the lowest metal contact ‘In 2014 we want to move to
in particular during qualifying reacts and adapts to the loads than other competitors. the next stage and so we have
to ensure that their tyres are in it is placed under, maintaining doubled the bioethanol content.
optimum condition.’ its strength and ability to keep Fuels: conserving tyres and This is an increase from 5-10 per
Shingtleton added: ‘There metal surfaces apart. fuel can mean saving two pit cent in diesel and 10–20 per cent
is always the requirement Oils undergo a fluid strength stops every three hours during in gasoline. Endurance racing is
for developing smaller and test, which analyses the amount the Le Mans race, which is the one of the fastest and toughest
lighter parts, which we are of metal contact as Gareth equivalent of half a lap over your test beds for fuel development.
always looking at. In 2013 we Dowd, Castrol technologist rivals. Combine this with the During a 24 Hour race at Le
introduced our latest generation explains. ‘We reviewed a series fact that the 2014 regulations Mans, the insights we get from
TPMS wheel sensor which was of engine components and encourage a 30 per cent our fuel and lubricants equals
17 per cent lighter than the found the one that experiences reduction in fuel consumption about one year of engine dyno
previous generation. 2014 saw the most pressure, which is in when compared to 2013 and work here in the lab.’
the introduction of a combined

72 www.racecar-engineering.com J July 2014




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A division of GregSeal Technology UK Ltd

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Some hard truths

Whether quantifying aero or deciphering engine curves, there's no room for shortcuts

ne of the greatest BY DANNY NOWLAN This has spanned motorsport, need to do to quantify your
undercurrents that I military aviation, academia, aero, and to reiterate this I will
see in motorsport is be conducted in-house by the radio-controlled flying – even be presenting two case studies
the 'magic bullet racer', race team. In particular we will partner dancing, to name just a of what happens when you
where people pay someone be discussing the importance handful. What makes these people blindly follow what somebody
money and expect to instantly of quantifying the performance champions is not just the talent else has done.
go faster. In some respects it’s of the racecar. Rather than they are born with – they work The first case study we need
always been a part of motorsport giving you an esoteric list, I’m their arses off. They study their to discuss is what happens when
and is peculiarly specific to our actually going to show you some art and they practice long after you use a racecar manufacturer-
business. In some respects it’s examples of what you are in for everybody else has gone home. supplied aero map without using
very much the motorsport version when you abandon responsibility The first area that we need any validation. What you are
of a toddler’s security blanket. for doing your homework. to discuss here is quantifying about to see was taking directly
Spending it in most cases it does If you are serious about being aerodynamics. As far as I am from the aero manual of a high
absolutely nothing, but it makes good at anything, it’s about you concerned, this is one of the downforce open wheeler. Due to
teams feel better. In the modern reaching a standard. In my career core responsibilities of the race confidentiality requirements I will
era I see this crop up in teams both on and off the racetrack I engineering department of any be blanking out scalings. What
paying a fortune for the magic have had the privilege of meeting race team. I have discussed on you will be seeing though is the
damper, or the magic engine the world’s best at what they do. countless occasions what you comparison between actual and
or teams paying a fortune for simulated data.
exclusive factory support.
The focus of this article will
Money is racing's version of a The first comparison we will
discuss is the results generated
be to show you in no uncertain toddler's security blanket – spending from the manufacturer-supplied
terms that the responsibility aero maps. This comparison is
for engineering the car must it simply makes teams feel better shown in Figure 1.

July 2014 0 www.racecar-engineering.com 75


Figure 1: comparing actual and simulated data using the standard aero map Figure 3: comparison of actual data against manufacturer-supplied CFD map

Figure 2: comparing actual and simulated data using their own aero map

The real data is coloured and As can be seen, it is a night and

the simulated data is in black. day difference between Figure 1 Figure 4: lateral force v slip angle for multiple tyre loads from test rig results
Let’s walk through the various and Figure 2. In particular, the
traces. The first trace is speed, the front and rear pitches which in was because the aero numbers The upshot of this particular
second trace is steering the third Figure 2 are for all intents and they where provided with were tale is that this supplied aero map
trace is front pitch (the average of purposes on top of each other. appallingly bad. Anyway, to set was completely useless. At least
the two front dampers) and the If you have the pitch sensitivity the scene – a couple of years ago the first aero map we discussed
last trace is rear pitch (average quantified, then all of a sudden at their engineering office, the in Figure 1 had some useful
of the two rear dampers). We are you can start doing serious work performance engineer presented application. But the aero map
using pitch because it is a very on refining your bump rubber and me with Figure 3. presented in Figure 3 was a
clear indicator of downforce. spring combinations. It’s also going For clarity I’ve kept the same trainwreck. Not only couldn't it
What we can divine from to lead to much more accurate convention as Figures 1 and 2. be used for gearing, but the aero
Figure 1 is that while the standard tyre modelling since you have As we can see, the speed trace map was so inaccurate that a
aero map has done a reasonable your loads correctly quantified. I is way too optimistic and the setup deduced using it would
job at estimating downforce and can tell you from experience that simulated pitches (shown in have been a total disaster. This
drag, the pitch sensitivity has something like Figure 1 will get black) are way too high. This is a is what you are opening yourself
fallen short. This is particularly you by. When you have done night and day sign that someone up to if you never do any aero
apparent in comparing the front the hard work yourself and has been unrealistic with their validation work.
and rear pitches. At medium speeds produced an aero map that gets downforce and drag numbers. The next key area of
the front is way too optimistic (in the results of Figure 2, this will After expressing my thoughts responsibility faced by a
the order of 2–3mm). As we get help you to win races. Also, just with some choice words, the first race engineer and/or team is
close to top speed it actually gets for the record, Figure 2 was thing I got him to do was to show quantifying tyre performance.
pretty close, but now the rear generated using the ChassisSim me the aero map. I was informed Here you must always validate,
downforce is overestimated. What Aero modelling toolbox. that this had been generated by because there are big time
this shows you is that the standard However, the ultimate CFD with no on-track validation. consequences if you don’t.
manufacturer aero map will do fallacy of relying on someone Anyway, I looked at the numbers This next example is arguably
a reasonable job of estimating to generate aero maps for you and started to laugh, so the some of the worst tyre test rig
downforce levels and getting came from another customer of first thing we did was to do a results I’ve ever seen in my life.
the gears right. Where it will mine. This particular customer hand calculation. The downforce What made this particularly
struggle is giving you a direction was running a high downforce had been overestimated by notable was that within a week
in setup due to the fact that the racecar. I am being deliberately 30 per cent and the drag was I had emails from multiple
pitch sensitivity hasn’t been vague about who the customer underestimated by 20 per cent. customers in the same category
quantified correctly. asking me to sanity check
In contrast there was a
large improvement when the
In one supplied aero map, downforce them because they had serious
misgivings. This was from a
team in question did their own had been overestimated by 30%, and modern high downforce open
aero modelling. The results are wheeler. This category was also a
shown in Figure 2. the drag underestimated by 20% relatively senior category. When I

76 www.racecar-engineering.com 7 July 2014



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almost indistinguishable and

the shift points showing in the
fourth trace are also close. These
shift points won’t be exact since
ChassisSim will hit them perfectly
consistently. However, this is
more than sufficient to do gear
ratios and advanced setup work.
I can testify to this one from
direct experience. Granted, you
might struggle a bit on ovals,
but for road courses this is a
complete non-issue.
What we have shown here is
that there are no easy solutions
Figure 5: correlation using a tyre model generated from the ChassisSim tyre force modelling toolbox if you are serious about winning.
As we discussed in Figures 1-3,
if you don’t do aero validation
you are leaving yourself at the
mercy of others. In the first case
study, the pitch sensitivity wasn’t
appropriately quantified and
the aero map used in Figure 3
was completely useless. It is
also worth keeping in mind
that if the manufacturer has
seriously screwed up, they will
not tell you! Meanwhile, the tyre
result that was presented in
Figure 4 is woefully inadequate.
God help you if you were to use
it as the basis for any simulation
work. Also, as we discussed in
Figure 6, you don’t need the
magic engine curve to get going.
It’s also worth reflecting
Figure 6: F3 correlation using a generic engine curve that I am not writing about the
importance of quantifying racecar
sanity checked it I couldn’t believe totally irrelevant. The simulated trace is steering, the sixth trace performance because I gain some
what I was seeing – the results results would have pushed them is lateral and longitudinal and the weird academic pleasure from it.
are presented in Figure 4. to minimise steering lock, and final traces are front and rear rolls. I’m ramming home the importance
The reason these results are part of that would be to soften As you can see there is hardly any of this because this wins races.
so bad is due to the peak slip the car up. Given the amount difference. This is the pay off you I’ve seen it first hand in the work
angle migration. To put this into of downforce these particular get when you do your homework, I have done. But what gives me
context, most open wheeler racing cars’s carry, this would have been because results like Figure 5 are even greater pleasure is to see
tyres have a peak slip angle of 6 nothing less than a complete and the foundation of race wins. the members of the ChassisSim
to 7deg. It varies a bit, but it’s a utter unmitigated disaster. The other fallacy I see in this community rolling their sleeves up
good rough rule of thumb. What In complete contrast to this, business is race teams getting and getting the job done. It makes
we are seeing in this graph is that the users of the ChassisSim all hot and bothered about their success that much sweeter.
as the load increases, so does the community have the tyre force manufacturer-supplied engine The bottom line for those
peak slip angle. At a load of 6000N modelling toolbox at their disposal. curves. To put this in perspective, of you reading this article is
(about 600kg) there is a peak This allows them to quantify tyre here’s an example of how far you breathtakingly simple. Yes, you
slip angle of 10deg. If this was performance from race data. It can get with a generic engine can pay others to do your hard
truly the case, what you would allows them to achieve correlation curve. Consider the F3 correlation work for you. You might get lucky
see on the steering trace is that like this on a daily basis. shown in Figure 6. and they might do a reasonable
while the initial turn in would be Again – actual data is coloured, Actual data is coloured and job. However, the aero modelling
reasonable, as you progressed to while the simulated data is black. simulated data is black. I am the case studies and tyre force case
the mid-corner stage the steering The first trace is speed, the second first person to admit that this study highlight that you could very
lock would be very large – possibly is throttle. The third and fourth are is not perfect, but the speeds well by playing the engineering
in the order of 15–20deg at the front and rear dampers, the fifth (shown in the first trace) are equivalent of Russian roulette.
wheel. These particular cars do not The final nail is that if you
get anywhere near this. I promptly
told them to ignore the figures.
Another fallacy I see is race teams are serious about winning, you
have to do the hard work of
Had these results been getting hot and bothered about performance validation yourself.
adopted, any simulation work they There are no shortcuts on this.
would have done would have been manufacturer-supplied engine curves None whatsoever.

78 www.racecar-engineering.com < July 2014


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Cranfield takes on
hydrogen power
For a challenging design project, students were asked to envisage a racing series using a
hydrogen-fuelled internal combusion engine. Here's what one group came up with…

The students reworked the Radical RXC chassis

into what is essentially an all-new design

very year Cranfield an accessible racing series accommodate it in a side impact, Bridgman, Robert de Chazal, Xu
University sets the using a hydrogen-fuelled the students also had to design Chen, Thorsten Lajewski, Alfonso
students on its MSc internal combustion engine. the storage system itself as well Rodriguez, Pierre Salmon and
Advanced Motorsport The Radical RXC acted as the as the delivery system to the Sudeep Thangiah.
Engineering course a tough base line in terms of cost and engine. The engine also had to The group chose to use the
group design project. This year it chassis structure, as did one of be optimised to run on hydrogen Ford V6 engine as they felt it
asked them to take a look into the the two engines used in that and its expected performance offered lower frictional losses
near future. It is a future where model – the Ford Ecoboost V6 or figures was to be given. and higher torque, as well as
the hydrogen economy is real, the RPE V8. As this car is aimed a lower compression ratio. It
mass market vehicles use the at the club racer, composite PROJECT FOCUS also features direct injection as
gas in both its liquid and gaseous chassis were outlawed. Racecar Engineering selected the standard and would be easier
states as fuel and there is an In addition to formulating a project developed by a group of to convert to run on hydrogen
established supply chain. workable concept for the overall eight students to focus on. What compared to the RPE V8.
The students set out to chassis which could accommodate appears in this article is based Once the engine was
investigate the potential for the hydrogen storage system and on the work of John Binks, Daniel chosen, the team modelled a

80 www.racecar-engineering.com : July 2014

An array of structures would
be fitted to give good results
in the side impact crash test
which was done at 55kph
using a deformable barrier

Three hydrogen tanks are mounted in the chassis, the largest in the
New turbochargers were selected with the addition of external conventional fuel cell location, while a pair of smaller tanks are mounted
wastegates to regulate the compressor's operating region on the roll hoop supports. Vent pipes exit on the roof of the car

1D theoretical model of a regulate the compressors and in-tank regulators would be Attention then turned to the
cylinder's stroke cycle. The operating region. A fuel map was fitted to avoid pressure issues. A chassis, and analysis was done on
associated friction losses were also created with an algorithm solenoid valve would ensure that several materials starting with the
formulated in Matlab, which gave that optimises the fuel flow rate the two highest vessels would steel used by Radical on the RXC,
the group an initial understanding dependent on the mass remaining empty first in order to lower the but also other grades – and even
of the mathematics behind in the storage system. car's cg during a race. aluminium. The samples were
engine simulations and That storage system would subjected to destructive testing,
expected performance indicators consist of three tanks containing VENTING TANKS including tensile testing and three
allowing for validation of results gaseous hydrogen, the team In the event of an accident or an point bent tests to derive true
using AVL Boost. choosing not to deal with the issue with the fuel system, the stress strain curves. Peel tests and
To maximise the performance complexity of a liquid system. tanks would vent the hydrogen to tensile tests were also done on
of the Ford engine running on The storage system layout the atmosphere via four pipes on joints to see what the properties
hydrogen, new turbochargers would be based on the the roof of the car. It would take of the heat-affected zones were.
were selected with the addition requirements laid out in the draft around 150 seconds to empty a FEA simulations were
of external wastegates to EU regulations in existence, full storage system. developed to validate the material

July 2014 8 www.racecar-engineering.com 81


The revised Ford V6 engine with the additional coolers it The complete revised chassis with the fuel system installed.
would require, shown above in rendering form A shift from steel to Aerocom 33 was proposed

Hydrogen Engine Performance Indicators

800 500


Torque (Nm)

650 450



Power (kW)


Lambda (−)


0.95 300


Diagrammatic illustration of the cooling solution 0.85

Mass Aspirated Per Second (kg/s)

required in the revised Ford V6 engine 0.8 250
85 0.4

BSFC (g/kWh)

80 0.2


75 100
2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500
Engine Speed [RPM]

Engine modifications resulted in a peak deliverable torque of

768.3Nm at 4750rpm, and peak power of 498.6kW at 6500rpm
Although the vehicle weight has increased to 1330kg, the
power-to-weight ratio is still 24 per cent more than on the base car

data input, using an iterative support. A shift from the steel increased to 1330kg, although TANK SPECIFICATION
process with LS-DYNA as well as used by Radical to Aerocom 33 the power-to-weight ratio is
Nominal pressure: 70MPa
a material card. tube would be implemented in still an improvement of 24
Using this data, the team many areas of the chassis. per cent over the base. A race Filling pressure: 85.6MPa
redesigned the RXC chassis, With all of the modifications, simulation showed that the
Burst Pressure: >160MPa
revising the triangulation (and the team simulated the 6.4kg hydrogen fuel load would
increasing it in some areas), and performance of the revised car, be adequate to complete a 20 Vessel volume: 1x 112.5L and
changing the roll hoop shape they found that the engine minute race including laps to 2x28.75L
and location to accommodate modifications resulted in a peak green and back to the pits. Total hydrogen mass: 6.69kg,
the hydrogenate storage tanks. deliverable torque of 768.3Nm Ultimately, the project (6.40kg useable)
The largest of the three tanks at 4750rpm and peak power proves that the hydrogen car
Material: Toray T700S carbon
would be stored in the traditional 498.6kW at 6500rpm – a notable could be a viable option if the
fibre 14.3mm wall thickness
location behind the driver, while increase in performance over hydrogen economy happens.
with a 5mm HDPE liner, 10mm
the two smaller tanks would be the original engine performance. If and when that happens is a foam protective end caps
mounted above on the roll hoop However, the vehicle weight very different question.

82 www.racecar-engineering.com ? July 2014


Nissan announces Le Mans return

with all new US-built LMP1 car
Nissan has confirmed that Head of Brand, Marketing and
it will return to Le Mans in the Sales, Darren Cox. ‘We have an
LMP1 category with the GT-R LM engine mule on the dyno. The
NISMO, featuring technology that technical details are all decided,
has not yet been explored by the and you will see some familiar
three existing manufacturers, NISMO faces around the project.
Audi, Toyota and Porsche. ‘You have got three different
Nissan, which contested Le manufacturers with three
Mans in 2012 with the DeltaWing different outcomes, we will be
and in 2014 with the ZEOD, is a fourth with a fourth,’ added
expected to confirm Ben Bowlby Cox. ‘We have looked into the
to design the car from the US, regulations, and there are some
although hints were dropped that really exciting things that we
Nissan’s test facility in Cranfield can do on the energy side, so
will be used in addition to we are not going to come with
Nissan’s test facility in Arizona. something that anyone else
There was no announcement has in terms of a solution. Our
of the technology to be used, simulations say that it is going

although the indication was that to be competitive. The ACO’s

lessons learned from the series The Nissan LMP1 will take design cues from the production-based GT-R regulations are right, the right
hybrid ZEOD project, developed guys are in the right jobs, so the
by RML in the UK, would be this is unlikely. ACO technical be creative and different, so this stars are all aligning.’
carried over. However, there was director Vincent Beaumesnil said is what we are expecting.’ The programme was
speculation that Cosworth’s 1.6 that they would be welcome The prototype will carry design welcomed by the FIA, and the
litre V6 Formula 1 engine project with whatever technology they cues from the Nissan GTR roadcar, ACO. ‘You have only happy people
would be revived in the back of wanted. ‘There are some rules, has been in CFD design for nine in the WEC paddock with this
the car. Another possibility is and it is up to Nissan to make months, and will be track tested news,’ commented Gérard Neveu,
that parent company Renault’s a car that is in accordance with for the first time in October 2014. general manager of the World
F1 engine could also be used, them,’ said Beaumesnil at the ‘We are starting to cut carbon at Endurance Championship, which
although sources indicate that launch. ‘The rules allow people to the moment,’ said Nissan’s Global Nissan will contest in 2015.

Ukraine crisis hits Sauber Formula 1 sponsor talks

Sauber team principal Monisha have because the sanctions that that it will end up in a positive
Kaltenborn has admitted that the have now been imposed are really way and we will go to Sochi
recent unrest in the Ukraine has biting some of them.’ [for the first Russian Grand Prix
halted the team’s negotiations She added that Sauber was in a century in October], because
with prospective Russian now waiting for an improvement that’s very important.’
sponsors and investors. in the political situation: ‘They’re Since the troubles started,
The long-running negotiations very careful. We simply have a World Superbike round due
with a group of Russian to wait and there’s nothing we to be held at the Moscow
aerospace companies are thought can do about it. So we really Raceway in September has been
to be vital to the Swiss team, hope that the situation can be cancelled, while the DTM has
with many calling it a ‘rescue deal’ clarified soon and all our deals said it may drop the Russian
when it first came to light last can be sorted out.’ round of its championship.
year, but now talks have stalled Other teams have also felt Tost added: ‘I personally
in the face of economic sanctions the effect of the fallout from just hope that we can go there
against Russia and uncertainty the crisis, with Toro Rosso’s because the Russian market is
about the future in the region. Franz Tost saying that it has also quite important for us. I hope
Kaltenborn said of the had problems with sponsorship that we will have this race. Until
Ukrainian situation: ‘We’ve negotiations with Russian October there is a long time and
definitely seen an effect because companies (it’s running Russian I hope they can sort out all the
a lot of talks which are very driver Daniil Kvyat this year). troubles that they have currently.’
advanced have virtually come to ‘Of course the political situation FIA president Jean Todt has

a standstill because people are affects our negotiations with said that as things stand F1 will
Monisha Kaltenborn says that the waiting, and seeing what’s going companies in Russia, because race in Russia: ‘At the moment
political situation has halted talks to happen and nobody really no one knows exactly which there is no change to the
knows the entire impact it can way it goes,’ Tost said. ‘I just hope calendar. Russia is on,’ he said.

84 www.racecar-engineering.com F July 2014


Non-F1 Strategy Group teams say cost cap can still work
Some of the smaller Formula 1 voted against a cost cap on the FIA to stick with the decision done – the legitimacy of the
teams have said they think there the grounds that it would be to apply the cap, which was Strategy Group to overturn the
is still a chance of a cost cap impossible to police. unanimously agreed at a meeting Geneva decision.’
being introduced in F1 and that Teams within the Strategy in Geneva in January this year. But Fernley does not believe
they believe it could work, despite Group have since come up with Rob Fernley, deputy team the cost cap is dead in the
the fact the F1 Strategy Group other cost-saving measures – principal at Force India, said: water: ‘As far as we’re concerned
has recently rejected it. including the use of more spec ‘I think the main issue we it’s still in the hands of the
The F1 Strategy Group, parts and even the re-introduction are having is that the FIA are FIA to progress what was
which is made up of six teams of active suspension. But some comfortable that a cost cap unanimously approved.’
– Red Bull, Ferrari, Mercedes, non-Strategy Group teams – can be administered and we John Booth, team principal at
McLaren, Williams and Lotus, Force India, Caterham, Sauber respect their opinion. So we Marussia added: ‘Marussia very
plus the FIA and FOM – recently and Marussia – have urged question – as we always have much share that view,’ he said.
Sauber team principal
Monisha Kaltenborn, while
agreeing that the cost cap could
still happen, also questions the
Strategy Group’s view that it
would be impossible to police:
‘I don’t think it’s dead because
first of all there is a unanimous
decision and I think it is very
much possible to police it,
because it’s something that can
be policed, it is figures. It depends
on the people that put down
the figures, if they are right or
wrong. We do that with all of
our companies. I think there’s
no country where our teams are
situated where we don’t have
book-keeping, so I don’t think it
Some Formula 1 teams have insisted the FIA’s cost cap plan is still viable should be an issue.’

Venezuelan oil settlement bolsters Williams income

Williams saw a sharp increase The earnings for the group
in its income last year, which was before interest and taxes (EBIT)
partly down to a multi-million was £12m, while for the F1 team
pound sponsor pay-off which alone it was £11.5m. Williams
helped to ease driver Pastor Advanced Engineering’s results
Maldonado’s switch to Lotus. are more in line with 2012, the
The Grove-based group has part of the group that markets
posted a boost in income for F1-derived technology raking in
2013 of close to £27m over some £15.6m (£15.5m in 2012),
2012, much of which comes with an EBIT of £6m, down a little
from a ‘special non-recurring from £7.6m the previous year.
sponsorship deal’ secured by Williams also tells us that over
the Formula 1 team, which saw the last 12 months it has closed
a big increase in income from its Qatar Technology Centre –
2012, going up to £108.5m from which is set to be relocated to
£86.4m the previous year. the UK – while it has recently
This non-recurring deal announced the sale of its Hybrid

is believed to be a pay-off Power arm to GKN for £8m.

from Maldonado’s long-term Team founder Frank Williams Pastor Maldonado took PDVSA backing from Williams (pictured) to Lotus –
sponsor PDVSA, the Venezuelan said of the results: ‘Although but thanks to a £27m settlement, Williams was not left with empty pockets
government owned oil giant, 2013 was a difficult season
which is said to have bought the for the team on the race track and hope we can continue to we are making good progress
driver out of his five-year deal [it scored just five points], we improve our performance.’ against our strategic objectives
with Williams after the team’s report these full year results at Mike O’Driscoll, Group CEO, of strengthening our F1
disastrous 2013 season. It’s a time of much optimism for the said: ‘We began the process of performance and building a
believed that PDVSA paid Williams Williams Group. We have started refocusing and restructuring robust and profitable advanced
somewhere in the region of £15m. the 2014 Formula 1 season well midway through last year and engineering business.’

July 2014 J www.racecar-engineering.com 85


Silverstone future ‘secure’ despite sale talks breakdown

The future of Silverstone But the new BRDC chairman,
circuit and its place as the John Grant, insists that this will
home to the British Grand Prix not affect the future of the
is secure, despite the recent venue nor the British Grand
collapse in talks to sell the circuit, Prix. ‘With or without another
according to the British Racing investor, the futures of both
Drivers’ Club (BRDC). Silverstone and the British Grand
The Club, which owns Prix are secure,’ he said.
Silverstone, revealed last autumn ‘The circuit business
that it was in the process of has enormous potential
selling the track operating arm – and MEPC’s development of
Silverstone Circuits Ltd (SCL) – Silverstone Park – a hi-tech
in conjunction with the sale business park on land surrounding

of a long-term lease on the the circuit – will enhance the

historic racetrack. Silverstone sale has fallen through, but BRDC says the circuit’s future is safe circuit’s image and value over
The announcement was made the next several years. We are
at the same time that the BRDC to attract investment to secure through the final stages of due delighted with the progress
revealed it had signed a deal with the British Grand Prix’s future diligence when the MEPC deal MEPC is already making. They are
commercial property business at Silverstone, the then BRDC was announced, and the BRDC proving to be excellent partners
MEPC to lease 769 acres around chairman Stuart Rolt said at the board had hoped to proclaim this and strong believers in our shared
the periphery of the venue. The time. It still has 17 years to run second deal to its members at the vision for Silverstone.’
financial reasoning for this deal, of its contract with Formula One club’s annual general meeting in Following the breakdown of
which raked in an immediate Management to host the race. October. However, the deal to sell the deal, the BRDC board has now
£32m with which the BRDC was The undisclosed potential SCL and lease the track was held decided to shelve efforts to sell
able to pay off its borrowings, was buyer of SCL was said to be going up and has now fallen through. SCL and to lease the track.

Camping World keep trucking

NASCAR has signed a new deal by 35 per cent in that time, and We expect continued success in commitment to our sport
with Camping World, which the company says its revenues the coming years.’ demonstrates its confidence in
will see the camping supplies have now reached $3.4bn a year. Steve Phelps, NASCAR chief our on-track product and strength
vendor continue its title Marcus Lemonis, Camping marketing officer, added: ‘The of our loyal fanbase.’
sponsorship with the Truck series World and Good Sam Enterprises NASCAR Camping World Truck According to Experian
until the end of 2022. chairman and CEO, said the Series has one of the most Consumer Research, NASCAR fans
The new agreement comes decision to extend with the consistent and durable audiences are 40 per cent more likely than
on the back of a major expansion Truck series was based on in all of sports, averaging non-fans to go camping, while
for the Kentucky-based company results: ‘Six years ago we felt approximately 800,000 or more when it comes to camping gear
since it first signed up as Truck strongly that the sponsorship television viewers per event they are at least 50 per cent more
sponsor in 2009. Camping World would dramatically increase our over the past six years. Camping likely than non-fans to own tents
has increased its number of stores customer base and it’s delivered. World’s seven-year continued and other camping equipment.

Funding boost for Formula E

The new for 2014 Formula E These three investors
Championship for electric racecars will join the board of directors
has secured €50m ($69m) of new alongside current shareholders,
investment from existing partner Spanish entrepreneur
Qualcomm and private equity Enrique Bañuelos and Alejandro
fund Amura Capital. Agag, the chief executive of The new €50m investment comes from Qualcomm and Amura Capital
Formula E Holdings, the Formula E Holdings. Qualcomm
company behind the new originally signed a multi-year deal Formula E. We look forward to values of our company, going that
series, announced that the to become a founding partner demonstrating our technology one step further by investing in
money marks the completion of the Formula E Championship throughout the race series, the environment and sustainability
of its first round of financing. (FE) back in September of last including our Qualcomm Halo with large doses of innovation.’
Qualcomm Incorporated – year, the US company eager to wireless charging on the FE says three more
through its venture capital showcase its wireless technology, Qualcomm Safety Car, and wireless shareholders will be announced
arm Qualcomm Ventures – and which will be a feature of the data connectivity and more on the soon, all of them receiving a
Andorran-based Amura Capital, championship’s electric pace car. racecars themselves.’ seat on the Formula E board
will now join existing investor Steve Pazol, general manager Ivan Comerma, chief of directors. Its inaugural event
Causeway Media Partners, which of wireless charging for Qualcomm, information officer at Amura is on 13 September, with
owns of the Boston Celtics said: ‘We are extremely excited Capital, said: ‘FE is a project Beijing’s Olympic ‘Bird’s Nest’
NBA basketball team. to deepen our relationship with that shares many of the same Stadium hosting the races.

86 www.racecar-engineering.com J July 2014

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Australian General Motors brand commits to V8 Supercars

V8 Supercars stalwart Holden in V8S will be a relief to its CEO, industry: ‘It’s a natural step for
has quashed speculation that it James Warburton, it will not us to continue our incredibly
is to end its involvement in the be a surprise, as recently he successful partnership with
premier Australian motorsport told Racecar that the decision them,’ he said. ‘Their continued
category by extending its deal to cease manufacturing cars commitment, in what is a
with champion team Triple Eight. in Australia was more likely to changing marketplace, not only
There had been rumours cement Holden’s place in the demonstrates their faith in V8
that Holden, the antipodean sport. ‘I see V8 Supercars being Supercars, but it also highlights
arm of General Motors, was even more relevant than ever the importance of motorsport as a
about to pull out of the to support their marketing and fantastic sales and marketing tool.’
championship after it only brand objectives. Don’t forget Warburton said of the
signed a single year deal with that while cars may not be deal: ‘Holden is an iconic
Triple Eight for 2014 – this in made in Australia, they will be Australian brand with a long and
the wake of an announcement sold and marketed in Australia,’ V8S CEO James Warburton is successful history in motorsport.
that it would not be producing Warburton said. delighted with the new Holden deal We are delighted that they
cars in Australia from 2017 The tie up with Triple Eight have once again committed its
onwards. This new agreement is also connected to its Red since its switch to Holden’s support to V8 Supercars.’
should end the speculation, Bull sponsorship – a Holden Commodore back in 2010. At the time of writing it
although the length of the deal fleet deal with the energy Roland Dane, team owner at was not known whether Holden
has not been disclosed. drinks firm was signed at the Triple Eight, said that the deal would also extend its deal
While the confirmation that same time. Triple Eight has shows just how important V8S with its other top-line outfit,
Holden will continue to compete won every championship is to the Australian motorsport Holden Racing Team.

World Rallycross coverage New entry-level UK single-

to reach 100 countries seater formula seeks backers
A British engineering company It is to be aimed at both karters
has released a concept for a progressing to cars and club racers.
new entry-level single seater DEE-Ltd’s head of motorsport,
championship which aims to fill a Nathan Poole, has worked in F1
perceived gap in the market, and it design and at Reynard and TWR. It
is now looking for partners to take holds the European rights for the
the project forward. import, distribution and application
DEE-Ltd has conceived a of Toyota engines, and this, says
spaceframe car – to FIA safety Poole, was the starting point for
standard – which will run with the project. ‘The fact that the
The World Rallycross broadcasters such as FOX Sports Toyota’s three-cylinder 1KR-FE engine is a 1-litre, three-cylinder
Championship has unveiled an Latin America and beIN Sports, engine packing a supercharger, lightweight engine fits the road
impressive suite of TV deals, as well as our existing deals. which will take its output to map for low carbon and downsized,
giving the new-for-2014 series We’re still in discussion with 120bhp. The company has built a boosted engines,’ he said.
a claimed potential reach of over some other regions so we may rolling chassis, minus bodywork, ‘The market is very crowded
816 million homes worldwide. have even more broadcasters to and it is now looking for partners towards the £90,000 to £100,000
World Rallycross, which staged add to our TV portfolio.’ with which to develop the formula. a season mark, but we’re talking
its first event in Montalegre, Rob Armstrong, global head The car, which has provisionally about a £25,000 car, and £30,000
Portugal in May, says that it of IMG Motorsport – the company been called a Formula Genesis, a season. Carbon chassis and
will broadcast in more than promoting the championship – will cost less than £25,000 – with winged formulae cost a fortune to
100 countries this season, via said: ‘Enthusiasm for World RX is engine – and budgets are expected compete in, but there’s nothing to
a network of over 30 different growing quickly at the moment to be around the £30,000 mark. do at a club level.’
broadcasters. All of these will and I’m delighted that so many DEE-Ltd has not yet decided The company hopes to
show extended highlights of each broadcasters have committed whether it will be a spec or open launch the formula as early as
round, while at least 25 will show to televising our championship. formula – this and other details next year, but that depends on its
the championship live or ‘as live’ There’s no denying that rallycross will be up to its partners, should success in finding partners to help
with a two-hour programme. is a fantastic spectator sport, they be attracted to the project. with the project.
Martin Anayi, MD of the but it is also one that lends itself
championship, said: ‘It’s extremely perfectly to the small screen.’ Formula Genesis will pack a three cylinder
exciting to have the support of Among the countries taking Toyota engine boosted with a supercharger
more than 30 broadcasters. Even World Rallycross TV packages are
though it’s our first season as a full Mongolia, Cambodia and Myanmar.
world championship, we’ve already To download our free digital
secured commitment from some of World RX supplement, visit
the world’s biggest pan-regional www.racecar-engineering.com

88 www.racecar-engineering.com F July 2014

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The golden era

The British Touring Car Championship is enjoying one of the best seasons in its 50-year
history. We talked to its boss to find out just what makes BTCC 2014 so special

he British Touring Car teams have got a fantastic asset else. They might be able to have
Championship has now, which they didn’t have to smarter transporters but there
enjoyed its fair share of buy – we gave it to them.’ are such restrictions on the cars
halcyon periods: Cortina If a manufacturer wanted to that if you came in with £3m you
vs Galaxie in the 1960s, the enter the BTCC it would have to probably wouldn’t do any better.
fire-breathing Sierra Cosworths do so through buying, borrowing ‘You’re seeing that in all
of the 1980s, and the big money or leasing a licence from one of motorsport around the world.
Supertourers of the 1990s to the existing holders, then, and it’s There’s less and less dependence
mention just three. But in future easy to imagine the smaller teams on manufacturers. That does not
years will 2014’s incarnation sitting on their TBLs and rubbing mean we wouldn’t like to have
of the long-running saloon car their hands waiting for the car- manufacturers involved, of course
championship also be looked makers to knock on their workshop we would, but it doesn’t hinge on
back on as a golden time? The doors with bags of cash. their involvement.’
indications are that it will, for But is there actually a place in
whether the measure is grid size, the BTCC for a big influx of works BANG FOR YOUR BUCK
spectator numbers, star drivers, teams right now? ‘There’s good Gow says a budget for one car in
sponsor involvement, or the highly and bad in that,’ says Gow. ‘We a top team is around £400,000
enjoyable show, the UK tin-tops BTCC series director Alan Gow saw in the ’90s that when the these days, which has to be good
seem to be in tip-top condition. manufacturers depart they leave a value for a televised series which is
One man who is enjoying are no teams or drivers dipping huge vacuum, and we don’t want attracting crowds of up to 40,000 –
this BTCC boom-time more than in and out of the championship, to get into that position again. a staggering amount for UK racing,
most is Alan Gow, the busy coming and going as they So what we’ve done is create a matching and even beating figures
Australian who is series director please. This is because of the set of regulations that anyone for many Premier League football
and administrator – as well as new British Touring Car Licence can build a car to. Yes, if you’re a matches. But while the BTCC might
being chairman of the MSA and (TBL), which secures places in manufacturer team you will have rival top tier football in this respect,
president of the FIA Touring Car the championship in return for a bit more expertise and resources Gow has no illusions when it comes
Commission. ‘I don’t know if it a guarantee that the teams will available to you, but they can’t do to its importance in the sporting
could get much better,’ Gow says. turn up to every event. that much better than everyone pecking order: ‘You’ve got to know
‘We’ve got 31 cars on the grid – ‘It’s a way of giving something
11 different makes – all new cars back to our teams,’ Gow explains.
that have been built to the new ‘It’s not a franchise system or The current BTCC grid boasts seven
regulations, so we’re on a roll at anything like that. A franchise champions, and 31 cars made
the moment. There are seven means they get shares and profits; by 11 different manufacturers
champions on the grid and the a licence is merely a licence to
racing’s fantastic.’ enable you to compete. You can’t
enter a car in the BTCC unless you
GENERATION NEXT have the licence, which means
Gow puts the success of the that all of those teams that have
current era of the BTCC down committed to us, we’ve made that
to the NGTC (Next Generation commitment back to them. As part
Touring Car) regulations, a cost- of the licence system they also
focused formula that is largely have to commit to doing every
based on the use of a number of round of the championship, so it’s
spec parts, and has been phased a two-way thing. But the licence
in since 2011 – all the cars are means more to them than it
NGTC for the first time this year. probably does to us.’
It’s not just about technical What the licence gives teams
regulations, though, for there is something tangible to own
has been another major change beyond cars and equipment, and
for this season, and where 2014 to sell on if they wish. ‘If anyone
differs noticeably from previous wants to come in to the BTCC they
years is in the robustness of the have to do it through one of the
BTCC grid, for this year there licence holders,’ Gow says. ‘The

90 www.racecar-engineering.com E July 2014

where your place is, and we don’t also a set of regulations they
have the support or attraction could use for their feeder series RACE MOVES
that football does. We’re very then that’s fine, but these are two
much on the motorsport ladder, totally different things. McLaren has appointed two
and in the UK we’re very much ‘We will not be writing new new aerodynamicists, with Tony
second to Formula 1 – and a long regulations, we will be using a Salter arriving from Sauber and
way second at that. You just have couple of sets of regulations that Guillaume Cattelani from Lotus.
to know your audience, you have to exist. There will probably be two The signings are to help fill the
know your product, and you must levels of regulations – one for a gap left in its aero team as it
waits for Peter Prodromou to
not tilt at windmills.’ much more standard sort of car
join next year – after his Red Bull
It’s a realistic approach. But – and then we will formalise it so
gardening leave is up – and while
where does the BTCC stand in that any national championship the legal uncertainty over whether
relation to its global cousin, the around the world can use those.’ Dan Fallows is contracted to Red
World Touring Car Championship? But Gow does admit that this Bull or McLaren is cleared up.
Gow says they are not competitors new global touring car blueprint
Francesco Nenci has started

“You have to know your audience, work as Jules Bianchi’s race

engineer at Marussia F1, taking

you have to know your product, the place of Paul Davison, who was
promoted to the role of head

and you must not tilt at windmills” of vehicle performance earlier

this year. Davison continued
in the race engineer role until
in any way, pointing out that the could be to the NGTC regulations. Nenci was released from his
WTCC does not even race in the ‘It could. What we are going to previous team, Sauber.

UK, while the BTCC has no plans do is have a look at the regulations
Dickie Stanford (above), who
to race abroad. Yet the two have of all the series around the Top Mercedes DTM team HWA
stepped down from the position
been linked recently, largely as a world and see which is the most has split with its technical director
of team manager at Williams F1
result of Gow’s role with the FIA’s appropriate. Obviously NGTC and CEO Gerhard Ungar. The
earlier this year, will now take
Touring Car Commission and talk would have to be fairly high up, news came just days after
on the post of general manager
Mercedes made a disastrous
that there is to be a new feeder but I’m not in it to sell the NGTC at Williams Heritage, a new
start to the DTM season, failing to
category for WTCC. ‘There are two concept to anyone.’ division of the group that will
score a point in the opening
different things going on here,’ Whatever happens to NGTC look after the large collection
round. HWA board member Ulrich
he says. ‘One is that the WTCC worldwide, the BTCC itself is in a of pensioned-off Williams F1
Fritz will now take over Ungar’s
promoter, Eurosport, needs to start happy place right now. It’s in rude cars, which are often used for
responsibilities while the company
looking at ways of getting teams health just as the UK is dragging on-track demos. Stanford joined
searches for a replacement.
Williams as a mechanic in 1985.
in with a feeder series. But that’s itself out of recession. So what
a totally different subject from will future race fans say when Benoît Dupont has now left his
what the FIA is doing, which will they look back on BTCC 2014? post as Renault Sport Technologies
(RST) sporting manager to take Former Australian saloon car racing
be drawing up a set of regulations Will it be: ‘now there was a golden
up a position with the all-new team boss and engineer Harry
that national championships can time’, and will they then add:
FIA Formula E championship for Firth has died at the age of 96.
choose to use. Going on from ‘and that was just the start’?
electric racecars. Dupont had been Firth was the man who set up
there, if Eurosport decides that’s Mike Breslin with RST for 10 years. the factory-backed Holden Dealer
Team and was also a successful
Nigel Vaulkhard, the co-founder driver before he turned to team
of Bamboo Engineering, which management, winning Australia’s
last year raced in the WTCC most prestigious race, the Bathurst
and this year is competing in 1000, four times. He retired from
the WEC in an affiliation with motorsport in 1977.
Craft Racing, has died at the
age of 66 after a mountain Former Aston Martin and Ford race
bike accident. Vaulkhard, a mechanic and GT40 preparation
former Porsche and historic wizard John R Etheridge has
racer, set up Bamboo with died at the age of 72. After great
Richard Coleman in 2009. success fettling racecars for others,
Etheridge set up his own company
Bob Bell, currently technical specialising in Aston Martins,
director at Mercedes, is to Ferraris and the Ford GT40 in
leave the F1 team at the end 1968, but was particularly known
of this season. Bell, the former for his work with the Blue Oval’s
tech boss at Renault, announced fabled sports racer.
his intention to leave the team
at the end of last year. Mercedes Legendary Indianapolis 500 car
is to drop the role of technical builder and mechanic AJ Watson
director when Bell leaves, has died at the age of 90.
with executive director Watson took six wins as a
(technical) Paddy Lowe taking constructor at the Brickyard, and
on his responsibilities. Bell joined four as a chief mechanic, in the
Mercedes in 2011. late-1950s and early-1960s.

July 2014 G www.racecar-engineering.com 91


Caterham management restructure BRIEFLY

Made for Orleans
sees Smith replaced by committee IndyCar is considering racing at
the NOLA Motorsports Park, just
Mark Smith is no longer is to improve its performance: outside New Orleans, with some
the technical director at ‘I would like to thank Mark for reports saying a race at the 2.75-
Caterham, while a ‘technical his time and dedication to the mile road course could be on the
committee’ has been formed development of our team since calendar as early as next season.
in a bid to improve the struggling he first joined in 2011. We and If the event goes ahead it will
F1 team’s woeful form. Mark part company on good terms be promoted by Andretti Sports
Smith, who has been with and with our best wishes for the Marketing, while it’s understood
the team since 2011, will not future. It was obviously a tough that the state of Louisiana has
be replaced, and the technical decision to see someone of Mark’s pledged to spend around $4.5m
director role is now defunct at calibre go, but we have identified towards the upgrades required to
Caterham. The new committee, the need to restructure as a key bring it up to IndyCar standard.
which will now make the technical aspect of increasing our on-track
decisions, is made up of former performance and forming a new Honda limit
performance director John Iley, technical committee composed of Honda’s motorsport boss
chief engineer Gerry Hughes, John, Jody and Gerry will allow us Yasuhisa Arai has said that
and former deputy technical to do exactly that.’ the Japanese company will not
director Jody Eggington. The Mark Smith has parted company Caterham’s dismal season supply any teams other than
committee will report to team with Caterham ‘on good terms’ plumbed new depths at the McLaren when it makes its return
principal Cyril Abiteboul. Spanish Grand Prix, where they to F1 next year. ‘For year 2015,
Iley will now be known as be chief engineer, but he will were not only out-qualified by McLaren is our only customer,’
head of performance engineering also assume the role of head of tail-end rivals Marussia, but the he said. ‘If teams want to use
while Eggington takes on trackside operations. times posted were beaten by the our engine or power unit, we can
the job of head of design and Abiteboul insisted the top 13 cars in qualifying for the deliver after year 2016, but right
manufacturing. Hughes will still restructure was vital if Caterham GP2 support race. now there are no plans.’

All in the mind for Mercedes OBITUARY – SIR JACK BRABHAM

Mercedes has confirmed that it particularly during high-pressure Sir Jack Brabham AO, OBE, end for front-engined Formula 1
is now working with a noted sports situations such as pit stops. triple Formula 1 World Champion, cars. The third made him the
psychologist, but he has not been Mercedes executive director has died at the age of 88. only driver in history to win a
brought in for the benefit of drivers Toto Wolff has confirmed the Sir Jack passed away World Championship in a car
Lewis Hamilton and Niki Rosberg. hiring of Evans. ‘At Mercedes we peacefully at his Gold Coast, of his own manufacture, the
Former professional soccer want to optimise every aspect Australia. Formula 1 World Brabham BT19. Technological
player Dr Ceri Evans – who worked of performance, and we believe Champion in 1959, 1960 and innovations brought about by
with the New Zealand All Blacks that there is much to learn from 1966 and double Constructors’ the Brabham team helped to
rugby team during its 2011 other sports. This includes the Champion (1966 and 1967), shape the sport today.
World Cup winning campaign performance of the whole team Sir Jack was one of the most Jack scored his final win in
– was at the Chinese Grand and how we act and react in key accomplished drivers and team the 1970 South African Grand
Prix, where he observed and moments,’ he said. owners in the sport’s history. Prix, but his legacy continued
assessed Mercedes engineers Evans is a former Oxford The first driver to be knighted for with all three of his sons
and mechanics as they went United and New Zealand services to motorsport, Jack rose achieving global success. Sir
about their race-weekend work, international football player. from racing midgets on dirt ovals Jack is survived by his wife,
in Australia to dominate global Lady Margaret, sons Geoff, Gary
motorsport. His first two titles and David, and their families.
in the Cooper Climax marked the Sir Jack Brabham 1926-2014

Force India has signed a major deal with the Smirnoff vodka brand, which
is part of drinks giant Diageo. Diageo is currently in the midst of a bid to buy
United Spirits, the alcohol group owned by Force India boss Vijay Mallya.

International tech firm Silanna has signed up to sponsor Caterham F1. The
company specialises in the design and manufacture of semiconductor devices.

Singapore Airlines is now title sponsor of its home grand prix. CEO Mr
Goh Choon Phong said of the deal: ‘We are thrilled to be taking up the title
sponsorship of one of the most exciting races on the F1 calendar, and especially
Dr Ceri Evans has observed and assessed Mercedes crew in high pleased to be doing so in the lead-up to Singapore’s 50th birthday next year.’
pressure situations during race weekends, such as pit stops

92 www.racecar-engineering.com G July 2014


While he might always be opportunity to also work Former Lancia rally and Alfa
remembered for the part he with Michael Schumacher for Romeo racing manager Giorgio
Pianta, a man renowned for his
played in the spying scandal the first time. There was
organisational abilities, has died
in 2007, Nigel Stepney, who then a brief spell managing a
at the age of 78. The Italian was
died in a traffic accident in Formula 3000 team in 1992, initially a driver, in both racing
May at the age of 56, had a before he returned to F1 with and rallying, and was well-known
varied and successful career in Ferrari, where he eventually for his talent as a test driver.
motor racing, which included became a key cog in the He subsequently found a place
playing a crucial role in the machine that ripped up the as a test driver in Fiat’s Abarth
Formula 1 record books in the competition arm in the 1970s,
first part of the 2000s. where he helped to develop
In 2007, by now head of the Fiat 131 with which Walter
Röhrl took the 1980 World Rally
performance at the Scuderia,
Championship. Pianta went
Stepney was increasingly
on to manage the Lancia rally
disillusioned with the way programmes for the Fiat group and
Ferrari was operating, and oversaw the Lancia Rallye 037 and
soon became embroiled the Delta Group B campaigns in the

in the notorious ‘Spygate’ 1980s. When Alfa Romeo became
scandal – in which he was part of Fiat Pianta spent 10 years NASCAR’s chairman and CEO
accused of passing on secrets at Alfa Corse, both in the DTM and Brian France (above) as been
to McLaren. This ended his the BTCC, before leaving in 1996, honoured at the Cynopsis
career in Formula 1, the FIA when he took up a consultancy Sports Awards in New York.
position with the Italian motorsport NASCAR Sprint Cup team owner
recommending that teams did
federation. Pianta’s driving career Rick Hendrick presented France
not employ him – although he
started in the 1950s, and he went with the Vision Award, which
told Racecar that the FIA later on to race in a wide variety of recognises the executive of
offered him a position working formulae, including F2 and F3. He the year from a sports league
within the governing body also competed at Le Mans and in or organisation who has
itself. He was also handed a the Targa Florio during a career that ‘demonstrated innovation and
suspended prison sentence. stretched into the 1980s. transformed an industry’.
Turning the FIA offer down,
Stepney went on to work The Motor Sport Industry
in sportscars, first with the Association (MIA) has taken on
Nick Wills as its new business Pit crew coach Lance Munksgard
Gigawave GT team and then,
development director, with the has left NASCAR Sprint Cup outfit
since 2010, with JRM. James
brief of enhancing the connections Hendrick Motorsports, where
Rumsey, the owner of JRM, said he was involved with the crews
between motorsport companies
of him: ‘From the moment Nigel and the defence sector. Wills, a that tended the Jimmie Johnson
joined JRM in 2010 he was a former army officer, is a founding and Dale Earnhardt Jr cars. Greg
most successful era in Ferrari’s vitally important member of member of the MIA’s Motorsport Morin and Chris Krieg will cover
long Formula 1 history. the team and brought a level to Defence initiative and has his work until the team find a full
Stepney started his of engineering experience to worked on the project since its time replacement.
motorsport career at the us that was unrivalled. The inception in 2007.
Broadspeed touring car team rest of the engineering and Gunther Steiner is to be the
Andrew Coe has left the position team principal at the new-for-
as an apprentice mechanic – in race team here at JRM learned
of chief executive of International 2015 Haas Formula 1 team.
an interview with Racecar an unimaginable amount from
Motor Sports Ltd (IMS), the Steiner, who despite the
he said its Jaguars were his Nigel in the four short years he German-sounding name is actually
Motor Sports Association’s (MSA)
favourite racers (V23N12) – was with us and his death has commercial subsidiary. Coe joined Italian, has F1 experience with
before moving to Formula 1 shocked everyone to the core.’ IMS from the International Tennis Jaguar and Red Bull, while he has
with Shadow. Rumsey added: ‘The Federation in 2001, and his also worked in World Rally.
He joined Lotus in 1980, motorsport world has lost duties had included managing the
where he went on to work with one of its greatest characters British round of the World Rally Peter Jung has joined NASCAR
Ayton Senna, before a move to and competitors.’ Championship, Wales Rally GB. as senior director of growth
Benetton (1989) gave him the Nigel Stepney 1958-2014 segment marketing, coming to
Ben Taylor, the development and the organisation from Mastercard.
communications director at the Nicole Smith has also joined
MSA, will now fill Coe’s role by as director of growth segment
CAUGHT becoming the managing director of marketing, reporting directly to
International Motor Sports. He will Jung. Both have been brought in
NASCAR Sprint Cup crew chief Talladega round of the series. perform his IMS work in parallel to to focus on NASCAR’s youth and
Kenny Francis has been hit As a result of the infraction the his existing duties at the MSA. multicultural marketing efforts.
with a $25,000 fine after the Kasey Kahne-driven car was
Hendrick Motorsports Chevrolet also relegated to the back of the Q Moving to a great new job in motorsport and want the world to
he tends was found to be under grid – he had originally qualified know about it? Or has your motorsport company recently taken on
the weight limit during post- in 17th place. an exciting new prospect? Then send an email with all the relevant
qualifying scrutineering at the FINE: $25,000 information to Mike Breslin at bresmedia@hotmail.com

July 2014 G www.racecar-engineering.com 93



Covers every level of motor racing and technology.
WINNING BUSINESS Over an estimated £1 billion of
business generated at the show. LATEST TECHNOLOGY
& PRODUCTS 600+ exhibitors showcasing the latest
technology and solutions. Plus new product launches.
NETWORKING 27,000+ motorsport professionals,
including over 5,000 overseas trade buyers from more
than 50 countries.


AUTOSPORTINTERNATIONAL.COM 8 - 9 January 2015 NEC Birmingham, UK

Clarion call to cut racing carbon

Alongside the 25th Autosport Engineering show next year, a new trade event is
launching which recognises the growth and importance of low carbon racing

lans for the 2015 opportunities for suppliers and that heavier cars are allowed
Autosport Engineering buyers of advanced motorsport higher emissions than lighter
Show, held in and automotive technology. cars, while preserving the overall
association with Racecar But what is low carbon? fleet average.
Engineering, are well under way Low carbon technology In 2012, an average of 65 per
with a new concept recognising has become a by-word for fuel cent of each manufacturer’s newly
low carbon racing. In step with economy. Reducing carbon registered cars had to comply with
the rapid proliferation of emissions has become a critical the 130g/km limit value curve set
low carbon technology in focus of attention for major car by the legislation. This rose to 75
motorsport and global road companies, which are faced with per cent in 2013, 80 per cent in The low carbon initiative embraces
car manufacturing, Haymarket EU emissions targets of 130g/km 2014 and goes up to 100 per the emphasis on reducing emissions
exhibitions is launching a trade- of CO2 by 2015, and 95g/km by cent from 2015 onwards. For the
focused event for the low 2020 for the entire fleet. 95g/km average, 95 per cent of a bold step, with new hybrid
carbon technology sector. According to the EU, cars each manufacturer’s new cars regulations in F1 and sportscar
The Low Carbon Racing and are responsible for around 12 will have to comply with the limit racing. Racing is the perfect
Automotive Show (LCRA) will per cent of total EU emissions value curve in 2020, and 100 per platform for rapid development,
take place alongside Autosport of carbon dioxide, the main cent in 2021. with prototype cars able to be
Engineering and Autosport greenhouse gas. This equates There are financial penalties used for testing purposes, and
International. The Autosport to a reduction of 18 per cent applied to any manufacturer that proven in competition.
shows – which like Racecar will be reduction on 2007 figures, and a fails to meet the targets – for The new regulations have
celebrating their 25th anniversary 40 per cent reduction by 2020. every car registered, the penalty attracted Honda to F1, Porsche,
in 2015 – supports the Motorsport In terms of fuel consumption, this is €5 for the first g/km exceeded, Audi, Toyota and Nissan into
Industry Association in staging works out as a target of 5.6 litres €15 for the second g/km, then LMP1, and more are expected
an ‘industry-only’ one day Low per 100km of petrol, and 4.9 litres €25, and €95 for every gram to come onboard. The low carbon
Carbon Racing conference, which per 100km of diesel. The 2021 exceeded thereafter. initiative at the Autosport
takes place at the NEC the day target equates to 4.1 litres for Engineering Show, in association
before the show opens. The petrol and 3.6 litres for diesel. RACING TARGETS with Racecar Engineering,
creation of the LCRA alongside Emission limits are set The new targets mean that reflects the task that has
the show will deliver broader according to the mass of the manufacturers are looking for been set by legislators, and
exhibitor and visitor bases, which vehicle, using a limit value technologies to reduce carbon embraced by manufacturers
will offer even greater value and curve. The limit value means emissions, and racing has taken involved in racing.


Öhlins has been an integral part It is the most important in competition, electronically have been affected by all these
of the motorsport industry since motorsport show today, controlled suspension is changes and new challenges.
1976. With such experience in with excellent opportunities often not allowed. However,
the automotive sector, we speak to meet the industry and our even with electronically Q: What can we look forward
to Ola Lennström, marketing clients, which is why we keep controlled suspension, good to seeing from Öhlins in the
manager, to find out how its coming back! hardware is still the most coming years?
extensive product range has important factor and therefore A: Since Öhlins is involved in so
changed, and what we can look Q: In 2015, we will celebrate the development within many different areas within the
forward to in the coming months. 25 years of Autosport electronics and conventional industry, that is a hard question
International. How has your systems goes hand in hand. to give a short answer to!
Q: What were your experiences business changed over the At the same time there Obviously continued
of the 2014 show? past 25 years? has been, and still is, constant development into the
A: Öhlins has been a regular A: We are currently seeing development in all areas of so- electronically controlled system,
exhibitor at Autosport a move from conventional called conventional suspension but also into new markets such
International and we feel it suspension over to mechatronic such as valve technology, as mountain bikes.
is a show with a very high and electronically controlled materials used and oil. We are looking at expanding
international mark. We always suspensions in a number of The motorsport industry this area of the business
leave the event with a number sectors. This has been a constant itself has gone through a lot of as well as launching a variety
of good leads and contacts, change for a few years now major changes during the last of new competition and road
so we make sure we give it and is especially true for 25 years and, as a supplier to products for both the car and
the highest priority. road-going vehicles, whereas the motorsport industry, we motorcycle sector.

July 2014 E www.racecar-engineering.com 95



Melectronics LED headlights Bosch acceleration sensor

The progress of technology in LED headlights are more efficient
recent years has seen big budget than their traditional equivalents
teams introduce fully custom – yielding a saving in power or a
LED headlights to their prototype gain in targeted light output for
machines, giving them a technical your given power budget.
and aesthetic ‘wow’ factor. Such advantages are no longer
But the benefits of using such the preserve of the highest
technology are based in function budget teams and Melectronics
as well as form, with tangible have addressed this with their
performance advantages on offer. latest range of LED Headlights.
In terms of headlights, weight The off-the-shelf items are
and space can be saved with simple drop-in replacements for
the LED approach, causing less traditional 90mm parts, making
physical restrictions in the critical the switch to LED simple.
front area of the car. Furthermore, www.melectronics.co.uk

The MM5.10 sensor was micromachined element is used

designed to measure the physical to measure the vehicle lineal
effects of rotational and lineal acceleration in all three axes.
acceleration. In order to achieve This combination of rotational
this, the sensor includes MEMS and lineal acceleration sensors
measuring elements connected to enables a precise measurement of
an appropriate integrated circuit. the vehicle dynamics.
A rotational acceleration around The main feature and benefit
the integrated sensing elements of this sensor is the combination
generates a Coriolis force which of three lineal and two rotational
changes the internal capacity accelerometers and its high speed
of the micromachined sensing 1 Mbaud CAN-signal output.
parts. Furthermore, a pure surface www.bosch-motorsport.com


SS Tube Winmax brake pads widen distribution

Technology Japanese brake pad
manufacturer Winmax has
An engineering-based fabrication started distribution in Europe,
business manufacturing exhausts Russia, Africa and the Middle
and thermal management solutions East. The company is the
for high-technology industries, market leader in Japan in
SS Tube Technology has recently motorsport brake pads.
invested significally in new facilities. The firm has been well-
This includes a six axis laser cutter, known in Japan for many years,
electronic CNC tube bender and two and since the early-80s has
laser scanning probes. This allows the designed and produced high
business – which serves F1, IndyCar, quality brake pads for cars active
WEC and touring car series to react in rallying, racing, and formula
faster, reduce process costs, increase racing. It quickly became the
capacity and process more complexity choice of champions and proved
while ensuring quality and consistency its qualities by featuring on a
across the product portfolio. host of top cars in Japan. potential dealers, and Winmax positive, with great feedback
www.sstubetechnology.com At the beginning of 2014, continues also its search to from teams and drivers. Key
Winmax started to export, expand its dealer network. points highlighted by them have
co-ordinated from Winmax In the meantime, Winmax been in relation to the superb
Europe, based in Belgium. Europe has started several tests grip, the constant performance,
Initially, dealers signed for local with official manufacturer teams and the limited damage
distribution rights in Belgium, as well in rallying (WRC and ERC), experienced by the discs. Winmax
Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands Rallycross RX, Cross-Country brake pads are available in several
and the Czech Republic. Further (Dakar) and in other forms of different compounds – see the
negotiations are currently racing (WTCC, GT). All tests website below for details.
ongoing with another 10 to date have been extremely www.winmaxeurope.com

July 2014 > www.racecar-engineering.com 97


As you were, gentlemen


Andrew Cotton he failure of manufacturers to reach agreement Then, in May, the FIA introduced a plan to use
on the future of GT regulations has been met accelerometers to balance performance and continue
Deputy editor
Sam Collins with indifference by one of the leading figures in with production-based engines. (At this point, Porsche
News editor
the world of GT racing, Stephane Ratel. The Frenchman, asked for a definition of production-based engines…)
Mike Breslin who oversaw the introduction of the BPR series, the The FIA considered this to be a cheaper solution to
Dave Oswald FIA GT Championship, the Blancpain Endurance and building bespoke race engines, but there were obvious
Chief sub editor Sprint series, and more aptly created the GTE and GT3 hurdles to overcome. The gauges have to be located in
Stuart ‘Reggie’ Goodwin
Technical consultant
regulations, never saw the point of the convergence the driveshafts, which are therefore likely to be custom-
Peter Wright talks, and has consistently stuck to his theory. made. They then need to be calibrated and tested across
Mike Blanchet, George Bolt jr, Ricardo Once again, he has proven to be correct as, late in a wide temperature range, with the data then analysed.
Divila, Gemma Hatton, Simon McBeath,
Danny Nowlan, Mark Ortiz, Serge
May and with the prospect of the June World Council Data analysis alone from the Spa 24 hours would take
Vanbockryck, Peter Wright meeting to present bullet points for the unification of either weeks, or a lot of money to do it quickly. Neither
John Brooks, James Moy, XPB key elements of GT and GT Plus cars, manufacturers was satisfactory. ‘It came down to timing – to introduce
Deputy managing director failed to reach an agreement and instead the plans the accelerometers in 2016 or 2017,’ said Aston Martin’s
Steve Ross
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3730 were shelved. There is still a plan to propose standard John Gaw. ‘There were four options in total: to stay as we
Email steve.ross@chelseamagazines.com
Head of business development
chassis regulations for 2016, but this is nonsensical as it are, to introduce accelerometers in 2016, to introduce
Tony Tobias maintains the instability and uncertainty for the class. accelerometers in 2017 or to go to sonic restrictors. The
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3743
Email tony.tobias@chelseamagazines.com The FIA Endurance Commission set out to establish GT3 teams wanted accelerometers as quickly as possible,
Advertisement manager Lauren Mills
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3740
common platforms between the two categories in a bid but we wanted more time to develop them properly. The
Email lauren.mills@chelseamagazines.com to reduce the cost of GTE problem with accelerometers is that
Advertisement sales executive
Stewart Mitchell
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3745
racing. On the fundamental
point of engines, however,
By leaving the door a closed loop system, if not done
properly, would be very expensive.
open, the commission
Email stewart.mitchell@
chelseamagazines.com there was no agreement. As Imagine that it has to work in the
Marketing manager
talks wore on, the point of wet, the dry, on old tyres, on new
would leave GT
William Delmont
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3710
Email will.delmont@chelseamagazines.com
them became more and more tyres, with pro drivers or with
obscure. ‘In my opinion, if there amateurs – you can imagine the
racing in limbo
Publisher Simon Temlett
Managing director Paul Dobson is to be a reduction of cost, level of the closed loop system that
Racecar Engineering, Chelsea Magazine it would be understandable,’ you would have to develop. It could
Company, Jubilee House, 2 Jubilee Place,
London, SW3 3TQ
said Michelotto’s Luigi Dindo at Spa in early May. ‘The two have worked, but it would have taken time.’
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3700 categories, especially GT3, are working. The talks were However, the fact that the talks have been ongoing
Racecar Engineering, Chelsea Magazine necessary to see how to improve what exists, but no one for so long suggested that the plan was flawed, according
Company, Jubilee House, 2 Jubilee Place,
London, SW3 3TQ
was willing it. What exists now is working very well. What to Ratel. ‘It is not going to happen mainly because I don’t
Tel +44 (0) 20 7349 3700
Fax +44 (0) 20 7349 3701
do we need? We need to reduce the cost of design, and of think the manufacturers want it,’ said the Frenchman.
Subscriptions the cars, and of maintenance. This was the request.‘ ‘We presented GT3 to the commission in July 2005. By
Subscriptions Department
800 Guillat Avenue, Kent Science Park The first talks took place in November, 2012. At the April/May 2006, we had 52 cars entered in the GT3
Sittingbourne, Kent ME9 8GU time, there was frustration from the manufacturers championship, despite opposition or interference from
Tel +44 (0) 1795 419837
Email racecar@servicehelpline.co.uk that they could not even find a starting point. Should most people. Now, for me, it is clear. If after two years of
Subscription rates GT3 cars be made into GTE? Logic suggested yes, talks there is still opposition, it is not a good sign.’
UK £66 (12 issues)
USA $162 (12 issues)
with the cars cheaper to buy and run than the GTE There is a natural point at which the regs should be
ROW £84 (12 issues) cars, and just as fast. Yet that wasn’t possible changed, says Ratel, and that is when the inevitable
News distribution
Seymour International Ltd, 2 East as GT3 was literally a Balance of Performance formula, question of GT hybrids comes, perhaps as early as 2018,
Poultry Avenue, London EC1A 9PT
Tel +44 (0) 20 7429 4000
with no clear technical regulations. How could maybe by 2020. That is when there will need to be an
Fax +44 (0) 20 7429 4001
Email info@seymour.co.uk
manufacturers compete on this platform? overhaul through necessity rather than choice.
Printed by Wyndeham Heron Eventually, it was accepted that common engines By leaving the door open to a change in 2016, the
Printed in England
and roll cages would feature in both categories, but commission has left GT racing in limbo. McLaren, Audi and
ISSN No 0961-1096
USPS No 007-969 then came the crux of the problem – what to do with Aston Martin all have new or facelifted models coming.
the engines. There were clear sides: those who wanted Let them come, and don’t try to fix what ain’t broke.
production-based engines (normally those who ran GT3
only programmes), and those who wanted to build race EDITOR
www.racecar-engineering.com engines and control them with sonic restrictors. Andrew Cotton

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98 www.racecar-engineering.com P July 2014

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