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mate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term climate

change.[3] Climate change mitigation generally involves reductions in human (anthropogenic)

emissions of greenhouse gases(GHGs).[4] Mitigation may also be achieved by increasing the
capacity of carbon sinks, e.g., through reforestation.[4] Mitigation policies can substantially reduce
the risks associated with human-induced global warming.[5]
According to the IPCC's 2014 assessment report, "Mitigation is a public good; climate change is a
case of the 'tragedy of the commons'. Effective climate change mitigation will not be achieved if
each agent (individual, institution or country) acts independently in its own selfish interest
(see International cooperation and Emissions trading), suggesting the need for collective action.
Some adaptation actions, on the other hand, have characteristics of a private good as benefits of
actions may accrue more directly to the individuals, regions, or countries that undertake them, at
least in the short term. Nevertheless, financing such adaptive activities remains an issue,
particularly for poor individuals and countries."[6]
Examples of mitigation include reducing energy demand by increasing energy efficiency, phasing
out fossil fuels by switching to low-carbon energy sources, and removing carbon dioxide from
Earth's atmosphere.[4][7] for example, through improved building insulation.[8] Another approach to
climate change mitigation is climate engineering.[9]
Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC).[10] The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize atmospheric
concentrations of GHGs at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference of the
climate system.[11] Scientific analysis can provide information on the impacts of climate change,
but deciding which impacts are dangerous requires value judgments.[12]
In 2010, Parties to the UNFCCC agreed that future global warming should be limited to below
2.0 °C (3.6 °F) relative to the pre-industrial level.[13] With the Paris Agreement of 2015 this was
confirmed, but was revised with a new target laying down "parties will do the best" to achieve
warming below 1.5 °C.[14] The current trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions does not
appear to be consistent with limiting global warming to below 1.5 or 2 °C.[15]Other mitigation
policies have been proposed, some of which are more stringent[citation needed] or modest[16][17] than the
2 °C limit.