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Tourism marketing involves discovering what tourists want


(market search), developing suitable tourist services (product
planning), telling them what is available (advertising and
promotion), and giving instructions where they can buy the
services (channels of distribution: tour operators and travel
agents) so they will receive value (pricing), and the tourist
organization will make a profit and attain its goals
(marketability). Tourism marketing management is the setting of
marketing goals (considering the resources of the tourism
company and the market opportunities) and the planning and
execution of marketing activities required to meet the goals.
When carried out effectively, tourism marketing management
results in creating and satisfying customers in a manner
acceptable to society and leads to profitable growth for the
organizations.
As the practice of marketing enters the 21st century its role in
business practice is clearly critical. Rapid change and intense
global competition exist in many markets. Deregulation in key
industries such as transportations and communications has
lead to the need for market driven strategies.
Buyers of tourism services increasingly demand products that
meet their specific need. Survival and growth in the turbulent
environment are more and more difficult to achieve without
professional marketing practices.
The issue at the very core of the strategic marketing planning
process is that of segmentation, targeting and positioning. The
three are closely interrelated and serve as the foundation upon
which marketing objectives are achieved.

MARKET SEGMENTATION
Market segmentation is the process of dividing up the total market (all
the people the organization can sell its products or services to) into
identifiable, measurable and discrete groups who share some common
characteristics or needs and whose attitudes or reaction towards
communications messages about products or services might be similar.
Tourism markets in India can be segmented or sub-divided in many
ways-
Geographic segmentation
Demographic segmentation
Psychographic segmentation
Benefit segmentation
Usage rate segmentation
Price sensitivity

The above mentioned are the most commonly used segmentation


techniques in the tourism industry. The various elements in the
marketing mix and plans are designed in order to exploit the different
elasticities of demand for travel and tourism of the various segments.
The segment should then be ranked according to their economic value
by the level of demand for various opportunities by the variance in
responsiveness among market to available opportunities, by the
accessibility of market segments in terms of communication strategies,
growth potential and by the degree of competitive vulnerability.

DEMOGRAPHIC
Age Tourism organizations classify their
customers using age categorizations.
Youngsters, teens generally want a
party atmosphere to their holiday
experience whereas adults want a
comfortable family resort having peace.
Gender Men and women have different tastes
and values which are reflected in their
choices and purchase of products and
services. Men in a single-sex group
wants more of adventurous trips such as
skiing trips, horse riding, golf).
Geographic region
Stage in the family life Tourism organizations classify segments
cycle in accordance with the stage in the
family life cycle. Family with young
children has a different requirement
than young singles. Old couples need
peace and relaxation; families need fun
and entertainment for the children.
education Tourism organizations classify segments
in accordance with the education
background of customers.
Race, ethnicity, culture
Occupation or social class
Sexual orientation

BEHAVIORAL
Motivation/purpose of
travel
Frequency of use/purchase
Decision-making processes
Benefits sought from the
experience
Usage
Attitudes, perceptions,
values, beliefs

Multiple segments for producers in travel and tourism


Below are the list of the wide range of subgroups with which business in
the different sectors of the travel and tourism industry are concerned:
HOTELS
1. Corporate/business clients
2. visitors on group package tours
3. independent vacationers
4. visitors taking weekend/midweek package breaks
5. conference delegates

TOUR OPERATORS
1. Young people, singles and couples, eighteen to thirty olds
2. Families with children
3. Retired/senior citizen/empty nesters
4. Activity/sports participants
5. Culture seekers

TRANSPORT OPERATORS
1. First-class passengers
2. Club-class passengers
3. Standard-class passengers
4. Charter groups
5. Apex purchasers

DESTINATION ATTRACTIONS
1. Local residents in the area
2. Day visitors from outside local area
3. Domestic tourists
4. Foreign tourists
5. School parties

1. Purpose of travel
For tourism marketing in India, segmentation should always begin with
a careful analysis of the purpose for which customers undertake travel
and use its and competitors product. For a tour operator, customer
purpose and product needs will differ according to whether they are
looking for
a. Main summer holidays
b. Additional holidays and short breaks
c. Winter sun
d. Winter sports
Within the broad categories of main holidays. Typical subsidiary
purposes would include sea and beach holidays (with and without
children), culture interests, walking and other activity interest in exotic
destination.

Buyer needs and benefit sought


The next consideration for segmentation of tourism in India would be to
understand the needs, wants and motivations of particular consumer
groups. The customer tends to seek particular benefits when they make
their product choices. In the case of a tour operator example, the
primary purpose is reflected in the type of holiday chosen; motivation
may relate to opportunities to meet and mix with particular types of
people. Some business travelers may identify luxury and high levels of
personal services as the principal benefits they seek when traveling
away from home. Others may identify speed of service and budget
prices as their principal benefits. Some travelers prefer to stay in large,
modern, international hotels while others choose older, more traditional
establishments.
In case of visitor attraction, the benefit sought by family groups may
relate to children’s interests rather than those of the adults who
purchase the admission tickets. In case of a museum, the benefits sought
by most visitors are likely to be of an hour or two.

Buyer behavior
It includes the type of behavior or characteristics of use of products that
customers exhibit, including their positive and negative contribution to
sustainability. Loyal customers are highly attractive to producers.
Combination of high spending, high frequency and high loyalty would
be the best reasons for designing product and promotional campaigns
aimed at securing and retaining those most valuable customers. They
are always key target segment for marketing attention. The benefit they
seek are obvious focus for marketing research.

TARGETING
Target marketing is a common term used to describe the selection of
market segments to be served by the various elements of marketing mix.
For a tourism destination in India, it is fair to say that each destination
can only match certain types of demand and hence tourism marketers
need to appreciate travel motivations in order to develop appropriate
offering and brand destinations for the right target markets. In
addition, destinations should be aware not only of the needs and wants
of the active demand but also of the potential markets they can attract.
They can develop a portfolio, which will enable them to optimize the
available benefits and adapt their marketing mix to their target
markets. For example, if a destination has limited resources it may not
be feasible to target the whole market or to tailor special offerings to
each segment. Likewise, if the destination’s market is fairly
homogeneous in its needs and desires, an undifferentiated approach
would be the most acceptable. If the competitors have already
established dominance in several segments of the market, it may be
more sensible to concentrate on one of the remaining segments.
Sending the same Promoting the city as a historic
Undifferentiated promotional message to destination by placing ads in
everyone widely read newspapers
Designing a
Promoting the city as historic
promotional message
by targeting elderly members
Concentrated that communicates the
of historical societies by
benefits desired by a
placing ads in their newsletters
single specific segment
Designing more than
Also targeting families by
one promotional
communicating a promotional
Differentiated message, with each
message about the importance
communicating
of children learning history
different benefits

POSITIONING
The final stage in the process, positioning, involves an organization
positioning itself to meet the expectations of customers or potential
customers better than the competitors.
The purpose is to discuss the vital role played by positioning in tourism
marketing and to present various approaches to positioning a tourism
destination. Positioning is more than just image creation. This
important form of market communication helps to distinguish tourism
destinations from similar destinations so that customers can choose the
one that is the most attractive. Thus, true positioning differentiates a
destination from its competitors on attributes that are meaningful to
customers and gives it a competitive edge. However, this is a complex
process that requires careful analysis of the attributes of destinations
and the needs of the target markets. Selection of a positioning strategy
creates a distinctive place in customers' mind.
According to the basic principles of marketing, products and services
are created to solve customer "problems" (i.e., to satisfy needs and
wants) and provide benefits. Thus, to be effective, positioning must
promise the benefit the customer will receive, create the expectation,
and it offers a solution to the customer's problem. If at all possible, the
solution should be different from and better than the competition's
solution set, especially if the competitors are already offering a similar
solution.
Positioning also affects policies and procedures, employee attitudes,
customer relations, complaint handling, and the myriad of other
details that combine to make the tourism experience. Tourism services
compete on more than just image, differentiation, and benefits offered.
There must be a consistency among the various offerings and it is the
positioning statement that guides this consistency.
There are two tests of effective positioning. First, the position must be
believable in the tourist's mind. Second, the destination must deliver
that promise on a consistent basis.
1. Sightseeing in cities
2. Shopping
3. Dining out
4. Guided tours
5. Visiting landmarks
6. Taking pictures
7. Beach activities
8. Visiting theme parks
9. Swimming
10.Visiting galleries.

1. Some place where other people went


2. Reasonable price.
3. As many places as possible to cover.
4. Minimum contact with local community.
5. Perfect Japanese-like service.
6. Good food.
7. Absolutely free.

http://www.hotel-
online.com/Trends/AsiaPacificJournal/PositionDestination.html