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2015-UET-CCET-CIVIL-03

Job No# 2

To Measure The Head Loss (Hl) In A Pipe Of Uniform Diameter (D) And T
Investigate:

 Critical Reynolds Number


 Relationship between hydraulic gradient and velocity of flow
 Relationship between friction factor and Reynolds Number

Apparatus:

 Fluid friction apparatus


 Hydraulic bench
 Stop watch
 Thermometer

Related Theory:

Laminar Flow:

In fluid dynamics, laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel
layers, with no disruption between the layers. At low velocities, the fluid tends
to flow without lateral mixing, and adjacent layers slide past one another like playing cards.

Turbulent Flow:

Turbulent flow, type of fluid (gas or liquid) flow in which the fluid undergoes irregular
fluctuations, or mixing, in contrast is called turbulent flow.

Critical Velocity:

Critical velocity is that velocity of liquid flow upto which its flow is streamlined and above
which its flow becomes turbulent.

Critical Point:

A point on a phase diagram at which both the liquid and gas phases of a substance have the
same density and are therefore indistinguishable.
2015-UET-CCET-CIVIL-03

Critical Reynolds Number:

Reynolds number is a pure number which determines the nature of flow of liquid through a
pipe. Reynolds number at which the flow of a fluid changes from laminar to turbulent.

Pipe:

A tube used to convey water, gas, oil, or other fluid substances is called pipe.

Head:

“Pressure head is the internal energy of a fluid due to the pressure exerted on its container. It
may also be called static pressure head or simply static head.”

Head Loss:

It can be calculated as energy of water per unit weight within the passage of the fluid.

HL= hf +Ʃ (hm)

HL= Total loss of Head

hf= head loss due to friction

Ʃ(hm) = Summation of all minor head losses

Fluid friction apparatus:

Fluid Friction Apparatus allows students to study flow, flow measurement techniques and
losses in a wide variety of pipes and fittings. ... They measure pressure losses across
instruments or components. The hydraulic bench gives an external flow rate for reference and
comparison.

Differential Manometer:

An instrument in which the difference in pressure between two sources is determined from
the vertical distance between the surfaces of a liquid in two sections where it is connected.
2015-UET-CCET-CIVIL-03

Differential Manometer

Setting of Differential Manometer:

It is the process of remove the air before its use is called setting of differential monometer.

Governing Equations:

From the container placed under the free end of the pope, discharge is measured as

Q=Vol./ Time

 So, the velocity of the fluid flowing in the pipe can be computed as

V= Q/ A

Hence putting the values of diameter of pipe, velocity and viscosity of the fluid

Reynolds Number can be find as

RN= VD/v
2015-UET-CCET-CIVIL-03

Procedure:

 Measure the length of the pipe between the two sections and the room temperature.
 Switch on the motor of the pump.
 Perform setting of Differential Manometer.
 Close the valve and note the zero error reading.
 Slightly open the valve and note down
 Time (t), to collect known volume of water, with the help of stopwatch.
 Differential Manometric reading (h1 and h2)
 Repeat Step 5 by opening the valve gradually till the full valve opening is achieved.
 Switch off the motor of the pump

Observation & Calculations:

Data:

Absolute Viscosity = 1.002 × 10-3 Ns/m2

L= 1m

Specific Gravity of Hg = 13.65

Diameter of Pipe = 0.175m

Temperature = 20˚c

Density of Water = 998.2 kg/m3

Kinematic Viscosity = 1.003×10-6 m2/s

Area= 0.0240 m2

Specific Gravity of Water= 1


2015-UET-CCET-CIVIL-03

Ascending Velocity Table

Hydraulic Frictio Reynol


Volume time Manometer Reading Discharge velocity Head Gradient nal ds
Lose Factor Numbe
r
3 3
m sec Y1(mm Y2(mm) Y(mm) m /s m/s m
)
0.01 150 163 161 0.002 6.67×10-5 27.7×10-4 0.0253×10 0.0253×10 11.32 483.3
-3 -3

0.01 39.21 164 157 0.007 2.55×10-4 106.25×10-4 0.088×10-3 0.088×10-3 2.67 1853.81

0.01 21.96 169 152 0.017 4.55×10-4 189.58×10-4 0.21×10-3 0.21×10-3 2.006 3307.72

0.01 17.08 176 143 0.033 5.85×10-4 243.75×10-4 0.42×10-3 0.42×10-3 2.42 4252.86
-4 -4 -3 -3
0.01 15.15 181 139 0.041 6.60×10 275×10 0.518×10 0.518×10 2.35 4798.10
0.01 12.74 182 138 0.044 7.84×10-4 326.67×10-4 0.55×10-3 0.55×10-3 1.76 5699.62

Descending Velocity Table

Hydraulic Frictio Reynol


Volume Time Manometer Reading Discharge velocity Head Gradient nal ds
Lose Factor Numbe
r
m3 sec Y1(mm) Y2(mm) Y(mm) m3/s m/s m

0.01 12.3 183 140 0.043 8.1×10-4 337.5×10-4 0.54×10-3 0.54×10-3 0.054 5892.94
0.01 13.2 180 143 0.037 7.57×10-4 315.41×10-4 0.468×10- 0.468×10-3 0.0509 5504.21
3

0.01 16.4 175 148 0.027 6.09×10-4 253.75×10-4 0.34×10-3 0.34×10-3 0.046 4427.34

0.01 21.3 170 152 0.018 4.69×10-4 195.41×10-4 0.22×10-3 0.22×10-3 0.038 3409.44

0.01 28.9 166 157 0.009 3.46×10-4 144.16×10-4 0.12×10-3 0.12×10-3 0.0285 2515.25

0.01 42.3 164 159 0.005 2.36×10-4 98.34×10-4 0.06×10-3 0.06×10-3 0.021 1715.80

Comments:

 Setting of differential Manometer must be carried out before starting the observations.
 Zero error reading should be observed after carrying out the Setting of the Differential
Manometer.
 Frictional factor is inversely proportional to Reynolds number.
2015-UET-CCET-CIVIL-03