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Volume One

A Translation of

      

popularly known as

  
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Copyright © 2004 Madrasah In’āmiyyah

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a


retrieval system, or transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, or otherwise, without the prior permission of
Madrasah In’āmiyyah, except in the case of brief quotations embodied in
critical articles and reviews.

Typeset on Palatino 13 and Traditional Arabic 18 by Academy for Islamic


Research, Madrasah In’āmiyyah, Camperdown, KwaZulu Natal, South
Africa.

Page 2
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Title Arabic Tutor - Volume One

Author Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān (


  )

Translated by Moulānā Ebrāhīm Muhammad

First Edition R Awwal 1428 A.H. April 2007

Published by Madrasah In’aamiyyah


P.O. Box 39
Camperdown
3720
South Africa

Tel +27 31 785 1519

Fax +27 31 785 1091

email al_inaam@yahoo.com

Page 3
Arabic Tutor – Volume One


 
 !" # # $% &
 ' ()   
 *%+ ,- ./0  120  3 4/5  !6)- "0
78 9:  2) ;0

Àbdullāh Ibn Àbbās  narrates that Rasūlullāh  said,


“Love the Arabs for three things:

• because I am an Arab,
• the Qur’ān is in Arabic and
• the language of the people of Jannah is Arabic.”

Page 4
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Contents of Each Volume

Volume One: Lesson 1 to Lesson 15

Volume Two: Lesson 16 to Lesson 25

Volume Three: Lesson 26 to Lesson 43

Volume Four: Lesson 44 to Lesson 75

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Contents

Transliteration........................................................................10
Introduction............................................................................13
Reviews of this Book .............................................................17
Indications ..............................................................................25
Notes........................................................................................25
Request....................................................................................26
Translator's Note ...................................................................26
Terminology ...........................................................................28
Terminology ...........................................................................28
Lesson 1.......................................................................................31
Words and the Types of Words...........................................31
The Types of Nouns ..........................................................32
The Types of Definite Nouns...........................................33
Lesson 2.......................................................................................35
The Particles of (<=) and (>?%).......................................35
Vocabulary List No. 1 .......................................................38
Exercise No. 1.....................................................................40
Test No. 1 ............................................................................42
Lesson 3.......................................................................................44
Compounds ............................................................................44
The Adjectival Phrase .......................................................45
Vocabulary List No. 2 .......................................................47
Exercise No. 2.....................................................................49

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Lesson 4.......................................................................................50
Gender.....................................................................................50
Vocabulary List No. 3 .......................................................52
Exercise No. 3.....................................................................53
Lesson 5.......................................................................................55
Singular and Plural ...............................................................55
Vocabulary List No. 4 .......................................................59
Exercise No. 4.....................................................................61
Test No. 2 ............................................................................62
Lesson 6.......................................................................................64
Sentences with a Noun -*@A *$+ ....................................64
Vocabulary List No. 5 .......................................................69
The Nominative Detached Pronouns .............................71
Exercise No. 5.....................................................................73
Lesson 7.......................................................................................77
The Genitive of Possession...................................................77
Vocabulary List No. 6 .......................................................80
Exercise No. 6.....................................................................84
Test No. 3 ............................................................................86
Lesson 8.......................................................................................88
The Scales of Words ..............................................................88
Exercise No. 7.....................................................................93
Lesson 9.......................................................................................94
The Broken Plural..................................................................94
Vocabulary List No. 7 .....................................................101
Exercise No. 8...................................................................103

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Test No. 4 ..........................................................................106


Lesson 10...................................................................................108
The Cases of Nouns.............................................................108
The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns ...............109
Vocabulary List No. 8 .....................................................118
Exercise No. 9...................................................................119
Lesson 11...................................................................................123
The Genitive of Possession.................................................123
Vocabulary List No. 9 .....................................................133
Exercise No. 10.................................................................135
Test No. 5 ..........................................................................140
Lesson 12...................................................................................142
Indicative Pronouns ............................................................142
Vocabulary List No. 10 ...................................................147
Exercise No. 11.................................................................148
Test No. 6 ..........................................................................151
Lesson 13...................................................................................152
Interrogative Pronouns.......................................................152
Vocabulary List No. 11 ...................................................156
Exercise No. 12.................................................................157
Test No. 7 ..........................................................................164
Lesson 14...................................................................................166
The Verb................................................................................166
Vocabulary List No. 12 ...................................................173
Exercise No. 13.................................................................176
Lesson 15...................................................................................181
The Imperfect .......................................................................181

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Vocabulary List No. 13 ...................................................189


Exercise No. 14.................................................................191
An Arabic Letter ..............................................................195
Test No. 8 ..........................................................................196

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Transliteration

The following method of transliteration of the Arabic letters


has been used in this book:

 ā

B t

4 th

C j

D h

E kh

 d

F dh

 r

G z

( s

H sh

I s

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

J d

K t

L z

MN á

ON í

PN ú

Q gh

R f

S q

T k

. m

 n

0 ū

; h

U ī, y

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Some Arabic phrases used in this book are as follows:

 (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wasallam)


May Allâh send blessings and salutations upon
him - used for Nabî 
 (Àlaihis salām)
Salutations upon him – used for all prophets
 (Radiallāhu ‘anhu)
May Allâh be pleased with him – used for the
Sahâbah 
 (Jalla Jalāluhū)
The Sublime – used for Allâh 
 (Àzza wa jall)
Allāh is full of glory and sublimity
(
  ) (Rahimahullāh)
May Allâh have mercy on him – used for
deceased saints and scholars

Page 12
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

  
 

VW =X ;)  ./"0 V0


Y$Z

Introduction

From the multitudes of letters which this humble writer has


received from every corner of India, there still seems to be a
fervent desire in this age to learn Arabic and to understand
the final message of Allāh , namely the Qur’ān.

However, no primary syllabus that conformed to the times


was presented to the seekers of Arabic – such a syllabus
that could increase the enthusiasm of the learners.

The ancient method of teaching Arabic and its syllabus


from the very outset made one lose courage. Even the
modern books have been deficient in creating an urge in the
student.

Experience shows that only a syllabus which has easy rules


coupled with teaching the language can increase the
enthusiasm of the student. The rules must assist the learner
in mastering the language. While learning the language, the
rules are refreshed.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

In reality, choosing such lessons and providing a sequence


for them is no ordinary task. This is merely the grace of the
Almighty Allāh  who made this writer accomplish such
an enormous task.

^_=  `=
 [\ ]F

“That is the grace of Allāh. He grants it to whoever He


desires.”

All thanks are due to Allāh  that this book was found to
be extremely beneficial wherever it was read or taught.
Many seekers of Arabic have written that they had lost
hope after several attempts. If they had not obtained this
book, they would not have learnt Arabic.

This is the fourth edition of this book. Initially, this book


was written in two parts. Now it has been divided into four
parts so that it can serve as a proper syllabus for high
schools from the fourth class till matric.

This is the first part of the book. The lessons have been
decreased when compared to the previous editions.
However, the exercises have been increased to an extent
that they can serve the place of an Arabic reader.

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

This part contains only fifteen lessons. But you will be


surprised to note how much Arabic is taught with such a
few lessons. The method of analysing sentences and
recognition has been so well explained, that one cannot
achieve this by learning several other prevalent Arabic
Grammar books.

The key to each part has also been published. Due to this,
many learners have learnt Arabic on their own.

A student doing self-study can complete this part in about


six weeks. However, due to the presence of several other
subjects in high schools, it will be appropriate to make it a
one year course in the fourth class. In Arabic seminaries
and Dārul Úlūms, where only Arabic is taught, all four
parts of this book can be easily taught in one year.

Nevertheless, this book is such that every text book


committee and those in charge of the syllabi in the
madrasahs should include it in their syllabus in order to
remove the difficulties of the students. They will be
rewarded by Allāh and thanked by the people.

The summary of the opinions of the Ulamā of every


province of India and the reviews of magazines and
newspapers is that this has been the most successful
attempt to simplify Arabic. This book is worth being

Page 15
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

introduced in government and non-govermental schools so


that the teaching of Arabic can be simplified.
This humble servant is grateful to all those who rendered
beneficial opinions. May Allāh  reward them with the
best of rewards.

The following pages contain the valuable opinions of some


scholars. This should serve as a means of encouraging the
seekers of Arabic. Others will not have to waste their time
in looking for the merits of this book.

The servant of the students


(Moulānā) Àbdus Sattār Khān (
  )
Bindi Bazaar, Bombay, India

Muharram 1361 A.H.

Page 16
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Reviews of this Book


by the Úlamā, professors of Arabic, authentic journals and
the lovers of Arabic

Àllāmah Shabbir Ahmad Úthmānī (


  )

This book is worth including in the syllabi of the madāris. It


is perhaps the best book written in this subject. The author
has done a tremendous favour to the seekers of Arabic.

Moulānā Manāzir Ahsan Gilānī (


  ), teacher at Jāmiah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

May Allāh reward you. This is a tremendous task. You have


favoured the Muslims greatly. You have decreased a
burden from my shoulders.

Moulānā Khājah Àbdul Hayy (


  ), professor at Jāmi’ah
Millīyah, Delhi

I taught the first part to the students as an experiment. I


have found this book to be the easiest from all the books
written on this subject.

Abul A’lā Maududi, editor of Tarjumanul Qur’ān, Lahore

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

This is the most successful effort at explaining the language


of Arabic and its rules.

Moulānā Muhammad Nāzim Nadwī (


  ), teacher at
Nadwatul Ulamā, Lucknow

Many books have been written in India to learn the Arabic


language in the shortest period possible. However, I have
not seen any book till now that concisely meets the needs of
the time. Moulānā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to the
gratitude and thanks of the Indian students and teachers for
having written a very beneficial, easy and concise textbook
to fulfil this need…

From my personal experience I know that this book is very


valuable in providing benefit. It is worthy of being included
in Arabic madrasahs and English schools so that the
students can learn the language in a short period.

Page 18
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Moulānā Àbdul Qadīr Siddīqī (


  ), teacher at Jāmi’ah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

If this book is included in the syllabus, it will be very


suitable. It is better than other books.

Moulānā Àbdul Wāsi’ (


  ), teacher at Jāmi’ah
Uthmāniah, Hyderabad

I completely agree with the opinion of Moulānā Àbdul


Qadīr Sāhib.

Àllāmah Sheikh Àbdul Qādir (


  ), professor at
Elphinstone College, Bombay

This is a successful endeavour. If this book is included in


the initial Arabic syllabus, it would be more beneficial than
other books.

Moulānā Ghulām Ahmad (


  ), head teacher at Madrasah
Àrabīyah, Jāmi’ Musjid Bombay

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

We have included this textbook in the syllabus of our


madrasah. Experience shows that it is very beneficial.

Moulānā Habībur Rahmān Sherwānī (


  ), Hyderabad

I have studied the book, ‘Àrabī kā Mu’allim’. It seems to be


better than the previous books.

Moulānā Lutfur Rahmān (


  ), Hyderabad

The success you have achieved in simplifying Arabic has


not been achieved by anyone, not even by the European
Orientalists. This book is not merely ‘dry’ Grammar but is
an excellent textbook of Grammar and an interesting
collection of literature.

Janāb Ghulām Àlī, advocate of the High Court, Bombay

Such an interesting and easy book of Arabic Grammar has


not been seen before. My children study it with great
interest.

Page 20
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Moulānā Sayyid Muhammad Yahyāpūr (


  ), Ilāhabād

There is no doubt that the author will long be remembered


for this book and in the hereafter it will be a means of great
reward for him.

Moulānā Muhammad Sa’īd (


  ), Sultānpūr

The books of Punjab and U.P. and the book ‘Kalāme Àrabī’ of
Meerut are non-entities in front of your book.

Moulānā Muhammad Siddīq Kīrānwī (


  )

This humble servant has several books of this type e.g.


Raudatul Adab, Kalāme Àrabī etc. However, the excellent
manner in which you have presented the summary from
Mīzān till Kāfiyah cannot be found in the above-mentioned
books.

Moulānā Sa’īduddīn Khān (


  ), Indor

Indeed Arabic has been simplified. Your effort is worth


congratulating.

Page 21
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Zamīndār, a newspaper of Lahore

Without exaggeration, we can say that the learned author


has achieved extraordinary success. In our opinion this
book is worth including in the syllabi of all government and
non-government schools where Arabic is taught. We
specifically request the Punjab Text Book Committee to
grant the students the opportunity to benefit from it.

Al-Jam’īat, a newspaper of Delhi

“Arabī Kā Mu’allim” in reality conveys the meaning of its


name – that is, it is an Arabic tutor. My desire is that the
principals of Arabic institutes include it in their syllabi.

The Journal “Adabī Dunyā” of Delhī

Many books have been written till now in the modern trend
in order to simplify Arabic. I have seen practically all of
them. However, the manner in which Moulanā Àbdus
Sattār Khān has simplified a complex language such as
Arabic cannot be found anywhere.

Page 22
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

The newspaper “Zamzam” of Lahore

The manner of teaching and understanding adopted in this


book does not create any burden on the mind. Every fact is
thoroughly learnt like a known fact. In our opinion there is
no better series to promote Arabic.

The Journal “Balāgh” of Amritsar

Moulanā Àbdus Sattār Khān is entitled to congratulations


for having converted this stone (Arabic Grammar) into
water. He has explained all the rules from Mīzān till Kāfiyah
in an easy-to-understand manner.

Ilāhī Bakhsh, Malaya

I have ordered many books of Arabic Grammar and


Morphology written in Urdu and English and have spent
much money on them. But by Allāh, these books have no
value in front of your book. I do not have sufficient
powerful words to describe the assistance I have received
from your book in learning Arabic. Even now, if a Muslim
finds Arabic to be difficult, he is unfortunate and lacks
courage.

Page 23
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Janāb Muhammad Hanīf, Upper Primary School,


Hazārībāgh

I had a desire to study Arabic for a long time. I used many


books but it was futile. When I studied your book, I
mastered Arabic in a very short while. The surprising thing
was that I received no assistance from any teacher. Your
book in reality is a mirror of the Arabic language.

Muhammad Sharafud-dīn, Hyderabad

I thought that Arabic was so difficult that I could not even


imagine learning it. However, as soon as I saw your book,
my courage increased and I began studying it. I completed
the first part in a few days. Now send me the second part. I
do not think there is any book easier than this one.

Dr. Muhammad Àbdul Quddūs, Madras

I read the first part of your book. It helped me


tremendously to the extent that now I am able to write a
few sentences in Arabic. Undoubtedly your book will create
a great revolution.

Page 24
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

This amount of recommendation is sufficient for the one


who understands; otherwise so many reviews were
received that a separate book could be compiled for this
purpose.

Indications

1) The inverted comma (a) is used to indicate the plural of a


noun.
2) In order to refer to a particular lesson, the lesson number
and fact number will be mentioned in brackets thus: (5-2)
meaning lesson number 5, fact no. 2.
3) The (  ) of the verb is mentioned in brackets after it.

Notes

1) Do not start a new lesson until you have mastered the


previous one.
2) Translate each exercise with particular care.
3) Sometimes you may not understand a point. Remain
steadfast and seek the assistance of someone. Perhaps later
on you will understand the point yourself.

Page 25
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Request

A request is made to the teachers to study the book


thoroughly before teaching it. During your teaching stint,
you will be able to refer your students to previous lessons
easily. There is no need to memorize the rules parrot-
fashion. As you continuously repeat the examples, the rules
will become ingrained in your mind. You will also learn the
Arabic terms at the same time. It is appropriate to teach the
book twice. First teach it superfluously and then in detail
the second time.

Translator's Note

Translating is indeed a difficult task and I therefore do not


claim to have fulfilled the right of translating this book. I
ask the reader to overlook all shortcomings. Those
attempting to translate any work of this calibre, will realize
the great hurdles one has to overcome, especially where
there are many technical terms involved.

I have made an attempt to clarify the text as much as


possible and simplify the rules so that the beginner can
grasp them quickly. Where there was a need, I have added
explanatory footnotes.

Page 26
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

The original Urdu text of the book contains many errors,


especially in the Qur'ānic verses. I have corrected these in
the English version. In many cases, I have used tables to
enlist sentences or examples. This was done for the sake of
greater clarity although the original text does not have such
tables. Many new Arabic words used in the exercises have
not been mentioned in the vocabulary. I have enlisted these
as well. Many singular words did not have their plurals
listed. I have included these also for the benefit of the
students.

I have used the arrow sign ( ) to indicate the direction of


the text. In some cases, the text has to be read from left to
right as in English, while in other instances, it has to be read
from right to left as in Arabic.

I have provided the English equivalents of the Arabic


grammatical terminology for the sake of information. The
student need not learn the English terms. If one learns the
Arabic terms and understands them well, it is sufficient.
May Allāh  accept this humble effort from me and make it
a means for my salvation, Āmīn.

Page 27
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Terminology

Terms Meanings
*bMM the diacritical points namely fathah
(cd), kasrah (Od) and dammah (ed).

ThMgMfP a letter with a harakah

j!i?P" the diacritical point (kd) also known


as jazm
*Mgjfb\ fathah (cd)

lMj b kasrah (Od)

*m$M' dammah (ed)

j=O!j%M two fathahs (nd), two kasrahs (od) or

two dammas (pd)

j=O!j%M j!Pq the sound of the nūn created when


reading the tanwīn
Dj!PfrVM a letter having a fathah, eg. (M )

j!P r?M a letter having a kasrah, eg. (OB)

.j!P$j[M a letter having a dammah, eg. (i4)

OM" a letter having a sukūn, eg. (jC)

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

mYM_P a letter having a tashdīd (sd)

<j=OjM to make a noun definite

jO?j%M to make a noun indefinite

.P bA the ( ) attached to a noun

<j=Ojmf
t mMP
R the noun having ( )

.u/O
YOM0 singular

*MO%r5M dual

wj$Mv plural

wj$Mv j"O a collective plural, e.g. (t.j!b#) - nation

jOrXM masculine – also known as (xX)

zjOqryM feminine – also known as (zq`)

Rj0PP the letters of the alphabet

jh{MdM
Rj0PP (), (0) and (U)

*uOr

Page 29
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

P j0PPgrb
R the letters besides the (* R0)
i*MgjOgm|
lM}j$M, One hamzah is that of the ( R0
{d). Another hamzah is an alif
that is mutaharrik (i~O~b) or an alif

having jazm like the alif of (t(r-M)

li M}j$M, The initial hamzah of a word which


is not pronounced when joined to the
OjM!r preceding word, e.g. (O MfO?r PSMM0)

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Arabic Tutor – Volume One

  
 
Lesson 1

Words and the Types of Words

1. A word having a meaning is called (*M$Ob). It is of three

types: (tj"O) – noun, (jO\) - verb and (tRjM) - particle.

An (") is independent of other words in indicating its

meaning. It also does not have any tense, e.g. (PvM) – man,

(tYOM) – specific name, (t jM') – to hit, (t9hb€) – good, (M!P,) –

he, (Mqb-) – I.

A (\) is a word that indicates some action together with

one of the three tenses, e.g. (M MM') – he hit, (M9M,bF) – he went,

(P9M,rXM=) – he is going or he will go.

A (R) is a word whose meaning cannot be understood

without an (") or (\), e.g. (jO) – from, (bM) – on, (jO\) –

in, (bO‚) – till, (OYO{j M$r bO‚ iPvm M9M,bF) – The man went to the

Page 31
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

musjid.

The Types of Nouns

2. Nouns are of two types:


(1) (*\) – definite and

(2) (l?q) – indefinite.

An indefinite noun is a word which refers to a general


thing. The word (PvM) – a man, does not refer to any

specific person. It can refer to any person. The word (t9hb€)


does not refer to any particular good thing. Every good
thing can be called (t9hb€).

A definite noun refers to a specific thing. Zaid (Y=G) is the

name of a particular person. Makkah (*?) is the name of a

specific city. (iPvm) – the man - refers to a specific person.

Page 32
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

The Types of Definite Nouns

Definite Nouns are of seven categories:

1. (bMr P j"O) – proper nouns, e.g. (Y=G), (tYOM).


2. (jO$m[ Pj"O) - pronouns, e.g. (M!P,) – he, (Mƒjqb) – you, (Mqb) - I.

3. (OlMM:OAr Pj"O) - the demonstrative pronoun, e.g. (bX,) –

this, (MTbF) – that.

4. (i j!Pj!M$r Pj"OAb) - the relative pronoun, e.g. (j„OXub) – who,

(jOfub) – who (feminine).

5. („MM%P$rb ) – vocative case, e.g. (iPvM M=) – O man, (PYbM0 M=)


– O boy.
6. (O.u/O PRmMP$rb) - the noun having (r b), e.g. (P(MbVr) the
horse, (iPvmb) – the man.

7. (o*b\OjM bO PRM[P$rb) – a noun which is related to any of

the above-mentioned definite nouns, e.g. (oYj=MG P MfO) –

Zaid’s book, (bX…, P MfO) – this person’s book, ( P MfO

OPvm) – the book of the man.

Page 33
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Note: In these examples, the word (P MfO) has become


definite.

Besides the above-mentioned definite nouns, all other


nouns are indefinite. They are also of several types, two of
the main categories being:

(1) (OBuX Pj"O) – a word that denotes the being of

something, living or non-living, e.g. (M jqO) – man, (t(Mb\) –

horse, (tM{M) – stone.

(2) (O*bVh| Pj"O) - a word that indicates the quality of

something, e.g. (tM M) – beautiful, (t†jO)b#) – ugly.

Page 34
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

Lesson 2

The Particles of () and ()

1. The tanwīn1 is generally attached to a word that is


indefinite. In this case, it is regarded as a particle that
renders a noun indefinite (>?% R).2 It is translated as ‘a’
or ‘an’ in English, e.g. (PvM) – a man, (tDuVP) – an apple, (p^M)
– water. There is no need to translate it everywhere as in the
example of (p^M) – water.

Note 1: Sometimes a proper noun also has tanwīn, e.g.


(tYm$MgP), (0tj$M), (tYj=MG). In such a case, the tanwīn is not

regarded as a (>?% R).

2. The definite article of Arabic is (r b).3 It is also called ( .A


<=f). When (r b) is prefixed to any indefinite word, it

becomes definite. Now the word is termed as (./ R6) –

1 See Terminology on page 22.


2 This is similar to the letter ‘a’ in English.
3 It is similar to the word ‘the’ in English.

Page 35
Arabic Tutor – Volume One

a word made definite by (r b). Consequently, (t(Mb\) – a horse,

is indefinite while (P(MbVrb) – the horse, is definite.

3. When (r b) is prefixed to a word having tanwīn, the


tanwīn falls off. Note the above example.

4. When any word precedes a word having (r b), the first


word is joined to the lām of the second word and
pronounced (by joining). The hamzah of the (r b) is known

as hamzatul wasl.4 It is not pronounced, e.g. (OƒjM)r P M ) – the


door of the house. To read (OƒjM)rb P M ) here is incorrect.

Note 2: If there is a sākin letter before the (r b), the sākin


letter is normally read with a kasrah. However the word
(jO) is read with a fathah. Therefore, (OƒjM)rb jM) is read as ( OM
OƒjM)r) and (OƒjM)rb jO) is read as (OƒjM)r MO).

5. When a word having tanwīn precedes the definite article,


the nūn of the tanwīn5 is rendered a kasrah and joined to

4 See under terminology.


5 See under terminology.

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the lām. If after the word (rPYj=MG = tYj=MG), the word (POMrb)

appears, it will be read as (POMr OPYj=GM ).

Note 3: The alif of (tj O), (*M%j O) and (tj"O) is also hamzatul wasl.
It is not pronounced when joined to the preceding word.

Examples: (tj O M!P,) is read as (tj  M!P,) – He is a son;


(tj"O bX…,) is read as (tj" bX…,) – This is a name;
(tj O tYj=MG) is read as (tj  OPYj=MG) – Zaid is a son;

(tj"O tYOM) is read as (tj" OPYOM) – Hāmid is a name.

When (r b) is prefixed to (tj O) and (tj"O), the lām of the (r b) is

rendered a kasrah and joined to the ( ) and ((). Therefore

(Pj Orb) is read as (Pj)Ob = Pj Ob) and (Pj"Orb) is read as ( = Pj"Ob
P
j Ob). This rule is overlooked in general conversation.

6. When (r b) is prefixed to a word having one of the letters

of (* $_ R0Z), the lām of the (r b) is assimilated into the
harf shamsī, that is, at the time of pronunciation, instead of
reading the lām, the harf shamsī is pronounced. No jazm is

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written on the lām in such a case but a tashdīd is written on


the harf shamsī, e.g. (Pˆj$m_b) – the sun, (iPvmb) – the man,
etc.

The (* $_


R0Z) are:
 LKJIH(GF4B

Besides these letters, the other letters are called ( R0Z


*=$2), e.g. (PM$b2rb) – the moon, (iM$M{rb) – camel.
Vocabulary List No. 1

Note 4: After prefixing the definite article to these words,


pronounce them.

Word Meaning
M jqO man

tƒjM house

tj$M dates

tM$b‰ fruit

O,Mv ignorant

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tOM learned

tM M good, beautiful

t}j)PŠ bread

t(jM lesson

t9jqbF sin

 j!P"M messenger

lbMG zakāh

jM" easy

‹jM: thing

lbM prayer

p^j!M' light

t9hb€ good, clean

tObΠoppressor

 OM just

tj!iVb one who forgives

tŽO"b\ transgressor

t†jO)b# ugly

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tj=b noble, generous

tM)b milk

p^M water

tMMq day

tYbM0 boy

O, cat

t.j!M= day

M0 and

j0b- or

Exercise No. 1

Note 5: When speaking, pause on the last letter, that is, do


not read any harakah on the final letter. Read the word
(PƒjM)r) as (jƒj M)r) and (ilbm}b) as (j;bm}b). If you are reading one
word, pause on its last letter and if you are reading several
words, pause on the last word, e.g. (jM)b M0 t}j)PŠ).
(A) Read these words and translate them:

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0j b- t†OM (5) tM)b M0 t}j)PŠ (4) ilbm} M0 ilbm|b (3) PM$u5b (2) PƒjM)r (1)
(9) PM)u M0 PM$mf (8) P}j)P’rM0 e^M$rb (7) P†jO)b2r O0b PM Mgrb (6) tŽO"b\
i OMrb (12) t MfOM0 t(jM (11) P(MbVr M0 iM jqOrb (10) tOM M0 O,Mv
t(Mb\M0 M$Mv (13) POu“ O0b-

(B) Translate the following words or phrases into Arabic.


Use the definite article (r b) wherever the words are definite.

(1) a horse (2) a man (3) a man and a horse (4) bread and
water (5) a man and a fruit and a house (6) the salāh and the
learned man (7) the pious one and the transgressor (8) the
man or the horse (9) the milk and the bread (10) a man and
a horse (11) the ugly one and the beautiful one (12) a cat
and a boy (13) the moon and the sun (14) the camel or the
horse.

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Test No. 1

1. What is the definition of (*$)?


2. How many types of words are there? Define each one
with examples.
3. What is the major difference between a noun and a verb?
4. How many tenses are there?
5. From the following words, state whether the words are
("), (\) or (R).

twj$M" a bO‚ a P(MbVr a tYbM a P9M,rXM= a M MM' a jO a M!P,


6. Define what is (*\) and (l?q) with examples.

7. How many types of (*\ ") are there?


8. Say whether the following words are definite or
indefinite.
bX…, a t†jO)b# a tM M a P(MbVrb a PjgMq a P9huWb a PvM a tYbM a i*u?M a tYj=MG
9. In the above-mentioned words, what type of (*\) and

(l?q) are they?

10. What is the hamzah of (r b) called?

11. Join the word (M!P,) to the words (PYbM!rb), (tj"O) and (tj O) and
read them.

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12. When (r b) is added to the words (tj"O) and (tj O), how are
they read?
13. What is (=!%f !q)?
14. How is a word having tanwīn joined to a word having
(r b)?

15. What are the (* $_ R0Z) and the (*=$2 R0Z)?

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Lesson 3

Compounds

1. A combination of two or more words is called (9uMP).

The relationship between them is called (9jOjM).

2. Compounds are of two types: (t”O#Mq) incomplete and (.M)


complete.
(a) An incomplete compound (”#q 9) is a combination
of words from which no information, order or desire is
understood. It is an incomplete statement, e.g. (tM M PvM) –
a good man; (oPvM P MfO) a man’s book.
(b) A complete compound (. 9) is a combination of
words from which some information, command or wish is
understood, e.g. (tM M iPvmb) - The man is good. This
statement provides us with the information that the man is
good.
(M MfO?r OXPŠ) – Take the book. The order of taking the book is
understood from this sentence.
(jO%r#PGj h M) – O my Sustainer, grant me sustenance. A
request is understood from this statement.

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A complete sentence is also called (*bj$Pv) or (t.b/b).

3. Incomplete compounds are of several kinds, e.g. ( 9


OVjOj!M), ( O\M'O‚ 9), (U
 OMYM 9), etc. Here we will
discuss (V! 9). The other types will be discussed
later on, as will complete sentences.

The Adjectival Phrase


(V! 9)

4. A (V! 9) is a compound in which the second

word describes the first word, e.g. (t†OM PvM) – a pious


man. The word (t†OM) describes the word (PvM) with the
quality of piety.

5. The first part of a (V! 9) is (BX "),6 while the


second part is (*V| "). In the above example, the word
(PvM) is (BX ") while the word (t†OM) is (*V| ").

6 See Lesson 1, fact no.4

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6. The first part of (V!9) is called (tRj!Pj!M)7 while


the second part is called the (*bVO)8. In the above example,

the word (PvM) is a (R!!) while the word (t†OM) is a

(*V).

7. If the (R!!) is indefinite (l?q), the (*V) will also be

(l?q), otherwise it will be (*\). In the compound (  PvM


t†OM), both parts are (l?q) - indefinite. In the phrase ( iPvm
P†Om|), both parts are (*\) - definite.

8. The same declension (t MjO‚)9 that applies to the (R!!)

will apply to the (*V).

9. A (V! 9) and all other incomplete compounds


form part of a sentence.

7 a word that is being described.


8 adjective.
9 This will be discussed in detail in Lesson 10.

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Vocabulary List No. 2

Word Meaning
Mfj P garden

tjgM sea

t•j–WO melon

tjO)b big, large

tŽjO$M deep

‹j=OM bad

tDuVP apple

mP pomegranate

tNOM: street

tj|b# palace

—MgM place

tYO{j M mosque

t]OM king

tj)Pv cheese

tbb# pen

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tjM0 rose

tYhMv good

t!rP sweet

t˜j=OM broad

tYjO_M strong

t<jO“Mq clean

twjO"M0 wide

tjO“M great

t†jOM0- t†OM salty

tjO™M small

PM$j- red

The above list contains many (BX


") and (*V| "). By
combining them, you can form many compounds of ( 9

V!) – adjectival phrases.

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Exercise No. 2

(A) Translate the following phrases into English:

P jO™m| PƒjM)rb (4) tjO“M tj|b# (3) Pj=Ob?r i j!P"m (2) PjO“Mr e
b (1)
(9) t†OM t]OM (8) P!rPgr Pj$mfb (7) t!rP tj$M (6) t<jO“Mq Mfj P (5)
OPYm$MgP (12) P9huW iPvmb (11) t9hb€ ‹jM: (10) P†OM$r PjgM)rb

(16) t†jO)b# PvM (15) tjO“M t9jqbF (14) tj!iVb  M (13) i j!P"m
P]OM$r M0 P†Om| iPvm (18) t!rP tj$M 0M tYhMv t}j)PŠ (17) i‹j=Om Pj)P{rb
PM$jbyr PjM!rb (21) P!rPgr P•j–WO)rb (20) PM$j- tDuVP (19) Pj=Ob?r

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic:

(1) the strong place (2) the small house (3) a beautiful flower
(4) the ugly man (5) the broad street (6) a pious man (7) the
sweet milk (8) the just king (9) the great palace (10) the easy
lesson (11) a beautiful horse (12) a sweet fruit (13) the small
place (14) the good horse (15) the wide house (16) the good
bread or the good milk (17) a pious boy and a transgressing
boy (18) the large musjid and the small garden.

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Lesson 4

Gender

1. Arabic words are of two types with regards to gender: (1)


(tubXP) – masculine and

(2) (zmqM`P) – feminine, e.g. (tj O) – son is masculine and (*M%j O) –
daughter is feminine.

l
2. When a tā ta’nīth10 ( ) is appended to the end of a

masculine noun, it becomes feminine, e.g. (tj O) changes to

(*M%j O). Similarly (tM M) changes to (*M%M M) and (t]OM - king)

changes to (*b?OM - queen) etc. This rule applies more to

adjectives (*V| ") and sometimes to (BX ").

3. In some words, the alif maqsūrah (…U) or the alif

mamdūdah (^ cd) is a sign of the word being feminine, e.g.


(…%j P) – a beautiful lady; (e^Mj,MG) – radiant.

10 The round tā which is a sign of feminine words.

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4. Some nouns are feminine without any sign of being


feminine. They are known as (OM$O" zmqM`P) – as heard from
the Arabs. The details are as follows:

(a) any word referring to a woman, e.g. (.i-) – mother;

(t(j0P
M ) – bride; (tYj%O,) – a woman’s name, or India.
(b) the names of countries, e.g. (Pj|O) – Egypt, (P.m_b) –

Syria, (P.j0šb) – The Roman Empire.

(c) parts of the body in pairs, e.g. (tYM=) – hand, (jvO) –

foot, (iFi-) – ear, (tjM) – eye.


(d) Besides the above-mentioned nouns, there are other
nouns which are used as feminine by the Arabs.
Some of them are:

tJjb- earth

t jM war

tj$MŠ wine

tM house

t†j=O wind

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tSj!P" market

tˆj$M: sun

tMq fire

tˆrVMq soul

Although some words have a (l) at the end, they are


masculine in usage because they refer to males, e.g.
(i*b\Mb€) – name of a poet, (*bVjOMŠ) – the leader of the

Muslims, (*Mu/M) – a very learned scholar.11

6. Just as an adjective corresponds to its noun in being


definite or indefinite, so does it correspond in gender.

Vocabulary List No. 3

Word Meaning
lMYrM city

PjO?Mgrb wise

tYj=OYM: severe

11 This word is used for females as well.

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tSOM truthful

twOb€ rising

j=O!b€ tall, long

t Ob setting

*M[j=Ob\ obligatory

i*M$O€b\ name of a woman

i1ji2rb the Qur’ān

tjO|b# short

t9rb# heart

O›M$rWP peaceful

lMYb#j`P ignited

tjMq river

Exercise No. 3

(A) Translate these phrases into English

lMYj=OYM: t†j=O (4) PjO?Mgrb i1ji2rb (3) *bj=O!b€ *bjb (2) i*m%O›M$rWP$r PˆrVm%b (1)

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t Mq (8) *M$jO“M tM (7) tj!iVb  M M0 *M)hb€ lMYrM (6) i OMr i*bVjOM’rb (5)
(12) i*M%M Mgr P(j0PMrb (11) i*b#Om| OPYj%O, (10) *MgOM *M%j O (9) lMYb#j!P
i*M$O€b\ (14) i*M[j=ObVr ilbm|b (13) P9OM™r PM$b2r M0 i*MOuW Pˆj$m_b
POm_ i*b\Mb€ (17) *bj=O!b€ t jM (16) …%j Pgr i*M%j Oœrb (15) e^Mj,m}
i*MuMr OPYjO:M (18)

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic:

(1) a beautiful girl (2) the pious caliph (3) the wise man (4)
the obligatory zakāh (5) an obligatory salāh (6) a short night
(7) the big day (8) the good thing (9) the ugly bride (10) the
setting sun and the rising moon (11) the severe wind (12)
the long river (13) the long war (14) the short hand (15) the
peaceful heart (16) Muhammad, the pious (17) the very
learned Fātimah.

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Lesson 5

Singular and Plural

1. In Arabic, words are of three categories with regards to


number:
 singular (tMrVP j0b- tYOM0), indicating one, e.g. (PvM) – one
man.
 dual (*MO%r5M), indicating two, e.g. (Ob/PvM) – two men.

 plural (twj$Mv), indicating more than two, e.g. ( MvO) – more


than two men.

2. The dual12 is formed by adding (O cd) to (w\ *) - the


nominative case13 or (Oj= cd) to (+0 9|% *) - the
accusative or genitive cases14.
Examples:
(t]OM) – one king, (Ob?OM) or (Ojb?OM) – two kings

12 Although the author has referred the student to a future lesson, at this
point, it will be sufficient for him to remember that there are two forms of the
dual: one is with alif and nūn and the second with yā and nūn. Lesson 10 will
explain where to use which one.
13 w\ * – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.

14 +0 9|% * – This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.

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(*b?OM) – one queen, (OMfb?OM) or (OjMfb?OM) – two queens.

Note 1: In the prevalent books of Arabic Grammar and


Morphology, the terms (O c_) and (Oj= c_) are not written.

Instead, these terms are expressed in detail as ( Mbj)b# M t<Ob-


lMj!P r?M j!PqM0 *Mj!PfrVM) and (lMj!P r?M j!PqM0 *Mj!PfrVM Mbj)b# M p^M=). We
have chosen the former method for the sake of brevity.

Note 2: To pronounce (O c_) and (Oj= c_), one can read the
fathah with the sound of an alif and say (O1) and (Oj=b). Such
signs will come frequently later on. Pronounce them in this
manner wherever one comes across them.

3. Plurals are of two types:


(a) (POm  wP j$M{rb) – the sound plural
(b) (Pm b?P$r Pwj$M{rb) – the broken plural

The sound plural is one in which the singular form of the


word remains intact (sound) with some addition at the end.
It is of two types:

(i) Masculine (tubXP) – in which (bj!ed) in (w\ *) - the

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nominative case15 or (MjOd) in the accusative and genitive

cases are appended, e.g. (tOj P) – one Muslim, (bj!P$Oj P) or

(MjO$Oj P) – many Muslims.

(ii) Feminine (zmqM`P) – in which (tB cd) in the nominative


case or (oB cd) in the accusative and genitive cases are

appended, e.g. (*M$Oj P) – one (female) Muslim, (tBM$Oj P) or

(oBM$Oj P) – many (female) Muslims.

The broken plural is one in which the form of the singular


word is broken, that is, changed. It has no fixed rule for
making it. Sometimes alphabets are added or deleted and
sometimes there is merely a change in the harakāt16.
Examples:
(tjMq) (tPjqb-), (PvM) ( MvO), (tj=OGM0) (e^MMGP0), (t MfO) (t9Pfi),

(t9M_MŠ) (t9P_PŠ). The broken plural will be discussed in


detail in Lesson 12.

Note 3: The (POm  Pwj$M{rb) - sound plural of some feminine

15 This will be discussed in Lesson 10.2.


16 Fathah, dammah, kasrah, etc.

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words is like the masculine plurals, e.g. the plural of (*M%M") –

year, is (bj!P%O") or (MjO%O") and sometimes (tBM!M%M").

Note 4: The (!q) that appears at the end of the (*MO%r5M) - dual

form and the (POm  PubXP$r Pwj$M{rb) - sound masculine plural is


called (*mO Mj‚O j!Pq)17. See Lesson 10.

4. Some nouns are singular in form but refer to a whole


group. There is no singular for them as well because they
are not plurals in reality. Such nouns are called (Owj$M{r Pj"O).
Examples:
(t.j!b#) – a nation, (žj,M) – a group.
These words are generally used like plurals in sentences,
e.g. (bj!PgOM t.j!b#) – a pious nation.

5. You have learnt in lessons 3 and 4 that the adjective


corresponds with its noun in ( ), being definite or
indefinite and in gender. Now remember that the adjective
has to correspond with its noun in number as well.

17 Since the word (j!Pq) is feminine in Arabic, the adjective also has to be
feminine, namely (*mO MjO‚).

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However, when the noun being described is (oO#M Ojb Pwj$Mv) –


the plural of an unintelligent being18, whether masculine or
feminine, the adjective is generally singular feminine ( Y0
zq`), although it is sometimes plural. One can say ( t.m=b-

lj0PYjM) as well as (tBMj0PYjM t.m=b-).

Vocabulary List No. 4

Word Meaning
jOŸrb future

*M=1 sign, verse of the Qur’ān

*M%hM clear, manifest

jUOM{rb current (present)

jO'M$rb past

lMM quarter, section of a city

t.OMŠ servant

tGm)MŠ baker

18Intelligent beings are humans, angels and jinn. All other creations fall in the
category of unintelligent beings (oO#M Pjb).

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KmMŠ tailor, seamstress

M)jM tired, exhausted

b/jMG displeased

tjM: month

b/j b lazy

t9ObA playing

twObA shining

Kj!P j)M cheerful

tYOMfj{P diligent

tYm%M P supported

 j!P™j_M busy, preoccupied

tOr“P dark

t–MP teacher

tjO%P bright

tm{Mq carpenter

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Exercise No. 4

(A) Translate these phrases into English

b j!PgOm| bj!P$–MP$rb (3) OMfMgOm| OMfM$–MP$rb (2) P†Om| P–MP$rb (1)


Pˆj$m_ (7) tjO%P tM$b# (6) i*M$Or“P$r i*bjub (5) tBMYOMfj{P tBM$–MP (4)
jUOM{r Pjm_ (10) i*MO'M$r i*M%m  (9) OMfMOx/ OM%jMb (8) ilMjO%P$r
(14) *Mqb/j b *b€mMŠ (13) *bVjO“Mq tBMM (12) i*M=OM{r PPjqbyrb (11)
(17) OMqb/jMG Ob/PvM (16) OMfMqM)jM OMfM%j O (15) OMfM)Ou/ OMfM%j Orb
M0 bj!Pqb/j b?r bj0Pm{m%b (19) ilMjO™m| PBMqM!MMgr (18) i*MOŸr bj!P%h 
iKj!P j)M$r 19O0Pj$M (21) ib/jm} OPYj=MG (20) bj0PYOMfj{P$r bj!POM’r
lMYm%M P t9P_PŠ (23) tBM%hM tBM=1 (22)

(B) Translate these phrases into Arabic

(1) a shining eye (2) the two diligent men (3) the
preoccupied baker (4) the two tired carpenters (5) the bright
day (6) the beautiful seamstresses (7) the tired servants (8)
the lazy tailor (9) the flowing rivers (10) the large animals
(11) the current year (12) the past month (13) the past years

19 This is the name Àmr. The (0) differentiates it from (Pj$P).

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(14) the cheerful servant

Test No. 2

(1) What is a (9x)?


(2) How many types of compounds are there? Define each
one and provide examples.
(3) What is (V! 9x)? What is each part of it called?
(4) In which aspects does the adjective have to correspond
with the noun? What are the exceptions? Explain with
examples.
(5) What are the signs of feminine words?
(6) Which words are regarded as feminine without any
signs?
(7) In spite of having the signs of being feminine, which
words are masculine?
(8) What is the rule for making the dual and sound
masculine plural forms?
(9) What is ( ?¢ w$+) and what is the rule for forming it?
(10) What are the broken plurals of (tjMq), (PvM) and (t9M_MŠ)?

(11) What is the plural of (*M%M")?

(12) What is the difference between (w£) and (w£ ")?

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(13) Form as many (V! 9x) as possible from the


following nouns and adjectives:

20 21 22
M M tM)b t9M%O tˆj$M: tM$b#
bj!P%O"  MvO OMfj%O tJjb- t jM
twO\Mq t†OM t!rP t.m=b- t9Pfi
23
*M=OMv *MO'M tm0MYP tjO%P

20 honey
21 milk
22 grapes

23 round

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Lesson 6

Sentences with a Noun -


‫ا  ا‬

1. You have read that a complete statement is called a


sentence (*£). See 3.2. Remember that sentences are of two

types: (*@ *£) and (*\ *£).

A (*@ *£) is one in which the first part is a noun ("), e.g.
(tM M tYj=MG) – Zaid is handsome.

A (*\ *£) is one in which the first part is a verb (\), e.g.

(tYj=MG MP M) – Zaid became handsome.

Hereunder follow some rules of (*@ *£) while the ( *£


*\) will be discussed in Lesson 14.

The first part of a (*@ *£) is generally definite (*\) while


the second part is indefinite (l?q). In the above example,

the word (tYj=MG) is definite while (tM M) is indefinite.

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Note 1: The difference between (*@ *£) and ( 9x


V!) is that in the latter, both the parts are the same in
being definite or indefinite while in the former, the first part
is definite and the second part is indefinite. Consequently,
in the above-mentioned example, if an indefinite noun takes
the place of the word (tYj=MG) and you say (tM M PvM), or you
render the second word (tM M) definite by adding (r b) to it,

and say (PM Mgr OPYj=MG), both these will become adjectival

phrases (V! 9x).

However, when the second part of a (*@ *£) is not a word


that can become an adjective of a noun24, it is permissible
for the second part also to be definite, e.g.
(P<P"j!P= Mqb-) – I am Yūsuf.
It is also permissible to insert a separating pronoun (jO$M')

between the subject (Yf)) and the predicate (§Š).


Examples:

P Om| !M P, iPvmb) – The man is pious.
(bj!PgOm| PP, i Mvhb) – The men are pious.

24 For example, it is ( "), (>$') or (l: ").

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If the pronoun is removed from here, these sentences will


become adjectival phrases (V! 9x).

Note 2: In Arabic, there is no word for ‘is’ as in English.


This word is understood from the sentence. Therefore
(tOM tYj=MG) means ‘Zaid is learned’ although the word ‘is’ is
not there.25

3. The first part of a (*@*£) is called (Yf)) - the subject26,


while the second part is called the (§Š) - the predicate27.

4. Generally the (Yf)) and the (§Š) are in (w\ *)28 - the
nominative case.

5. The predicate conforms to the subject in number and


gender, as in the case of the adjective. However when the
subject is (oO#M Ojb Pwj$Mv) - the plural of a non-intelligent
being, the predicate is generally singular feminine.

25 However, the verb (ij!i?M=) can provide the meaning of ‘is’.


26 In English, the subject of a sentence is a word or phrase that refers to the
person or thing that performs an action.
27 In English, the predicate refers to the word or words that say something

about the subject but are not part of it.


28 A detailed discussion on cases follows in Lesson 10.

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Examples:

Sentence Meaning Type of Subject


tSOM iPvmb The man is singular,
truthful. masculine,
intelligent
Ob#OM ObPvmb The two men dual, masculine,
are truthful. intelligent
bj!i#OM i Mvhb The men are plural,
truthful. masculine,
intelligent
*b#OM ilb-jM$rb The woman is singular,
truthful. feminine,
intelligent
OMfb#OM O Mb-jM$rb The two women dual, feminine,
are truthful. intelligent
tBb#OM e^M h%b The women are plural, feminine,
truthful. intelligent
lMYj=OYM: P†j=hb The wind is singular,
severe. feminine, non-
intelligent
OMMYj=OYM: OMgj=hb The two winds dual, feminine,
are severe. non-intelligent
lMYj=OYM: PDM=hb The winds are plural, feminine,
severe. non-intelligent
Note 3: In these examples, if the definite article (r b) is added

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to the second part, or it is removed from the first part, all


these examples will become (V! 9x) - adjectival
phrases.

6. If there are two subjects and they are of different types,


that is, one is masculine and one feminine, the predicate
will be masculine, e.g. (OM%M M i*M%j OrM0 Pj Orb) – The son and the
daughter are beautiful.

7. The subject and predicate are sometimes singular and


sometimes they are compounds (9). The examples of
singular have passed. Hereunder follow the examples of
(9):

Sentence Meaning Analysis


tO'M P9huW iPvmb The good man is The subject is
present. (V! 9x).
t9hb€ PvM tYj=MG Zaid is a good The predicate is
man. (V! 9x).

8. By adding (M) or (Mˆjb) to a (*@ *£), it changes from

positive to negative. Most often a (O ) is added to the

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predicate which changes the case to the genitive (+ *),


e.g. (oOMO tYj=MG M) – Zaid is not learned; (o†jO)b# oPvMO tYj=MG Mˆjb) –
Zaid is not a bad person.

9. Very often the word (uO‚) is prefixed to a (*@ *£). As a


result, the subject changes to (9|% *) - the accusative
case while the predicate remains unchanged, e.g.
(lMm0MYP MJjbyr uO‚) – Undoubtedly the earth is round.

Note 4: To create the meaning of interrogation in a sentence,


(rM,) or (b-) is added to the beginning, e.g.

(tOM Yt j=MG b-) – Is Zaid learned?;


(tOM iPvm OM,) – Is the man learned?

Vocabulary List No. 5

Word Meaning
j.b- or (in a question)

tb2M cow

bM certainly, why not

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tYj=OYMv new

ŸOv very

tYOb# a tˆOMv sitting

t(OM guard, sentry

lM: sheep

jO\ elephant

tO©b# standing

tj=OYb# old

t9rb dog

tRj0PjM a tj!Pj_M famous

tOj`P believer

jMMq yes

tj’M' thick

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The Nominative Detached Pronouns

(i*bO|bVj%P$r i*Mj!i\jM$r PO©M$m[b)

Third Person t9O©b


singular M!P, he , it
Masculine

dual M$P, they

plural jP, they

singular MO, she, it


Feminine

dual M$P, they

plural mP, they

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Second Person tO'M


singular Mƒqjb you
Masculine

dual M$Pfjqb you

plural jPfjqb you

singular Oƒqjb you


Feminine

dual M$Pfjqb you

plural mPfqjb you

First Person (Speaker) t–b?MfP


bqb I

PjgMq We

Note 5: These pronouns are most often the subject of a


sentence. Hence they are regarded as (N!\) – in the

nominative case. See 6.4. They are called (O|bVj%P) because


they are pronounced independently.

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Note 6: Also remember that (bqb-) is always pronounced (bb)


without the alif.

Exercise No. 5

Note 7: When speaking, pause (waqf) at the end of sentences


as mentioned in Exercise No. 1. However, initially, continue
writing all the harakāt.

(A) Translate the following into English

(4) tO©b# M!P, jMMq a tO©b# PYbM!r OM, (3) *M OMv i*M%j Orb (2) tO©b# PYbM!rb (1)
tGm)MŠ M!P, a tGm)MŠ j.b- tm{Mq iPvm bX…,b- (5) *M OMv MO, bA a *M$O©b# i*M%j Or OM,
jfPjqb rM, (7) tRj0PjM tOM: M!P, jMMq a tOM: i*b\Mb€b- (6) om{M%O M!P, M
jMMq ª tBM$–MP mP, rM, (8) bj!P$–MP PjgMq rM MjO€sMM’O PjgMq M ª bj!i€mMŠ
Mqb- M jO?b P<P"j!P= Mqb- ª i*Mu/Mr P<P"j!P= Mƒjqb-b- (9) tBMgOM tBM$–MP mP,
OM, (11) lMYOfMj{P *M$–MP MO, bA ª *Mqb/j b *M$–MP P9M%j=MG rM, (10) o*Mu/MO
ª owb\Mq oM!MMgO Pb2M)r Mˆjbb- (12) *bVjO“Mq tBMM MO, jMMq ª *bVjO“Mq PBMMgr
uO‚ (14) 4OM M!MM M9rb?r uO‚ (13) ŸOv twb\Mq M!MM Pb2M)r bM

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uO‚ (16) OMfM OMv 29OjMfMgOm| OjMb-jM$r uO‚ (15) *M OMv b*MgOm| blb-jM$r
bj0PYOMfj{P 30OBM$–MP$rM0 MjO$–MP$r

(B) Fill in the blanks which represent a subject or predicate


with suitable words that you have studied.

P mYb (1)
OMgOm| OMYbM!rb (2)
O Mˆjb PƒjM)rb (3)
*Mqb/j b (4)
Pm{m% OM, (5)
Mqb- (6)
M!P, jMMq (7)
M$P, (8)
b/j b OM, (9)
j.-b i*M% Oœr OM, (10)
O P9rb?r Mˆjbb- (11)

29 See 5.2.
30 See 5.2.

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P rb?r M0
9 ilM_b (12)
t(OM bM (13)
i*b€mM’rM0 iKmM’rb (14)
tj’M' ijOVrb (15)
j.b- PYbM!r bX…,b- (16)
i*cb#Om| ilb-jM$rb (17)
tYOMfj{P uO‚ (18)
OMfM%j Oœrb (19)
OMfMqb/j b uO‚ (20)
tBMYOMfj{P uO‚ (21)

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(C) Translate into Arabic

(1) Is the boy standing? No, he is sitting.


(2) Is the girl sitting? No, she is standing.
(3) Are the two boys present? Yes, they are present.
(4) Are the two girls honest? Yes, they are honest.
(5) Are the women truthful? Yes, they are truthful.
(6) Is the teacher absent? No, the teacher is present.
(7) Are they carpenters? No, they are tailors.
(8) Is that Yūsuf? Yes, that is Yūsuf.
(9) Are you Mahmūd? No, I am Hāmid.
(10) Is the house old? No, the house is new.
(11) Are they (plural feminine) seamstresses? No, they
are teachers.
(12) Are you (pl. m.) learned or ignorant? We are not
ignorant.
(13) Is not the elephant a great animal? Why not, the
elephant is a great animal.
(14) Is the dog standing or sitting? The dog is not
standing but it is sitting.

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Lesson 7

The Genitive of Possession


(    
)

1. The compound in which both parts are nouns and the


first noun is related to the second noun is called ( t9uMP
O\M'O‚). Examples:
(oYj=MG P MfO) – the book of Zaid or Zaid’s book

(o*m[O\ PMMŠ) – the ring of silver

(Ojm% e^M) – the water of the river.

2. Such a relationship between the two nouns is known as


(i*b\M'Oœrb).

3. The first part of (' 9) is called (tRM[P) while the


second part is called (OjbO‚ tRM[P).

4. Neither does the definite article (r b-) precede the (tRM[P)


nor is the tanwīn appended to it. Look at the above
examples.

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5. The (OjbO‚ tRM[P) is always (tj0Pj{M) - in the genitive case.

6. The (tRM[P) always precedes the (OjbO‚ tRM[P).

7. The (' 9), like (V! 9)31, is not a complete


sentence but is part of a sentence, e.g. (t rXM Ojm% e^M) – The

water of the river is sweet. In this sentence, (Ojm% e^M) is the

subject while (t rXM) is the predicate.

8. Sometimes there are several (OjbO‚ tRM[P) in one

construction, e.g. (OjObyr O jM P M ) – the door of the house of


ƒ
the leader; (O j=OGM!r Oj  OƒjM P M ) - the door of the house of the
minister’s son.

The middle (OjbO‚ tRM[P) becomes the (tRM[P) of the

succeeding words. Therefore (r b-) cannot precede it nor can


the tanwīn be appended to it.

9. You have learnt in the first lesson that when an indefinite

31 See 3.8.

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noun is related to a definite noun, it also becomes definite,


e.g. (oYj=MG .P b/i) – the slave of Zaid;
(OPvm P.b/i) the slave of the man. The word (P.b/i) – slave –
has become definite in these sentences.

10. In Arabic, because the (tRM[P) precedes the (OjbO‚ tRM[P)


and no word can interpose between them, the adjective of
the (tRM[P) has to succeed the (OjbO‚ tRM[P), e.g.

(P†Om| Olb-jM$r P.b/i) – the pious slave of the lady. In this

example, the word (P†Om|) is the adjective of the word

(P.b/i). Therefore it is (N!\),32 singular, masculine and


definite.
Hereunder are more examples. Understand the differences
properly.

P†Om| OPvm PYbM0 The pious son of the


man
Adjective of the
(tRM[P)

32 in the nominative case. See Lesson 10.

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†Om| OPvm PYbM0 The son of the pious


man
Adjective of the
(OjbO‚ tRM[P)

i*MgOm| OPvm Pƒj%O The pious daughter of


the man
Adjective of the
(tRM[P)

O*MgOm| Olb-jM$r Pƒj%O The daughter of the


pious woman
Adjective of the
(OjbO‚ tRM[P)

Note: More rules of (i*b\M'Oœrb) are discussed in Lesson 11.

Vocabulary List No. 6

Word Meaning
tYM"b- lion

*Mb€O‚ obedience

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iFj!Pb- I seek refuge

bAb- listen, beware

*M$r?O wisdom

tYj$M praise

t9O,bF going

t(r-M head

iM$jM very beneficent

tjOM very merciful

tjOvM rejected one

tCj0MG husband

*Mvj0MG wife

žM’M" 0- žj’P" anger

bWrP" king, overpowering

p^M$M" sky

t9bb€ to seek

t9jO€ fragrance

—OŒ shadow

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tj=OYb# very powerful

—i every, each

o‹jM: «i everything

tjgb meat

(*!!) M whatever

*b\M’M fear

l1jO mirror

t†rO salt, salty

Mj Oq to forget

OMYOM0 parents

t}OM a t}jM goat

i*b\1 calamity

Mj Oq forgetfulness

 OM just

tSjM: 0- tSOj_M east

t jb 0- t Oj™M west

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Hereunder are some (lmMv t j0PP) which appear before


R
nouns and convert them to (+ *) - the genitive case.

Word Meaning Example Meaning Example Meaning

O with, oPvMO with a Obb2rO with


in man the pen
jO\ in oƒjM jO\ in a j O\ in the
house garden
OMfj P)r
bM on oM)Mv bM on a bM on the
mountain throne
OHjMr
jO from oYj=MG jO from M O from
Zaid the
OYO{j M$r musjid
bO‚ to, till oYbM bO‚ to a city bO‚ till
Kufah
O*b\j!i?r
O for, to oYj=M}O for Zaid P ri#
ƒ I said
to Zaid
oYj=M}O
MT like, oPvMb like a OYM"byrb similar
similar man to the
lion
jM from oYj=MG jM from
Zaid

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Exercise No. 6

(A) Translate the following into English:

*i Mb€O‚ (5) O(MbVr iiFi- (4) OlM_ Pjgb (3) Ob2M)r PM)b (2) OjgM)r e^M (1)
(9) OƒjM)r M0 S O j!š  jO\ (8) Oˆj$m_ e^j!M' (7) O
 PƒjM (6) Oj=MYOM!r
(13) O(j0PMrO (12) O†rO$r M0 O^M$rO (11) O(MbVrb (10) OYO{j M$r bO‚
(16) OM)hb€ OlM_ Pjgb M0 Ob2M)r PM)b (15) t†rO OjgM)r e^M (14) oˆMqb- jM
bO‚ bj!P)O,bF PjgMq (18) O(j0PMrO P9j–Wb (17) tj!P$jgM OYbM!r Pj"O
OOj P$r il1jO POj P$rb (20) hO"ji?r bM tˆOMv P–MP$rb (19) O*M"MjYM$r
(23) iMj h% OrOr i*b\1 (22) Oj=MYOM!r Ožj’P" jO\ h m ižM’M" (21)
OJjbyr O\ O
 «OŒ b OMr bbWrš  uO‚ (24) O
 i*b\M’M O*M$r?Ogr P(r-M
P9rb?r Mˆjb (26) o*M$Oj P M0 oOj P –i bM *M[j=Ob\ OrOr P9bb€ (25)
O j!P"M  oYm$MgP Pƒj%O  i*M$O€b\ (28) oYj=M}O i M$r Mˆjb (27) OYM"byrb
iFj!Pb- (29)  ¬OMO OM%j O PjM PgrM0 PM MgrM0 a  ¬OM i*Mvj0MG MO, O

OxO PYj$Ogrb (31) OjOm OM$jm O
 Oj O (30) OjOvm ObWjm_ MO O
O
o‹jM: –i bM c
 uO‚ (33) P Oj™M$rM0 PSOj_M$r OxO M0 (32) MjO$bMr h M
. OJjbyr O\ M M0 OBM0M$m  O\ M OxO uO‚ bAb- (34) tj=OYb#

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(B) Translate the following into Arabic

(1) the goat’s milk


(2) the cow’s head
(3) the obedience of the mother
(4) Zaid’s wealth
(5) the elephant’s ear
(6) the light of the moon
(7) in the house
(8) till the market
(9) for Allāh and the Messenger
(10) on the head and the eye
(11) The boy’s name is Hāmid.
(12) They are going home.
(13) We are sitting in the musjid.
(14) The goat’s milk is for the girl.
(15) The obedience of Allāh is in the obedience of the
Messenger.
(16) Āishah , the daughter of Abū Bakr  is the wife
of Muhammad, the Messenger of Allāh .
(17) He is the son of the leader.
(18) The anger of Allāh is on the oppressive king.
(19) The ignorant one is not like the learned one.
(20) The fragrance is not for the boy.
(21) She is the daughter of Hāmid’s son.

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Test No. 3

(1) What is the difference between (*@ *£) and ( *£


*\)?
(2) What is the difference between (*@ *£) and ( 9
V!)?
(3) How many parts does a (*@ *£) have? What is each
part called?
(4) What is the ( )33 of the subject and the predicate?
(5) What is the Arabic term for the attaching word?
(6) In how many factors does the predicate correspond
to the subject?
(7) If there are two subjects of different kinds in a
sentence, which one is considered for the predicate?
(8) What effect does the word (uO‚) have on the subject?

(9) Attach (uO‚) to a dual word and a sound masculine


and feminine plural word and read it.
(10) How is a negative meaning and one of interrogation
created in a (*@ *£)?
(11) What is the paradigm34 of the detached nominative

33 desinential inflection – that is, inflection of the final radical.

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pronouns?
(12) In the paradigm of the pronoun, which words are
similar?
(13) How do you pronounce the word (Mqb-)?

(14) Construct ten different kinds of (*@ *£).


(15) Define (' 9) and (*\').
(16) What cannot enter on the (R[)?

(17) What is the ( ) at the end of ( R[)?

(18) What effect do the (lv R0) have on the noun?

In grammar, a set of all the (especially inflected) forms of a word (e.g. write,
34

writes, wrote, writing, written), especially when used as a model for all other
words of the same type.

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Lesson 8

The Scales of Words

1. In Arabic, the original letters of nouns and verbs are not


less than three. The maximum number of letters in a noun is
five, and four in a verb. Together with the original letters,
extra letters can also be attached. At such a time, the noun
and the verb can have more than five letters.

Note 1: The original letter or root letter is the one that


remains in all the forms and derivations. Only in some
exceptions is it deleted or changed to another letter.
The extra letter is the one that is found in one word-form
but not in another, e.g. in the word (tYj$M), all three letters

are root letters while in (tYOM), the alif and in (tj!P$jgM), the

first (.) and the (0) are extra letters.

2. Words having three root-letters are called (O‰b/i‰), e.g.

(t(Mb\) and (M MM').

If they have four root-letters, they are called (OM P), e.g.

(OVrO\) and (MCMjM).

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If they have five root-letters, they are called (O"M$PŠ), e.g.

(MvjbVM").

Words made up of only root-letters are called (tmM{P) while

those having extra letters as well are called (OjO\ tYj=O}M), e.g.
(tj)O) is (tmM{P O‰b/i‰) – three root-letters without any extra
letters.
(tš)b?M) is (OjO\
Yt j=O}M O‰b/i‰) - three root-letters with extra letters
because the (B) and ( ) are extra.

Note 2 : To distinguish whether verbs ( \-), derived nouns


(*u2Mfj_P p^M$j"b-)35 and verbal nouns (O M|M)36 are (tmM{P) or ( tYj=O}M

OjO\), the (9© X Y0) word-form of the perfect tense


('¢) has to be examined. If that word-form is free of extra
letters, then its derivatives and verbal noun will also be
regarded as (tmM{P), e.g. (MM|Mq) is (tmM{P O‰b/i‰). Hence, the

35 These are nouns that are derived from the verb, e.g. (Ob\) and ( j!PrVM) are
derived from the verb (bMb\).
36 Plural of (tMYj|M), the infinitive.

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imperfect tense (N[¢) which is (PP|j%M=), the (\ ") - tOMq,


the ( !V ") - tj!P|j%M and the verbal noun (lMj|Pq) will also

be regarded as (tmM{P O‰b/i‰) although these forms have extra


letters.

Similarly, in a paradigm, extra letters appear in a (tmM{P)

word which will still remain (tmM{P). For example, the word

(PvM) is (tm{
M P). Therefore, (Ob/PvM) and ( MvO) will also be
(tmM{P).

However, (Mm)b) and (M.Mrb-) are (OjO\ tYj=O}M O‰b/i‰). The former has
one extra ( ) while the latter has an extra alif.

3. In order to determine the scales of words and to


distinguish the root letters from the extra letters, the scale
(M}jO) of (
N R) is used. In triliteral words (words with 3
root letters), the (R) represents the first radical (letter) of

the word, the (N) represents the second radical of the word

and the ( ) represents the third radical of the word.

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Examples:

tdbdb# t<dOfdb tYdP[dM t9drdb


dMdb\ dOdb\ dPdb\ djdb\

The letter that corresponds to the (R) of the (}) is called

the (ِ*M$Ob?r
e^b\), like the (S) of (tbb#), that which corresponds to
the (N) is called the (ِ*M$Ob?r PjM), like the ( ) of (tbb#) while the

letter corresponding to the ( ) is called the (ِ*M$Ob?r P.bA), like

the (.) of (tb#b).

When intending to determine the scale of (OM P) -


quadriliteral (four letter) words, add two lāms instead of
one after (R) and (N). In words with five root letters, add
three lāms.
Examples:

tdbVdjdMv dMvjdbVdM"
dbdjdb\ dbdrdMdb\

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4. At the time of determining the scale, the alphabets (R),

(N) and ( ) will take the place of the original letters while
the other extra letters will remain as they are in their places.
Examples:

tdj)dO tdjdO)db PdM)drb- tdjdO)dr?dM


djdO\ djdOdb\ idMdr\b- djdOdrVdM

However, when a letter is increased by repeating the ( PjM


*Mِ $Ob?r) or the (ِ*M$Ob?r P.bA), the (N) or the ( ) is repeated in the
scale. For example, in the word (MdM j9db = Mm)b), the first

( ) is the (ِ*M$Ob?r PjM) while the second one is extra.

According to the rule, the scale should have been (bM)jb\).

Instead its scale is (bmb\). Similarly, in the word (mM$jO‚), the

final () is extra. Its scale will be regarded as (uMr\O‚).

5. A great benefit of recognizing the scales of words is that


by knowing the meaning of the root letters of a word, it
becomes very easy to recognize the meanings of all its
paradigms and derivatives.

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Exercise No. 7

What are the scales of the following words:

t<j=OM: (3) tRMM: (2) PvM (1)

tTj!iP (6) t]OM (5) tRMj:b- (4)

iM$jM (9) tjOM (8) tjM (7)

t.MO (12) tj=Ob (11) t.Mb (10)

e^M$bP (15) tOM (14) trO (13)

tbVj%M[b (18) t Mr2M (17) bj!P$OM (16)

tjOjM (21) MuM (20) *Mu/M (19)

t.Mr O (24) th)b?MfP (23) tš)b?M (22)

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Lesson 9

The Broken Plural

1. It was mentioned previously that there is no rule to


construct the broken plural (6 ?¢ w$+). It is totally based
on hearing the plural from the people of the language.
Hereunder we list some of the scales of the broken plural
which are used most often:

(Yo bM0 Pwj$Mv) tbAj0b- :  Mr\b- ()


(o(Mb\ Pwj$Mv) t(Mr\b-
(o<j=OM: Pwj$Mv) tRMj:b-
(oWb M Pwj$Mv) tbWjb-
(oƒ#r M0 Pwj$Mv) tBb#j0b-

(o]OM Pwj$Mv) tTj!iP : j!Pi\ ( )


(oYM"b- Pwj$Mv) tj!P"i-
(¬ŽM Pwj$Mv) tSj!i2P
(oYO,M: Pwj$Mv) tj!PP:

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(o9rb# Pwj$Mv) t j!ii#


(oYj%Pv Pwj$Mv) tj!P%Pv
(ojvM0 Pwj$Mv) t;j!PvP0

(o9rb Pwj$Mv) t b/O :  MO\ (C)


(o j!b‰ Pwj$Mv) t MO‰
(o†jP Pwj$Mv) tDMO
(oPvM Pwj$Mv)  MvO
(ojO)b Pwj$Mv) tM)O
(oj™O M Pwj$Mv) tM™O
(oYbM Pwj$Mv) tb/O

(o MfO Pwj$Mv) t9Pfi : Pi\ ()


(o*M%j=OYM Pwj$Mv) PYP
(o*M%jOVM" Pwj$Mv) tiVP"
(o*bVjOgM Pwj$Mv) t<PgP
(o*b2j=Ob€ Pwj$Mv) tSPi€

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(o j!P"M Pwj$Mv) P"P

(ojM: Pwj$Mv) tPj:b- : Pr\b- (;)


(ojvO Pwj$Mv) Pvjb-
(ojMq Pwj$Mv) tPjqb-
(ojgM Pwj$Mv) tPgj b-
(oˆrVMq Pwj$Mv) tˆiVjqb-
(ojM Pwj$Mv) tPjb-

(oj=OGM0 Pwj$Mv) e^MMGP0 : e^b/Mi\ (0)


(ojOb- Pwj$Mv) e^MMi-
(oOM: Pwj$Mv) e^MMP:
(ojOVM" Pwj$Mv) e^MbVP"
(ojOb- Pwj$Mv) e^M%Mi-
(ojOM0 Pwj$Mv) e^b/bP0
(ojO"b- Pwj$Mv) e^MM"i-

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e^b/Or\b- (G)
This scale is generally used for the adjectives of intelligent
beings which are on the scale of (j Ob\) as in:

(oŽj=OYM Pwj$Mv) e^b#OYjb-


(¬O)Mq Pwj$Mv) e^MO)jqb-
(o9jO)M Pwj$Mv) 37e^m)Ob-
(o9=jOb# Pwj$Mv) e^M Or#b-
(¬O%b Pwj$Mv) e^MO%rb-
(¬OM0 Pwj$Mv) e^MOj0b-

(o(Ob\ Pwj$Mv) M"ji\ : b/ji\ (D)


(Yo bM Pwj$Mv) MYrP
(o9jO[b# Pwj$Mv) M)j[i#

(oP|j%P Pwj$Mv) POM%M : iOMb\ (K)

37 The original was (e^M)O)jb-). The reason why it has changed into (e^m)Ob-) will be
explained later.

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(o*bM}rMG Pwj$Mv) i OGbAMG


(o9bj!b Pwj$Mv) P9OM!b
(oM,j!vM Pwj$Mv) PO,M!Mv

Note 1: The plural of five-letter words also comes on this


scale. However, the final letter has to be deleted, e.g. the
plural of (MvjbVM") is (PCObVM"). The ( ) has been deleted.

(oM{j%O\ Pwj$Mv) PjOvM%b\ : ijOMb\ („)


(oSj0PYj%P Pwj$Mv) PŽj=OM%M
(oj=OYj%O# Pwj$Mv) ij=OM%b#
(oj=O}j%OŠ Pwj$Mv) Pj=OGM%MŠ
(oMfj P Pwj$Mv) PjOM M
(obWrP" Pwj$Mv) PjO€b/M"

(oFMfj"i- Pwj$Mv) lbXOM"b- : *bOMb\ (T)


(oXjO$rO Pwj$Mv) lbXOb/M
(o]bM Pwj$Mv) *b?O©b/M

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This scale is specific with intelligent beings.

: iObVM ( )
This scale is specific with those words that are on the scale
of (MrVM), (OrVM) or (*bMrVM).

(o9bjM Pwj$Mv) P9OMM


(oYO{j M Pwj$Mv) PYOvM M
(o*M)Mfr?M Pwj$Mv) P9Ob?M

ijObVM (.)

This scale is used for those words that are on the scale of
( MrVO) or ( j!PrVM).
(tDMfrVO Pwj$Mv) P†jObVM
(o j!Pfr?M Pwj$Mv) P9jOb?M

Note 2: The following plural scales are (ROM|j%P Pjb)38.

38 This is a certain class of nouns that is not fully declined. European


grammarians sometimes refer to them as diptotes. This term is discussed in

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Tanwīn will not be read on them.

ijObVM a iObVM a ijOMb\ a iOMb\ a e^b/Or\b- a e^b/Mi\

2. Remember the plural of the following words in


particular:
The sound plural of (tj O) is (b!j P%M ) in (w\ *M) - the

nominative case and (MjO%M ) in (+0 9|% *M) - the

accusative and genitive cases. Its broken plural is (p^M%j b-).

The plural of (*M%j O) is (tBM%M ).

The plural of (tEb-) is (M!jŠO‚) or (lM!jŠO‚).

The plural of (tƒjŠi-) is (tBM!MŠb-).

The plural of (lb-MjO‚) is (p^M Oq) or (lM!j qO).

The plural of (.i-) is (tBMmi-).

3. Some words have plurals on several scales. Hence the


plurals of (tjgM ) are (tMgO ), (tMgj b-), (tPgj b-) and (tj!PgP ).

4. Some words have different scales of plurals rendering

Volume 4, Lesson 57.

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different meanings. For example, the word (tƒjM ) means


house or verse (of a poem). Regarding the first meaning, the
plural is (tBj!PP ) while the plural (tBMj b-) is related to the
second meaning.
The word (tYj)M) means slave or servant. The respective

plurals are (tYjO)M) and (tM)O).

The word (tjM) means eye or spring. The respective plurals

are (tPjb-) and (j!PP).

Vocabulary List No. 7

The plurals of some words are provided next to them.

Word Meaning
tO"M scowling, frowning

tJMj b- a t˜jM some, part of

tƒO b‰ fixed, established

MjOv a tMv neighbour

tYj=OYM iron

tjMŠ good

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e^MbVP" a tjOV" ambassador

tRj!PP" a t<jM" sword

tUM: tea

Kj0PP: a KjM: condition

t MO a t9jM difficult

 M!O€ a j=O!b€ long, tall

*mO MM 0- O MM Arabian

QOb\ empty

twO€b# cutting, sharp

i*MOMr i*M"MjYM$rb high school

jO2mfP$rb pious

twjOWP obedient

tmbWP pure, clean

i°OM!M a *b“Oj!M advice

lMO'Mq fresh

lMOŒMq looking

PˆO©bVMq a tˆjOVMq precious

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twO\Mq beneficial

t.m=b- a t.j!M= a day

M.j!Mrb today

oXO›Mj!M= on that day

*M%j=OG beauty

tBMO#M remaining, permanent

PBMgOm| PBMO#M)rb the good actions

tDMO a t†jP spear, lance, javelin

PjOvM%b\ a M{j%O\ cup

PCObVM" a MvjbVM" quince

Exercise No. 8

(A) In the under-mentioned examples, the adjective or


predicate of unintelligent beings is used mostly as singular
feminine. Translate the following phrases or sentences into
English.

 MvO (4) tM™O PbAj0brb (3) i*O\m% P.j!iPrb (2) *bj=O!b€ t.b/r#b- (1)

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(8) *bjM" tSPi€ (7) i*M)jm| iKj0Pš_b (6) *M)jM P9Pfi?rb (5) bj!PgOM
(11) i*MjO"M!r iPYP$r MO, (10) i*MfO u5 PSj!i2Pgrb (9) lMmbWP t<PgP
(14) tBMmi- mP, (13) tBM$Oj P p^M Oq (12) OYj=OYMgr MO i M!–W PDMhb
(16) bj!PjOWP OBM%M)rM0 MjO%M)r uO‚ (15) bj!P OMv PBM!MŠbyrM0 iM!jŠOœrb
MO O^MMš_ P˜jM (18) MjO)O©M™O jP, M (17) M.j!Mr bj0PO'M e^MbVš 
M b/O?r uO‚ (20) *MObA i*M jOVm% PO,M!M{rb (19) MjO#Om| MjOgOm|
j,P (22) *MO\Mq i*M%M Mgr i°OM!M$rb (21) OmY O M bM *M OMv b*M"OMgr
MO bj!P$–MP O*MOMr O(OMYM$r O\ (23) OM$jm PM)O PjgMqM0 OM jqOœr PYjO)M
PSj!i2P (25) OUm_ OjOvM%bVO i*bObVr PŽj=OM%m|b (24) OM)O?r O^M$bPr
uO‚ (27) lM!rP PCObVM" OjOM M)r O\ (26) O^M Or#byr OSj!i2Pgb OMjO{r
M0 lMOŒMq Mh M bO‚ lMO'Mq oXO›Mj!M= t;j!PvP0 (28) oj!PPM0 oBm%Mv O\ MjO2mfP$r
PBMO#M)rM0 MjqšY OlMMgr i*M%j=OG bj!P%M)rM0 i M$rb (29) lMO"M oXO›Mj!M= t;j!PvP0
. M]h M MYj%O tjMŠ PBMgOm|

(B) Reply to these questions in Arabic, e.g.

*MO\Mq t9Pfi jUOYj%O jMMq ª twO\Mq t MfO MTMYj%O rM, (1)

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ª twO€b# t<jM" MTMYj%O rM, (2)


ª j=O!b€ t†jP oYOM MYj%O rM, (3)
ª t†OM PjObyr OM, (4)
ª t<jO“Mq t j!b‰ MTMYj%O rM, (5)
ª QOb\ PSj0PYj%š| OM, (6)
ª M.j!Mr tO'M iXjO$rhf OM, (7)
ª M{j%O\ MTMYj%O rM, (8)
ª MvjbVM" MTMYj%O rM, (9)
ª O%b M!P, rM, (10)
ª *MgOM *M%j O MO, rM, (11)
ª tˆjOVMq tM,j!Mv MTMYj%Ob- (12)
ª OSj0PYj%š| PDMfrVO MTMYj%Ob- (13)
ª FMfj"i- O*M"MjYM$r O\ rM, (14)
ª lMjO)b *M)Mfr?M jO©M)j$M O\ rM, (15)

(C) Translate the following phrases into Arabic

(1) the Muslim men


(2) the large ships

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(3) the clean clothes


(4) the flowing rivers
(5) The rivers are flowing.
(6) the past months
(7) They are truthful witnesses.
(8) The two tall mountains
(9) The spears are long and the swords are sharp.
(10) Are you (pl.) unhappy?
(11) No, we are cheerful.
(12) Some kings are just.
(13) The cups of the tea are empty.
(14) Are you (pl.) friends?
(15) Yes, and we are relatives.
(16) The students and the teachers are in the madrasah.
(17) Those girls are playing.
(18) The people of īmān are the friends of Allāh.
(19) the tall houses.
(20) the Arabian verses
(21) The Qur’ān has beneficial advice (plural).

Test No. 4

(1) What is a (- R)?


(2) How many root letters are there in a noun and in a
verb?
(3) Besides the root letters found in a word, what are the

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other letters called?


(4) With regards to the root letters of words, how many
types of words are there?
(5) What are words which only have root letters called
and what are those words called which have extra
letters.
(6) Which of the following words are (±) and which

are (\ Y=}):

t9O,bF a P9M,rXM= a M9M,bF a M)mb a tjO)r?M a Ob/PvM a PvM


(7) How is the scale of a word determined? In other
words, how do you use the root letters (\) to
determine which letter is a root letter and which one
is extra?
(8) What is the benefit of knowing the scales of words?
(9) What are the well-known scales of the broken plural?
(10) Which scales of the plural are (R|% >)?
(11) Make the plurals of (tjgM ), (lb-MjO-), (*M%M"), (tEb-), (Y
t j)M),
(M{j%O\) and (tjO"b-).

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Lesson 10

The Cases of Nouns

1. The change in case of a noun due to the change in


vowelling of the final consonant is called ( ) -
declension.
Declension is of two types: one is (*bMMgrO ) which is
shown by fathah, dammah and kasrah. The other is
(Rj0PPgrO ) which is shown by means of some

(Rj0PP) – letters - as will be explained later on.

2. When a noun is:


(1) the doer of the verb (\), or the subject (Yf)) or

predicate (§Š), it is said to be (w\ *) - in the


nominative case. The examples of the subject and
predicate have passed in Lesson no. 6.
(2) an object ( !V) or it indicates the condition ( )
of the doer or the object, it is regarded to be in
(9|%*) - the accusative case.
(3) ( R[) or it comes after a (v R), it is

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regarded to be (6+ *) - in the genitive case. The


examples will be mentioned shortly.

The Signs of Declension of Different Nouns

3. If a noun is singular or a broken plural, in (w\ *) the


dammatain (pd)39 will be read on it, in (9|% *) the

fathatain (nd) will be read on it and in (6+ *), the

kasratain (od) will be read on it.

39 If the noun is indefinite, the dammatain will be read on the word. However,
if the noun is definite, only one dammah will be read on it.

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Examples:

Example no. 1

oYOMŠ bO‚ ² j!Pfr?M tYj=MG bM"jb-


Zaid sent a letter to Khālid
0± R !V \ \
v
6+ * * *
9|% w\

This is a (*\ *$Pv). All three nouns are singular.

Example no. 2

O^M h% bO‚ ² MO‰ i Mvh bM"jb-


The men sent clothing to the women.
0± R !V \ \
v
6+ * * *
9|% w\

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This is a (*\ *$Pv). All three nouns are broken plurals.

Example no. 3

oYOM O(Mb\ bM ²)OM tYj=MG c^Mv


Zaid came riding on Hāmid’s horse.
R[ R[ R  \ \
 v
0±
6+ * * *
9|% w\

This is a (*\
*$Pv). The word (²)OM) indicates the condition
of the doer. Therefore it is ( !|%).

Note 1: The adjective will be in the same case as the


preceding noun. If the noun is (N!\), the adjective will

also be (N!\). If it is ( !|%), the adjective will also be the

same and if it is (0±), the adjective will follow suit.

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Example:

(o OM o]OM bO‚ ³/j=O!b€ ² j!Pfr?M tOM PvM bM"jb-)

A learned man sent a long letter to a just king.

The words, (tOM), (³/j=O!b€) and (o OM) are adjectives and the
case of each one follows its preceding noun, namely (PvM),

(² j!Pfr?M) and (o OM) respectively.

4. If a noun is dual (*%5d), the suffix (O cd) will be

appended in (w\ *) - the nominative case and (Oj= cd) in


(6+0 9|% *) - the accusative and genitive cases, e.g.

(OjMb-jM$r bO‚ OjM j!Pfr?M Ob/Pvm M9Mfb)

The two men wrote two letters to the two women.

The ( ) of (OM%r‰O‚) and (OMfM%r‰O‚) meaning ‘two’ is the same as


the dual form.

The words (/
b O) and (MfrO) meaning ‘both’ will be read (jbO)
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and (jMfrO) in (6+0 9|% *) - the accusative and genitive


cases, e.g.

(M$P,b/O O b/PvM c^Mv) – Both men came.


(M$OjbO OjbPvM Pƒj=b-M) – I saw both men.

(M$OjbO OjbPvM bO‚ PƒrM"jb-) – I sent to both men.

The words (/
b O) and (MfrO) are used with a pronoun (>$').

5. If a word is (´  X¢ w$+) – the sound masculine


plural, the suffix (bj0 ed) will be appended in (w\ *) and

(Mj= Od) in (6+0 9|% *), e.g.

(MjO$Ou“ bO‚ Mj=OYO,M{P$r bj!P$Oj P$r bM"jb-)

The Muslims despatched the mujāhidīn to the oppressors.

The tens from (bj0Pj_O) – 20 – till (bj!Pj O) – 90 - have the same

( ). The form will be (bj0Pj_O) in (w\ *) and (Mj=Oj_O)


in (6+0 9|% *).

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The word (j!i0i- – people of) in (w\ *) and (jO0i-) in ( *
6+0 9|%) is like (´  X¢ w$+) - the sound masculine
plural.

Examples:
(O M)rbyr !i0i- jP,) - They are people of intelligence.

(O M)rbyr O0i- MYj%O O M)rbyr O0i- Pƒj=b-M) - I saw the people of


intelligence by the people of intelligence.

Note 2: The ( ) of the dual and sound masculine plural

is by means of letters (R0). Therefore the nūn of both

these forms is called (*  !q). See 5.4.

6. The sound feminine plural (´  zq`¢ w$+) will be read


with (pd) in (w\ *) and with (od)40 in (6+0 9|% *).
See 5.2. Example:

(OBM=OM)r bO‚ OBb2O"bVr PBM$Oj P$r MMb€) - The Muslim women

40 If the word has (r b), only one dammah or kasrah will be read as is apparent
from the example.

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expelled the transgressing women to the deserts.

7. You have learnt that when (r b) is prefixed to a word, the


tanwīn is deleted. See 2.3. Now remember that some words
do not accept the tanwīn from their inception.
Examples: (i*u?M), (Pj|O), (PYM$jb-), (iM$r5P), (P9M%j=MG), (i*Mgrb€), (e^Mj$M),

(PYOvM M).

Such nouns are called (R|% > "). In (w\ *), they
are pronounced with a (ed) and in (6+0 9|% *) with a

(cd), e.g.

(b*u?M jO\ M9M%j=MG iM$r5P Ub-M) - Úthmān saw Zaynab in Makkah.

However, when an (R|% > ") has (r b) prefixed to it, or


it is (R[), then a kasrah will be rendered to it in (6+ *).

Examples: (OYOvM M$r O\), (MjO$Oj P$r OYOvM M jO\).

Note 3: Words which accept tanwīn are called (R|%).


These nouns will be discussed in detail in Lesson 57.
8. No ( ) can be read on words like (…"j!P) and (… jO).

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They will hence be read as they are in all three cases ( *
6+0 9|% 0 w\). Such nouns are called (j!P|r2M ").
Examples:
(…"j!P c^Mv), (…"j!P Pƒj=b-M), (…"j!P P.b/i M!P,).

9. Words with a yā sākin (jU) at the end like (jO'b2rb), (jOMrb),

(jUOM{rb) and (jO'M$rb) are free of external ( ) in ( w\ *


6+0) while in (9|% *), a (9|q) will be rendered to
them.
Examples:

Sentence Meaning Case


jO'b2rb c^Mv The judge w\ *
came
jO'b2r P.b/i c^Mv The slave of 6+ *
the judge
came.
MO'b2r Pƒj=b-M I saw the 9|% *
judge.

If these words do not have (r b-), they will be read as (oJb#),

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(o
M), etc. in (6+0 w\ *) and (²O'b#), (²OM) etc. in ( *
9|%).

Their sound plurals (´  w$+) are: (bj!P'b#), (bj!iM) etc. in


(w\ *) and (MjO'b#), (MjOM) etc. in (6+0 9|% *).

Their dual forms are like normal words, namely, (OMO'b#),

(OMOM) etc. in (w\ *) and (OjM'


O b#), (OjMOM) etc. in ( *
6+0 9|%).

Nouns that can be declined by the changing of the final


vowels or letters are called ( MP$rb) and words whose final

vowels are static are called (O%j)M$rb)41. There are few nouns

that are (O%j)M$rb). The (l:8^@) indicative pronouns, ( ^@A


*!!¢) relative pronouns, (.Vf"A ^@) interrogative
pronouns, etc. are all (O%j)M$rb). They will be discussed later in
Lesson 57.

41 Because it is incorrect to say (O%j)M), the term (O%j)M$rb) has been used. If one
deletes the (r b), the word becomes (oj)M).

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Note 4: The (*|V%¢ *!\¢ ©$[) nominative detached


pronouns were listed in Lesson 6. The remaining pronouns
will be discussed in Lessons 11 and 15 and in detail in
Lesson 41.

Vocabulary List No. 8

Word Meaning
t m!M doorkeeper

tM$r‰b- a tM$b‰ fruit

M)Mv mountain

M$Mv camel

OBMqM!MMgr i*b2j=OYM zoo (lit. garden of animals)

Pj=O0M0M a M!j=O government office

PjObM a uP shop

²)OM mounted

tSM!j"b- a tSj!P" market, shopping mall

tBMmM" a lMmM" car, vehicle

tYhM" leader, master

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lMYhM" queen, noble woman, wife

*bOb\ distance

t;Ob\ agile, swift

„…r5m$i guava

mP pomegranate

tj!P"i- a tYM"b- lion

tm=M}P beautified

µM|P place of salāh, ídgāh

tBb#Mq a tSj!Pq a *b#Mq she camel

*M,j}Pq walk, stroll

MYjM field

lMj)O admonition, lesson

Exercise No. 9

(A) Translate into English


Only those verbs which were used in the examples of the
previous lessons have been used in this exercise. Verbs will
be discussed in Lesson 14.

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O M)r MYj%O tO©b# P m!M)rb (3) bj0PO'M ilbXOb/mfb (2) tO'M iXjO$rhfb (1)

MO tj!P$jgM c^Mv (5) OM{MgrO ²)rb PYbM!r M MM' (4) tˆOMv P9rb?rM0
O*b2j=OYO jO\ ²YM"b- tYOM Ub-M (6) Ol/m|O OYO{j M$r bO‚ M9M,bFM0 O*M"MjYM$r
M9M,bFM0 PYM$jb- c^Mv (8) ²qmP tYOMŠM0 „…r5m$i …jgM= bbb- (7) OBMqM!MMgr
(10) OlMmm  O\ oBM)OM jOj,O bO‚ e^M %h M9M,bF (9) Ojb?OM' tYm$MgP
(11) OYjOr OlbM|O uM|P$r bO‚ MjO)O,bF OBM$Oj P$r M0 MjO$Oj P$r Pƒj=b-M
tjMq OMYj™M)r O\ (12) O*M,j}sP%b Oj|Mr MYjM OMfj P)r bO‚ PBM%M)rM0 bj!P%M)r P9M,rXM=
c^Mv (14) O*m%M{r O\ O^M h% ilMYhM" i*M$O€b\ (13) O*bjvhYO tRj0PjM oMv
O\ OjM OMv OjbOM OjMO'b# Pƒj=b-M (15) O(MbVr bM ²)OM  OM oJb#
bj!iOM bj!P'b# jP, rM bA (17) ª bj!P$ObŒ bj!P'b# jP, rM, (16) OM!j=hY
Oj=MYbM!r b/O M9M,bF (19) jMOM$OO tRj0Pj M o M M)Mv OYj%Or O\ (18)
M$OjbO ²YjOM"M0 ³/jOMŠ Pƒj=b-M (20) O*MOMr O*M"MjYM$r bO‚ OjMfj%O)r MfrOM0
OM|j byr O0iyO ³lMj)Ob M]bbF j O\ uO‚ (21) OMYjM$r O\ OjM)ObA

(B) Fill in the blanks where a verb, (\), (Yf)), (§Š),

(v R) or (0±) are missing with suitable


words that you have learnt.

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ilbXO b/mf0 ilbXOM"byrb- (1)


bM *M OMv ( 2)
bM ²)OM c^Mv (3)
O M)r ² OMv ²"OM „b-M (4)
OYj%Or O\ ²Mjqb- ( 5)
*M=OMv OYj%Or O\ (6)
ª bO‚ M9M,bF rM, (7)
jO\ ³/jO\ M0 ²YM"b- (8)
bM OM ( 9)
OjM)OM M0 (10)
Oj«“ bO‚ P9M,rXM= (11)
O*M)jb?r M.Mb- b*u?M bM$r5P (12)

(C) Translate into Arabic:

(1) a tall mountain


(2) the past two months
(3) The gardens of the cities are wide.
(4) There is a long distance between Makkah and Egypt.
(5) I saw two flowing rivers today.

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(6) Ahmad’s son’s horses are agile.


(7) Úthmān came to Makkah on an agile camel.
(8) The two doorkeepers are standing by the door of the
leader.
(9) The shops of the markets of the cities are much
beautified.
(10) A just judge is in the governmental office.

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Lesson 11

The Genitive of Possession


(   )42

1. When the (*%5d) dual and (´  X¢ w$+) sound


masculine plural forms are (R[), their (*  !q) at the
end is deleted.
Examples:

w\ * 9|% * + *


oPvM MfjM M$P, oPvM jMfjM Pƒj=b-M oPvM jMfjM P M!j b-
They are the I saw the two the doors of
two houses of houses of a the two
a man. man. houses of a
man.
originally was originally was originally was
(OMfjM ) (OjMfjM ) (OjMfjM )

42 This lesson is related to lesson no. 7.

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w\ * 9|% * + *


OYbM!r !P$–MP jP, O$–MP Pƒj=b-M OYbM!r O$–MP PƒjM
OYbM!r
They are the I saw the the house of
teachers of the teachers of the the teachers of
boy. boy. the boy..
originally was originally was originally was
(bj!P$–MP) (MjO$–MP) (MjO$–MP)

2. When the words (t b- - father)43, (tEb- - brother)44 and (tb\ -


mouth)45 are related to any other word besides the pronoun
of the singular first person (?f Y0 >$'), their forms46
will be as follows:

43 The dual of (t b-) is (OM!M b-), (Oj=M!M b-) and the plural is (p^M 1).
44 The dual of (tEb-) is (OM!MŠb-), (Oj=M!MŠb-) and the plural is (M!jŠO‚).
45 The dual of (t\b ) is (OM$b\), (OjM$b\) and the plural is (t;M!r\b-).
46 Besides these three words, there are another three words which follow the
same pattern. They are (tM), (tM,) and (j0iF). These six words are known as ( ^M@-
l§? *f").

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w\ * 9|% * + *


j!P b- M b- jO b-
!j PŠb- MŠb- jOŠb-
j!i\ b\ jO\

Note 1: The word (j0iF) meaning person, owner, etc. has the
same three forms. However, it is only related to a visible
noun (,Π") and not to a pronoun.
Examples:

w\ * 9|% * + *


o M j0iF o M bF o M jUOF

The feminine form of (j0iF) is (tBbF).

The dual of (j0iF) is (OM0bF), (Oj=M0cbF) and the plural is (bj0P0bF).

The dual of (tBbF) is (OMM0bF), (OjMM0cbF) and the plural is

(tBM0bF). The ( ) of these words is like other general


nouns.
Examples:
(o M M0bF) – two people of wealth,

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(o M j0P0bF) – many people of wealth,


(o M$Mv PBbF) – one of beauty,

(o M$Mv MM0bF) – two women of beauty,

(o M$Mv PB0M bF) – women of beauty.

Note 2: When the words (t b-), (tEb-) and (tb\) are related to the

singular first person pronoun (?f Y0 >$'), they will be


read as follows in all three cases: (jO b-) – my father, (jOŠb-) –

my brother, (jO$b\) – my mouth.

3. If you intend to relate two or more words to one word,


the first word will be mentioned as normally before the
( R[), but the second one will be mentioned after the
( R[) and a pronoun referring to the ( R[) must

be appended to it, e.g. (PPqMfj P M0 Oj=GO M!r PƒjM ) – the minister’s

house and his garden, (jPP%jOM M M0 O^MMiyr PBj!PP ) – the ministers’


houses and their gardens.

4. When nouns are related to pronouns, these are the forms


they will assume:

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Attached Pronouns in the Genitive Case


(l0¶ *|f¢ ©$[)
Third Person (9O©b)

PP MfO singular


Masculine

M$PP MfO dual

jPP MfO plural

bP MfO singular


Feminine

M$PP MfO dual

mPP MfO plural

Second Person (O'M)

M]P MfO singular


Masculine

M$i?P MfO dual

ji?P MfO plural

O]P MfO singular


Feminine

M$i?P MfO dual

mi?P MfO plural

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First Person (–b?MfP)

jO MfO singular

M%P MfO dual, plural

After alif, the (–b?MfP U) must be read with a fathah and the
third person singular masculine pronoun must be read with
a dammah.
Examples: (U
M M|M) – my staff, (P;M|M ) – his staff, (MUMYM=) – my
two hands.
A pronoun can also be attached to the (l6v R0). Such a
pronoun is known as (R· |f¢ 0¶ >$[) – the
pronoun attached to a particle in the genitive case. The
paradigm of these pronouns will be as follows:

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Third Person (9O©b)

Pb singular
Masculine

M$Pb dual

jPb plural

Mb singular
Feminine

M$Pb dual

mPb plural

Second Person (O'M)

M]b singular
Masculine

M$i?b dual

ji?b plural

O]b singular
Feminine

M$i?b dual

mi?b plural

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First Person (–b?MfP)

jO singular

M%b dual, plural

In the same way, one can attach the particle (O ), (jO), (bM),

(bO‚), etc. and form a similar paradigm.

Hereunder follow examples of the particles (O ), (jO), (bM)

and (bO‚) attached to the pronouns:

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O O Pj%O ObM OjO‚


M$OO M$Pj%O M$OjM M$OjO‚
jOO jPj%O jO jM jOjO‚
MO Mj%O MjM MjO‚
M$OO M$Pj%O M$OjM M$OjO‚
mOO mPj%O mO jM mOjO‚
M]O M]j%O M]jM M]jO‚
M$i?O M$i?j%O M$i?jM M$i?jO‚
ji?O ji?j%O ji?jM ji?jO‚
O]O O]j%O O]jM O]jO‚
M$i?O M$i?j%O M$i?jM M$i?jO‚
mi?O mi?j%O mi?jbM mi?jbO‚
jO jh%O bM bO‚
M% O m%O M%jbM M%jbO‚

Note 1: The particle (O ) which is from the (l6v R0) is

read (b ) with a fathah when attached to the pronouns

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except for the singular first person. The word (jO) can be

read as (MO) as in the verse: (Oj=O MO 0M ji?P%j=O ji?b).

When the word (jO) is attached to the first person singular

pronoun, it is read as (jh%O), while (bO‚), (bM) and (jO\) are

read as (mbO‚), (mbM) and (mO\) respectively.

If there is a word with the definite article (r b) after (jP,) and

(ji), a dammah will be read on the (.) of both these words

and attached to the (r ), e.g. (i M$r Pi?b M0 i M$r PPb).

5. When the vocative particle (O^Y


M h% PRjM) is used before

(' 9), the (R[) will be read with a fathah, e.g.


(O(m% MYhM" M=), (OM$jm MYj)M M=).

Note 2: The (O^MYh% PRjM) - vocative particles are several of

which (M=) is the most commonly used one. The word to

which the vocative particle is prefixed, is called („…M%P$rb).

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If the („…M%P$rb) is singular and not (R[), a dammah will be

read on the final letter, e.g. (PYj=MG M=) – O Zaid, (iPvM M=) – O
man.

If the („…M%P$rb) is (R[), a fathah will be read on the final

letter of the (R[), e.g. (O(m% MYhM" M=).

If the („…M%P$rb) has ( ), the particle (Mš=b-) for masculine and

(MPfdm=b-) for feminine should be attached to it, e.g.

(iPvm Mš=b- M=) – O man, (i*M%j Or MPfdm=b- M=) – O girl.

Sometimes these two words enter („…M%P$rb) without the

particle (M=), e.g. (iPvm Mš=b-) – O man, (ilMYhm  MPfdm=b-) – O noble


lady.

Vocabulary List No. 9

Word Meaning
or?M j!P b- Bakr’s father, name of a
person
M.Mb- in front

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M%dmqO‚ a mqO‚ undoubtedly we

oO:M, j!P%M the children of Hāshim,


name of a tribe
tMfMŠ son-in-law

t<rMŠ behind

PO,MM a tM,jO dirham, silver coin

PjOqMqM a tM%j=O dīnār, gold coin

t9M,bF gold

twOvM returning

tYjO:M rational

*MM" hour, time, Qiyāmah,


watch
M%j"b- a O" tooth

tMjb- a tjO in-laws

iO©M)b# a *bjO)b# tribe

MYj%O by

*M%O rb- a M O tongue, language

MjgM life

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lM$M death

t]P Pq worship, sacrifice

t•O"M0 dirty

Exercise No. 10

(A) Take special note of the ( ) of each word in the


following sentences:

MPfdm=b- O
 PYj)M jO$j"O rM bA ª Oj=Ob?r PYj)M M]P$j"O rM, ! PYbM0 M= (1)
. ilMYhm 
j!%PM PjgMq jOMYhM" M= jMMq ª oO:M, jO%M jO Mƒjqb- rM, O
 MYj)M M= (2)
. oO:M,
. iFMfj"iyr Mš=b- jO MfO bX…, jMMq ª OM$jm MYj)M M= M]P MfO bX…, b- (3)
. M%PfjM rM jPPfjM bX…, Mˆjb bA ª M]O©b2b\P PƒjM bX…, rM, (4)
jOŠb- P MfO M!P, bM ª M]jŠO b- P MfO bX…, Mˆjb b- (5)
. OM!MŠb- jO jUOFMfj"i- M= jMMq ª ijOMŠ M= tEb- M]b rM, (6)
. ilMjO™m| jOfjŠi- MO, jMMq ª ilMjO™m| M]PfjŠi- MO, rM, (7)
.OM$jm OYj)M j!PŠb- M!P, bA ª oYm$MgP j!PŠb- bX…, b- (8)
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. O*M"MjYM$r O\ tŽjO\M jO oYm$MgP j!PŠb- jMMq ª oYm$MgP MŠb- Mƒj=b-M b- (9)
. OjOŠb- P MfO M!P, jMMq ª oYm$MgP jOŠb- P MfO bX…, rM, (10)
. o M$vM M0 orO MM0bF P;Mfj%O jMMq ª oYOMŠ jMfj%O Mƒj=b-M rM, (11)
. OMfbVjO“Mq MUMYM= jMMq ª OMfbVjO“Mq MTMYM= rM, (12)
. *M jOVMq jPP MO‰ jMMq ª *M jOVMq ji?jO$–MP P MO‰ rM, (13)
. O9M,uX MO *MM" jhi- MYj%O M0 jMMq ª o*[ m O\ i*MM" MTMYj%O rM, (14)
.PjOqMqM OjbO jOM0 PO,MM Pb bM jMMq ª PO,MM 47Pb M]jbM rM, (15)
bO‚ OM)O,bF M$P, rM bA ª b*bj$M: bO‚ PPfj%O M0 O]OM$r Pj  M9M,bF rM, (16)
. M 1MMYjM
. jPPOMŠ O.j!b2r PYhM" (17)
. M%j"b- M0 M O (M%O$b\ jO\ j0b-) M%jO\ jO\ (18)
. UOYj%O, M%PqM O M0 O MM ji?PqM O (19)
. O
 PYj)M PjO)b?r OOr?M jO b- Pj O (20)
M0 MuM"M0 OjbM e
 uM O
 O j!P"M MjO M$P, PM$P M0 or?M j!P b- (21)
. P;M%MfMŠ OMM0 iM$r5P
. bj!PgOM P;M%j M0 OM Mgr O b- Mfj%O (22)

47 The phrase, (Pb M]jbM) means “You owe him,” while (Pb mbM) means “I owe him.”

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. OM)O?r O^M$bPr MO  MvO MjO$Oj P$r O*M"MjYM j!P$–MP (23)


. ji?iM$j b- ji?b M0 M%iM$jb- M%b (24)
ª oYjO:M oPvMO ji?j%O Mˆjbb- (25)
. O*M$jm 0iF Pj!iVM™r M]š M M0 (26)
. MjO$bMr h M OxO jOM$MM0 MUMjgM M0 jO?P Pq M0 jObM uO‚ (27)

(B) Insert the correct ( ) in the following sentences and


indicate the reason for doing so:

. Z / º (1)


. Y=G / º (2)
. !$ , (3)
. *"Y¢ !$ , (4)
. f’"0 ,/v 0 fV“q  Z ƒ% Y= (5)
. B%) *"Y  B$ BZ| ^ % x‚ (6)
. =G!   ./ (\ X, (7)
. ©# *# l-¢ Y0 (8)
. x¢ .- ˆv # l-¢   (9)

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. *£ *Z| v ƒ% (10)


ª Bq!Z *2=Y  >)? Y" ƒ=-- (11)
ª  J# !, , (12)
ª  '2 ƒ=-- (13)
ª *#%  )  '2 9,F , (14)
. Y  - YŠ ! - ' (15)
. *$€\ Y% 9%=G U- $5 (16)
ª %f"Y $ ƒ=- , »? Y) = (17)

(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Is your name Àbdur Rahmān? Yes, my name is


Àbdur Rahmān.
(2) O Àbdur Rahmān, is this your book? No, it is
Àbdullāh’s book.
(3) Do you have a golden watch (watch of gold)? No, I
have a silver watch.
(4) Is that your big brother? Yes, he is my big brother.
(5) Is this the house of the minister’s son? No, it is the
king’s son’s house.
(6) Are the two hands of your small brother clean? Yes,
but his two feet are dirty.
(7) Have you seen Hāmid’s brother? Yes, Hāmid’s

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brother is a good boy.


(8) Have you seen Mahmūd’s two sisters? Yes, his two
sisters are sitting by my mother.
(9) Are your teachers sitting in the madrasah? Yes, our
teachers are sitting in the madrasah.

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Test No. 5

(1) What is ( )?


(2) How many cases does a noun have?
(3) How many types of ( ) are there?

(4) When will a noun be regarded to be in (w\ *),


(9|% *) and (+ *)?
(5) What is the ( ) of the dual form?

(6) What is the ( ) of the sound masculine and


feminine plurals?
(7) What is the ( ) of (R|% > ")?
(8) How will words like ('2) etc. be read in all three
cases?
(9) If the definite article is removed from words like
('2) etc. how will they be read in all three cases.

(10) Form the dual and plural of (&).

(11) What is (¼)¢


"A) and describe some types of it.
(12) What changes take place in (*%5d) and ( X w£

´") when they are (R[)?

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(13) How will the words (t b-), (tEb-) and (tb\) be read in all
three cases when they are related, that is, they are
(R[) to a word other than the singular first person

pronoun (?f Y0 >$')? And if they are related to


the singular first person pronoun (?f Y0 >$'),
how will they be read?
(14) If you want to describe the (R[), will the

adjective be adjacent to the (R[) or will it be at a


distance from it?
(15) What is the ( ) of (j0iF) and the ( ) of its dual
and plural form?
(16) How do you make two nouns (R[) towards one
word?
(17) What is the ( ) of the (R[) when a vocative

particle (^Y%
R) is inserted before it?
(18) When pronouns are ( R[), what are they
called?
(19) Add a pronoun to the word (bM) and form its
paradigm.

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Lesson 12

Indicative Pronouns
(   ! "# $%&' )

1. Words which are used to point out to something are


called (OlMM:Oœr e^M$j"b-). They are of two types:

(a) words that indicate something nearby. The


following forms are the most commonly used
ones:

Gender Singular Dual Plural Case


Masc.
bX…, ObX…, O^bAP`…, w\
Masc.
bX…, Oj=bX…, O^bAP`…, 6v 0 9|q
Fem.
O;OX…, OM…, O^bAP`…, w\
Fem.
O;OX…, OjM…, O^bAP`…, 6v 0 9|q

(b) words that indicate something at a distance.


The more commonly used forms are the
following:

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Gender Singular Dual Plural Case


48
Masc.
M]O…F 0b- MTbF M]OqbF M]O©bA0i- w\
Masc.
MTbF M]O%j=bF M]O©bA0i- 6v 0 9|q
Fem.
M]rO 0b- MTM M]OqM M]O©bA0i- w\
Fem.
M]rO M]O%jM M]O©bA0i- 6v 0 9|q

Note 1: The original Indicative Pronouns are (bF), (ObF) etc.

without the (M,) but these are seldom used.

Note 2: The words (M]ObXb - similarly) – and (bXb?…, – in this


way) – are very often used.

Note 3: The (MT) appended to the end of (Y l: ") is

sometimes changed like the (0± 9€¾ >$')49 according


to the second person. It has no effect on the meaning. This
change occurs more often in (M]O…F).

(mi?O…F M$i?O…F O]O…F ji?O…F M$i?O…F M]O…F)

48 Note that the (0) is not pronounced.


49 The second person pronoun in the genitive case.

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The meaning of all these words is the same.

Example: (M$i?š M M$i?O…F) – That is the Lord of you two.

(ji?š M e
 Pi?O…F) – That Allāh is your Lord.

Note 4: Besides the dual form, all the remaining ( e^M$j"b-


OlMM:Oœr) are (jO%j)dM$rb) - indeclinable.

2. The object pointed to is called the (OjbO‚ tM_P). The ( "


l:8) together with the (OjbO‚ tM_P) form part of a sentence,
namely the subject, doer or object, just as in (V! 9)

and ('‚ 9).

3. The (OjbO‚ tM_P) will always have ( ) or be (R[).

4. If the (Ojb‚O tM_P) has ( ) attached to it, the (l:8 ")


must be mentioned first, e.g. (P MfO?r bX…,) – this book.

If it is (R[) towards another noun, the (l:8 ") will

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succeed the ( R[), e.g. (bX…, ji?P MfO) – this book of yours,
(bX…, O]OM$r Pj O) – this son of the king.

In the above-mentioned phrases, if the (l:8 ") is

brought first, and it is said, (ji?P MfO bX…,), the meaning will be,
‘This is your book.’ In this case, the word (ji?P MfO) is no more

the (OjbO‚ tM_P) but will become the predicate. It will now be a
complete sentence.

5. If the (l:8 ") occurs as the subject of a sentence


without the (OjbO‚ tM_P), then:

(a) if the predicate has ( ), insert a pronoun (>$') between

the (l:8 ") and the (§Š). This pronoun will correspond

in word-form to the (l:8 ") as you learnt in Lesson 6.

Examples: (P MfO?r M!P, bX…,) – This is the book.

(bj!PgOrVP$r PP, M]O©bA0i-) – Those people are the successful ones.

In these examples, the (OjbO‚ tM_P) is implied (mYb2P). The actual


sentences are (P MfO?r M!P, i‹jm_ bX…,) and ( PP, P(m% M]O©bA0i-

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bj!PgOrVP$r).

(b) If the predicate does not have ( ), a pronoun will not be

inserted, e.g. (t MfO bX…,) – this is a book. The (OjbO‚ tM_P) is


implied in this example as well.

(c) If it is (R[), then too there is no need for a pronoun,

e.g. (O]OM$r P jO bX…,) – This is the king’s son.


(ji?P MfO bX…,) – This is your book.
However, if you want to create emphasis in your speech,
insert a pronoun, e.g.
(ji?P MfO !M P, bX…,) – This is your book.
(O]OM$r Pj O M!P, MTbF) - That is the king’s son.

Note 5: Understand well the difference between


(bX…, O]OM$r Pj O) and (O]OM$r Pj O bX…,).

Note 6: The words (M%P…,), - here, (M%P,) – here, and (MTM%P,) –


there, are also indicative pronouns. There are no particular
rules for their usage.

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Vocabulary List No. 10

Word Meaning
tjO fig

lMj$P redness

 M!jŠb- a  MŠ maternal uncle

tBbMŠ a *bMŠ maternal aunt

t9j=M doubt

M9j=M bA no doubt

t.M$jb- a M paternal uncle

tBm$M a *m$M paternal aunt

jO2mfP$rb pious

t j!irWM aim

POŒM%M a tb“j%M scenery

„²YP, guidance

t;j!PvP0 a tjvM0 face

b b# he said

jƒbb# she said

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ubyb as if, like

M,jP proof

e^m)O€b- a t9jO)b€ doctor

Exercise No. 11

(A) Translate the following sentences into English:

j O j!irWM M!P, bX…, (1)


*M%M M lb-MjO‚ O;OX…, (2)
OM!MŠb- Ob/Pvm ObX…, (3)
M!jŠO‚ PIM’j:byr O^bAP`…, (4)
PPjvM0 M]O…Xb M0 t<jO“Mq OYbM!r bX…, P MfO (5)
t•O"M0 bX…, OYbM!r P MfO (6)
P9M%j=MG Oƒj%O)r O;OX…, Pj"O (7)
*M%M M POŒM%M$r M]rO (8)
OMfbVjO“Mq OMYMr OMM, (9)
MTbF j.b- MTj!PŠb- bX…, b- (10)
jh$M Pj  bX…, M0 jh$M MTbF (11)
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jOfm$M O;OX…, M0 jOfbMŠ ilb-jM$r M]rO M0 jOMŠ iPvm bX…, (12)


o†jO)b2O Mˆjb O*M%j Oœr O;OX…, PjvM0 (13)
O*M$–MP$r M.Mb- OMfM$O©b# M]OqM MUMfjŠi- (14)
Pjhf bX…, M]ObXb M0 ŸOv lM!rP U…r5m$i?r O;OX…, (15)
OjbPvm M]O%j=bXO PBj!PP)r M]rO (16)
lMj$P OjMM, M]j=MYM= jO\ (17)
O jO\ M9j=M bA P MfO?r M]ObF (18)
bj!PgOrVP$r PP, M]O©bA0i- M0 jOh M jO U²YP, bM M]O©bA0i- (19)
O]P:jM bXb?…,b- bjO# (20)
M!P, Pmqbyb jƒbb# (21)
bj0PYOb# M%P…, mqO‚ (22)
bj!MjO\ bO‚ M]h M jO OMqM,jP M]OqbXb\ (23)
M]š M b b# M]ObXb b b# (24)

(B) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) This doctor is learned.


(2) This friend of mine is wealthy.
(3) Those friends are wealthy.
(4) This son of the king is generous.

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(5) These two are brothers.


(6) That she-camel is beautiful.
(7) This handsome boy is pious.
(8) O Àbdullāh, is this your son?
(9) Those boys are standing in front of their father.
(10) This is a good man and those two are transgressors.
(11) That girl is pious and so is her mother.

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Test No. 6

(1) What are the commonly used forms of the indicative


pronouns?
(2) Which of the indicative pronouns are declinable
( )?
(3) What is the object that is pointed to called?
(4) How is the (OjbO‚ tM_P) always used?

(5) Where should the (l:8 ") be placed when the

(OjbO‚ tM_P) has ( )?

(6) When the (l:8 ") is used without the (OjbO‚ tM_P)
in a sentence, what are the ways in which it is used?
(7) What is the difference in meaning and analysis
between (bX…, ji?P MfO) and (ji?P MfO bX…,)?
(8) Is there any difference in meaning in the following
words: (mi?O…F M$i?O…F O]O…F ji?O…F M$i?O…F M]O…F)
(9) When does the (T) of (M]O…F) or (M]rO) change in the
above-mentioned manner. Explain with examples.

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Lesson 13

Interrogative Pronouns
( ()*+&, #-' )

1. Some of the interrogative pronouns are:

Word Meaning
jM who

M what

bFM what

M¿j=b- what

Ub- which (m)

*m=b- which (f)

jO how much, how many

M<jb how

Mj=b- where

…fM when

M$O why

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bFM$O why

…6qb- from where, how

Note 1: Besides (Ub-) and (*m=b-), all the interrogative pronouns

are (jO%j)dM$rb). See 10.9.

Note 2: You have read in Lesson 6 Note 4 that the particles


(rM,) and (b-) create the interrogative meaning in the sentence.

They are both particles (R0) of interrogation. That is,


they cannot form the subject or doer of a sentence. On the
other hand, the interrogative pronouns can become the
subject or doer or object of a sentence.

2. The (.Vf"A ^@-) - interrogative pronouns – are used at


the beginning of sentences, e.g.
(ªMTj!P b- jM) – Who is your father?
However, when they are ( R[), they will follow the

(R[) according to the normal rule, e.g. (jM P MfO) – whose


book.
The particle (O ) can be inserted before the (.Vf"A ^@-) and

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brought at the beginning of a sentence, e.g. (P MfO?r OM$O) –


Whose book is it? (Literally: For whom is this book?)
(M.j!Mr P]rP$r OM$O) – Whose kingdom is it today?

3. The (lv R0)50 can be attached to the beginning of the


(.Vf"A ^@-).
Examples:
Word Meaning
jM$O whose

M$O why

jb?O how much

Mj=b- bO‚ till where

Mj=b- jO from where

…fM bO‚ till when

(M jO) m$O from what

(jM jO) jm$O from whom

(M jM) m$M from what,


regarding what

50 See Vocabulary List No. 6.

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M$jO\ in what

4. Sometimes the word (M) is joined to the (lv R0)


without the alif. Therefore (M$O) becomes (MO), (m$M) becomes

(mM) and (M$j\O) becomes (MjO\).

5. The words (Ub-) and (*m=b-) are (R[) to the succeeding

words, e.g. (oPvM šUb-) – which man, (O Mvh šUb-) – which of the
men, (ol-Mj i*m=b-) - which woman, (O^M h% i*m=b-) which of the

women. If the word after (Ub-) is indefinite, it will be


singular and if it is definite, it will be plural.
6. The word succeeding (jb) is ( !|%) - in the accusative

case and it is singular, e.g. (MTMYj%O ²$M,jO jb) – How many


dirhams do you have?
(MTPj$P ³*M%M" jb ) – What is your age? (Literally: How many
years is your age?”)

7. Sometimes the word (jb) is not used for interrogation but

for providing information. It is called (*m=OM)MŠ ). Its


meaning in that case will be ‘several’ or ‘many’.

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The noun succeeding (*=§Š ) is (0±). Sometimes it is

singular and sometimes plural, e.g. (Pƒr2Mfjb- oYj)M jb) or ( jb


Pƒr2Mfjb- oYjO)M) – I have freed many slaves.

The particle (jO) is sometimes used after (*Vf" ) and


often after (*=§Š ).
Examples: (MTMYj%O o*mO P jO jb) – How many rupees do you
have?
(O^Mb2iVr bM MPfr\MM MjOqMqM j0b- oM%j=O jO jb) – I spent many gold
coins on the poor.

Vocabulary List No. 11

Word Meaning
tjb- matter, command

MjM between

tj)O ink

*M j$MŠ five

*mO P rupee

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tM$O" a tjO$M" fat

UOj0PM' necessary

*MO\M comfort

M|M stick

Oj)Ogr Pbb# fountain pen

OIMm Pbb# pencil

lM0M ink bottle

tmb# powerful

tYOM0 one

tjO$M= right, right-hand side

tM M= left, left-hand side

*M,Ob\ agile, lively

Exercise No. 12

(A) Translate into English:

OIMm Pbb# bX…, ª bX…, M (1)

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Oj)Ogr Pbb# MTbF ª MTbF MM0 (2)


lM0M O;OXM, ª O;OXM, M (3)
tj)O OlM0mY O\ ª OlM0mY O\ bFM M0 (4)
jOMŠ M0 jh$M ObX…, ª Ob/Pvm ObX…, jM (5)
ilMYjM PG ilMjO™m| jOfjŠi- M]rO M$PM%jM Pƒj%O)r M]rO jMM0 (6)
tYOM PjO)b?r jOŠb- MTbF M]bVrMŠ tˆOMv oPvM šUb- (7)
O*M"MjYM$r ilbXOM"b- O^bAP`…, ª i Mvh O^bAP`…, jM (8)
O*M"MjYM jO\ tBM$–MP mP, ª e^M h% O^bAP`…, jM (9)
OBM%M)r
O*M"MjYM$r bO‚ M9M,bF M!P, ª PjO™m| MTj!PŠb- Mj=b- (10)
OjMfMM" bj)b# M9M,bF ª M9M,bF ÀM (11)
jO MfO M!P, bX…, ª P MfO?r bX…, jM$O (12)
jh M e
b- ª M]š M jM (13)
jhO)Mq O
 i j!P"M tYm$MgP ª M]šO)Mq jM (14)
jO%j=O P.b/j"Oœrb ª M]P%j=O M (15)

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(B) Note the use of the interrogative pronouns in the


following sentences:

. jUOYhM" M= O
 PYj)M jO$j"O ª PYbM0 M= M]P$j" M (1
oYm$MgP Pj PYM$jb- PP$j"O ª O
 MYj)M M= M]jO b- Pj" M (2
. b*u?M jO PjgMq ª jPfjqb- Mj=b- jO (3
. OYj%Or bO‚ bj!P)O,bF PjgMq ª jPfjqb- bj!P)O,bF Mj=b- bO‚ (4
. O*MO\MrO PjgMq O
PYj$Mgrb ª ji?iM M<jb (5
jUOYhM" M= obAj0b- i*M j$MŠ jO ª PYOMŠ M= M]b ²YbM0 jb (6
lMO'M ²fj%O bj!P j$MŠ jUOYhM" M= ª O*M"MjYM$r O\ lMO'M ²fj%O jb (7
.O*M"MjYM$r O\ M.j!Mrb
. tYOM0 tEb-M0 OMfjŠi- jO ª OBM!MŠybrM0 OM!jŠOœr MO M]b jb (8
³*mO P Mj=Oj_OO ilMb2M)r O;OXM, ª i*M%jO$m  ilMb2M)r O;OXM, jb?O (9
¬UOj0PM' ojbyO tˆOMv Mqb- ª M%PM, Mƒjqb- tˆOMv MO (10
. MUM|M MO, ª M"j!P M= M]O%jO$MO M]rO M (11
. O
 OYj%O jO M!P, jƒbb# ª bX…, O]b mqb- b b# (12
. Omb2r OYOM!r OuO ª M.j!Mr P]rP$r OM$O (13
. t9j=Ob# O
 Mj|Mq uO‚ bAb- ª O
 Pj|Mq …fM (14
(C) Answer these questions in Arabic using the words you

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have learnt.
ª bX…, M (1)
ª O;OXM, jM (2)
ª MTbF M (3)
ª M]rO M (4)
ª bX…, jM (5)
ª ObX…, jM (6)
ª O^bAP`…, jM (7)
ª M]P$j"O M¿j=b- (8)
ª PYM$jb- M= MTj!PŠb- Mj=b- (9)
ª M]jOŠb- Pj"O M (10)
ª MTMŠb- M MM' jM (11)
ª jOŠb- M MM' jM (12)
ª OM!jŠOœr MO M]b jb (13)
ª O;OXM, jM Pƒj%O (14)
ª M,j!P b- Mj=b- (15)
ª M,M b- Mƒj=b-Mb- (16)
ª MjO b- MƒjM Mƒj=b-Mb- (17)

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ª M]hi- MYj%O *M OMv O^M h% i*m=b- (18)


ª t9jM j.b- jM" ª P MfO?r bX…, M<jb (19)
ª jO©M)j$ M bO‚ MTj!P b- M9M,bF …fM (20)

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Who are you? Sir, I am Hāmid.


(2) What is your father’s name? My father’s name
is Hasan Ibn Àlī.
(3) How many sons and daughters does Àbdur
Rahmān have? He has one son and two
daughters.
(4) Who is the woman standing in front of you?
She is my brother’s wife.
(5) What is in her hand? There are clothes in her
hand.
(6) How many people are standing there? Five
people are standing there.
(7) How many boys are present today? Sir, thirty
boys are present.
(8) O Mahmūd, why are you standing here? I am
standing here for some necessary work.
(9) How much is this book? It costs five rupees
(Lit. It is for five rupees).
(10) O Khālid, how many brothers do you have?

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Sir, I have two brothers.


(11) To whom does this small dog belong? It is
my maternal uncle’s dog.
(12) Where are you going to now? Sir, we are
going to the madrasah.
(13) When did your brother go? He went one
hour ago.

(E) Note how the following sentences have been analysed.


An indication was made in Lesson 6 and 10 to (*@ *£) and
(*\ *£) respectively. Here a simple analysis of some
straightforward sentences is made. If any sentence provides
information of some type, term it (*=§Š) and if there is a

question, term it (*Vf") or (*©_q).


(1)
. / 0  1
§Š Yf)
*=§Š *@ *£

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(2)

2 & 34
/ 5 6
*V R!! Yf)
dM)dMŠ
*=§Š *@ *£

(3)

7&% 85 6 . / %9


0{d 6v R §dŠ .Vf" "
Yf)
M)dM’rO Žf
*Vf" *@ *£

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(4)

:0 ; 8 <=%>


+ 0% ?  + 4 @
0± R !V \ \ R
6v .Vf"
VrO Žf
*Vf" *\ *£

Test No. 7

(1) Which words constitute the (.Vf"8 ^@) and the

(.Vf"8 R0). What is the difference between the


two?
(2) Where should the (.Vf"8 ^@) be placed in a
sentence?
(3) From the (.Vf"8 ^@), which word is ( )?
(4) How many types of (jb) are there? What is the

( ) of the noun succeeding each type?

(5) How are (Ub-) and (*m=b-) used? Explain with examples.

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(6) What were the words (mM) and (MjO\) originally?

Insert the ( ) in the following sentences:

ª  9 0 *,V *#% ;X, ¢ (1)


ª ]$ !, , (2)
ª F¢0 T  Y% *$©# l- *=-0 (3)
ª %7  0 (4)
ª >)? ,Y0 !, , (5)
ª B2)  ] 0 Á = B#%  ]  (6)
ª l2 0 Y = TY% l:  (7)
ª   &  !f? !$Â "- , (8)
!v ^v  ?   & !$Â " !f?  UY" = q (9)
. ;Y% 

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Lesson 14

The Verb

1. Verbs are of two types: (1) one is ('¢) which indicates

that an action has been completed, e.g. (M9Mfb) – he wrote. (2)

the second is (N[¢) which indicates that an action has not


been completed but is being done or will be done, e.g.
(P9Pfr?M=) – he is writing or he will write.

Some morphologists51 regard the imperative (-) as a third


category of verbs.
Generally a verb has three root letters (O‰b/i‰), e.g. (M9Mfb) – he

wrote. Some verbs have four root letters (OM P), e.g. (MMvjM) –
he translated.

Note 1: The root letters of a word are called (lmM). In verbs,

the (9© X Y0) third person singular word-form


contains only the root letters to the extent that recognizing

51 Scholars of (ORjm| P).

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the root letters of the verbal noun (Y|) and all the

derivatives (B2f_) are based on this word-form. In order


to indicate the meaning of the verbal noun, it is appropriate
to write this word-form - (9© X Y0) - so that the
student can apprize himself of the root letters. Hence we
can say that (M9Mfb) means to write although originally its
meaning is, ‘he wrote’. However, if you want to speak of
the meaning expressed by the verbal noun, you should use
the verbal noun, e.g. (blc^MO2rM0 b*M MfO?r !P$uMM) – Learn writing
and reading. The word (b*M MfO?rb) is the (Y|) -verbal noun of

(M9Mfb) while (blc^MO2rb) is the verbal noun of (b-Mb#).

3. The (9© X Y0) third person singular word-form of


('¢) - the past tense (or perfect tense) comes on the scales

of (bMb\), (bOb\) and (bPb\). Examples: (M MM') – he hit, (MwO$M") – he

heard and (M.Pb) – he was noble. Details of this will be

provided in Lesson 16 while the quadriliteral verb ( )


will be discussed in Lesson 25.
All the word forms of the past tense are as follows:

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ABCD EFD D 4*

Meaning Person Gender Word-Form Verb


He wrote 3rd masc. singular M9Mfb
person
They 2 dual M)Mfb
wrote
They wrote plural j!P)Mfb
She wrote fem. singular jƒM)Mfb
They 2 f. dual MfM)Mfb
wrote
They f. plural Mj)Mfb
wrote
You wrote 2nd masc. singular Mƒj)Mfb
person
You 2 wrote dual M$Pfj)Mfb
You wrote plural jPfj)Mfb
You f. wrote fem. singular Oƒj)Mfb
You 2 f. dual M$Pfj)Mfb
wrote
You f. wrote plural mPfj)Mfb
I wrote 1st m/f singular Pƒj)Mfb
person
We wrote m/f dual/ M%j)Mfb
plural

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Note 2: The total number of word forms are 18 but only 14


are mentioned because the meanings of all are included in
these 14 forms. Then there is no need to repeat one word
several times. However, among the 14 word-forms, the verb
(M$Pfj)Mfb) is repeated. There was no need for it but due to a
certain expediency, the custom of repeating it has been
formed.

Note 3: Every word-form of the verb has a pronoun of the


(\) – doer. These pronouns are called

(*|f *!\ ©$') – attached pronouns in the nominative


case.

Note 4: When joining the verb (jƒM)Mfb) to the succeeding


word, delete the final sukūn (jazm) and replace it with a
kasrah, e.g. (M j!Pfr?M$r i*M$–MP$r OƒM)Mfb) – The teacher wrote the
letter.
The alif and (0) of those words which have them at the end
will not be pronounced when joining them to the
succeeding word, e.g. (M j!Pfr?M$r M)Mfb Ob/Pvmb) – The two men
wrote the letter. (M j!Pfr?M$r !)PMfb i Mvhb) – The men wrote the
letter.

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5. The verbs on the scales of (bOb\) and (bPb\) will also be


conjugated like the above:

M%j OM: ... Mj OM: a MfM OM: a jƒM OM: a j!P OM: a M OM: a M OM:
M%jPb ... a MjPba MfMPb a jƒMPb a j!PPb a MPba M.Pb

6. The scales of (bMb\), (bOb\) and (bPb\) are of (R0¢ '¢) –


the past active tense. The ( !±) passive tense52 of all these
forms appears on the scale of (bOi\).

Examples: from (M9Mfb) – (M9Ofi), (M O M:) – (M OP:), (M.Pb) – (M.Oi).

No (\) is mentioned with the ( !±) - passive verb. Only


the ( !V – object) which is now called the (©V 9©q) –

representative of the doer - is mentioned. Like the (\), it

is rendered (w\), e.g. (PM)u M OP:) – The milk was drunk. This
sentence does not indicate who drank the milk.

52When one wants to indicate the person/item on which the action is done
without mentioning the doer, the passive verb is used, e.g. The book was
taken.

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7. By inserting (M) before ('¢) - the perfect tense, it

becomes negative, e.g. (M9Mfb M) – He did not write. (M OM: M)
– He did not drink.

8. Very often the word (jYb#) or (jYb2b) – undoubtedly – is added

to ('¢) - the perfect tense to create emphasis in the


meaning. However, there is no need to translate it always,
e.g. (²j$M tYj=MG M MM' jYb#) – Undoubtedly Zaid hit Bakr or Zaid
hit Bakr.

9. You read in the sixth lesson that a sentence beginning


with a verb is called (*\ *$Pv). In a (*\ *$Pv), the (\)
which is in (w\ *) - the nominative case - generally
follows the verb, e.g. (tYj=MG MˆbMv) – Zaid sat. If it is a ( V

jUhYMMfP$r) transitive verb53, the third part of the sentence is the


( !V) – the object - which is in (9|% *) - the accusative
case. See Lesson 10.
Example: (²})jPŠ tYj=MG bbb-) – Zaid ate bread.

53 A transitive verb is one that requires an object to form a complete sentence.

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Besides these, the other parts of the sentence are called the
(Bb2–MMfP), e.g. (Ojgu MwM) – with the meat, (OƒjM)r O\) - in the
house, (M.j!Mrb) – today etc.

Sometimes the ( !V) – object – precedes the (\) and

sometimes it even precedes the verb. Similarly, the (Bb2–MMfP)

can also precede the (\), the ( !V) and the verb, e.g.
(ji?M%j=O ji?b PƒrM$rb- M.j!Mrb)
Today I have perfected your religion for you.

The words (.M j!Mrb) and (ji?b) are the (Bb2–MMfP) in this sentence.
The former preceded the verb while the latter preceded the
( !V).

10. In a (*\ *$Pv), the verb always remains singular


whether the doer of the action is dual or plural. However
for a masculine doer, the verb will be masculine and for a
feminine doer, the verb will be feminine.
Examples:
(tYbM0 M Mfb) - A boy wrote.
9
(OMYbM0 M9Mfb) - Two boys wrote.

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(tbAj0b- M9Mfb) - Many boys wrote.

(*M%j O jƒM)Mfb) - A girl wrote.

(OMfM%j O jƒM)Mfb) - Two girls wrote.

(tBM%M jƒM)Mfb) - Many girls wrote.

However, if the (\) comes first, then the verb must

correspond to the (\). The details of this rule will be


mentioned in Lesson 18.

Vocabulary List No. 12

Note: In the list below, each verb is written with both the
('¢) - perfect and (N[¢) - imperfect tenses.
Conjugate each verb according to the previously mentioned
paradigm. Then construct the ( !±) passive tense of each
verb and conjugate it. The beloved students of seminaries
should certainly take this much trouble to do this.

Word Meaning
iiryM= bbb- to eat

izMj)M= bzMM to send

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PTPjfM= MTMM to leave

PCPj’M= MCMMŠ to go out

iPŠjYM= bMŠM to enter

P9irWM= M9bb€ to seek

PwirWM= Mwbb€ to rise

P Pj™M= M Mb to set

P9Oj™M= M9bb to overcome

P†MfrVM= M†Mfb\ to open

PDMrVM= MDOb\ to be happy

PMrVM= MOb\ to understand

iPfr2M= bMfb# to kill

P†M{j%M= M†M{Mq to succeed

bj!P Mr#b- relatives

Mj=OXub those, who

bŸrb- now

bŸr bO‚ till now

t˜j=Oj$M to nurse

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*m%Mv garden

twjO$Mv all

tNj0PPG a tNjMG crop

tSOM" thief

lMMM: evidence, testimony

t.Mb€ food

P.Mrb year, this year

t.b/i boy, servant

tDjb\ happiness

*b›O\ group

 M!r#b- a  j!b# statement

M$mqbyb as if

M$b like

ubyO because

…Vj_Mfj P$rb hospital

…'jM a t˜j=OM sick person

uAO‚ except

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MR then, because

p^j}Pv part, section

Exercise No. 13

(A) Note the use of the active and passive tenses in the
following sentences and translate them:

G>)H D EFD D


b-Oi# (i1ji2r) M!P, b1ji2r b-Mb# (tYjO:M) M!P,
i1ji2r b-Oi# b1ji2r OPYjO:M b-Mb#
M)Oi€ (Ob/PvM) M$P, ² MfO c^Mb# (Ob/PvM) M$P,
j!P)Oi€ (i Mvh) jP, b1ji2r 0e^Mb# (i Mvh) jP,
jƒM)Oi€ (tƒj%O ) MO, ² j!Pfr?M jƒM)Mfb (tƒj%O ) MO,
Mf)MOi€ (OMfj%O ) M$P, OjM !j Pfr?M MfM)Mfb (OMfj%O ) M$P,
Mj)Oi€ (PBM%M)rb) mP, M9jOb?M Mj)Mfb (PBM%M)rb) mP,
j!P,Ab bO‚ Mƒr5OP Mƒjqb- ²uVP Mƒrbb- Mƒjqb-
jO_MMb bO‚ M$Pfr5OP M$Pfjqb- ²qmP M$Pfrbb- M$Pfjqb-
b*u?M bO‚ jPfr5OP jPfjqb- ²’j–WO jPfrbb- jPfjqb-

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O*M"MjYM$r bO‚ Oƒr5OP Oƒjqb- MrOr Oƒj)bb€ Oƒjqb-


OƒjM)r bO‚ M$Pfr5OP M$Pfjqb- MrOr M$Pfj)bb€ M$Pfjqb-
…Vj_Mf
j P$rb bO‚ mPfr5OP mPfjqb- MrOr mPfj)bb€ mPfjqb-
jOj,O bO‚ Pƒr5OP Mqb- n^M Pƒj OM: Mqb-
mfb?r b bO‚ M%r5OP PjgMq ²%M)b M%j OM: PjgMq

(B) Translate the following questions and answers:

Answer Question
Pj%O n^j}Pv PBr-Mb# jUOYhM" M= jMMq ª b1ji2r MBr-Mb# rM, PYjO:M M=
b*MOM)r PPfj)Mfb jMMq bO‚ M j!Pfr?M$r Mƒj)Mfb rM,
ª M]jO b-
bŸr bO‚ Pˆj$m_ OƒMbb€ M ª Pˆj$m_ OƒMbb€ ÀM
o*MM" b j)b# PM$b2r M Mb jMMq ª PM$b2r M Mb rM,
MwM M}j)P’r Pƒrbb- jUOYhM" M= ª PM=jM M= M.j!Mr Oƒrbb- bFM
OM)u
M ŸMbO‚ bO‚ jO b- bzOP ª MTj!P b- bzOP Mj=b- bO‚
MmY OƒbMŠM jhi- MO, ª MmY bMŠM jM

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MO MvMMŠ jYb# MUM!MŠb- M$P, ª Mj%O MCMMŠ jM M0


OmY
j hi- M$PjfM MM' ª M]j=M!MŠb- M MM' jM
cbŸr bO‚ M†Ofi\ M bA ª *O M"MjYM$r P M M†Ofi\ rM,
OMgOfjœOr O\ MgM{Mq M$PmqbyO ª tYjO:M M0 tYm$MgP MDOb\ MO
bX…, jO\ ²YbM0 bj!P j$MŠ M†M{Mq OMgOfjOœr O\ M†M{Mq ²YbM0 jb
O.Mr ª hUO!M%m 
ji?bj!b# M%j$Ob\ M ª M%bj!b# jPfj$Ob\ rM,
UYO j%O, ji?MqM O ubO ª jOb/b jPfj$Ob\ M MO
OlMMm_O Pƒj)Oi€ ª OM!j=hY O\ Mƒj)Oi€ MO
O*MjYO’O) O˜j=Oj$mfO Pƒr5OP M= …Vj_Mfj P$rb bO‚ Oƒr5OP MO
(…'jM$r ª jOfjŠi-

(C) Note the use of the verbs in the following verses of the
Qur’ān:

. O
 OrFOœO ³lMjO5b ³*b›O\ jƒM)bb o*bjOb# o*b›O\ jO jb (1)
M(m% bMfb# M$mqybb?b\ OJjc O\ oM b\ j0b- oˆrVMq OjM™O ² rVMq bMfb# M (2)
. ²O$Mv

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. o»Ob o.b2MM0 oN0PPGM0 o!PPM0 oBm%Mv O !iMM jb (3)


m$h t9O|Mq ^M h%OM0 b!P Mr#cM0 OMYOM!r MTMM m$h t9O|Mq O Mvh– (4)
. b!P Mr#cM0 OMYOM!r MTMM
. h%O Mˆjbb\ Pj%O M OM: M$b\ (5)
. jPj%h ³/Ob# uAO‚ Pj%O r!P OM_b\ (6)
. ji?Oj)#b O M=OXu bM M9Ofi M$b P.Mh| P?jbM 54M9Ofi (7)
. jƒbOfi# o9qbF hUbyO jƒbO›P" 55ilM0PÄj!M$r bFO‚M0 (8)

(D) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) Did Hāmid eat the food? No, he did not eat the
food till now.
(2) Did you drink the water? Yes, I ate the food and
drank the water.
(3) What did you eat today? I ate bread and meat.
(4) Did your sister go to the madrasah? Yes, she went
one hour ago.
(5) When did the sun rise? The sun rose now.
(6) Who entered the musjid? They are the teachers of
the madrasah.
(7) Who is that who came out of the house? That is

54 Here the word (M9Ofi) means, “to make binding – to make compulsory”.
55 A girl buried alive.

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my small brother.
(8) Did you (f) understand my statement? We did not
understand your speech.
(9) Why did you (pl. f.) not understand my
statement? Because your language is Arabic.
(10) O Khālid, was any lion killed? Yes, a large lion
was killed.
(11) Who killed the lion? Sir, I killed the lion.
(12) Where was your servant sent? He was sent to the
market.

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Lesson 15

The Imperfect
(I JD 4*)

1. The verb which indicates the present and future tense is


known as (N[¢ V) – the imperfect, e.g. (P Oj[M=) – he is
hitting or he will hit.

2. The letters (-), (B), (U) and () are the signs of ( V
N[¢) known as the (N[¢ B/). By inserting one of
these letters before (9© X Y0) - the singular

masculine third person - of ('¢) - the perfect tense,

making the first letter sākin and adding (w\) at the end, the

(N[ \) is formed, e.g. from (M†Mfb\) we get (P†MfrVM=), (P†MfrVM),

(P†Mfr\b-) and (P†MfrVMq).

The paradigm of (N[¢ V) is as follows:

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ABCD EFD I JD 4*

Meaning Person Gender Word- Verb


Form
He is opening or he
will open
3rd
person
masc. singular
P†MfrVM=
They 2 are opening or
they will open
dual
OMgMfrVM=
They are opening or
they will open
plural
bj!PgMfrVM=
She is opening or she
will open
fem. singular
P†MfrVM
They 2 f. are opening
or will open
dual
OMgMfrVM
They f. are opening or
will open
plural
MjgMfrVM=
You are are opening
or will open
2nd
person
masc. singular
P†MfrVM
You 2 are opening or
will open
dual
OMgMfrVM
You (all) are opening
or will open
plural
bj!PgMfrVM
You f. are opening or
will open
fem. singular
MjOgMfrVM
You 2 f. are opening
or will open
dual
OMgMfrVM
You (all f.) are
opening or will open
plural
MjgMfrVM
I am are opening or
will open
1st
person
m/f singular
P†Mfr\b-
We are are opening or
will open
m/f dual/
plural
P†MfrVMq

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3. Like the ('¢) - perfect tense, the (N[¢ V) -


imperfect also comes on three scales: (iMrVM=), (iOrVM=) and (iPrVM=).

The (N[¢) - imperfect of (M†Mfb\) is (P†MfrVM=), of (M MM') is (P Oj[M=)

and of (M.Pb) is (P.Pr?M=). The details will follow in Lesson 16.

Note 1: The words (P†MfrVM) and (OMgMfrVM) appear several times in


the paradigm. Understand them well. One has to see the
context to determine the meaning.

Note 2: As in ('¢) - the perfect tense, the (N[¢ V) -


imperfect also has fourteen word-forms.

4. To construct the ( !±) - passive of (N[¢ V), render


a dammah to the (N[¢ B/), and a fathah to the

penultimate letter, e.g. (P Oj[M=) becomes (P Mj[P=) – he is being

hit or he will be hit, (P†MfrVM=) becomes (P†MfrVP=) – it is being opened

or it will be opened, (P.Pr?M=) becomes (P.Mr?P=) – he is being


honoured or he will be honoured.

5. In order to construct the (V%¢ N[¢) - imperfect

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negative, the word (bA) is most often inserted before ( N[¢


ƒ)5¢) - the imperfect positive. Sometimes (M) is inserted,
e.g. (P9M,rXM= bA) – He is not going or he will not go. (PbjM= M) –
He does not know or he will not know.

Note 4: In order to make (N[¢ V) specific with the


future tense, the particles (M() or (MRj!M") are prefixed to it,

e.g. (P†MfrVMM") – He will soon open. (bj!P$bjM MRj!M") – You will


come to know.

6. You know that (©$') - pronouns are used in place of the

( !V) - object. In Arabic, there are two types of pronouns:


(a) (O|mfP) - those pronouns which are attached to the verb,

(b) (O|bVj%P) - those pronouns which are independent and


separate from other words.
Because these pronouns are in (9|% *) – the accusative
case – they are referred to as (* !|%¢ ©$[).

7. The pronouns of (*|f¢ * !|%¢ ©$[ - attached

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pronouns of the accusative case) are the same as the ( ©$[


*|f¢ l0¶) - attached pronouns of the genitive case. See
Lesson 11. The only difference is in the (?f¢ *™) - first

person word-form where (jOq) is used in place of (jU Od).


The paradigm is as follows:

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Third Person (9O©b)

PM MM' singular


Masculine

M$PM MM' dual

jPM MM' plural

bM MM' singular


Feminine

M$PM MM' dual

mPM MM' plural

Second Person (O'M)

M]M MM' singular


Masculine

M$i?M MM' dual

ji?M MM' plural

O]M MM' singular


Feminine

M$i?M MM' dual

mi?M MM' plural

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First Person (–b?MfP)

jO%M MM' singular (m/f)

M%M MM' dual, plural (m/f)

The same pronouns can be attached to the (N[) -

imperfect tense, e.g. (PP Oj[M=), (M$PP Oj[M=), (jPP Oj[M=) … till (M%P Oj[M=).

In a similar manner, the above-mentioned pronouns can be


attached to every word-form of every verb.

However, when attaching a pronoun to the (' X w£)


- plural masculine second person verb, the (.) is rendered a

dammah and a (j0) is inserted before the pronoun, e.g.

(jP,j!P$Pfj MM') – You (all) hit them. (M$P,j!P$Pfj MM') – You (all) hit the
two of them.

8. The (*|V%¢ * !|%¢ ©$[) – detached pronouns in the


accusative case are as follows:

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Third Person (9O©b)

P;m=O‚ singular
Masculine

M$P,m=O‚ dual

jP,m=O‚ plural

M,m=O‚ singular
Feminine

M$P,m=O‚ dual

mP,m=O‚ plural

Second Person (O'M)

MTm=O‚ singular
Masculine

M$im=O‚ dual

jim=O‚ plural

OTm=O‚ singular
Feminine

M$im=O‚ dual

mim=O‚ plural

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First Person (–b?MfP)

MUm=O‚ singular (m/f)

Mqm=O‚ dual, plural (m/f)

These pronouns are used to create stress or limitation in the


sentence especially when they precede the verb, e.g. ( MTm=O
PY)PjMq) – We worship You alone.

Vocabulary List No. 13

Take special note of the harakah of the (*$? Å) in the

perfect ('¢) and the imperfect (N[¢).

Word Meaning
PŽij’M= MŽbMŠ to create

Pwb\jM= Mwb\M to raise

ib›j M= bb›M" to ask

POr“M= MbbŒ to oppress

PYP)jM= MYM)M to worship

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iM$jM= bO$M to work, act

PiWrVM= MbWb\ to create

iMrVM= bMb\ to do

P]Oj$M= M]bM to own

Pi“j%M= Mb“Mq to look

O O‚ camel

šM,b- more/most important

M$mqO‚ only

‹j=OM innocent

j!iWP a tbWM stomach

PYO©MMv a lMYj=OMv newspaper

PwOM{r PYO{j M$rb j0b- PwOM{rb jāmi’ musjid

j!P=OM radio

Oˆjb- yesterday

²Yb tomorrow

²M)M morning

n^M M evening

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M' harm

tYO M worshipper

lM!jb# coffee

O
 bFMM May Allāh grant refuge

!M j=‚O a O
 M0 jUO‚ By Allāh

twjvM0 pain

…MfM= a tjOfM= orphan

PwbVj%M= MwbVMq to benefit

Exercise No. 14

(A) Note the use of the (N[¢) - imperfect tense and


translate the following sentences:

. ³/jOb# PP$Mr\b- jMMq ª mO MMr bM – PMrVM rM, (1)
. PM=jM jOfjŠi- PP)Pfr?M ª M MfO?r bX…, P9Pfr?M= jM (2)
Ab Mqb- jUOYhM" M= .P9Pfr?M bA Mƒjqb-M0 ²YhMv P9Pf?r M MO, ! e
 c^M: M (3)
. ²jvM0 jUOYM= jO\ ubyO P9Pfrb-

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O j!š  bO‚ P9M,rFb- Mqb- ª PYM$j b- M= P9M,rXM Mj=b- bO‚


S (4)
. olMYOM0 o*OM" jO\ Mj%O PwOvjbyM" ª OSj!š  MO PwOvjM …fM (5)
. O Mbyr bjOj M i-Mr2Mq MqMYhM" M= ª bj0i-Mr2M o MfO mUb- PbAj0b- M= (6)
. blM!jb2r Ab M0 MUm_ P Mj_Mq bA PjgMq ª MUm_ bj!P Mj_M rM, (7)
. Oj«“ MYjM ²Yb izMj)Pq rM bA ª M.j!Mr OOMgr bO‚ jPfr5OP rM, (8)
jO©M)j$M bO‚ Mqj!P b- M%M)bb€ ª jO©M)j$M bO‚ ji?M)bb€ jM (9)
MŽbMŠ M0 jO%b2bMŠ e
b ª ji?j=MYOM0 M0 ji?b2bMŠ jM bj!P$bjM rM, (10)
. mUMYOM0
. jO%PbVj%M= ² MfO ji?j%O P9ir€b- M$mqO‚ ª i*M_O©M M= m%O MjO)irWM bFM (11)
. MTM%P, jiM%j=b-M M O
 M0 bA ª OwOM{r O\ Oˆjb- Mqj!P$Pfj=b-M rM, (12)
²M)M PwM$j"b- O
 M0 jUO‚ ª j!P=Om O\ O jMgr MM)jŠb- PwM$j M rM, (13)
. n^M MM0
. Oj!Piyr hM,b- jO MO,M0 M,i-Mr#b- bA M<jb ª MYO©MM{r i-Mr2M rM,M0 (14)
MmqOœb\ M,hM: jO O
 bFMM ª O*M$jO“Mr O jMgr O;OXM, O\ PbjM bFM (15)
. M jM™rM0 MSjm_ OBbXMŠb- jOfu ilMYb#j!P$r O
 PMq

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(B) Translate the following verses of the Qur’ān:

. b!P$bjM= b ÅM O2O\M%P$r mO?… M0 MÅO%Oj`P$rO M0 OO!P"MO M0 ilm}Or OuO M0 (1)


m$h p^UOM rMqb- M0 iM$jb- m$O b!i›=OM jPfqb- ji?iM$M ji?b M0 OM$M jO (2)
. b!iM$jM
. b!P$Or“M= jPM iVqb- M(m% mO?db M0 ³›jM: M(m% POr“M= bA Mx uO‚ (3)
. ²rVMq bA M0 ¨M' O rVM%O P]Ojb- uA i# (4)
.²Mq jOOq!iWP O\ b!iiryM= M$mqO‚ ²$riŒ …MfMr b M!jb- b!iiryM= M=OXu (5)
. jOqMbWb\ jUOXu PYP)jb- bA O MM0 (6)
.jƒMO\P M<jb O^M$m  bO‚ M0 jƒb2OPŠ M<jb O O Oœr bO‚ b0Pi“%M= bb\b- (7)
PYP)jb- M b0PYO M jPfqb- b M0 b0PYP)jM M PYP)jb- b b0PO\b?r Mš=b- M= ri# (8)
M0 ji?P%=O ji?b PYP)jb- M b0PYO M jPfqb- b M0 jšYM)M m tYO M Mqb- b M0
. O=O MO
. bj!ib›j P= jP, M0 iMrVM= m$M ib›j P=bA (9)

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(C) Translate the following sentences into Arabic:

(1) What are you reading in the madrasah? I am reading


Tashīlul Adab.
(2) Do you recognize my brother? Yes, I recognize him.
(3) Will the door of the garden be opened today? Today
the door of the garden will not be opened.
(4) Where did the doorkeeper go? I do not know where
he went.
(5) Will you go for a stroll today? No brother, I will go to
the madrasah.
(6) Did Mahmūd eat the food? Till now he has not eaten.
Now he will eat.
(7) Who do you worship? We do not worship anyone
besides Allāh.
(8) What are you asking of us? We are only asking for a
book.
(9) Which book are you seeking from us? We are seeking
the book ‘Sīratun Nabī’ from you.
(10) Do you read the Qur’ān every day? We read one
part from it every day.

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An Arabic Letter

Read the following letter and note how a letter is written in


Arabic.

: OjO\ Pƒj)MfbM0 OjO™m| jOŠb- bO‚ ² j!Pfr?M M.j!Mr PƒrM"jb- Mqb-

}P j=O}Mr PEbyr Mš=b-


PPbMM M0 O
 i*M$jMM0 j?jbM P.b/m b

j O©b2b\P M0 Mqb- PBr-Mb# jhqb- bj!P$bjM m$b ²Yj=OY:M ²Mb\ bj!PMrVM ji?PjO$Mv jPfjqb-
jO ³/jOb# PMrVMq bŸrM0 o*bjOb# olmYP jO\ O Mbyr bjOj M O MfO jO b m0byr c^j}P{r
e
 c^M: rO‚ i-MY)jM%M"M0 hO MMr O\ ² j!Pfr?M M.j!Mr P9Pfrb- bX…OM0 O MMr M O
. O MfO?r bX…, jO jOqu5 c^j}P{r OjMj!M= MYjM …MM

O Pfi?r br5O o9j M|O Mˆjb ŸOv jM" PmqOœb\ ª M MfO?r bX…, i-Mr2M bA MO jOŠb- M=
9
. ³/jM" P;MqjYMvM!b\ P;Mqr-Mb# PjgMq . O*M$j=OYb2r O*mO MMr O(OMYM$r O\ O*M{O©m
PP)M jgM= M$b o9jM|O Mˆjb mO MMr ub- M MfO?r bX…, MBr-MYM bFO‚ Mƒjqb- PbjMfM"M0
. bj!P)OuW

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OwjO$M{OM0 ji?bM0 j O M†Om| bM$MrM0 MwO\m% Mr OrM0 b*MO\Mr bMM O


 MO P9ir€b-
. P.b/m M0 MjO1 . MjO$Oj P$r

TM OjMŠ P9Ob€
M$jm PYj)M

Test No. 8

(1) What is a verb and how many types are there?


(2) How many root letters are there generally in a verb?
(3) What is the (l6) of a word?
(4) From among the verbs, which word-form contains
only the root letters?
(5) How do you recognize the root letters of verbs,
derived nouns and verbal nouns?
(6) On what scale does the triliteral verb in the perfect
tense come? What are the scales of the imperfect
tense?
(7) How many word-forms are there in the perfect and
imperfect tenses in reality, how many are
customarily in vogue and why?

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(8) In which part of the sentence does a verb normally


come in an Arabic sentence? Where do the doer and
object come?
(9) Due to the number and gender of the doer, what
changes occur in the verb?
(10) What is the ( ) of the doer and the object?

(11) In the word (PM MM'), what is the pronoun (P;) called?

(12) What word is (MTm=O‚)?


(13) How do you construct the passive of the perfect
and imperfect tenses and the negative?
(14) What is the noun called towards which a passive
verb is related?
(15) What are the signs of the imperfect tense?
(16) What meanings can the word (P9Pfr?M) have and how

many word-forms can (OM)Pfr?M) be?


(17) How many tenses are found in the imperfect tense?
(18) What effect takes place on the imperfect by
introducing the particles (M() and (MRj!M")?

End of Part One

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