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CLIL Intro CLIL involves ss learning subjects (science, geography /dʒɪˈɒɡrəfɪ/) through the medium /ˈmiːdɪəm/ of a FL.

Other related terms include ‘Content-based instruction', ‘English across the curriculum', ‘Bilingual education'. CLIL is
referred to as dual /ˈdjuːəl/ -focused education as lessons have two main aims. CLIL has been introduced at both the
primary and secondary level.
According to Do Coyle, an effective CLIL lesson combines elements of:
Content - Progression in k, skills and understanding related to specific elements of a curriculum
Communication - Using lang to learn & learning to use lang
Cognition - Developing thinking skills which link concept formation (abstract and concrete), understanding
and lang
Culture - Exposure to alternative /ɔːlˈtɜːnətɪv/ perspectives and shared understandings, which deepen /ˈdiːpn/awareness of
otherness and self.

Advantages of CLIL approaches for learners:

Increasing motivation as lang is used to fulfil /fʊlˈfɪl/ real purposes
Introducing learners to the wider cultural context
Developing a positive ‘can do' attitude
Developing ss multilingual interests and attitudes
Preparing ss for further studies and work
Advantages for teachers:
The use of innovative /ˈɪnəʊˌveɪtɪv/ methods, materials and e-learning –aprendizaje electronico
Networking opportunities and professional mobility
The development of good practices through cooperation with teachers in other departments, schools and
Higher levels of job satisfaction

CLIL offers challenges as it requires a rethink of the traditional skills and k of the lang teacher, classroom practices and
resources. The twin trends of europeanisation and globalisation are likely to lead to CLIL becoming a growing component of
educational systems throughout the world.

CLIL: A lesson framework I will look more closely at how CLIL is realised in the class and suggest a framework for planning CLIL lessons.

Underlying principles The principles behind CLIL include global statements such as 'all teachers are teachers of language' to
the wide-ranging /reɪndʒin/advantages of cross-curricular bilingual teaching in statements from the Content and Language
Integrated Project (CLIP). The benefits of CLIL: cultural awareness, internationalisation, lang competence, preparation for
both study and working life, increased motivation. Some people state that what remains is a dearth /dɜːθ/ –escaces- of
CLIL-type materials, and a lack of teacher training programmes to prepare both language and subject teachers for CLIL
teaching. The theory may be solid/ˈsɒlɪd/, but questions remain about how theory translates into classroom practice.

Classroom principles Some of the basic principles of CLIL are that in the CLIL classroom:
Lang is used to learn as well as to communicate
It is the subject matter which determines /dɪˈtɜːmɪnz/ the lang needed to learn.

According to the 4Cs curriculum, a successful CLIL lesson should combine elements of the following: content,
communication, cognition, culture.
In a CLIL lesson, all four language skills should be combined. The skills are seen thus:
Listening is a normal input activity, vital /ˈvaɪtəl/ for LL
Reading, using meaningful material, is the major source of input
Speaking focuses on fluency. Accuracy is seen as subordinate
Writing is a series /ˈsɪəriːz/of lexical activities through which grammar is recycled /riːˈsaɪkəl/.

For ELT teachers, CLIL lessons exhibit /ɪɡˈzɪbɪt/ the following characteristics:
Integrate lang and skills, and receptive and productive skills
Lessons are often based on reading or listening texts
The language focus does not consider structural grading
Lang is functional and dictated by the context of the subject
Lang is approached lexically rather than grammatically
Learner styles are taken into account.
Then, a CLIL lesson is similar to an ELT integrated skills lesson, except that it includes exploration of lang, is delivered /dɪ
ˈlɪvəd/ by a teacher versed in CLIL methodology and is based on material related to a content-based subject.. A CLIL
'approach' aims to guide lang processing and supports lang production in the same way that an ELT course.
Lesson framework A CLIL lesson looks at content and lang in equal measure, and often follows a four-stage framework.

Processing the text The best texts: accompanied /əˈkʌmpənɪd/ by illustrations /ˌɪləˈstreɪʃənz/ so that learners can
visualise /ˈvɪʒʊəlaiz/ what they are reading. Working in a FL, learners need structural markers in texts to help them find
their way through the content. These markers may be linguistic (headings) and/or diagrammatic /ˌdaɪəgrəˈmætɪk/
-esquematico. Once a 'core k' has been identified, the organisation of the text can be analysed.
Identification and organisation of K Texts are often represented diagrammatically. These structures are known as 'ideational
ˌaɪdɪˈeɪʃən(ə)l frameworks' or 'diagrams of thinking', and are used to help learners categorise the ideas and info in a text.
Diagram types include tree diagrams for classification, groups, hierarchies, timelines for sequenced thinking such as
instructions and historical info, tabular /ˈtæbjʊlə/ diagrams describing people and places, and combinations of these. The
structure of the text is used to facilitate /fəˈsɪlɪˌteɪt/ learning & the creation of activities which focus on both lang
development and core content k.
Language identification /aɪˌdɛntɪfɪˈkeɪʃən/ Learners are expected to be able to reproduce the core of the text in their
own words. It is a good idea for the teacher to highlight useful lang in the text and to categorise it according to function.
Tasks for students There is little difference in task-type between a CLIL lesson and a skills-based ELT lesson. A variety of tasks
should be provided, taking into account the learning purpose and learner styles and preferences. Receptive /rɪˈsɛptɪv/ skill
activities are of the 'read/listen and do' genre. A menu /ˈmɛnjuː/ of listening activities might be:

Listen and label /ˈleɪbəl/ a diagram/picture/map

Listen and fill in a table
Listen and make notes on specific information
Listen and reorder info
Listen and identify location /ləʊˈkeɪʃən/ /speakers
Listen and label the stages of a process/instructions
Listen and fill in the gaps in a text

Tasks designed for production need to be subject-orientated. Since content is to be focused on, more lang support than
usual in an ELT lesson may be required. Typical speaking activities include:
Question loops -circuitos- questions and answers, terms and definitions
Infogap activities with a question sheet to support
Trivia /ˈtrɪvɪə/ -details- search - 'things you know' and 'things you want to know'
Word guessing games
Class surveys /sɜːˈveɪz/ using questionnaires /ˌkwɛstʃəˈnɛəz/
20 Questions
Ss present info from a visual /ˈvɪʒʊəl/ using a lang support handout-folleto

Conclusion What is different in CLIL is that the language teacher is also the subject teacher, or that the subject teacher is
also able to exploit /ˈɛksplɔɪt/ opportunities for developing language skills. This is the essence /ˈɛsəns/ of the CLIL teacher
training issue.