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Drift-flux correlation for gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe

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Drift-flux correlation for gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe

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journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijhff

a, b

Somboon Rassame *, Takashi Hibiki

a

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Wangmai, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

b

School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2017, USA

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Keywords: A drift-ﬂux correlation has been often used to predict void fraction of gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow in a horizontal

Drift-ﬂux model channel due to its simplicity and practicality. The drift-ﬂux correlation includes two important drift-ﬂux para-

Void fraction meters, namely, the distribution parameter and void-fraction-weighted-mean drift velocity. In this study, an

Gas-liquid ﬂow extensive literature survey for horizontal two-phase ﬂow is conducted to establish void fraction database and to

Horizontal ﬂows

acquire existing drift-ﬂux correlations. A total of 566 data is collected from 12 data sources and 4 ﬂow-regime-

dependent and 1 ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux correlations are identiﬁed. The predictive capability of the

existing drift-ﬂux correlations is assessed using the collected data. It is pointed out that the drift velocity de-

termined by a regression analysis may include a signiﬁcant error due to a compensation error between dis-

tribution parameter and drift velocity. In this study, a simple ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux correlation is

developed. In the modeling approach, the void-fraction-weighted mean drift velocity is approximated to be 0 m/

s, whereas the distribution parameter is given as a simple function of the ratio of non-dimensional superﬁcial gas

velocity to non-dimensional mixture volumetric ﬂux. The newly developed correlation shows an excellent

predictive capability of void fraction for horizontal two-phase ﬂow. Mean absolute error (or bias), standard

deviation (random error), mean relative deviation and mean absolute relative deviation of the correlation are

0.0487, 0.0985, 0.0758 and 0.206, respectively. The prediction accuracy of the correlation is similar to the

correlation of Chexal et al. (1991), which was formulated based on the drift-ﬂux parameters by means of many

cascading constitutive relationships with numerous empirical parameters.

similar drift-ﬂux correlation for those four ﬂow regimes with diﬀerent

The gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow in a horizontal channel is often en- sets of the drift-ﬂux parameters. Silva et al. (2011) proposed a drift-ﬂux

countered in apparatuses, plants and pipelines in various industries correlation for intermittent ﬂow regime, while Kong and Kim (2017)

such as chemical, petroleum, and nuclear industries. The void fraction developed a drift-ﬂux correlation for dispersed bubble ﬂow regime.

is one of most important parameters to characterize horizontal gas-li- Although the drift-ﬂux correlations mentioned above are ﬂow-regime-

quid two-phase ﬂows and is a critical parameter for the design of in- dependent correlations, they provide the insight on how the ﬂow re-

dustrial systems. A correlation based on the drift-ﬂux model proposed gime aﬀects the drift-ﬂux parameters. However, most of the existing

by Zuber and Findlay (1965) has been used to predict void fraction in empirical drift-ﬂux correlations were developed based on the re-

horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂows due to its simplicity and practi- searchers’ own data or a limited number of collected data, and the

cality. The drift-ﬂux correlation includes two-important drift-ﬂux applicability of the correlations to a wide range of ﬂow conditions has

parameters such as the distribution parameter characterizing the phase not been well-examined.

distribution and the void-fraction-weighted mean drift velocity char- For the purpose of implementing a drift-ﬂux correlation into one-

acterizing the relative velocity between phases. These drift-ﬂux para- dimensional thermal-hydraulic system analysis code such as RELAP5

meters should be given by either a phenomenological model or an (Information Systems Laboratories, inc., 2001), Chexal et al. (1991)

empirical correlation. developed a ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux correlation applicable

Franca and Lahey (1992) proposed a drift-ﬂux correlation for hor- for a whole range of void fraction. Chexal et al. (1991) adopted an

izontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂows. The distribution parameter is given approach to formulate the drift-ﬂux parameters by means of many

by a constant value depending on the ﬂow regime such as plug, slug, cascading constitutive relationships with numerous empirical

⁎

Corresponding author.

E-mail address: somboon.ra@chula.ac.th (S. Rassame).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatﬂuidﬂow.2017.11.002

Received 18 August 2017; Received in revised form 31 October 2017; Accepted 19 November 2017

Available online 01 December 2017

0142-727X/ © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

μ Viscosity [Pa•s]

A Flow area [m2] ρ Density [kg/m3]

C0 Distribution parameter [-] σ Surface tension [N/m]

C∞ Asymptotic value of distribution parameter [-]

D Diameter [m] Subscripts

DH Hydraulic equivalent diameter [m]

g Gravitational acceleration [m/s2] cal. Calculated value

j Superﬁcial velocity [m/s] exp. Experimental value

md Mean absolute error [-] f Liquid phase

mrel Mean relative deviation [-] g Gas phase

mrel, ab Mean absolute relative deviation [-]

N Number of samples [-] Superscripts

Re Reynolds number [-]

sd Standard deviation [-] + Non-dimensional quantity

vgj Drift velocity [m/s]

Mathematical symbols

Greek symbols

<> Area averaged properties

α Void fraction [-] <<>> Void-weight area-averaged properties

vgj =

ﬂux parameters in exchange for developing the ﬂow-regime-in- α (4)

dependent drift-ﬂux correlation. The drift-ﬂux correlation proposed by

Chexal et al. (1991) may be considered a kind of regression curve to αj

C0 =

reproduce the void fraction data. α j (5)

As reviewed above, most of the ﬂow-regime-dependent drift-ﬂux

where jg and α are the superﬁcial gas velocity and void fraction, re-

correlations adopt a ﬂow-regime-dependent constant value for the

spectively.

distribution parameter, which implies that the recommended distribu-

The distribution parameter and drift velocity can be, respectively,

tion parameter may not include the eﬀects of physical properties and

obtained by Eqs. (5) and (4) if the distributions of local void fraction

ﬂow kinematics on the distribution parameter. The ﬂow-regime-in-

and gas and liquid velocities are measured (Hibiki and Ishii, 2002).

dependent correlation may not provide a clear understanding of de-

However, these distributions are often not available. Zuber and

pendent parameters on the drift-ﬂux parameters. In view of these, this

Findlay (1965) proposed an alternative method to determine the dis-

study revisits the development of a drift-ﬂux correlation for horizontal

tribution parameter and drift velocity. If a linear relationship between

gas-liquid two-phase ﬂows with extensive data sets collected in a wide

〈j〉 and 〈〈vg〉〉 exists in a test condition, the distribution parameter and

range of ﬂow conditions. The predictive capability of the newly de-

drift velocity can be obtained as the slope and intercept in the drift-ﬂux

veloped drift-ﬂux correlation is compared with that of the correlation

plot of 〈j〉 and 〈〈vg〉〉, respectively. However, a “compensation error” is

developed by Chexal et al. (1991).

common in this approach when the distribution parameter and drift

velocity are determined. The uncertainty of one parameter (for ex-

2. One-dimensional drift-ﬂux model formulation and existing ample, distribution parameter) directly aﬀects the value of another

drift-ﬂux correlations for horizontal two-phase ﬂow parameter (for example, drift velocity). If data are taken at high mixture

volumetric ﬂux conditions, it is diﬃcult to determine the drift velocity

2.1. One-dimensional formulation of drift-ﬂux model accurately with a drift-ﬂux plot. Therefore, some eﬀorts to model the

drift velocity based on drag law have been made to develop a con-

Zuber and Findley (1965) introduced a concept of “drift velocity” to stitutive equation for predicting the drift velocity (Ishii, 1977; Hibiki

take into account the velocity diﬀerence between two phases. Local and Ishii, 2003).

drift velocity, vgj, is deﬁned as the diﬀerence between gas velocity, vg, The approximation of the linear relationship between 〈j〉 and 〈〈vg〉〉

and mixture volumetric ﬂux, j, as: is found to be reasonable in some test conditions such as vertical slug

and churn ﬂows in conﬁned channels (Mishima and Hibiki, 1996; Ishii,

vgj = vg − j (1) 1977; Ozaki and Hibiki, 2015). However, it is pointed out that the

approximation may not work for some test conditions such as two-

Averaging Eq. (1) over a ﬂow channel yields one-dimensional drift-

phase ﬂows in large size channels at low ﬂow conditions (Hibiki and

ﬂux model as:

Ishii, 2003; Clark et al., 2014), subcooled boiling ﬂows (Ishii, 1977;

vg = C0 j + vgj (2) Hibiki et al., 2003; Brooks et al., 2012) and bubbly ﬂows (Hibiki and

Ishii, 2002). Ishii and Hibiki (2010) provided a brief review of existing

where 〈〈〉〉 and 〈〉 are the void-fraction-weighted mean quantity and constitutive equations for distribution parameter and drift velocity in

cross-sectional area-averaged quantity over the ﬂow channel, respec- various ﬂow channels.

tively. The void-fraction-weighted mean gas velocity (hereafter, gas

velocity for simplicity), 〈〈vg〉〉, distribution parameter and void-frac- 2.2. Existing drift-ﬂux correlations for horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂows

tion-weighted mean drift velocity (hereafter, drift velocity for simpli-

city), 〈〈vgj〉〉, are deﬁned as Eqs. (3)–(5), respectively. In this section, some existing drift-ﬂux correlations developed for

jg horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂows will be reviewed brieﬂy. The

vg = summary of the reviewed correlations is tabulated in Table 1.

α (3)

Chexal et al. (1991) developed a ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux

34

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

Table 1

Existing drift-ﬂux correlations developed for the horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow.

Researchers Distribution parameter, C0 [-] Drift Velocity, 〈〈vgj〉〉 [m/s] Flow Applicable Range [m/s]

Chexal et al. (1991) C0 = [1 + α 0.05 (1 − α )2] C0V vgj = V gj0 Cg Not speciﬁed

C0V = L/[K 0 + (1 − K 0) αr ] Cg = (1 − α ) B1

L = min[1.25α 0.6, 1.0] 0.25

K 0 = B1 + (1 − B1)(ρg / ρf )0.25 ⎡ ⎛⎜ρf − ρg ⎞⎟ σggc ⎤

⎢ ⎥

V gj0 = 1.41 ⎢ ⎝ ⎠

⎥ C2 C3 C4

r = (1.0 + 1.57(ρg / ρf ))/(1 − B1) ρ2f

⎢ ⎥

B1 = min(0.8, A1 ) ⎣ ⎦

C2 = 1ifC5 ≥ 1

A1 = 1/[1 + e (−Re/60000) ]

= 1/{1 − exp[−C5/(1 − C5)]} ifC5 < 1

Re = Reg if Reg > Ref

= Ref if Reg < Ref ⎡ ⎡−Re /60000⎤ ⎤

⎢ f ⎥⎥

C3 = max ⎢0.5, 2e⎣ ⎦

⎢ ⎥

ρg jg DH ρf jf DH

⎣ ⎦

Reg = , Ref = C4 = 1ifC7 ≥ 1

μg μf

= 1/[1 − exp(−C8)] ifC7 < 1

C5 = 150/(ρf / ρg )

C7 = (0.09144/ DH )0.6

C7

C8 =

1 − C7

Franca and Lahey (1992) ≅1.0 (Wavy-stratiﬁed and Annular ﬂow) 0.2 for jf = 0.005 m/s (Wavy stratiﬁed) 0.127 ≤ 〈jg〉 ≤ 4.01

≅1.0 (Plug ﬂow) 2.7 for jf = 0.27 m/s (Annular ﬂow) 0.198 ≤ 〈jf〉 ≤ 1.49

1.2 (Slug ﬂow)

0.16 (Plug ﬂow)

−0.20 (Slug ﬂow)

Lamari (2001) 1.04 (Stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow) 0.466 (Stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow) 0.0950 ≤ 〈jg〉 ≤ 23.3

0.98 (Plug ﬂow) 0.068 (Plug ﬂow) 0.002 ≤ 〈jf〉 ≤ 1.08

1.06 (Slug ﬂow) 0.991 (Slug ﬂow)

0.92 (Annular ﬂow) 3.688 (Annular ﬂow)

Silva et al. (2011) 1.18 (Slug ﬂow) 0.34 (Slug ﬂow) 0.303 ≤ 〈jg〉 ≤ 2.06

0.280 ≤ 〈jf〉 ≤ 0.748

Kong and Kim (2017) 1.05 (bubbly ﬂow) −1.21(bubbly ﬂow) 3.6 ≤ 〈jg〉 ≤ 6.00

0.04 ≤ 〈jf〉 ≤ 1.00

correlation applicable for a whole range of void fraction. annular, and plug ﬂow regimes, respectively. The superﬁcial gas and

Chexal et al. (1991) formulated the drift-ﬂux parameters by means of liquid velocities in their experiments were in the ranges of

many cascading constitutive relationships with numerous empirical 0.0950–23.3 m/s and 0.002–1.08 m/s, respectively.

parameters. The drift-ﬂux parameters were given as a function of void Silva et al. (2011) performed air-water slug ﬂow experiments in a

fraction, ﬂuid properties and channel dimension. Chexel et al. (1991) horizontal pipe with the inner diameter of 0.026 m using a wire-mesh

sacriﬁced a physics principle characterizing the drift-ﬂux parameters in sensor. They utilized the drift-ﬂux model to correlate their experimental

exchange for developing the ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux corre- data. The distribution parameter of 1.13 and drift velocity of 0.23 m/s

lation. The drift-ﬂux correlation proposed by Chexal et al. (1991) may were obtained experimentally based on their drift-ﬂux plot. The su-

be considered a kind of regression curve to reproduce the void fraction perﬁcial gas and liquid velocities in their experiments were in the

data. ranges of 0.303–2.06 m/s and 0.280–0.748 m/s, respectively.

Franca and Lahey (1992) developed a drift-ﬂux correlation for Kong and Kim (2017) conducted air-water two-phase ﬂow experi-

horizontal two-phase ﬂows based on 200 air-water ﬂow data taken in a ments in a horizontal pipe with the inner diameter of 0.0381 m using a

horizontal pipe with the inner diameter of 0.019 m. The data were local multi-sensor conductivity probe. Observed ﬂow patterns in their

measured by a quick-closing valve method in four ﬂow regimes such as experiments were bubbly, plug, slug, stratiﬁed, and annular ﬂow re-

plug, slug, wavy- stratiﬁed and annular ﬂow regimes. The range of gimes. The distribution parameter and drift velocity only for bubbly

superﬁcial gas and liquid velocities set in their experiments were ﬂow regime were determined to be 1.05 and −1.21 m/s, respectively.

0.127–4.01 m/s and 0.198–1.49 m/s, respectively. The distribution The superﬁcial gas and liquid velocities in their experiments were in the

parameter and drift velocity were determined by a regression analysis ranges of 3.6–6.00 m/s and 0.04–1.00 m/s, respectively.

for the drift-ﬂux plot in each ﬂow regime. The distribution parameter The above brief review of the ﬂow-regime-dependent drift-ﬂux

obtained by the regression analysis was approximately unity for plug parameters indicates that the distribution parameter is approximately

and wavy- stratiﬁed and annular ﬂow regimes, whereas the distribution unity except for slug and plug ﬂow regimes and the drift velocity except

parameter was 1.2 for slug ﬂow regime. The drift velocities in plug and for annular ﬂow regime is fairly small in comparison with highest

slug ﬂow regimes obtained by the regression analysis were 0.16 m/s mixture volumetric ﬂux in each test condition.

and −0.20 m/s, respectively, while the drift velocities in wavy-strati-

ﬁed and annular ﬂow regimes ranged between the 0.2 m/s and 2.7 m/s 3. Existing database for horizontal ﬂow

for the conditions of superﬁcial liquid velocity between 0.005 m/s and

0.27 m/s. As discussed in the Section 2.1, a “compensation error” is Fig. 1 shows a schematic diagram of typical gas-liquid two-phase

common in determining the drift velocity, and thus the values of the ﬂow regimes observed in a horizontal channel (Taitel et al., 1978). The

drift velocity may include a signiﬁcant uncertainty. horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow regimes are classiﬁed into ﬁve

Lamari (2001) developed a drift-ﬂux correlation for two-phase ﬂows basic patterns such as stratiﬁed smooth ﬂow (SS), stratiﬁed wavy ﬂow

in a horizontal pipe with the inner diameter of 0.0254 m. The mea- (SW), intermittent ﬂow (I), annular ﬂow with dispersed liquid droplets

surement was performed using an optical probe. The distribution (AD), and dispersed bubble (DB) ﬂow. It should be noted that plug or

parameters of 1.04, 1.06, 0.92, and 0.98 and drift velocities of 0.466, elongated bubble and slug ﬂow regimes can be classiﬁed as the inter-

0.991, 3.688, and 0.068 m/s were obtained for stratiﬁed-wavy, slug, mittent ﬂow regime (Taitel et al., 1978). In this study, 566 data are

35

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

liquid two-phase ﬂow in a horizontal channel

(Taitel et al., 1978).

acquired from 12 data sources developed for gas-liquid two-phase ﬂows fraction over a ﬂow channel. The measurements at same ﬂow condi-

in horizontal channels. Table 2 summarizes the test conditions and tions should be performed at many local points to characterize the void

measurement methods in the 12 data sources. The ﬂuid systems in the fraction distribution in the ﬂow channel. Parallel plate capacitance,

databases include air-water and air-kerosene systems, and the pipe gamma ray absorption and wire-mesh sensor methods were used in 3

diameter ranges from 19 mm to 77.9 mm. The superﬁcial gas and liquid experiments.

velocities are in the range of 0.0253– 47.5 m/s and 0.000057 m/s–

5.97 m/s, respectively. Fig. 2 shows the ﬂow conditions of the databases

4. Results and discussion

in a superﬁcial gas velocity vs. superﬁcial liquid velocity plane with

ﬂow regime transition boundaries proposed by Taitel and

4.1. Comparison of existing drift-ﬂux correlations with collected data

Dukler (1976). The ﬁgure indicates that the collected data are well

distributed in all ﬁve gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow regimes.

In this section, the existing ﬂow-regime-dependent correlations re-

As indicated in Table 2, several measurement techniques were uti-

viewed in the Section 2.2 are compared with the data collected in the

lized in the experiments and measurement accuracy information was

Section 3.

not available in 9 databases. A quick-closing valve technique was used

Fig. 3(a) shows a drift-ﬂux plot in SS ﬂow regime. No correlation

in 6 experiments to measure time- and volume-averaged void fraction.

has been developed for the SS ﬂow regime. Since the ﬂow character-

Instantaneous volume-averaged void fraction is obtained by the quick-

istics of the SS ﬂow regime may be close to those of SW ﬂow regime, the

closing valve technique. Experiments at same ﬂow conditions should be

correlation of Lamari (2001) developed for the SW ﬂow regime is

repeated 30 times or more to obtain accurate time- and volume-aver-

tentatively compared with the experimental data taken in the SS ﬂow

aged void fraction. An appropriate number of repeated tests at same

regime. The data in the SS ﬂow regime are directly aligned with some

ﬂow conditions is particularly important for intermittent ﬂow, because

scatter in the drift-ﬂux plot. The correlation of Lamari (2001) indicated

the ﬂow characteristics are irregular relative to other ﬂow regimes.

by a red broken line tends to overestimate the gas velocity.

Conductivity, resistivity, and optical probe techniques were used in 3

Fig. 3(b) shows a drift-ﬂux plot in SW ﬂow regime. A broken red line

experiments to measure time-averaged local void fraction. Time- and

indicates gas velocities for the SW ﬂow regime calculated by the cor-

area-averaged void fraction is obtained by integrating local void

relation of Lamari (2001). The data in the SW ﬂow regime are directly

Table 2

Collected database of void fraction taken in horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow.

Researchers Fluids Sys. <jg > [m/s] <jf > [m/s] Pipe Dia. [mm] Type of α Instrument Accuracy Information No. of Data

Spedding and Nguyen (1976) Air-water 0.0940–47.5 0.224–1.04 45.5 Quick-closing valve NA 91

Mukherjee (1979) Air-kerosene 0.0253–23.1 0.000305–3.59 38.1 Parallel plate capacitance Low at α < 10% or > 10% 74

Simpson et al. (1981) Air-water 2.967–11.5 3.56–4.69 26 Gamma ray technique NA 13

Minami and Brill (1987) Air-water 0.475–14.9 0.00518–0.901 77.9 Quick-closing valves NA 54

Minami and Brill (1987) Air- kerosene 0.542–16.6 0.00579–0.950 77.9 Quick-closing valves NA 57

Franca and Lahey (1992) Air-water 0.127–23.76 0.00560–1.49 19 Quick-closing valves ± 5% 99

Abdul-Majeed (1996) Air-kerosene 0.125–46.9 0.000057–0.793 50.8 Quick-closing valves NA 86

Lamari (2001) Air-water 0.0950–23.3 0.00200–1.08 25.4 Optical probes ± 10%. 61

Silva et al. (2011) Air-water 0.304–2.066 0.265–0.748 26 Wire-Mesh Sensor NA 12

Kong and Kim (2017) Air-water 0.0877–1.13 3.97–5.97 38.1 Four-sensor conductivity probe NA 10

Kong et al. (2017) Air-water 0.190–3.00 2.00–4.00 38.1 Four-sensor conductivity probe NA 9

36

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

are 1.17, 1.05, 1.20, 1.09 and 0.820 for the SS, SW, I, AD, and DB ﬂow

regimes, respectively. Solid lines in Fig. 3 indicate the gas velocity

calculated by the newly determined distribution parameter and the

approximation of 〈〈vgj〉〉 = 0 m/s. The solid lines agree with the data.

accurate ﬂow regime transition criteria to identify the ﬂow regime

corresponding to superﬁcial gas and liquid velocities. However, due to

complex horizontal two-phase ﬂow characteristics, it may be diﬃcult to

determine the ﬂow regime with suﬃcient accuracy. In view of this,

Chexal et al. (1991) developed a ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux

correlation applicable for a whole range of void fraction.

Chexal et al. (1991) adopted an approach to formulate the drift-ﬂux

parameters by means of many cascading constitutive relationships with

numerous empirical parameters, and sacriﬁced a physics principle

characterizing the drift-ﬂux parameters in exchange for developing the

ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux correlation. The drift-ﬂux correla-

tion proposed by Chexal et al. (1991) may be considered a kind of re-

gression curve to reproduce the void fraction data. In what follows, a

simple ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux correlation for gas-liquid

two-phase ﬂow in a horizontal channel will be developed. The simple

Fig. 2. Flow conditions of collected data in superﬁcial gas and liquid velocity plane. correlation is expected to provide some insight of the dependence of the

drift-ﬂux correlation on ﬂow parameters. It is also expected that the

aligned in the drift-ﬂux plot. The correlation of Lamari (2001) agrees correlation can be applicable for all void fraction range from zero to

with the data taken in the SW ﬂow regime. unity.

Fig. 3(c) represents a drift-ﬂux plot in I ﬂow regime. Blue solid and

broken lines are, respectively, gas velocities for plug and slug ﬂow re- 4.2.1. Drift velocity in horizontal channel

gimes calculated by the correlation of Franca and Lahey (1992), As discussed in the Section 4.1, local drift velocity or relative ve-

whereas red solid and broken lines are, respectively, gas velocities for locity in the horizontal direction should be zero due to the absence of

plug and slug ﬂow regimes calculated by the correlation of gravitational acceleration in the horizontal direction. No local drift

Lamari (2001). The data in the I ﬂow regime are directly aligned with velocity yields 〈〈vgj〉〉 = 0 m/s. The validity of this approximation has

large scatter in the drift-ﬂux plot. The correlations developed for the been experimentally veriﬁed in Fig. 3. In this study, 〈〈vgj〉〉 = 0 m/s is

plug ﬂow regime tend to underestimate the gas velocity. The correla- assumed.

tions developed for the slug ﬂow regime agree with the data at the

mixture volumetric ﬂux higher than 5 m/s. No clear linear relationship

4.2.2. Distribution parameter in horizontal channel

between gas velocity and mixture volumetric ﬂux is identiﬁed at the

Ishii (1977) considered the following functional form to take into

mixture volumetric ﬂux lower than 5 m/s.

account the eﬀect of inertia force on the distribution parameter.

Fig. 3(d) represents a drift-ﬂux plot in AD ﬂow regime. A broken red

line indicates gas velocities for the AD ﬂow regime calculated by the ρg

C0 = C∞ − (C∞ − 1)

correlation of Lamari (2001). The data in the AD ﬂow regime are di- ρf (6)

rectly aligned in the drift-ﬂux plot. The correlation of Lamari (2001)

tends to overestimate or underestimate the gas velocity at low or high where C∞, ρg, and ρf are the asymptotic value of the distribution

mixture volumetric ﬂux conditions, respectively. parameter, gas density and liquid density, respectively. The functional

Fig. 3(e) shows a drift-ﬂux plot in DB ﬂow regime. A broken red line form represented by Eq. (6) ensures that the distribution parameter

indicates gas velocity for the DB ﬂow regime calculated by the corre- approaches unity as the density ratio approaches unity.

lation of Kong and Kim (2017). The data in the DB ﬂow regime are The dependence of the distribution parameter on ﬂow parameters is

directly aligned in the drift-ﬂux plot. The correlation of Kong and examined as follows. Hibiki and Ishii (2003) performed an analysis of

Kim (2017) agrees with the data but predicts negative gas velocity at the ﬂow parameter dependence of the distribution parameter for gas-

the mixture volumetric ﬂux lower than 1 m/s, which is not physically liquid two-phase ﬂow in a vertical large diameter pipe using the ratio of

correct.

non-dimensional superﬁcial gas velocity, jg+ , to non-dimensional

As discussed above, a linear relationship between gas velocity and

mixture volumetric ﬂux is found for most of ﬂow regimes. The values of mixture volumetric ﬂux, j+ , successfully. The non-dimensional su-

the distribution parameter and drift velocity in the existing drift-ﬂux perﬁcial gas velocity and mixture volumetric ﬂux are deﬁned as re-

correlations were determined by regression analyses. Since the second presented by Eqs. (7) and (8), respectively.

term in the right hand side of Eq. (2), 〈〈vgj〉〉, is much smaller than the

ﬁrst term in the right hand side of Eq. (2), C0〈j〉, a signiﬁcant un- jg

jg+ =

certainty is expected for the value of the drift velocity, 〈〈vgj〉〉. Local Δρgσ

1/4

⎛

⎜

⎞ ⎟

drift velocity or relative velocity in the horizontal direction should be ρf2 (7)

⎝ ⎠

zero due to the absence of gravitational acceleration in the horizontal

direction. No local drift velocity yields 〈〈vgj〉〉 = 0 m/s. The values of j

j+ =

the distribution parameter for each ﬂow regime can be re-determined 1/4

⎛ Δρgσ ⎞

with the approximation of 〈〈vgj〉〉 = 0 m/s. The re-determined values of ⎜

ρf2

⎟

⎝ ⎠ (8)

37

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

dependent correlations with collected data.

where Δρ, g and σ are the density diﬀerence between two phases, vg

−

ρg

j ρf

gravitational acceleration and surface tension, respectively. The de- C∞ = .

ρg

pendence of the distribution parameter on jg+ / j+ will be examined 1−

ρf (9)

ﬁrst.

The asymptotic value of the distribution parameter for each data Fig. 4 shows the dependence of the asymptotic value of the dis-

point can be calculated by Eqs. (2) and (6) with the assumption of

〈〈vgj〉〉 = 0 m/s as: tribution parameter on the velocity ratio, jg+ / j+ . Open circle,

38

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

It should be noted here that the data taken in the I ﬂow regime at

the mixture volumetric ﬂux lower than 3 m/s are not used in developing

Eqs. (10) and (11). This is because it is diﬃcult to determine the

asymptotic value of the distribution parameter by Eq. (9) accurately at

the mixture volumetric ﬂux lower than 3 m/s. For the ﬂow conditions of

the mixture volumetric ﬂux lower than 3 m/s, data are signiﬁcantly

scattered due probably to insuﬃcient measurement accuracy as dis-

cussed in the Section 3. Eqs. (10) and (11) can reproduce the depen-

dence of the asymptotic value of the distribution parameter on the

velocity ratio, jg+ / j+ , for SS, SW, AD and DB ﬂow regimes but they

tend to underestimate the asymptotic value of the distribution para-

meter for I ﬂow regime at jg+ / j+ between 0.75 and 0.90. The ﬁnal

form of the distribution parameter in one-dimensional drift-ﬂux corre-

lation for gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow in a horizontal channel is given by:

⎛ ⎞

For 0 ≤ ⎜ jg+ / j+ ⎟ < 0.9

⎝ ⎠ 1.50

⎧ ⎛ ⎞ ⎫

⎪ jg+ / j+ ⎪

⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪

C0 = 0.800 exp 0.815 ⎜ ⎟

⎨ 0.900 ⎬

⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪

⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪

⎩ ⎝ ⎠ ⎭

⎛ ⎞ 1.50

Fig. 4. Relation between C∞ and ⎜ jg+ / j+ ⎟ for horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow. ⎡ ⎤

⎧ ⎛ + ⎞ ⎫

⎝ ⎠ ⎢ ⎪ j / j+ ⎪ ⎥

⎢ ⎪ ⎜ g ⎟ ⎪ ⎥ ρg

− ⎢0.800 exp 0.815 ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥

⎨ 0.900 ⎬ ρ

triangular, square, pentagon and hexagon indicate data for SS, SW, I, ⎢ ⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎥ f

⎢ ⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎥

AD and DB ﬂow regimes, respectively. This ﬁgure indicates two distinct ⎣ ⎩ ⎝ ⎠ ⎭ ⎦ (12)

trends which were also found in gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow in a large

diameter pipe (Hibiki and Ishii, 2003). The asymptotic value of the ⎛ ⎞

For 0.9 ≤ ⎜ jg+ / j+ ⎟ ≤ 1

distribution parameter gradually increases as the velocity ratio, ⎝ ⎠

jg+ / j+ , increases. The asymptotic value of the distribution para- ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ρg

C0 = ⎜−8.08 jg+ / j+ + 9.08⎟ − 8.08 ⎜ jg+ / j+ + 1⎟ ,

ρ (13)

⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ f

meter takes its maximum value and approaches unity as the velocity

The ﬁnal form of the drift velocity in one-dimensional drift-ﬂux

ratio, jg+ / j+ , approaches unity. The trend of C∞ → 1 as correlation for gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow in a horizontal channel is

given by:

jg+ / j+ → 1 is physically sound because the asymptotic value of the

vgj = 0m/s, (14)

distribution parameter should be unity at the limiting condition of

jg+ / j+ = 1 or gas single-phase ﬂow. Due to the data scatter, it is 4.3. Assessment of predictive capability of newly developed drift-ﬂux

correlation for horizontal two-phase ﬂow

diﬃcult to set the value of jg+ / j+ at the maximum C∞ precisely. The

In this section, the predictive capability of void fraction using the

newly developed drift-ﬂux correlation (hereafter, Rassame–Hibiki's

value of jg+ / j+ is tentatively set at 0.9, which is the same value for correlation) will be assessed by introducing four statistical parameters.

gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow in a vertical large diameter pipe (Hibiki and They are mean absolute error (or bias), md, standard deviation (or

Ishii, 2003). The following correlation is proposed to reproduce the random error), sd, mean relative deviation, mrel, and mean absolute

relationship between the asymptotic value of the distribution parameter relative deviation, mrel, ab (Hibiki et al., 2017).

N

and the velocity ratio, jg+ / j+ . 1

md =

N

∑( α (i)cal . − α (i)exp . ),

i=1 (15)

⎛ ⎞

For 0 ≤ ⎜ jg+ / j+ ⎟ < 0.9 N

⎝ ⎠ 1

1.50 sd =

N−1

∑ {( α (i)cal . − α (i)exp . ) − md}2 ,

⎧ ⎛ ⎞ ⎫ i=1 (16)

⎪ jg+ / j+ ⎪

⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪

C∞ = 0.800 exp 0.815 ⎜ N

⎟ 1 ( α (i)cal . − α (i)exp . )

⎨ 0.900 ⎬ mrel = ∑ ,

⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ N α (i)exp .

⎪ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ i=1 (17)

⎩ ⎝ ⎠ ⎭ (10)

N

1 α (i)cal . − α (i)exp .

⎛ ⎞ mrel, ab = ∑ ,

For 0.9 ≤ ⎜ jg+ / j+ ⎟ ≤ 1 N i=1

α (i)exp . (18)

⎝ ⎠

where N, αexp. and αcal. are the number of samples, measured void

C∞ = −8.08 jg+ / j+ + 9.08,

fraction and calculated void fraction, respectively.

(11)

Fig. 5(a)– (f) show the ratio of calculated void fraction to measured

39

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

correlation and the correlation of

Chexal et al. (1991) for each ﬂow regime.

void fraction against measured void fraction for SS, SW, I (all data), I deviation between calculated and measured void fractions is identiﬁed.

(data measured at 〈j〉 ≥ 3 m/s), AD and DB ﬂow regimes, respectively. Rassame–Hibiki's correlation and the correlation of Chexal et al. (1991)

Fig. 6(a) and (b) show the ratio of calculated void fraction to predict void fraction in the SS ﬂow regime with +0.0518 (bias) ±

measured void fraction against measured void fraction for total data 0.123 (random error) and −0.0141 (bias) ± 0.0837 (random error),

and total data except I ﬂow regime data measured at 〈j〉 < 3 m/s, re- respectively. As indicated in Fig. 5(b), both correlations show similar

spectively. Open and solid circles in Figs. 5 and 6 indicate the ratio predictive capability of void fraction in SW ﬂow regime and no sys-

calculated by Rassame–Hibiki's correlation and the correlation of tematic deviation between calculated and measured void fractions is

Chexal et al. (1991). Tables 3 and 4 summarize the predictive identiﬁed. Rassame-Hibiki's correlation and the correlation of

capability of Rassame–Hibiki's correlation and the correlation of Chexal et al. (1991) predict void fraction in the SW ﬂow regime with

Chexal et al. (1991), respectively. +0.0419 (bias) ± 0.0629 (random error) and 0.0394 (bias) ±

As shown in Fig. 5(a), both correlations show similar predictive 0.0494 (random error), respectively. Based on the above brief discus-

capability of void fraction in SS ﬂow regime and no systematic sion, both correlations can predict the void fraction for stratiﬁed

40

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

correlation and the correlation of

Chexal et al. (1991) for all data.

Table 3 predict void fraction in the AD ﬂow regime with +0.00262 (bias) ±

Predictive capability of void fraction by Rassame–Hibiki's correlation. 0.0458 (random error) and 0.0392 (bias) ± 0.0495 (random error),

respectively. Based on the above brief discussion, both correlations can

Statistical parameters md [-] sd [-] mrel [-] mrel,ab [-]

predict the void fraction for separated horizontal two-phase ﬂow re-

SS 0.0518 0.123 0.0674 0.138 gime or AD ﬂow regime.

SW 0.0419 0.0629 0.0476 0.0534 As indicated in Fig. 5(f), both correlations show similar predictive

I −0.0321 0.116 0.125 0.378

capability of void fraction in DB ﬂow regime and no systematic de-

I for data measured at <j> > −0.104 0.134 −0.154 0.166

3 m/s only

viation between calculated and measured void fractions is identiﬁed. It

AD 0.00262 0.0458 0.00194 0.0389 may be noted that the correlation of Chexal et al. (1991) may over-

DB −0.00271 0.00832 −0.0155 0.00739 estimate the void fraction systematically as void fraction decreases.

Total data except for data in I 0.00770 0.0947 0.00383 0.0929 Rassame-Hibiki's correlation and the correlation of Chexal et al. (1991)

ﬂow regime measured at

predict void fraction in the DB ﬂow regime with −0.00271 (bias) ±

<j> <3 m/s

Total data 0.00487 0.0985 0.0758 0.206 0.00832 (random error) and 0.0364 (bias) ± 0.0454 (random error),

respectively. Based on the above brief discussion, both correlations can

predict the void fraction for dispersed horizontal two-phase ﬂow regime

Table 4 or DB ﬂow regime.

Predictive capability of void fraction by the correlation of Chexal et al. (1991). The above assessment of Rassame–Hibiki's correlation and the cor-

relation of Chexal et al. (1991) has veriﬁed their predictive capability of

Statistical parameters md [-] sd [-] mrel [-] mrel,ab [-]

void fraction in horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂows with about ± 20

SS −0.0141 0.0837 −0.0203 0.0868 %. Although the predictive capability of void fraction by Rassame–Hi-

SW 0.0394 0.0494 0.0445 0.0453 biki's correlation is similar to that by the correlation of

I −0.0227 0.0858 0.0433 0.272

Chexal et al. (1991), Rassame–Hibiki's correlation is much simpler than

I for data measured at <j> > −0.0167 0.0811 −0.0398 0.125

3 m/s only the correlation of Chexal et al. (1991). This fact implies that Rassa-

AD 0.0392 0.0495 0.0452 0.0462 me–Hibiki's correlation may capture the dominant parameter aﬀecting

DB 0.0364 0.0454 0.101 0.101 the distribution parameter successfully.

Total data except for data in I ﬂow 0.0156 0.0673 0.0155 0.0799

regime measured at <j>

<3 m/s

5. Conclusions

Total data 0.00329 0.0740 0.0344 0.156

In this study, the newly developed drift-ﬂux correlation (namely,

Rassame–Hibiki's correlation) has been developed for predicting void

horizontal two-phase ﬂow regime including SS and SW ﬂow regimes. fraction in horizontal gas-liquid two-phase ﬂow. The summary of this

As shown in Fig. 5(c), both correlations fail to predict void fraction. study is given below.

Fig. 5(d) shows the predictive capability of the correlations based on

the data at 〈j〉 ≥ 3 m/s. Comparison between Fig. 5(c) and (d) con-

cludes that the discrepancy between the calculated and measured void

• An extensive literature survey has been conducted from 12 data

sources to establish comprehensive databases used for the assess-

fraction occurs at 〈j〉 ≤ 3 m/s. One of possible reasons for the dis- ment of predictive capability of existing drift-ﬂux correlations and

crepancy between the calculated and measured void fraction observed for the development of a new drift-ﬂux correlation. A total of 566

at 〈j〉 ≤ 3 m/s may be due largely to insuﬃcient measurement accu- data points has been collected in a wide range of test conditions such

racy of the data taken at 〈j〉 ≤ 3 m/s. Rassame–Hibiki's correlation and as superﬁcial gas velocity ranging from 0.0253 to 47.5 m/s, super-

the correlation of Chexal et al. (1991) predict void fraction in the I ﬂow ﬁcial liquid velocity ranging from 0.000057 m/s to 5.97 m/s, inner

regime with −0.0321 (bias) ± 0.116 (random error) and −0.0227 pipe diameter ranging from 0.019 m to 0.0779 m and void fraction

(bias) ± 0.0858 (random error), respectively. ranging from ∼0 to ∼1. Horizontal two-phase ﬂow regimes covered

As indicated in Fig. 5(e), both correlations show similar predictive by the collected database are the stratiﬁed smooth ﬂow (SS), stra-

capability of void fraction in AD ﬂow regime and no systematic de- tiﬁed wavy (SW), intermittent (I), annular ﬂow with dispersed li-

viation between calculated and measured void fractions is identiﬁed. quid droplets (AD) and dispersed bubbly (DB).

Rassame–Hibiki's correlation and the correlation of Chexal et al. (1991) • Existing drift-ﬂux correlations developed for horizontal gas-liquid

41

S. Rassame, T. Hibiki International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 69 (2018) 33–42

two-phase ﬂow have been reviewed. The existing drift-ﬂux corre- 1–14.

lations can be classiﬁed into two types, namely, ﬂow-regime-de- Franca, H., Lahey, R.T., 1992. The use of drift ﬂux techniques for the analysis of phase

ﬂows. Int. J. Multiphase Flow. 18 787-, 801.

pendent and ﬂow-regime-independent drift-ﬂux correlations. For Hibiki, T., Ishii, M., 2002. Distribution parameter and drift velocity of drift-ﬂux model in

the ﬂow-regime-dependent drift-ﬂux correlation, constant values of bubbly ﬂow. Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans. 45, 707–721.

the distribution parameters and drift velocities are given for each Hibiki, T., Ishii, M., 2003. One-dimensional drift-ﬂux model for two-phase ﬂow in a large

diameter pipe. Int. J. Heat and Mass Trans. 46, 1773–1790.

ﬂow regime. It has been identiﬁed that the existing ﬂow-regime- Hibiki, T., Situ, R., Mi, Y., Ishii, M., 2003. Modeling of bubble-layer thickness for for-

dependent drift-ﬂux correlations do not incorporate the eﬀect of mulation of one-dimensional interfacial area transport equation in subcooled boiling

ﬂow conditions into the correlation. It has been pointed out that the two-phase ﬂow. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 46, 1409–1423.

Hibiki, T., Mao, K., Ozaki, T., 2017. Development of void fraction-quality correlation for

value of the drift velocity in the ﬂow-regime-dependent drift-ﬂux two-phase ﬂow in horizontal and vertical tube bundles. Prog. Nuc. Eng. 97, 38–52.

correlation may not be accurate due to a “compensation error” be- Information Systems Laboratories, Inc., 2001. RELAP5/MOD3.3 Beta Code Manual

tween the distribution parameter and drift velocity. Volume IV, Models and Correlations. NUREG/CR-5535/Rev 1-Vol IV.

• Assuming the void-fraction-weighted mean drift velocity being zero, Ishii, M., 1977. One-Dimensional Drift-Flux Model and Constitutive Equations For

Relative Motion Between Phases in Various Two-Phase Flow Regimes, ANL-77- 47.

a correlation for the distribution parameter has been developed as a Argonne National Lab., IL, USA.

function of the ratio of non-dimensional superﬁcial gas velocity to Ishii, M., Hibiki, T., 2010. Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow. Springer, NY.

non-dimensional mixture volumetric ﬂux. The newly developed Kong, R., Kim, S., Bajorek, S., Tien, K., Hoxie, C., 2017. Experimental investigation of

horizontal air–water bubbly-to-plug and bubbly-to-slug transition ﬂows in a 3.81 cm

drift-ﬂux correlation (namely Rassame-Hibiki's correlation) is much ID pipe. Int. J. Multiphase Flow. 94 137-, 155.

simpler than the ﬂow-regime-dependent drift-ﬂux correlation such Kong, R., Kim, S., 2017. Characterization of horizontal air–water two-phase ﬂow. Nucl.

as Chexel et al. (1991). Nevertheless, Rassame–Hibiki's correlation Eng. Des. 312, 266–276.

Lamari, M.L., 2001. An Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase (Air-Water) Flow

shows an excellent predictive capability of void fraction, which is Regimes in a Horizontal Tube At Near Atmospheric Conditions. Carleton University.

similar to that of the correlation of Chexel et al. (1991). The mean Ottawa, Ontari, Canada.

absolute error (or bias), standard deviation (random error), mean Mukherjee, H., 1979. An Experimental Study of Inclined Two-Phase Flow, The University

of Tulsa. Tulsa, USA.

relative deviation, and mean absolute relative deviation of Rassa- Minani, K., Brill, J.P., 1987. Liquid holdup in wet-gas pipelines. SPE Prod. Eng. 2, 36–44.

me–Hibiki's correlation are 0.0487, 0.0985, 0.0758 and 0.206, re- Mishima, K., Hibiki, T., 1996. Some characteristics of air-water two-phase ﬂow in small

spectively. Rassame–Hibiki's correlation can predict void fraction diameter vertical tubes. Int. J. Multiphase Flow. 22, 703–712.

Ozaki, T., Hibiki, T., 2015. Drift-ﬂux model for rod bundle geometry. Prog. Nucl. Eng. 83,

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42

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