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PROJECT

ON

LOGIC GATE

ROLL NO.: 03

GUIDED BY: MISS ANUPAMA KAUSHAL

CERTIFICATE

THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THIS PROJECT IS THE

BONAFIDE WORK OF SAURAV KUMAR OF CLASS

12TH 'A1' AND HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY

COMPLETED AND IS TAKEN TO BE AN ISSUE

CONDUCTED BY THE C.B.S.E. IN THE SESSION

2015-2016.

TEACHER’S SIGNATURE:

EXTERNAL’S SIGNATURE:

PRINCIPAL’S SIGNATURE:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

MERE WORDS WON'T BE ABLE TO EXPRESS MY

GRATITUDE AND THANKFULNESS FOR THE

VARIOUS PEOPLE WITHOUT WHOSE

INVOLVEMENT THIS PROJECT COUNLDN'T HAVE

BEEN COMPLETED SUCCESSFULLY.

HEARTY GRATITUDE FOR MISS ANUPAMA

KAUSHAL, MY PHYSICS TEACHER WITHOU T

WHOSE SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE THIS VERY

PROJECT COULDN'T HAVE BEEN POSSIBLE. I

WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK MR. RAJU, OUR

PHYSICS LAB ASSISTANT, WHO WAS ALWAYS

THERE TO HELP US OUT OUR PROBLEMS.

MY FRIENDS AND MY PARENTS TOO WITHOUT

WHOSE CONTRIBUTION THE WORK ENTERED IN

THIS FILE WOULDN'T BE A REALITY.

CONTENTS

AIM

INTRODUCTION

THEORY

BASIC GATES

THE OR GATE

THE AND GATE

THE NOT GATE

THE NOR GATE

THE NAND GATE

THE XOR GATE

THE XNOR GATE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

AIM

GIVEN TRUTH TABLE"

INTRODUCTION

A gate is defined as a digital circuit which follows some logical relationship

between the input and output voltages. It is a digital circuit which either allows

a signal to pass through as stop, it is called a gate.

The logic gates are building blocks at digital electronics. They are used in

digital electronics to change on voltage level (input voltage) into another

(output voltage) according to some logical statement relating them.

A logic gate may have one or more inputs, but it has only one output. The

relationship between the possible values of input and output voltage is

expressed in the form of a table called truth table or table of combinations.

Truth table of a Logic Gates is a table that shows all the input and output

possibilities for the logic gate.

nature at the logic, this algebra of logic called BOOLEAN

ALGEBRA. A logical statement can have only two values, such as

HIGH/LOW, ON/OFF, CLOSED/OPEN, YES/NO,

RIGHT/WRONG, TRUE/FALSE, CONDUCTING/NON-

CONDUCTING etc. The two values of logic statements one denoted

by the binary number 1 and 0. The binary number 1 is used to denote the high

value. The logical statements that logic gates follow are called Boolean

expressions

THEORY

Logic gates or logic gate is an entity in electronics and mathematics Boolean

that turns one or more logic inputs to a logic output signal. Logic gate is mainly

implemented electronically using diodes or transistors, but can also be built

using the arrangement of components that utilize the properties of

electromagnetic (relay), fluids, optical or even mechanical. Any Boolean

algebra operation can be associated with inputs and outputs represent the

statements of Boolean algebra. Although these circuits may be complex, they

may all be constructed from three basic devices. We have three different types

of logic gates .These are the AND gate, the OR gate and the NOT gate.

LOGIC STATES

1 0

HIGH LOW

+v -v

ON OFF

CLOSE OPEN

RIGHT WRONG

TRUE FALSE

YES NO

BASIC GATES

(a) THE OR GATE is a device that combines A with B to give Y

as the result.

The OR gate has two or more inputs and one output. The logic

gate of OR gate with A and B input and Y output is shown below:

The Boolean expression:

A+B=Y, indicates Y equals A OR B.

Y as the result.

The AND gate has two or more inputs and one output. The logic

gate of AND gate with A and B input and Y output is shown

below:

the AND. The Boolean expression:

A.B=Y, indicates Y equals A AND B.

(c) THE NOT GATE is a device that inverts the inputs. The

NOT is a one input and one output. The logic gate of NOT

gate with A and Y output is shown below:

Boolean expression:

Ã =Y, indicates Y equals NOT A.

THE OR GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE OR GATE

CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2).

An OR gate can be realize by the electronic circuit,

making use of two diodes D1 and D2 as shown in the

figure.

Here the negative terminal of the battery is grounded

and corresponds to the 0 level, and the positive terminal

of the battery (i.e. voltage 5V in the present case)

corresponds to level 1. The output Y is voltage at C

w.r.t. earth.

working of electrical circuit is:

a) If switch A & B are open lamp do not glow

(A=0, B=0), hence Y=0.

b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0, B=1)

Lamp glow, hence Y=1.

c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1, B=0)

Lamp glow, hence Y=1.

d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1)

Lamp glow, hence Y=1.

Truth Table:

Input Input Output

A B Y

0 0 0

1 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 1

THE AND GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE AND

GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2), a

resistance R.

An AND gate can be realize by the electronic

circuit, making use of two diodes D1 and D2 as shown in

the figure. The resistance R is connected to the positive

terminal of a 5V battery permanently.

Here the negative terminal of the battery is grounded

and corresponds to the 0

level, and the positive

terminal of the battery (i.e.

voltage 5V in the present

case) corresponds to level 1. The output Y is voltage at

C w.r.t. earth.

working of electrical circuit:

a) If both switches A&B are open (A=0, B=0)

then lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

c) If switch A open & B closed (A=0, B=1) then

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

d) If switch A & B both closed (A=1, B=1) then

Lamp will glow, hence Y=1.

Truth Table:

Input Input Output

A B Y

0 0 0

1 0 0

0 1 0

1 1 1

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE NOT

GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

An ideal n-p-n transistor.

A NOT gate cannot be realized by using diodes.

However an electronic circuit of NOT gate can be

realized by making use of n-p-n transistor as shown in the

figure.

A through a resistance Rb and the emitter E is earthed.

The collector is connected to 5V battery. The output

Y is voltage at C

w.r.t. earth.

working of the electrical circuit:

a) If switch A is open (i.e. A=0), the lump will glow,

hence Y=1.

b) If Switch A is closed (i.e. A=1), the lump will not

glow, hence Y=0.

Truth Table:

Input A Output Y

0 1

1 0

THE NOR GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE NOR

GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2), an ideal n-p-

n transistor.

If we connect the output Y’ of OR gate to the input of

a NOT gate the gate obtained is called NOR.

The output Y is voltage at C w.r.t. earth.

In Boolean expression, the NOR gate is expressed as

Y=A+B, and is being read as ‘A OR B negated’.

The following interference can be easily drawn from the

working of electrical circuit is:

will glow, hence Y=1.

b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

c) If Switch A open & B close (A=0, B=1) then

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1)

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

Truth Table:

0 0 1

1 0 0

0 1 0

1 1 0

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE NAND

GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two ideal p-n junction diode (D1 and D2), a resistance

R, an ideal n-p-n transistor.

If we connect the output Y’ of AND gate to the input

of a NOT gate the gate obtained is called NAND.

The output Y is voltage C w.r.t.earth.

In Boolean expression, the NAND gate is expressed

as Y=A.B, and is being read as ‘A AND B negated’.

The following

interference can be easily drawn from the working of

electrical circuit:

a) If Switch A & B open (A=0, B=0) then Lamp

will glow, hence Y=1.

b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0, B=1)

Lamp glow, hence Y=1.

c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1, B=0)

Lamp glow, hence Y=1.

d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1)

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

Truth Table:

Input Input Output

A B Y

0 0 1

1 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 0

THE XOR GATE

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE EX OR

GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two AND gate, an OR gate, two NOT gate.

The operation XOR checks for the exclusivity in the

value of the two signals A and B. It means if A and B

are not identical (i.e. if A=0 and B=1 or vice versa), the

output Y=1, and if both are identical, then the output

Y=0. This operation is also called exclusive OR gate,

designated EXOR.

In Boolean expression, the EX OR gate is expressed

as

Y=A.B + A.B =

The following interference can be easily drawn from the

working of electrical circuit:

a) If both switches A&B are open (A=0, B=0)

then lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

b) If Switch A open B closed then (A=0, B=1)

Lamp glow, hence Y=1.

c) If switch A closed B open then (A=1, B=0)

Lamp glow, hence Y=1.

d) If switch A & B are closed then (A=1, B=1)

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

Truth Table:

Input A Input B Output Y

0 0 0

1 0 1

0 1 1

1 1 0

Aim:

TO DESIGN AND SIMULATE THE EX NOR

GATE CIRCUIT.

Components:

Two AND gates, an OR gates, three NOT gates.

The operation XNOR checks for the exclusivity in the

value of the two signals A and B. It means if A and B

are not identical (i.e. if A=0 and B=1 or vice versa), the

output Y=0, and if both are identical, then the output

Y=1. This operation is

also called exclusive

NOR gate, designated

XNOR.

XNOR gate is expressed as

Y=A.B + A.B =

The following interference

can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit:

a) If Switch A & B open (A=0, B=0) then Lamp

will glow, hence Y=1.

b) If Switch A closed & B open (A=1, B=0) then

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

c) If Switch A open & B close (A=0, B=1) then

Lamp will not glow, hence Y=0.

d) If switch A & B both closed (A=1, B=1) then

Lamp will glow, hence Y=1.

Truth Table:

Input A Input B Output Y

0 0 1

1 0 0

0 1 0

1 1 1

BIBLIOGRAPHY

through which I obtained vital information which

contributed in the completion of this project:

I. slideshare.com

II. wikipedia.org

III. icbse.co.in

IV. scribd.com

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