Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 246

This is a reproduction of a library book that was digitized

by Google as part of an ongoing effort to preserve the


information in books and make it universally accessible.

https://books.google.com
A COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY

OF THE

NON-ARYAN LANGUAGES OF INDIA AND HIGH ASIA.


«

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

Third Edition.

THE ANNALS OF RURAL BENGAL;


COMPILED FROM OFFICIAL MS. RECORDS AND THE ARCHIVES OF NATIVE FAMILIES.

VOL. I.—THE ETHNICAL FRONTIER.

' One of the most important as well as most interesting works whieh the reeords of Indian literature ean show. . . . Yellow-
stained volumes from eaeh distriet Treasury in Bengal, family arehives from the stores of Rajahs, loeal information eolleeted by-
Pandits speeially employed for the purpose, folk-lore supplied by the laborious inquisition of native gentlemen, manuseripts in
London, Caleutta, and Bengal, have all been laid under eontribution ; and as the initial result, we have the first volume of what pro
mises to be a delightful and valuable history.'— Westminster Review.
' Mr. Hunter has written a book whieh gives promise of a historian seareely inferior in seholarship, intelleetual power, and
literary skill to Mr. Froude The real history of India—the history, that is, of its peoples—has yet to be written. It ean be
written only by a man whom long serviee in India has given speeial knowledge, and who eombines with this a real historieal genius.
Mr. Hunter is the first Englishman who eombines these qualifieations ; and he has in this preliminary volume given us a history
whieh, in its minute knowledge of the people—their ethnology, language, traditions, religious literature, manners and eustoms—its
philosophieal breadth and freedom from prejudiee, its noble prineiples and sympathies, and its literary skill and eloquenee, will be
as faseinating to the ordinary reader as it is valuable to the student.'—British Quarterly.
' A work of the greatest talent, and one whieh will make an epoeh in Indian literature. The faets are set forth with the
serupulous exaetness of an honest and impartial judge, the seientifie details are elothed in a dress at onee elear and pieturesque ; and
it is not too mueh to eompare Mr. Hunter, as a writer, to Lord Maeaulay.'—Revue Bibliographique Universelle.
' Mr. Hunter, in a word, has applied the philosophie method of writing history to a new field. . . . The graee, and ease, and
steady flow of the writing almost make us forget, when reading, the surpassing severity' and value of the author's labours.' —
Fortnightly Review.
'A work radiant with an inner light.'—St. James1 Magazine.
"... If Mr. Hunter does not ultimately eompel reeognition from the world as a historian of the very first elass—of the elass
to whieh not a seore of Englishman have ever belonged—we entirely mistake our trade. . . . He has exeeuted with admirable
industry and rare power of expression a task whieh, so far as we know, has never yet been attempted : he has given life, and reality,
and interest to the internal history of an Indian Provinee under British rule—to a history that is without battles, or sieges, or martial
deeds of any sort.'—Speetator.
'The pieture ot the great famine of 1769, whieh did so mueh towards ruining the native Bengal aristoeraey, is worthy of
Thueydides.'—Imperial Review.
' There is still a thiek eloud between the rulers and the ruled, whieh is only broken by the oeeasional flash of some great
ealamity. The work before us affords some light in the midst of this gloom.'—Athenceum.
' Many profound seholars, both in this eountry and Germany, have written learnedly upon the Aryan Emigration ; but for
Mr. Hunter it has been reserved to study an aboriginal raee amidst its native mountains, to mark the reeiproeal influenee of two
phases of eivilisation at their point of eontaet, and to delineate the aspeet of Northern India prior to the armed immigration of
the fair-eomplexioned [Aryan] raee. . . . Now that the attention of the British Government has been so foreibly direeted to the
peeuliar eustoms and observanees of the aboriginal raees, it may be hoped that an exeeptional system of administration will be
provided for a people so deserving of speeial eonsideration.'—Cornhill Magazine.

In Preparation.

A COMPARATIVE GRAMMAR
OF THE
NON-ARYAN LANGUAGES OF INDIA AND HIGH ASIA.
A COMPARATIVE DICTIONARY

OF THE

LANGUAGES OF INDIA AND HIGH ASIA

WITH A DISSERTATION

BASED ON THE HODGSON LISTS, OFFICIAL RECORDS, AND MSS.

BY

W. W. HUNTER, B.A., M.R.A.S.


HON. FEI.. ETHNOL. SOC.
OF HER MAJESTY'S BENGAL CIVIL SERVICE

LONDON: TRUBNER AND CO.

1868
MURRAY AND GIBB, EDINBURGH.
PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.
TO HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY

QUEEN VICTORIA,

THIS WORK

IS, WITH HER ROYAL PERMISSION,


I

DEDICATED.
PREFACE.

T N this book I have brought together the languages of the non-Aryan tribes and peoples
who dwell within or border upon the British Empire of India. They form broken and
scattered fragments of that unrecorded world which was before the dispersion of the Indo-Germanic
stock. On the plains of Hindustan the pre-historic races succumbed so completely beneath the
Aryan invaders, as to lose all remembrance of their separate ethnical existence ; but, as I
endeavoured to show in my Annals of Rural Bengal, they have permanently affected the
language, religion, and political destiny of the composite Hindus whom they combined with
their conquerors to form. On the other hand, among the mountains and lofty plateaux which
everywhere abound in India, they have preserved their nationality intact, and during ages
waged incessant warfare with the lowland population. The long series of Indian conquerors—
Aryan, Affghan, and Moghul—have each in turn laboured to extirpate them. The English
are now endeavouring to reclaim them. But in order to civilise, it is necessary first to under
stand them ; and this book, for the first time in the history of India, places the governing
race in direct communication with eighty millions of its non-Aryan subjects and neighbours.

While the principal end of my researches has thus been a purely practical one, I am not
without a firm hope that they will prove of service to European scholarship. Philology has
hitherto concerned herself almost exclusively with Indo-Germanic and Semitic speech ; with
speech, that is, at a single stage, and perhaps not at its most instructive stage. The study of
the non-Aryan tongues of India is destined, I believe, to open the door to the vast linguistic
residue, and to furnish the basis of a new science of language, as the study of Sanskrit in
India eighty years ago afforded the foundation upon which the present system of philology
has been reared. In the following dissertation, the blemishes and probable inaccuracies of
this rudimentary effort are carefully set forth. Some of them I hope to remove in the
Comparative Grammar of Non-Aryan Speeeh, which I now have in hand ; the rest I leave to
the generosity of scholars who work at greater leisure and with a fuller knowledge of scientific
principles than can be hoped for amid the distractions of Indian official life.

For the convenience of European students and of missionaries, the work is arranged
in English, French, German, Russian, and Latin. The five synonyms are placed at the
head of each page. Polyglot Prefaces will be found at the beginning, and Alphabetical
Indices at the end of the volume.
PRÉFACE.

T 'OUVRAGE que je donne aujourd'hui au public contient les éléments des idiomes
dont se servent les tribus et peuplades non-Aryennes qui vivent dans l'étendue des pos
sessions Anglaises aux Indes, ou qui se trouvent sur les frontières de cet empire. Ce sont
les débris mutilés d'un monde dépourvu d'annales qui précéda la dispersion de la famille
Indo-Germanique. Les races ante-historiques succombèrent si complètement dans les plaines
de l'Hindustan sous les coups des envahisseurs Aryens qu'elles perdirent tout souvenir de
leur origine distincte comme peuple. Cependant, ainsi que j'ai essayé de le démontrer dans
mon livre intitulé Annals of Rural Bengal, ces races ont affecté d'une manière permanente le
langage, la religion et la destinée politique de l'agglomération composite d'Hindous qu'elles
concoururent à former en se fusionnant avec leurs vainqueurs. D'un autre côté elles
conservèrent leur nationalité intacte dans les montagnes et sur les plateaux élevés qui abondent
partout aux Indes ; et firent pendant des siècles une guerre incessante aux populations des
basses terres. Aryens, Affghans, et Mongols, les conquérants successifs de ce pays essayèrent
tour à tour de les exterminer. Ce sont ces races que les Anglais s'efforcent aujourd'hui de
rallier. Mais afin de leur donner les bienfaits de la civilisation, il est indispensable de les
comprendre. De là le présent volume qui, pour la première fois, met la race gouvernante en
rapports directs avec quatre-vingt millions de ses sujets et de ses voisins d'origine non-Aryenne.

Le but principal de mes recherches a donc été essentiellement pratique : toutefois j'ose
espérer qu'elles ne seront pas sans utilité au point de vue de la philologie. Cette science s'est
occupée jusqu'ici presqu' exclusivement des idiomes Indo-Germaniques et Semitiques, c'est à
dire du langage envisagé dans une seule de ses phases, et non pas la plus intéressante.
L'étude des langues non-Aryennes de l'Inde doit, j'en ai la conviction, aboutir au classement
d'un vaste résidu linguistique (si je puis m'exprimer ainsi) ; elle fournira les bases d'une
nouvelle science du langage, de même qu'il y a quatre-vingt ans l'étude de Sanscrit aux Indes
posa les fondements sur lesquels a été élevé le système de philologie qui a cours aujourd'hui.
Dans la dissertation suivante, j'ai fait remarquer avec soin les erreurs et les inexactitudes
probables de ce premier essai : j'espère pouvoir éliminer les unes dans une Grammaire
Comparative des langues non-Aryennes à laquelle je travaille en ce moment. J'abandonne
le reste à la générosité des savants qui ont pour leurs recherches ce loisir et cette connaissance
complète des principes scientifiques dont on ne saurait espérer de jouir lorsqu'on est plongé,
comme je le suis, au milieu des soucis de la vie officielle aux Indes.

Pour la commodité des savants d'Europe, mon vocabulaire est en Anglais, en Français,
en Allemand, en Russe, et en Latin. Les synonymes Français sont placés les premiers en
tête de chaque page, et à la fin du volume on trouvera un index des mots appartenant à
cette langue.
PR^EFATIO LATINA.

T N hoc libro linguas collexi tribuum et populorum, quot sanguinis Aryani non participes aut
imperio Britannico apud Indos subjecti sunt aut fines Britannicos accolunt. Monumenta
sunt, disjecta sane atque dispersa, temporis obscuri et neque per literas neque per hominum
memoriam noti, in quo nondum sede pristina diffuderat sesc stirps Indogermanica. In
campis quidem Hindusthaniae ita oppressae sunt ab immigrantibus Aryanis nationes, quae ibi
antea habitavcrant, ut generis diversitatem omnino oblitae sint : quamvis (quod in Annalibus
meis Agri Bengalensis dcmonstrare conatus sum) linguam, religionem, rei publicse speciem
apud Indos non minime affeccrint ; Indi enim e vincentium cum victis commixtione progeniti
sunt. Sed inter montes et campos cditiores, quales per Indiam undique exstant, immutati
reperiuntur indigenae generisque sinceri. Bellum per saecula cum populis campestribus gesserunt ;
neque ulli eorum, qui Indiam identidem debellaverunt, Aryani, Affghani, Moghulcnses, montanos
homines non exstirpare laboraverunt. Angli e contrario nostris temporibus ad cultum atque
humanitatem ducere student ; quod si facere posse volumus, linguas eorum prius intelligendum
est ; et primus in serie fastorum Indicorum liber meus quasi interpres in medium prodit inter
dominos terrae et octingenties centena millia hominum alienigenarum, qui cum Anglis seu
ditione seu vicinitate conjunguntur.

Finem igitur ad quem maxime contendi utilitas hodierna est, et maxime in rebus
civilibus ; sed valde spero aliquid Europaeae eruditioni contulisse. Hactenus vix nisi Unguis
Indogermanicis et Semiticis incubuit philologia ; quae tamen omnes unius generis sunt, neque
ejus, e quo quam plurimum disci potest. Per studium linguarum non Aryanarum porta, ut
credo, patebit in congeriem illam indigestam sermonis humani adhuc residui atque neglecti,
cujus ad novam scientiam transibimus, non aliter quam ad scientiam, quae nunc est, philo-
logicam per cognitionem linguae Sanscriticae ante octoginta annos admissi sumus. In dis-
putatione, quae subjecta est, crrores, quos suspicor, et vitia opcris rudis atque imperfecti
diligentissime exhibui : quorum aliqua tollere spero in Grammatica Comparativa sermonis non
Aryani, cui nunc intentus sum ; cetera viris doctis et aequis relinquo, qui tempore longiore
et scientia profundiore fruantur, quam inter distractiones civilium negotiorum ulli apud Indiam
competit

Quinque Unguis, ut commodo eruditorum Europaeorum inservirem, opus expressi,


Anglica, Gallica, Germanica, Russica, Latina. Quintum semper in capite paginarum stat
verbum Latinum ; et in fine operis indicem Latinum addidi ordine alphabetico exaratum.
S3ortr>ort

biefem 5Bua)e babe ia) bte <Spraa)en ber nicb>arifa)en <Stdmme unb 33o(fer aufammengefiettt, bie innerbalfc
beg brittifa)en 9teta)eg in Snbien ober an ben ©renjen beffelben wobnen. @g ftnb jerfireute 33rua)flu<fe jenei
bjflorifcb. nicbt »er$eia)neten 2Mt, wela)e ber 3«tfireuun8 ber tnbo*germanifa)en 9taee twberging. 2luf ben
©benen »on £inbofian fmb bte »orbifiorifa)en 9taeen ben arifa)en @roberern fo »ottfidnbig unterlegen, bag fic
jebe Srinnerung i^rer eigenen Slbfiammung »erforen ljaben. <Sie baben jeboa), wte ia) tn metnen Slnnafen bet
J5orfIanbfa)aften Sengaleng ju jeigen »erfua)te, auf bte @praa)e, bte 3teftgion unb bte flaatlta)e Sntmidelung
ber £tnbug, bte ang ber S3ermifa)ung jwifa)en ifcnen unb tbren (Jroberern bemrgegangen ftnb, etnen
bletbenben ©nflufj auggeiibt. Slber auf ben jablreia)en ©ebtrgen unb £oa)ebenen 3nbteng baben fte fta) tbrc
yiationalitat soUfMnbt'g erbalten unb mit ber 33e»6lferung be3 gladjlanbeg wdbrenb mebrerer ^abrbunbertc
fortwdbrenb firteg gefiibrt.
£)te lange 9ietbe tnbtfdjer Grroberer, Slrier, Slfgbanen unb bte ©rofjmogulg baben abwea)felnb auf bte
33ertilgung berfelben btngearbeitet.
£)ie ©ngldnber bemuben fta) jetjt fte fur ©eftttung empfdnglia) ju madjen, unb bura) bag gegentr-drtige
33ua) wtrb jum erflen Wale in ber ©efdjta)te 3nbieng bte unnttttelbare SBerfidnbtgung ber 6errfa)enben SRaee
mit aa)tj(tg SKiKionen tbrer mcfo>arifa)en Untertbanen unb 9iaa)barn angefirebt.
Dbttob( nun ber ^auptjwecE metner Unterfua)ungen ein rein praftifa)er war, barf ia) boa) ju»erfta)ttid>
boffen, bag biefeiben ber europdifa)en <5praa)forf4)iutg con einigem 9?utjen fetn merben. £>ie @praa)tt>iffenfa)aft
bat fta) bte fetjt fafi augfcbJtefjlia) urn bie tnbogermanifctyen unb bie femitifa)en @praa)en, unb jtt>ar in einem
einjeinen, fetnegwege? bem lebrreia)jien (Sntwidelung^©tabium berfelben befummert.
Dag ©tubiurn ber nia)t*arifa)en ©praa)en 3nbteng ifi meineg £>afurbalteng baju befiimmt, bag reia)e
noa) iibrige @praa)material ju erfa)Iie£en unb bie ©runblage einer neuen @praa)wi|fenfa)aft abjugeben in
eben ber SBeife, tme »or aa)tjig 3<*^ren bag ©anffritfhtbium in 3nbien bie 23aftg liefette, auf wela)er bag
jetjtge ©pradjenfyfiem beru&t. 3n ber folgenben Slbbanblung babe ia) bie SKdngel unb etwaigen Ungenau^
igfeiten btefeg @runbrtffeg forgfdltig angegeben.
©inige berfelben boffe ta) in einer »erg(eia)enben ©rammattf ber nia)t*arifa)en @praa)en, mit beren
2lugarbeitung ia) jetjt befa)dftigt bin, ju befeitigen.
25ag Uebrtge tiberlaffe ia) ber ntilben Seurtbetlung ber <S»raa)forfa)er, bie mit mebr SJZufje unb
firengerer SBtffenfa)afHia)feit arbeiten, a(g man fta) unter ben 33erufggefa)dften beg 33eamtenlebeng in ^nt>ien
»erfa)affen fann.
3um beqitemeren ©ebraua) fur europdifa)e @praa)freunbe tfi ben @nglifa)en SBortern eine granjojtfa)e,
Deutfa)e, 9tuffifa)e unb ?atetnifa)e Xleberfetjung beigegeben. $n bem dolumnentttel fiebt jebe^mal bag beutfa)e
2Bort ju imit, unb am @nbe beg 33anbeg beftnbet jta) ein alpbabetifa)eg beutfa)eg SBerjeicbjufj.

UPEABCJOBIE.

Bs omou mum eo6pami Mhojo k3mku ne-apianeKuxs napodoes u nJUMem, oKiwymuxs es AhiM-undrbUekoMZ
ioeydapemeib u.iu ha ipanuifaxs eio. JJibM sKe eeeio mpyda u3Motcena Mhojo nodpodno es MmunekoMs u hibMei^koMr,
npedueMsixxe ks ueMy, a oum6ku, KomoprnMs nodeepoKenz mmoio poda mpyds, ym3ami es pa3eyoKdeniu, neno-
epedemeehuo eJObdywwfiMs 3a npedue.ioeieMs. ydo6emea pyeemxs mtmame.teu, eeepxy Mema, enpaea aaoKdaio
ahUtUeKtuo cioea, noMibWfim eio pyeemu euhohuMs, ebipaoKenmiu .tamuheKuMu 6yKeaMu «a ekomko mo 603Mookho
6.iu3ko npu pa3hoemu a36yKs ; ks kontff okc mum npuMoteem a.ig3aeumimu yKa3ameM uxs.
CONTENTS.

PART I.—DISSERTATION.

I. Political, .......... i

II. Linguistic, ........... 16

III. General Conclusions, ......... 30

IV. Acknowledgments, . . . . . . . . . . 31

PART II.—DICTIONARY.

PRONOMINALS.
CHAP.
I. Numerals— One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten, twenty, thirty, forty,
fifty, hundred, .......... 33-47

II. Pronouns—I, thou, he, she, it, we, you, they, mine, thine, his, our, your, their, this, that,
which (rel.), who ? what ? anybody, anything, ...... 48-66

III. Adverbs and Particles, in alphabetical order, ...... 67-103

ROOTS.

IV. Nouns, in alphabetical order, ........ 104-166

V. Adjectives, in alphabetical order, . . . . . . . .167-194

VI. Verbs, in alphabetical order, ......... 1 95-2 1 8

APPENDIX.

I. English Index, .......... 220


II. French Index, . . . . . . • • ■ 22 1

III. German Index, .......... 222

IV. Russian Index, . . . . . . . • • • 223

V. Latin Index, .......... 224

f
NOTAND A.

TRANSLITERATION.

a = u as in eut ; d = a as in eard,
i = ee as in meet ; i = ee as in thee,
u = oo as in boot; u = oo as in

SIGNS.

Dual ('); Plural (1); Dual Inclusive (3); Dual Exclusive (*); Plural Inclusive (5); Plural Exclusive (*).
In Mag>'ar, Turkish, Circassian, or Georgian, an asterisk (*) attached to a word indicates that it is
obtained from the ' Gentium Boreo-Orientalium Vulgo Tartarorum Harmonia Linguarum,' appended to
' A Deseription of the Northern and Eastern Parts of Europe and Asia, written in High German by
Philip John von Strahlenberg, a Swedish officer, thirteen years captive in those parts,' 4to, 1736, 463 pp.
An author not always trustworthy.
In Mongol and Mantshu an asterisk (*) indicates the same thing. The sign + marks an Ostiak
word used by the tribes of the river Irtisch in Siberia ; % marks Samoyedic words in use among the
peoples living between the Yenesei and the Lena ; § marks Tungusic words spoken by the races of
the Tingus valley in Siberia ; || indicate Tungusic or Lamuti words of Kamschatka.
DISSERTATION.

I.— POLITICAL.

A T the close of each year the British Governors of India deliver an account
of the provinces entrusted to their care. Their reports are mainly occupied
with internal measures, and form monuments of sagacious humanity and the national
genius for rule, which no Englishman can contemplate without patriotic pride. But
from amid these records of the consolidation of long hostile races into a harmonious
empire, one chapter stands out in painful contrast. It is the section which refers
to the hill and forest peoples who surround the frontier and inhabit the interior
table-lands and mountain ranges of India. No sooner does the narrative enter on
this topic, than its whole spirit changes. The deliberate civil strength and calm
knowledge which regulate the action of English Governors towards the population
of the plains, give place to fitful and violent exertions of armed force. Calculations
from ascertained social causes and effects are seldom attempted ; the issues of any
measure can never be foretold : the only policy discernible is a policy of emergen
cies ; and in place of the sedate forbearance towards the prejudices and weaknesses
of the people, little appears save mutual indignation, outrages, reprisals, and a
perpetual probability that each cold season will have its highland rising or frontier
war.
General statements are feeble when particular illustrations abound. It matters
little which province is cited. No population ever made more rapid progress in all
that renders life secure, and in all that renders life worth having, than the people
of Lower Bengal between i860 and 1865; and the frontier history of this part
of India is certainly not more unsatisfactory than that of its neighbours. The
Administration Report for 1860-61 records our dealings with four hill races, two
of them situated far within the British boundary. The narrative opens with
'outrages perpetrated on British subjects by the people of Sikhim;' the second
section is devoted to military operations against the Kukis ; the third to military
operations against the Garrows ; the fourth relates the sequel of the previous
season's military operations against the Cossyahs and Jynteahs. These form the
entire record of our intercourse with the hill tribes during the year. But indeed
the bare titles of the chapters—titles given, it must be remembered, by an official
pen—speak with sufficient clearness as to the character of our administration of the
2 DISSERTATION. [I.—POLITICAL

highland races. The report for 1861-62 contains six short chapters. The first
is headed, 'The Cossyah Rebellion;' the second, 'Riot in Nowgong;' the third,
' Excitement in the Sonthal Districts ;' the fourth, ' Disturbances in Sumbulpore ; '
the fifth, ' Disturbances in Boad ;' the sixth, ' Booteah Aggressions.' The report
for 1862-63 again leads off with ' The Cossyah Rebellion,' and is occupied by the
invariable record of outrages and armed pacifications. Next year a lull occurred,
but the British power received insults which could be wiped out only by a costly
and sanguinary war. The report of 1864-65 accordingly opens with the Bhutan
expedition,—an expedition memorable for its disasters not less than for its ultimate
triumph ; the next section relates a raid into British territory by Tibetans ; the third
is taken up with a narrative of murder and abduction in British territory by
Nepalese ; the fourth, with disturbances in Munipur ; the fifth is headed ' Naga
Raids ; ' the sixth, ' Garrow Outrages.'
Similar scenes repeat themselves with more or less frequency in every
mountainous region of India. The wisdom of British administrators in managing
the Hindus and Mussalmans of the plains, seems everywhere turned into folly when
dealing with the hill and forest tribes. These tribes approach or exceed two
hundred in number ; but an impartial historian could not review our intercourse
with more than one of them with unmixed pride. It was once customary to lay
the blame of our failure on the races themselves ; and, without doubt, tribes so far
removed from us in their social necessities, habits of thought, and motives of action,
are more difficult to deal with than a population which has so much in common
with ourselves as the Hindus. Many of the hill races have approved themselves
faithful allies, brave soldiers, and peaceful subjects under British rule ; and the
administrators who know them most intimately, speak most enthusiastically of their
manliness and love of truth. But in their political dealings with us, the element
of certainty is always wanting. Individual officers can safely rely on them, but
the Government cannot ; and no length of contented industry or loyal service
furnishes a guarantee against sudden risings which cover whole districts with flames.
Indian administrators have accordingly become accustomed to accept the hill
races as mysteries, and to look upon their movements, necessities, and animosities,
as things beyond the range of political knowledge. But the essence of mystery
consists in presenting the effect and concealing the cause. In dealing with the
highland tribes, the English have constantly to witness startling results, whose
reasons they are unable to perceive. The power of observing and interpreting
social indications, by which officers rise to places of trust on the plains, finds no
material to act upon among the mountaineers ; and frontier administrators are selected
less for the qualities which anticipate and avert danger, than for the ready intre
pidity which disarms it. The truth is, the English have studied and understand the
lowland population as no conquerors ever studied or understood a subject race.
I.—POLITICAL.] DISSERTATION. 6

Their history, their habits, their requirements, their very weaknesses and prejudices
are known, and furnish a basis for those political inductions, which, under the
titles of administrative foresight and timely reform, meet popular movements half
way. The East India Company grudged neither honours nor solid rewards to any
meritorious effort to illustrate the peoples whom it ruled. Such efforts led to a series
of discoveries which have rolled back the horizon of human knowledge, and brought
out in clear relief the ethnical revolutions of a prehistoric world. They have
proved that the population of India mainly consists of that Aryan or noble stock
which has radiated from Persia to America and Australasia, and is now nearly
co-extensive with civilised mankind. At an early period, it became known that
another element had entered into the composition of the Indian people ; but an
ignoble element, destitute of letters, of historical relationship, of religious conceptions,
of all that renders the study of a race attractive, and for the most part buried away
in forests fatal to European life. The very lustre of Aryan discoveries threw the
non-Aryan peoples of India into a deeper shade. Practical usefulness and the
gloss of fashion were for once on the same side ; and European scholars crowded
into a field in which every honest seeker might hope to find some ore, and kept
aloof from pursuits in which they could look for little sympathy, and from which
they expected no results. While a new science was being erected on the basis
furnished by Sanskrit speech, the languages and the very names of the non-
Aryan races remained unknown, and Government very properly kept its liberality
for those studies which promised most fruit. Every year saw some research into
Indo-Aryan history or speech munificently assisted ; but during the whole history
of the East India Company, it is impossible to adduce a single effort to illustrate
the non-Aryan tribes which received efficient support. Until very lately, and per
haps even still, before a man devotes himself to these races, he must make up his
mind not merely to dedicate his private fortune to researches which yield no fame,
but also to separate himself from the great sympathetic stream of European
scholarship.
The practical result now appears. English administrators understand the
Aryan, and are almost totally ignorant of the non-Aryan, population of India.
They know with remarkable precision how a measure will be received by the
higher or purely Aryan ranks of the community ; they can foresee with less
certainty its effect upon the lower or semi-Aryan classes ; but they neither know
nor venture to predict the results of any line of action among the non-Aryan
tribes. Political calculations are impossible without a knowledge of the people.
But the evil does not stop here. In the void left by ignorance, prejudice has
taken up its seat; and the calamity of the non-Aryan races is not merely that they
are not understood, but that they are misrepresented. We have gathered our notions
concerning them from their immemorial enemies. Nothing can be conceived in a
4 DISSERTATION. [I.—POLITICAL.

more malignant spirit, than the epithets which ancient Sanskrit writers apply to them.
The Brahminical religion has ever treated them as outcasts, hateful to gods and
men ; and this traditional and superstitious abhorrence is kept in a glow by the
actual necessities of the superior race. The Hindus are an increasing, and conse
quently an encroaching people. Their advances have to be made at the expense
of the hill and forest tribes ; and Aryan aggressiveness, mercantile or territorial, has
been found to lie at the bottom of almost every non-Aryan rising whose causes
have been carefully ascertained. Indian history, indeed, is one long monotonous
recital of how the children of the soil have been driven deeper and deeper into
the wilds. On the one side is contemptuous detestation, on the other sullen fury ;
yet frontier investigators have constantly to accept the slanders of the wrong-doers
as their sole evidence touching- the motives and character of the wronged. What
sort of a notion should we arrive at of the Hindus, if our only data had to be
gathered among the aborigines ? Of most of these unhappy tribes we have not a
single portraiture by an impartial hand. The Indian newspapers catch and spread
the infection. On more than one occasion, English journalists have so far for
gotten their characteristic tenderness to the fallen, as to insult the despairing
bravery of hill tribes, to speak of a peasantry fighting for its homesteads as ' adult
tigers,' and to propose, as a cure for well-grounded disaffection, the deportation
across the seas of a whole race. Within the last fourteen years, Christian gentle
men have penned articles breathing a spirit scarcely less tolerant than that in which
the early Sanskrit singers depicted the forest tribes as black, noseless demons, of
squat stature, and inarticulate speech.
The strongest proofs of our ignorance of the non-Aryan races, however, are
to be found in the works of non-Aryan scholars. I shall cite two writers of
unquestionable ability, with regard to whom my remarks cannot be misconstrued
into hostile criticism. An admirable lecture, delivered in 1852 before the Royal
Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, stated that a survey officer had 'lately
discovered another tribe called Sonthals.' This newly found tribe, it should be
observed, had occupied over thirty thousand square miles of British territory during
more than half a century, numbered about two million people, had given new
land-tenures to adjoining districts, and sent forth colonies to the north and to the
east, one of which paid .£6803, in the single item of rent, to the British treasury
in 1854, and contained at the period of their 'discovery' 82,795 souls. Yet the
lecturer was perfectly accurate in speaking of this race—a race equal to the whole
rural population of Scotland—as having just been brought to light. Four years
later, this unknown race, goaded by wrongs which their English rulers had long
failed to understand, and therefore neglected to redress, burst down upon the plains,
and during five memorable months devastated the western districts with fire and
sword. As soon as order was restored, their complaints were inquired into, and
I.—POLITICAL.] DISSERTATION. 5

found to be just. A new system was inaugurated, and they have ever since been
the most contented of British subjects. A year ago, the sister society in Bengal
put forth an elaborate volume, which endeavoured to bring together all that is
known about the non-Aryan peoples. With regard to many of them, scarcely
anything appears but their names. Of one important tribe—the Gonds of Bustar and
the adjoining countries—the conscientious writer says : ' We know very little except
that they are extreme savages—black, ugly, barbarous, and dangerous.' Another—
the Kherrias, whose very name, as will subsequently appear, is pregnant with
information—are declared to be 'a mystery even to Colonel Dalton,' the most
laborious investigator which that section of the aborigines has had.
But while learned men admit and deplore the absence of information, there is
a class of writers who are not content to plead ignorance. If Government orders
a report on the causes of a frontier raid, a report must be compiled. British officers,
however, are scarcely ever able to converse with the offending tribes : no dictionary
of their languages has been published, and all that can be found out about
them comes through their natural enemies, the Aryan borderers. Extravagant
calumnies thus attain to the dignity of State Papers, and are copied from one
report into another. The more malignant and striking the caricature, the surer it
is of a wide circulation, till, gradually gaining probability by unquestioned iteration,
it becomes the materials by which our official dealings are regulated, and on which
our political estimate is formed. When it is possible to place such reports side by
side by the truth, the result is merely ludicrous ; but it is not always possible to
do so. And for one calumny that can thus be rendered harmless, a hundred wander
forth unrefuted, poisoning public opinion, drying up our natural charity, and, it is
to be feared, warping the British policy towards whole races.
It is an invidious, although unfortunately easy, task to select particular
instances. In 1854 a long series of misunderstandings and more or less mutual
grievances culminated in a war with Bhutan. Here is the official account of the
unfortunate race whom it was then found necessary to encounter, and whose
untrained valour repelled for a time the resources of civilised war. The descrip
tion is a sufficiently striking one, and had been transcribed from one Report
into another three times before it reached the State Paper from which I excerpt
it. The interjections are its own. It sets out by stigmatizing the Bhuteas as
' very quarrelsome and unsociable, as will be seen from their huts being isolated',
forgetting that the barrenness of the hills and the necessities of hunting-tribes
render large villages oh the Hindu plan impracticable. ' They are a very revenge
ful and sly race, seldom forgetting a wrong done them ; the greatest cheats and
the most barefaced liars, I may safely say, in India ! Morality is not named
among them : men and women occupy the same apartment ; after a day's work
they assemble around one fire, with a large basin full of murwa (a spirituous
6 DISSERTATION. [I.— POLITICAL.

liquor made from the grain of the same name), which they suck up through narrow-
bamboo tubes, and eventually all fall about drunk, from the child to the grandsire,
unable to rise till the following morning. The women seldom remain true to their
husbands. They generally go from one to another, leaving the children, if there
are any, with the father ! ' For this extraordinary picture the colours were mixed,
we may be sure, by a lowlander's hand.
It happens that this race is one of those on whom the light of Mr. Brian
Hodgson's scholarship has glanced. He discriminates between two branches of
the same family ; the one considerably advanced in civilisation, the other still rude.
With regard to the latter he thus sums up : ' They are, in fact, not noxious, but
helpless ; not vicious, but aimless, both morally and intellectually ; so that one cannot
without distress behold their careless, unconscious inaptitude.' Let the reader
contrast this touching portraiture of the wildest of the unreclaimed tribes, with the
above uncritical denunciation of the whole Bhutea stock ; and from its successful
calumnies on a people who have formed an object of anxious scrutiny during many
years, let him judge of the bold flights of malignancy that are safely ventured upon
in delineations of less known races.
Thus ignorance begets misrepresentation, and misrepresentation brings forth
bitter political fruits. The non-Aryan element, moreover, is not confined to the
hills and forests; it enters largely into the composition of the people of the plains,
in some places preponderating over the Aryan, and everywhere forming a thick
solid substratum on which the Hindu population rests. Of the lowland aborigines,
where they have preserved their nationality, prandial slavery until recently formed
the almost universal fate. In some parts of Southern India the intolerant provi
sions of Manu receive effect at the present day ; and the aboriginal castes continue
to live apart with their dogs and asses on the outskirts of the village, forbidden to
pollute its streets with their processions or their dwellings, or to build any habitation
less humble than a thatched mud hut. But in general the non-Aryans of the
plains have merged in the composite community ; and in my A nnals of Rural
Bengal I have endeavoured, at considerable length, to exhibit the ethnical
compromises to which the Aryan element has had to submit, and to illustrate the
permanent influence of the aboriginal races on the speech, the religion, the social
institutions, and the political destinies of the modern Hindus. It has been my
fortune to be brought in several capacities into unusually close contact with both
the pure and the mixed non-Aryan population. As an officer for several years
upon an ethnical frontier, I was deeply impressed with the almost imperceptible
gradations by which the acknowledged non-Aryans of the highlands slid into the
low-caste Hindus of the plain. When in charge of the treasury, I had means of
learning that the hill races have affected the relation of landlord and tenant in the
lowlands to an extent that has not even been conjectured ; and that non-Aryan
I.—POLITICAL.] DISSERTATION. 7

ideas of property, never recognised by the rulers, but immoveably rooted in the
masses of Lower Bengal, had seethed and agitated, and irresistibly worked their
way upwards, till they impressed themselves on our most conspicuous piece of rural
legislation. As a magistrate, I came in contact with prejudices and traditional
convictions, which, however unfounded they may seem to us, nevertheless amount
to a sense of duty, and supply motives of action to millions of British subjects ;
prejudices and convictions for which English criminal justice makes no allowance,
yet which, as I shall show, sometimes affect English officers with a sense almost
of sickness in administering the law. But it was when in charge of a jail on the
ethnical frontier that I really learned of what the Bengali people is made up. In
that little captive community each class found itself amply represented. Of four
hundred prisoners, one-fourth came from the adjacent highlands, and brought with
them the customs, superstitions, and speech of an aboriginal race. The main
body consisted of the mixed semi-Aryan Hindus, from the low-caste which eats
offal, to the husbandman who in meats and drinks walks after the pattern of the
straitest Pundit. Brahmans formed the residue, and illustrated the various grada
tions in even the purely Aryan element. Men's characters come out in jail as
they do on a long voyage ; and the not unkindly relations between the prisoners
and their non-resident head who sometimes shields them from the harshness of
subordinates, whose tempers are tried and whose humanity is impaired by the
details of prison discipline, brought me into contact with a hidden world of thought,
feeling, and motive, which the ordinary intercourse of life would never have
enabled me to reach. Subsequently, in a distant part of the province, it was my
office to watch over the emigrants to the tea districts. Every week, bands of
hill-men, driven by hunger from the western frontier, embarked for plantations in
the extreme north-east. They represented the overflowings of many races, and
brought with them tales of disease and chronic starvation, to which their faces
and bodies bore touching proof. Still later, when superintending Public Instruction
in the south-western division of Bengal, I found that our efforts obtained an
adequate success only in the lowland districts. I have had an opportunity of
comparing these efforts with the working of State Education in France and Prussia ;
and I am convinced that the Indian scheme is inferior, neither in its organization
nor in its fruits, to the model systems of Europe, while it possesses a single-
mindedness and an elasticity all its own. It performs as a solemn obligation a
function that has never entered into the ideas or touched the conscience of any
other conquering race. It sacrifices nothing of its educational efficiency to political
purposes ; it is looked upon by neither the rulers nor the people as an engine of
government, but keeps itself with cold dignity to its own proper work, and is at
this moment increasing by one-third the civilised world. In the Hindu districts,
every important village or considerable collection of homesteads has, or will soon
8 DISSERTATION. [l.—POLITICAL.

have, an aided school. But within half a day's march beyond the ethnical frontier
the scene changes : Government schools can hardly be planted, except in the local
capitals, where colonies of Hindu officials and traders have sprung up ; and unpaid
missionary zeal forms the only educational channel by which the State has found
it possible to reach the aboriginal masses. In short, the population of India
everywhere divides itself into classes : the preponderating Hinduized section
including the whole upper and middle ranks in lowland provinces, with whose
languages, habits, and necessities we are perfectly familiar, and to whom British
rule is an unmixed blessing ; and the aboriginal or semi-aboriginal residue, who
form a dense unpenetrated substratum among the population of the plains and the
sole inhabitants of mountainous or forest regions, — a residue of whose speech,
feelings, and wants we know nothing, whom the English imagination has not yet
reached, and for whom the security and prosperity of British rule have, by removing
the previous checks on population, only intensified the struggle for life.
Yet these unrealized races have capabilities, both for good and for evil, which
it is impossible to overlook. For ages they have formed a difficulty which each suc
ceeding Government of India has been forced to face, and which no Government has
been able to get rid of. The Mussalmans dealt with them as with wild beasts,
but they have a tenacity to existence which wild beasts do not possess ; and the one
sorrowful lesson of their history is, that they cannot be exterminated. The most
that the Company hoped for, was to keep them quiet ; with what success, let the
narrative of our dealings with any one among their races, or the events of any single
year, attest. The problem which the Queen's Government in India is now called
upon to solve, is to utilize them. From time to time, isolated administrators,
touched by their miseries and rude virtues, have laboured to acquire their languages
and to understand their wants ; but such knowledge has hitherto been the property
of individuals, and has too often died with its possessors. Even when committed
to paper, their researches remain buried in the Government archives, or form
scattered and scarcely accessible monographs in the proceedings of learned societies.
This book endeavours to render these perishable hoards of individuals the permanent
property of the Government, and to place what have hitherto been matters of recondite
scholarship, at the disposal of every Indian missionary or administrator who wishes
honestly to do his work.
Although we are chiefly acquainted with the non-Aryan peoples as frontier
marauders and rebels, their capabilities for good are not unascertained. During
the struggle between the worn-out Sanskrit civilisation and the impetuous prime
of Islam, the Hindus discovered the value of the aboriginal races. Many chiefs of
noble Aryan blood maintained their independence by such alliances ; others founded
new kingdoms among the forest peoples. To this day some of the tribes exhibit a
black original section living side by side with a fair-skinned composite kindred sprung
I. —POLITICAL.] DISSERTATION. 9

from the refugees ; and the most exalted Hindu princes have to submit to a curious
aboriginal rite on their accession to the throne. It was stated before the Royal
Asiatic Society in 1852, that the investiture of the Rajput Rajah of Nerwar is
not complete, till one of his purely aboriginal subjects, a Mina, paints a round
spot on his forehead with blood freshly drawn from the toe of another Mina.
Without this formal recognition, his non-Aryan subjects could not be depended
upon ; when once it has been performed, their fidelity has never been known to
waver. They form the treasury and palace guards, hold the personal safety of
the prince entirely in their hands, and supply the sole escort to whom he entrusts
the honour of his daughters when they go abroad. The Ranah of Udaypur, cited
by General Briggs as the highest in rank of all the Hindu sovereigns in India,
renders the same homage, however ill it may comport with his caste and personal
dignity, to the traditions of his aboriginal subjects. Before he ascends the throne, his
forehead must first be marked with the blood of a Bhil. The Hinduized chieftains
of Central India receive investiture by the blood of a pure Kol ; and so strong a
hold has this ceremony on the minds of the people, that among the Cheris—once
a great tribe, who defended themselves with honour against Shere Shah and the
Imperial army, now reduced to five or six families—the head of the little
community is still installed under the title of Rajah, with the token of the round
spot of warm aboriginal blood.
But it is not the Hindus alone that have proved the loyalty of these neglected
races. Scarcely a single administrator has ruled over them for any length of time,
without finding his prejudices conquered, and his heart softened, and leaving on
record his sorrow for their present condition, and his belief in their capabilities
for good. But lest the traditional tenderness of the Indian Civil Service to the
people should weaken the testimony of such witnesses, I shall quote only the words
of soldiers—words publicly uttered and printed by veteran servants of the Company
or Crown, and never contradicted or impugned. ' They are faithful, truthful, and
attached to their superiors,' writes General Briggs ; ' ready at all times to lay down
their lives for those they serve, and remarkable for their indomitable courage.
These qualities have been always displayed in our Service. The aborigines of the
Carnatic were the Sepoys of Clive and of Coote. A few companies of the same
stock joined the former great captain from Bombay, and fought the battle of
Plassey in Bengal, which laid the foundation of our Indian empire. They have
since distinguished themselves in the corps of pioneers and engineers, not only in
India, but in Ava, in Affghanistan, and in the celebrated defence of Jelalabad. An
unjust prejudice against them has grown up in the armies of Madras and Bombay,
where they have done best service, produced by the feelings of contempt for
them existing among the Hindu and Mahomedan troops. They have no prejudices
themselves, are always ready to serve abroad and embark on board ship ; and I
IO DISSERTATION. [I.—POLITICAL.

believe no instance of mutiny has ever occurred among them.' Colonel Dixon's
report, published by the Court of Directors, portrays their character with admirable
minuteness. He dilates on their ' fidelity, truth, and honesty,' their determined
valour, their simple loyalty, and an extreme and almost touching devotion when
put upon their honour. Strong as is the bond of kindred among the Mirs, he
vouches for their fidelity in guarding even their own relatives as prisoners when
formally entrusted to their care. For centuries they had been known only as
exterminators ; but beneath the considerate handling of one Englishman who
honestly set about understanding them, they became peaceful subjects and well-
disciplined soldiers. To the honour of British administrators be it said, the same
transformation has taken place in many a remote forest of India ; and I fear that,
in pleading for the universal and systematic adoption of the policy which has pro
duced such brilliant isolated results, I may have too sparingly acknowledged many
noble individual efforts. Every military man who has had anything to do with the
aboriginal races, admits that once they admit a claim on their allegiance, nothing
tempts them to a treacherous or disloyal act. ' The fidelity to their acknowledged
chief/ writes Captain Hunter, ' is very remarkable ; and so strong is their
attachment, that in no situation or condition, however desperate, can they be
induced to betray him. If old and decrepid, they will carry him from place to
place, to save him from his enemies.' Their obedience to recognised authority is
absolute ; and Colonel Tod relates how the wife of an absent chieftain procured
for a British messenger safe-conduct and hospitality through the densest forests, by
giving him one of her husband's arrows as a token. The very officers who have
had to act most sharply against them, speak most strongly, and often not without
a noble regret and self-reproach, in their favour. ' It was not war,' Major Vincent
Jervis thus writes to me of the operations against the race with which I am best
acquainted, ' they did not understand yielding ; as long as their national drums beat,
the whole party would stand, and allow themselves to be shot down. . . . There was
not a Sepoy in the war who did not feel ashamed of himself. The prisoners were
for the most part wounded men. They upbraided us with fighting against them ;
they always said it was with the Bengalis they were at war, not with the English.
If a single Englishman had been sent to them who understood their wrongs, and
would have redressed them, they declared there would have been no war. It is
not true that they used poisoned arrows. They were the most truthful set of
men I ever met.'
But why heap up evidence of experts touching a race whose virtues, like their
defects, lie on the surface, and are noted in the diaries and itineraries of every
passer-by. Bishop Heber knew nothing of their language or their history ; but their
martial openness, their manliness, their skill as archers, and their habitual bearing
of arms, could not escape him ; and his imagination, hitting the political truth
t.—POLITICAL.] DISSERTATION.

of their position nearer than the scholarship of that day divined, carried him
back to Robin Hood and the forest communities who stood out against alien
encroachments in the oaken fastnesses of England.
The solution of the problem has ceased to be optional. The order and
security which the Queen's Government in India has now imperiously imposed,
have done away with those cruel checks upon population which seem to be
natural and necessary among rude nations. A lowland raid used to be an
event which came as punctually as the December harvest ; the whole tribe
lived at the expense of their neighbours during the cold weather, and the
loss of life incident to the annual holiday rendered their own scanty crops
sufficient for the survivors during the rest of the year. But all this has now
come to an end. Raids, although frequent, have ceased to be either a means
of regular profit, or a drain upon the population steady enough to be depended
upon. The people, therefore, are increasing, while their former means of sub
sistence have diminished; and the question of some systematic scheme of dealing
with the aboriginal races has been removed from the languid domain of specu
lation, into the reddened arena in which political necessity and the promptings
of self-preservation do their pitiless work.
The remedies are two-fold. The first consists in supplying the place of
the old sources of subsistence by new ones ; the second, in enabling the people
themselves to augment the productiveness of such of the old means of sub
sistence as remain to them.
I believe that, in attempting to apply the first remedy, the British are
yet destined to find a solution for the two great difficulties of their position in
India. Their first difficulty is a military one. A vast native army has to be
maintained, and this army must be watched by another army with different
interests and of a distinct race. The whole burden of supplying the surveillance
at present rests upon the population of the British islands,—a population scarcely
one-eighth of the Indian people, separated from India by the width of the globe,
and by the repugnance which a northern nation has to exile in the tropics ;
above all, a population who have so much assured comfort and so many

avenues to distinction in civil life, as to render military service distasteful.


The difficulty will increase to a yet unsuspected intensity, as the effects of
co-operation among the lower classes, and of the present tendency of public
opinion to a more democratic tone of government, begin to tell. Englishmen
will never be wanting in the hour of England's need ; but the dull work of
holding India will continue, in spite of improvements in the condition of the
soldier, to render the army more and more unpopular with working men. From
this difficulty the aboriginal tribes of India hold out a means of relief. In
interest, in race, in religion, in habits of life, they are cut off from the Hindus and
12 DISSERTATION. [I.—POLITICAL.

Mussalmans by a gulf of whose breadth the people of Christian States can form no
idea ; and their ethnical repugnance is kept in a constant glow by the remembrance
of ancient wars and recent wrongs. Sooner would the panther of their native
forests herd with the fox of the lowlands, than the hill-men join with the Mussalmans
or Hindus. Of the valour of many of their tribes, and that unquestioning fidelity
and capacity for discipline which are the raw materials of soldiership, there is no
question. It is not needful to add other testimonies to the opinions of the
distinguished officers already cited ; for the part played by the aboriginal troops
during the mutiny is fresh in every Indian statesman's memory. The brilliant
actions of Cleveland's Hill Rangers, until enervated by disuse and want of discipline,
are matters of history. One of their races, the Bangis, long claimed the honour of
leading the forlorn hope in Mussalman sieges. As a military police, they are said
to have proved invaluable in Mirwar, Candeish, and wherever they have been
employed ; and any magistrate in Bengal would rather meet a jail outbreak with a
company of Mongolian-cheeked, squat Goorkas, than with a regiment of the
tallest and highest caste Sepoys.
It is not as if the experiment had not been tried. It has been tried again
and again, and has always succeeded ; but routine and our ignorance of the
aboriginal races have stood in the way of its systematic application. By extensively
employing these tribes as a military police and as soldiers, we should not only
relieve the English population of a burden greater than it can permanently bear,
but we should offer a livelihood to brave predatory peoples, whom the stern order
of British rule has deprived of an important source of subsistence. Their position
presents a striking analogy to that of the Scottish Highlanders at the Revolution.
A vast reservoir of warlike energy is constantly overflowing on a peaceful low
land people; energy which must find vent in some shape, and which has either
to be directed against the Government or utilized by it. During three hundred
years, says Hill Burton, the philosophical historian of Scotland, the Stuarts had
waged a war of extermination against the mountaineers in vain ; to the present
dynasty belongs the glory of converting bands of marauders into those disciplined
battalions which have reaped honour on every English battle-field during nearly
two centuries. The same problem has to be solved for the aboriginal races of
India. Their military capacity and energy are undisputed : the only question is,
whether this capacity and energy are to be to England a source of weakness
or of strength.
The second difficulty of our position in India is a mercantile one. The
division of the population into labourers and employers has not taken the trenchant
and uncompromising form that it has in England. Sparsely inhabited frontier
provinces cannot be peopled from the lowland population, nor can public works of
great size be accomplished by them. The aboriginal races supply the want of a
t.—political.] DISSERTATION. 13

large labouring class among the Hindus. It is they who have constructed our
railways, and who are at this moment creating, in tea cultivation, a new source of
wealth to India, and a new field for English capital, whose magnitude it is
impossible even yet to foresee.
The other means of ameliorating the condition of the non- Aryan tribes,
consists in enabling them to augment the legitimate sources of subsistence which
remain to them ; in one word, to civilise them. For ages they have been unsettled
predatory peoples, despising peaceful industry among themselves, and living as
much as possible on the peaceful industry of their neighbours. The opportunities
for depredation have ceased, but the contempt for steady industry remains. I do
not permit myself even to glance at those noble and touching arguments which
humanity and the Christian faith suggest for the reclamation of lapsed races. But
looking upon the question as one of purely political utility, it seems that in the
aboriginal peoples it is possible to find a counterpoise for the great Indian races
to whom British rule is at best alien sway. The Hindus regard our accession but as
a change of masters ; the Mussalmans hate us as conquerors, if not as tyrants. To
the aboriginal races alone can we appear in the light of friends and deliverers.
They have yet to start on the path of progress. It remains for us to decide
whether that path is to lead them to Hinduism, or to the purer faith and civilisation
which we represent. Even in their superstitions there is special ground for hope.
Anything like conversion per saltum, or on a large scale, need not be looked for
among races possessed of religious systems so venerable and so nicely adjusted to
human instincts as Hinduism and Islam are to the Aryans and Mussalmans of
India. We cannot reasonably hope to be the deus ex maehina to peoples with
such august supernal contrivances of their own. But the hill tribes are still in
want of everything. Before the conservative inertia of Hinduism, the life of the
most earnest Englishman is neither more nor less than a single wave that breaks
upon the shore. But from the days of Cleveland downwards, every frontier of
India can show some tribe whose destiny has been changed by the energy of
individual British administrators. New crops, new villages, new habits, a new
mode of life, and bloody rites exchanged for harmless social gatherings,—these are
the memorials that any zealous Englishman may hope to leave of his labours
among a forest people ; and if we glance for a moment at that more solemn side
of the human destiny which Indian administrators wisely regard beyond their
province, there are instances of little aboriginal communities accepting Christianity
in a body, as a protection against witchcraft and those implacable demons whom
their fathers had for ages endeavoured to appease with human life.
Our present ignorance of their notions and necessities, and their corresponding
inability to understand our system of justice, lead to scenes which no Englishman
can contemplate without sorrow. I cite only one instance. The same dread of
DISSERTATION. [t.—POLITICAL..

witchcraft which in skilful hands makes converts of whole villages, leads to the
most appalling outrages. In 1857 the Ho tribes determined to purge themselves
of the witches and sorcerers who had grown numerous under our rule. ' The
destruction of human life that ensued,' says the official report, ' is too terrible to
contemplate. Whole families were put an end to. In some instances, the destroyers,
issuing forth in the dusk, and commencing with the denounced wizard and his
household, went from house to house, until before the morning dawn they had
succeeded in extinguishing, as they thought, the whole race.' For a massacre like
this, perpetrated in a settled British district, scarcely a hundred and fifty miles
from Calcutta, our system of justice could admit no palliative pleas ; but the
evident good faith and pitiable ignorance of the criminals almost unnerved the
officers of the law. ' The work of retribution was a sad task,' wrote Mr. Justice
Campbell eight years later, ' but it was rigorously carried out. It was melancholy
to have to condemn men who themselves artlessly detailed every incident of the
crime with which they were charged.'
But if our criminal system is sometimes harsh to the aboriginal races, our
law of property seems to many of them wholly inexplicable. It is the characteristic
of all their tribes, says General Briggs, to consider themselves the rightful owners
of their ancient territory. If forcibly driven out, no length of illegal dispossession
can bar their claim ; their title to plunder the ousters and to appropriate the crops
is a precious heirloom that often forms the sole inheritance which one generation
has to bequeath to its successor ; and this title the lowland borderers in many
instances practically acknowledged by the regular payment of blackmail. The
English, on the other hand, have been compelled to accept possession as a test
of proprietary right in India to a degree unknown to the long settled jurisprudence
of Europe. Obsolete claims of ownership have had but small effect in Indian
courts, even when eloquently set forth ; and the almost sole answer which the
aboriginal races have received to their inarticulate pleadings and forcible exertions
of fancied rights, consists in burning a few of their villages, or in placing them
under a ban, as the Angami Nagas were not many years ago, forbidding them
to trade or hold any humanizing intercourse with the plains.
If, instead of seeking refuge in the forests, these unhappy people submitted
to the other alternative, and became serfs of the Aryan invaders on the land once
their own, they nevertheless do not altogether lose their instinct of dominium in
the soil. Their Hindu superior may load them with burdens, but under a native
government he never ousts them from their hereditary fields. The only way he
can get rid of them is by heaping demands and oppressions on them, till they fly
to the mountains or forests ; and as native government keeps population so low
as to render cultivators things to be sought after rather than to be driven away,
the hardships of their position are theoretical rather than real, and one generation
I.—POLITICAL.] DISSERTATION. 15

after another contentedly repeats the rhythmical proverb, ' Bhagra dhani Raj ho,
Bhumra dhani maj ho ;' ' The Rajah or Hindu landholder is the owner of his
share, but I am the owner of the soil.' The prosperity of British rule has trans
posed the relation of labour to land. Instead of there being more land than can
be cultivated, there are more cultivators than can obtain land. Farms, therefore,
have become a subject of keen competition ; and, practically, rents can be raised till
the poor hereditary tenant, with his rude notions of tillage, is forced off the soil.
The theoretical position of the semi-aboriginal or low-caste substratum of the
people threatened to become their actual one ; and it was not till agrarian agitation
had shaken the whole rural economy of Bengal, that a remedy was found in the
Land Law of 1859. The historian who calmly reviews that crisis, will acknowledge
that the opponents of the measure, with the English Press as their mouthpiece, had
the better of the argument, but that the measure itself was both salutary and just.
The truth is, that its necessity was visible to every administrator in rural Bengal ;
but our ignorance of the aboriginal substratum of the population rendered it
impossible to get at the fundamental causes. The aboriginal Celts of Western
Scotland afford an analogy to the indigenous element in the Indian population,
scarcely less striking in their territorial notions than in their military position ; and
I believe that the difficulty will only be solved by a compromise, not dissimilar
in spirit to that which, under William and Mary, clan usages and the undefined
patriarchal instinct, wrung from the iron feudalities of the Edinburgh College
of Justice.
It may seem that, in speaking so openly of a defect in the British admini
stration, I have forgotten that this book will travel out of England. But the
English in India can well afford to have the whole truth told. Their difficulties
are the difficulties incident to progress and good government, and could never
have arisen, under the domination of any other conquering race. I do not cite
the French in Algiers, or the Russians in Western Asia ; for the exigencies of
military nations in such positions are necessarily more cruel than those of a
people to whom God has given the English instinct for colonial rule. Nor is
more than a passing allusion required to the Dutch in Java, who have lately
so far mistaken their interest and their honour, as to suppress a book by one of
their own servants, setting forth specific defects in their Eastern policy. But let
England's dealings with the Indian races be compared with the same country's
conduct towards the aborigines of the New World. I have beside me the whole
series of charters granted to the American colonists. I find there the well-set
phrases of habendum, tenendum, et reddendum, elaborate mention of mines, forests,
fisheries, law martial, oaths, wills and domicile, ample securities for the liberties of
the settlers, and exhaustive saving-clauses of the claims of the English Crown ;
but I look in vain for any efficient provision for the rights of the people of the
i6 DISSERTATION. [II.—LINGUISTIC.

land. Our children in America have inherited our policy ; and the two systems
have borne their fruits, in that sympathy with native feelings and sensitiveness in
the discharge of self-imposed duties, which form at once the difficulty and the
glory of the British administration of India, and in that tale of oppression and
blood recently told by the United States Mixed Commission, whose official
language no white man can read without a flush of personal remorse and shame.
The aboriginal peoples of India have only to be realized by the British
Government, to obtain justice at its hands. In a former work I endeavoured
strongly to individualize a single one of their tribes, and to place in bold relief its
ethnical peculiarities, its social necessities, and political capabilities for evil or for
good. In this book I have hastily and imperfectly brought together materials out
of which a comprehensive view of the whole may be constructed. Abler hands
than mine will build the edifice ; for to the Indian official, scholarship and literary
graces are as nothing, excepting in so far as they enable him to understand and
to interpret the people. In the Grammar now in progress, I hope to supply a
more accurate basis upon which European philology may work ; but these vocabu
laries, notwithstanding their defects, will henceforth enable every frontier administrator
to hold direct communication with the races committed to his charge.
If any such Englishman has lost heart amid the daily vexations of dealing
with a lapsed people, and takes the Sanskrit view of the incapability of the so-
called Serpent Races for better things, let him ponder for a moment on the destiny
that awaited the naked, tattooed savages whom Roman mariners found bur
rowing in the earth, and offering human sacrifices to unknown demons, in Cornwall,
—a part of whose island, as Procopius had heard, was peopled with snakes, and
sent up poisoned vapours which no man could breathe and live. Or, resting his
eye upon a more historic time, let him remember how, not two hundred years
ago, Lauzun officially described Ireland to the French Court as a chaos such as
he had read of in the book of Genesis ; and the keen eyes of Desgrigny could
detect in the progenitors of the brilliant Irish nation, only a people hopelessly
stupid and brutal,—a race of a noble physical type indeed, but insensible alike to
praise or blame, and devoid of the common characteristics of human beings. ' Si
bestes qu'ils n'ont presque point d'humanite. Rien ne les emeut. Les menaces
ne les estonnent point. L'interest meme ne les peut engager au travail.'

II.— LINGUISTIC.

But while the original purpose of these researches was a purely practical and
administrative one, I am not without a hope that they may yield some philological
fruit. I am aware that, for scientific purposes, the roots of speech afford a less
II.—LINGUISTIC.] DISSERTATION. 17

trustworthy basis than its structure ; and I am but too painfully conscious of the
defects in the materials which I now submit. Some of these defects were inevitable :
for in any attempt to set forth the multitudinous and widely separated tongues of
India and High Asia, the labour must be done by many hands, and with many
different shades of competency ; nor can the editor at the centre hope, except in
a few languages, to have the means of checking the work. But many of the
blemishes of this book cannot plead this excuse, and are due to my own want of
time and limited knowledge. A few months ago, I had no present expectation of
putting forth these vocabularies ; but on the eve of departing for the East, several
scholars urged the inexpediency of again subjecting my collection to the chances
of Indian service ; and the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland was
pleased to solicit Government to retain me in this country, to bring out the work.
Special leave of four months was allowed for moulding the materials into their
final shape, passing the book through the press, and returning to India. Had the
work been done more slowly, it would have been done better ; but the nature of
the materials forbade hopes of a high degree of perfection ; and, on the whole, it
seemed better to do it as best I could, than to risk the chance of never having
an opportunity of doing it all.
No available means have been left untried, however, to secure the maximum
of accuracy that my opportunities permitted ; and the zealous co-operation of the
scholars whose kindness I shall afterwards acknowledge in detail, has resulted in a
degree of completeness far beyond what I had dared to hope for. In the case of
a few of the languages, dictionaries have already been published in an independent
form, and I have not always been able to test my lists by comparison with them.
But in many instances several lists of the same language were in my possession,
and the vocabulary as now printed has been arrived at after careful examination of
them all. Some of the vocabularies, indeed, represent several dialects of the same
tongue : thus the Gondi is pieced together from three separate lists ; the Sgau-
karen, as given by the Secretary to the Mission to Ava, includes the results arrived
at by four different collectors ; and although in the Tibetan I have not been able
to copy direct from the original source, the list as now given has been educed
from five of Mr. Hodgson's vocabularies, based, I believe, either wholly or chiefly
on the researches of De Koros. In two instances, on the other hand, separate lists
represent either the same language, or varieties so close as to seem scarcely
deserving of separate places. The first is the Toduva and Todu ; the second,
the Malabar. But after weighing Mr. Caldwell's statements in his Dravidian
Grammar, and the considerations which Dr. Rost kindly urged in correspondence, I
thought it better to give Malabar a distinct place, as the vocabulary which passes
under that name was collected at a period sufficiently remote to allow of dialectic
changes between it and the language as now spoken. In this view, it is proper
c
i8 [II.—LINGUISTIC.

to add, Professor Max M tiller coincided. The process of construction has often
been very intricate. The Mantshu and Mongolian lists, for example, were begun
by myself, and carried half-way by Mr. Halkett of the Advocates' Library in Edin
burgh, working on the materials afforded by Remusat, J. Schmidt, Klaproth,
Gabelentz, translations of the New Testament, and of the Ts'ing Wan K'e Mung
(Shanghai, 1855). A small part was added by a reader in the British Museum
employed for that purpose, and the whole was completed by the Rev. Charles
Malan of Broad Windsor. For the Japanese, again, I had to begin with only a
meagre vocabulary printed in Yokohama, and kindly forwarded to me by the Right
Hon. E. Hammond, of the Foreign Office. To this, Dr. Rost, the learned Secre
tary to the Royal Asiatic Society, added a partial list, compiled, I believe, from
Mr. Medhurst's work (Batavia, 1853); and a complete vocabulary was ultimately
drawn up by Mr. Von Siebold, of Her Majesty's Embassy in Japan. These are
fair examples of how many of the lists were done ; and so complex a process of
construction no doubt opens a door for inconsistencies and errors which might have
been avoided had it been possible for me to do them all from my own knowledge.
It may well be conceived, moreover, that, in a dictionary which is the work
of so many hands, it was impossible to secure absolute uniformity in transliteration.
This difficulty had partly been got over, however, by Mr. Hodgson, from whose
lists my book is principally compiled ; and with scarcely an important exception, the
vowel sounds are regularly represented by the letters set forth in a subsequent
page. Short accents and accents over diphthongs are seldom used, saving in the
Chinese dialects, in which I had to yield to the necessities of the case, and in
the Finnic. To some it may seem that the Russian should have been also exempted
from the rule ; but to do this, the accents would have required a different meaning
in that language from what they have in all the rest, and no system could have
perfectly rendered Slavonic words in the English alphabet. It seemed best, there
fore, to follow the analogy of transliterations from the Greek, and print the Russian
in plain capitals. This plan will be sufficiently clear to those who know the
language, and it was scarcely possible to render the Slavonic sounds intelligible to
those who do not.
The attempt to represent tones was, after mature consideration, given up.
Of the consonants little need be said, except that I have not ventured to improve
the apparent accuracy of the book by a manufactured uniformity. The temptation
to do so has presented itself on every page. The letters d, d, r, for example, and
particularly d and r, are very often used indiscriminately, some of the compilers
of the lists writing d generally as r, others putting d instead of d. The truth is,
that a European ear can only after careful training catch these Indian niceties of
sound. If, indeed, d be not in reality the proper r sound of the non-Aryan
races of India, and adopted into the Sanskrit alphabet from their speech, at any
II.—LINGUISTIC.] DISSERTATION. 19

rate I thought it better, even when it might be clear which was the correct form,
to print the words as they stood in my MS. lists, than, for the sake of appearances,
to venture on corrections from analogy. The same thing might be remarked
regarding the length of vowels. It seems unlikely enough that 'eye' should be
ta in Siamese and td in the three cognate languages, Ahom, Khamti, and Laos ;
or that 'father' should be dppu in Ho (Kol), dpung in Kol (Singhbhum), dbd in
Rajmahali, and abbd in Khond. It would have been easy enough to accent these
words in the same way, but it would also have been dangerous to do so. Thus,
seeing that the middle syllable in upiinia (four) is short in Bhiimij and Kol
(Singhbhum), it might seem safe to infer that upiinia in Ho (Kol) is an inaccuracy
of the transliterator. But in this, as in many other words, a more extended view
discloses traces of a real lengthening and shortening of vowels in cognate dialects.
Thus we have upnia, shortest of all, in Mundala ; lipunia, one stage longer, in Kol
and Bhumij ; upiinia, a second stage, in Ho ; and ponea, the last and longest vowel
form which u can assume, in Santali. An honest acknowledgment of uncertainty
seemed preferable to a fictitious uniformity ; and the only instances in which I
ventured upon corrections in languages of which I was ignorant, were such substi
tutions as i for ee and « for oo, where I had ascertained that these were their
real sounds. Even the Annamitic ay (= e) has been left as I received it. Mani
fest misprints or errors of the transcriber, however, have been set right or marked
with a point of interrogation. Thus, Mr. Hodgson's Garo list gives for ' fifty '
rung-ning, which really means two-scores. I have changed it to the right word
rung-ning-ehi, two-score-ten, like rung-sha-ehi, thirty, i.e. one-score-ten. The reader
should remark that d, d, and r ; t and t ; n and 1i ; I, /, and zh, are frequently
confounded.
This confusion I chiefly regret, because it has rendered it unsafe to complete
what I had hoped would form the most important feature of the book, to wit, a Table
of N on-Aryan Phonetic Changes. I expect, however, to be enabled to present
this in a trustworthy form in my Comparative Grammar, and to exhibit a series of
consonant changes of a novel character, and at the same time not less instructive
and reliable than those of Indo-Germanic speech. A very curious illustration is
to be found in the substitution of / for the sibilant and aspirate. The languages
of Southern India delight in a sound most correctly expressed by zh, but under
stood to be / by the untutored ear, and represented in works of scholarship by /.
Thus Tamil is properly Tamizh ; Tuluva, Tuzhuva, etc. Now it appears that in
non-Aryan speech / sometimes takes the place of zh, sy, s, j, or other sibilant.
Thus, to go no further than the numeral four, si, Siamese, etc., becomes li in the
Karens ; zhi, Bhutani, becomes li in the Lepcha pha-li, pha being a mere prefix,
as pha-li, four—pha-gnon, five ; zhyi, Serpa, becomes le in Siinwar ; and in the
Kirartti group the / completely supersedes the s. Many instances might be cited,
20 DISSERTATION. [II.—LINGUISTIC.

as loddi, Chentsu, for 'water,' for jhodi in Gayeti, or jodi in Khond ;'or Idng-bo
in Serpa, etc., 'elephant' for siang, Chinese, probably through the Tibetan glang-ehen
or lam-boehe. No instance of this occurs in Indo-Germanic languages, but r some
times represents s, and / and r are semi-vowels produced by the same physiological
process of articulation, and the one sometimes stands for the other in Aryan speech.
Thus the typical Indo-Germanic / becomes r in Zend. Until a Table of Phonetic
Changes is constructed, and its laws ascertained, researches into non-Aryan speech
will remain destitute of the exactitude of Indo-Germanic philology ; and the present
discourse, avoiding anything like generalization, merely endeavours to throw out a
few hints which may assist the student of the Lexicon.
For I am much mistaken if the scholar's eye will not decipher upon many
of these pages a history far more ancient and not less legible than anything that
can be educed from the legends of Greece or Rome, or the rock -inscriptions of
India. Chinese has hitherto been looked upon as a language standing by itself,
devoid of ethnical kindred or linguistic alliances. But in spite of its inexactitudes,
this book proves that China has given its speech not merely to the great islands
of the Southern Ocean, but to the whole Eastern Peninsula, to Siam, Tenasserim, .
Burmah, in a less degree to Central Asia, to many of the Himalayan tribes, and
to some of the pre-Aryan peoples of the interior of India. Take in the first case
the two numerals in which accidental resemblances are least likely to occur. ' Three'
in Chinese is san (Nankin) or sdm (Canton) : a constantly changes into u in
non- Aryan speech, in the same way as u sometimes takes the place of the Indo-
Germanic a in Gothic, Old High German, Slavonic, and Lithuanian, and of d in
Italian, while its lengthened form o appears in place of the typical a or d in every
one of the Aryan families excepting Sanskrit and Zend. Bearing this in mind, let
the reader turn to page 35, and he will find that the Chinese san or sdm has
furnished the third numeral not only to Japan, Siam, Tenasserim, Burmah, Eastern
and Northern Bengal, Nepal, the Himalayan tribes, and Tibet, but that it also
seems to appear in the Mantshu sfanga (respecting which I am doubtful whether
it should not be ssanga) and ilan (/ replacing s in the latter word), in the thtinga
of the tribes of the Yenisei (cf. Burman, thong), the ssuum of the Dalai-Lama
Kalmuks, and even in the sam-i of the Georgian and the han-ku (h = s) of the
mountaineers of the Caucasus. Let him then pass to p. 41, and remembering that
g constantly represents k, and in its turn is softened to j and y, he will discover
the Chinese kiu, ehiu, or kau running through the whole of the non-Aryan
languages of Japan, the Eastern Peninsula, Tibet, the Himalayas, and Northern
and Eastern Bengal. The same thing may be said of 'I,' p. 48, from which it
would seem that the Javanese also, and indeed the whole Malay race, obtained
their first pronoun from the Chinese. {Wo=ngo ; ngo=go ; go=ku, leaning on d.)
A very few examples from the nouns will suffice. Ming, the Chinese for ' name,'
II.—LINGUISTIC.] DISSERTATION. 21

p. 146, appears to have furnished the first step in social polity, to wit, the act of
distinguishing individuals and objects by distinctive designations, to the Tibetan and
Himalayan groups, to the Siamese, the Burmese, the Nepalese, the Bhutanese, the
Nagas of Eastern Bengal, the Dhimals, Bodos, and Garo hill-men, who have clung
to their original word thousands of years after being surrounded by Aryan synonyms.
The same may be said of the term for that much higher stage of civil organiza
tion represented by the village—the highest, indeed, which the non- Aryans in India
seem ever to have attained. Thus, p. 163, Chinese, hsiang, hiang, hiun-sid, heong ;
Tibetan, thong; Nepal, Kiranti, teng ; Tablung and Mfthan Naga, tying and ting;
Pwo-karen, twan ; Bhutani and Lepcha, kyong ; Pahri, gon ; Kuswar, gdon ; Garo, song ;
Miri, long or liing in du-long and du-lung ; Vayu, lung in mu-lung. Amid many
variations, the original word every now and again comes in divested of phonetic change.
Thus, Nankin, hiang ; Bhramu, hdng in hang-dung ; and with the slight and common
change of g for h, the same word supplies the universal term by which the
low-caste semi-aboriginal population of Southern Bengal speak of their homesteads,
to wit, gdng or gdong. If these two words existed by themselves, they might be
hypothetically derived from the Sanskrit grdma ; but when viewed as natural links
in a long chain, their origin ceases to be a matter of doubt, and points unmistake-
ably to a land far to the north-east of the Himalayas. To take two names for
the commonest of natural objects. 'Water' in Chinese, p. 164, is shui; in Tibetan,
ehhu ; in the Nepalese dialects, ehhti, kyti, hi, ehuwd, ehdwd, dwd, wd ; in Bhutani,
ehhti ; in Dhimal, ehl ; in Garo, ehdka ; in Deoria Chutia, ji ; in the Nagas, zii, tsu,
tii ; in Shou, Kami, etc., Mi; in Bodo and Kachari, dot; in the Karens and
Toung-thu, htt, thi, or ti. H is frequently represented by m : as, for example,
p. 169, 'black'—Chinese, hak; Newar, haku ; Diimi, mak-ehupu ; Baldli, mak-thropa,
etc. Bearing this in mind, and turning to p. 123, the word for 'fire' will be found
running through the whole of the languages of High Asia, Northern Bengal, and the
Eastern Peninsula, down to the Archipelago, bare of accidental wrappings, and
with a distinctness not to be hoped for in Aryan speech. Thus : Chinese, Amoy,
he; Japanese, hi; then passing through several aspirated stages—such as Thaksya,
hme ; Magar, mhe—into me or mi, it appears without further change in every group.
The proofs, indeed, are wonderfully complete. Thus, as the he of the Amoy
dialect becomes me in India, so the Shanghai hu reproduces itself in mu,
Thulungya. Again we find the h of four of the Chinese dialects giving place to
the soft labial f in the fifth—Canton, fo—which in its turn reproduces itself in the
Siamese, Ahom, Khamti, and Laos. There are also indications of this soft labial
hardening into a mediate one, hp: thus, Siamese, etc., fai; Shan, hpihn ; and
ultimately, as it would appear, standing out the sharp, clear labial /, leaning on the
customary vowel prefix, in the Malay apt.
Passing to the domestic animals, it would almost seem as if roots could be
22 DISSERTATION. [II.—LINGUISTIC.

detected which are common to both the Aryan and non-Aryan languages of mankind.
Thus, p. 113, the strong Aryan root for 'cow' is go, which appears not less strongly
in the Indian than in the Germanic branches of Aryan speech. The strong non-
Aryan root appears in the Canton ngau, which becomes gti in the Amoy ; gno
in Bhutani, Khamti, Laos, etc. ; gnd in the Manyak gnd-zi ; gan in the Karen
gau-pemo, etc.; gou in the Kol family; gwah in Thochu ; ga in the Tharu gd-ye ;
gyai in Dumi; gai in the Himalayan dialects, the tongues of Central India, and in
the universal low-caste patois of Bengal. Again, by a common phonetic process,
g softens in h—as gli, Amoy ; hu, Ahom : h in its turn hardens into ph-—as pJwu,
Toungh-thu ; p/id, Tibetan, in the spoken dialect phd-ehuk. Ph becomes b, as in
written Tibetan, bd ; Takpa, bah ; Chourasya, bid ; Sunwar, Dumi, etc., bi. B by
a regular rule becomes p, as in Rodong, pi, piu, pa ; Dhimal, pid ; and this form
appears through all the sub- Himalayan dialects. It may be an accident that the
semi-aboriginal husbandmen of Beerbhoom call their oxen beil, and that the
Bask mountaineers of the Pyramees—who frequently drop the letter /, as in belarri
or bearri, ear—designate a cow, bei ; but there can be no accident in the circum
stance that the Aryan and the non-Aryan root for ' cow ' is so similar, that it
requires the utmost care in pronouncing whether the primitive races of India
obtained their word gai from a Sanskrit or a Chinese source. A similar difficulty
exists in deciding whether these peoples have taken their term for ' dog,' p. 116,
from the Chinese kau (Shanghai, k'eu ; Sak, kti) or from the Sanskrit kukkura ;
and without laying any stress on the similarity of the Arabic kelb with the sub-
Himalayan khleb, kheb, etc., which like our own whelp may be accidental, I can
safely affirm that the pages of this book point to primeval roots common to both
Aryan and non-Aryan speech, in a far more definite manner than the similar indica
tions by which scholars have sought to reduce the Semitic and Indo-Germanic
families to a cognate source. It is right to add—-and the phenomenon may pass
for what it is worth—that not only the common substitutions, but the most curious
and least accurately ascertained of the Aryan phonetic changes, are reproduced in
the speech of the Himalayan and Indian aborigines ; and one of the most impor
tant features of my Table of Non-Aryan Consonant Displacements will be an
examination of the interchanges of g, h, ph, f, strangely analogous to the Digamma
discussions which have gathered round the glosses of Hesychius.
It is unnecessary to multiply analogies which this book enables every student
to find out for himself. The Indian aborigines and the Chinese obtained from a
common source not only their terms for common natural objects, and for the civil
institutions of a primitive race, but also a part of the nomenclature of tillage, and
even such terms of civilisation as 'road.' Thus, p. 166, the Chinese for 'yam' is
ta-shU, literally ta, great, and shU, tuber. Shit becomes ehic in the Shanghai dialect,
and appears as tsu in Japanese; ehum Tengsa Naga ; eho in Denwar; zo in Horpa ;
II.—LINGUISTIC.] DISSERTATION. 23

so, sti, or sd throughout the whole Nepal ; ho, hd, khii, k/id, in North-Eastern Bengal,
and down the frontier through all Burmah and Siam to the extremity of the
Peninsula. Again, the Horpa zo is directly represented by do and tho of the
cognate Tibetan, as sd and hd of the dialects on the south of the Himalayas are
by the Bodo thd, and it seems questionable whether the non-Aryan replacement of
the sibilant by / does not give us the word used in modern Sanskrit—dlu. Thus
compare the Tengsa Naga ehu, Nowgong Naga shi, with the Sibsagar Miri d-lie,
the Kocch, etc. d-lu (the /, appearing bare of its prefix in the Dhimal ling, as alu,
Kami and Kumi, for ' head,' appears in Khyeng and Mru in its plain form hi).
A similar connection, allowing for ascertained phonetic changes, between the Chinese
and the non-Aryan languages of India can be established in the single tree given
in my lists, to wit the plantain, p. 149; and the typical non-Aryan root for 'road'
has withstood, during thousands of years, a vast phalanx of Sanskrit synonyms
among the whole aboriginal races of High Asia, Bengal, and the Eastern Peninsula.
This is not the place to investigate the relations of individual groups and
dialects, but I cannot pass from the subject without referring to the materials which
exist for comparing Mongolian and Mantshu with the Chinese and the Indian
dialects. I do not refer to isolated phenomena, like the Sokpa colony of pure
Mongols, but to distinct series of analogies, such as— Mongolian, ghar, hand, p. 1 29 ;
Sokpa, kar ; Diimi, khar or khur ; Dhimal, khur ; or Mongolian, g/ial, fire, p. 123;
Sokpa, kwal; Garo, wal. In words like 'father' the one root is probably common
to all mankind, but the analogy in the case of the Mongolian and Indian dialects
is peculiarly close. Thus, Mongolian, abu ; Newar, abii ; Thaksya, Giirung,
Lepcha, ado; Chourasya, Bahingya, Angami Naga, Kol, etc., apo or apa ; and
aba or apa in as many others. Such instances as Y'mmc, pun, 'tree,' p. 162, Magyar
pa, Mongolian (Ostcack) pu, Deoria Chutia popon (a reduplicative), Singpho phun,
Mithan Naga and Garo pan, Sak pung-pang (a reduplicative), Bodo p/idng, etc., serve
to point out a path to generalizations which, in the absence of a comparative
grammar, it would be unsafe to enter upon. But indications of analogy in structure
are not wanting, even in the most distant branches of non-Aryan speech. Thus
the Finnic particle of negation is E-, the inseparable prefix which appears in en, ei,
e-pa, etc., and which probably furnishes the basis of the Bask ez. It would
scarcely deserve notice that some of the non-Aryan races in India employ a
similar particle — e.d. Lohorong, t{; Santali, e-to—were it not for a resemblance
between the inflections of the negative verb in the first and third persons. Thus,
Finnic, 1st person, e-n ; 2d, e-t ; 3d, e-ii Santali, e-to-in, or c-to-ing ; 2d, c-lo-m ;
3d, e-to-i. It is beyond the scope of the present work to examine whether this
resemblance be apparent or real.
Passing from the exterior relationships of the non-Aryan peoples of India
to their internal polity, I propose to confine my attention to a single group
24 DISSERTATION. [II.—LINGUISTIC.

of the non-Aryan tribes,—the group, that is, of which I can speak from intimate
personal knowledge. It has been customary to represent researches into the
non-Aryan peoples as necessarily devoid of comprehensive political results, from
the isolation in which each race dwells, and its incapability of organization for
imperial purposes. But unless I have greatly deceived myself, proofs can be
brought forward to show that these now scattered and disjected fragments once
formed a great ethnical entity, such as might have produced in prehistoric times a
civilisation, a history, and a faith of its own.
Many of the non-Aryan peoples of India take their tribal designations from
the word for 'man' in their respective dialects. Thus the Rajmahalis call themselves
the Mdlis, and the very general term mi (man) supplies the basis of the race-name
to not less than forty ascertained tribes. It generally appears a compound ; mi fur
nishing the generic idea of homo, and a differentia being obtained from some
prefixed and suffixed syllable. Thus, to quote only races whose vocabularies will
be found in the Lexicon, the Du-mi, Ka-mi, Kii-mi, Anga-mi Naga, Mi-than Naga,
and if we recognise the non-Aryan phonetic displacements of m and / and / and r,
the list could be indefinitely increased. Indications of such displacements appear
even from the single word under examination—thus, p. 139, Sak hi, Toung mrti,
Miirmi mi, Thaksya mli; and the root li affords the generic term homo to a whole
series of tribal names. Thus, Bala-li, Ma-li, Dhima-li, Santa-li, Banga-li, etc.,
meaning the Bali people, the Dhima people, the Banga people, and so forth.
The specific term for 'man' among the section of the aborigines to which I propose
to confine my attention is ha or ho, lengthening through the Visaraga into hah,
has, had {har), liod (/ior). In Santali I have given all the forms as they co
exist at the present day. This word ho seems, like other roots in the languages
of Central India, to have come from a common origin from the khon, khun, kun,
of Siam, and the ku of Arrakan. Certain it is that kh and k constantly stand in
these languages for h ; and indeed the process is visible in a single language, and
in the very word under discussion. Thus, the same root furnishes to Santali had
or hod, man, and koda, a young man; as in Chinese, 'weariness' in Nankin is
k'au-k'o/i ; in Pekin, k'au-ho, etc. We have therefore a root represented by ho
and ko ; the ho series shortening into hu or ha, and the ko series into ku or ka.
This root furnishes the specific word for 'man' to the Kol tribes of Central India.
We have also a generic root li, homo, which, as we have seen, is often added to
specific terms for man, to form names of aboriginal races.
Ho, indeed, forms one of the oldest and most widely spread roots for man.
Mrichhakati gives a reduplicative form of it—go-ho—among the words borrowed by
the Apabhransa, or vernacular Sanskrit, from the aboriginal races ; a form, by the
way, curiously analogous to that still in use among the Kurs hear Ellichpore, to
wit, ho-ko. I have mentioned that, like other words in the languages of Central
II.—LINGUISTIC.] DISSERTATION. 25

India, it seems to have come originally from the other side of the Bay of
Bengal, where it appears in the Siamese, Laos, etc., as khon or kun, the same
form that it takes in such tribal names as Khond, etc., in India. The Siamese
k/ion, in its turn, appears to be the Chinese jan or yan, probably through an inter
mediate form in which the j sunk into an h. The root li is equally widely
diffused, and appears in most of the aboriginal languages which I have examined.
For example, in Santali, it furnishes the nomenclature connected with the propaga
tion of our species, such as lai, Idih, etc., and appears in li-dih, a child ; le-daka or
ladko, children; khi-li (=.ho-li), a generation of men; and the hitherto unexplained
terms, ehe-la, ehe-li ( = khi-li, = ho-li), for son and daughter, universal among the
semi-aboriginal castes of Lower Bengal.
I propose very briefly to inquire what evidence can be found in different parts
of India of a primitive race which formed its tribal name from the specific root ho,
with or without the generic affix li. The Ho tribe is now a comparatively small
one, on the west of Lower Bengal ; but one of the commonest non-Aryan changes
of h is into g, k, or kh, as I have already shown, and as is visible in the redupli
cative form of ho already cited, to wit, the Apabhransa go-/w, and the ho-ko of the
tribes near Ellichpore. It must be remembered, too, that the vowel o regularly
represents u or a: thus, Santali, had, man, Ho, hoda, or horo ; Santali, dam, Bengali,
dom, a corpse-bearer ; Santali, patd, the stomach ; poled, a ' fat-belly.' Again, Kami
and Kumi, adjacent tribes in the Eastern Peninsula, bhdgi or bhugi, Santali for
'good;' Uriya, Orissa ; Santal, Sonthal, etc. Confining our attention to the ko form,
we find tribal names based upon this root with the generic affix li, not only in
every part of India, but at all periods of Indian history. Both the Mahabharata
and the Vishnu Purana speak of Ko-li tribes in connection with Mi-kalas (cf. the
aboriginal root mi, man), Dravidas (cf. the Dravidian aborigines of Southern India
at the present day), Kiratas (aboriginal tribes still in Nepal), and other of the
non- Aryan races existing in modern India. The Sanskrit writers account for them
as outcasts of the military clan, the Kshattriyas ; but in the same breath the
Aitareya Brahmana speaks of them as Dasyus, or aborigines ; and the scientific
value of their ethnical derivations may be gauged from such sentences as the
following, copied from the same source : ' Most of the Dasyus are sprung from
Visvamitra.' The Ko-lis generally appear in ancient literature with that epithet
attached to them which the Sanskrit race delighted to apply to the aborigines,
from the Nagas of North-Eastern Bengal through all India to the indigenous
castes of Ceylon, to wit, the Koli-sarpas, Serpent-kols, or Snake-races.
Sanskrit literature refers to other sections of the Kol race under such names
as Chol-as, Kul-indas, etc. ; and passing to mediaeval times, we find in the Arabic
geographers and historians evidence that the Kols were co-extensive with the whole
explored portion of India. Kulam, 'a large city of India,' stands first in the list
D
26 DISSERTATION. [II.—LINGUISTIC.

of towns described in the extracts from Al Kazwini. The inhabitants, we are told,
ate carrion, as the aborigines did in Sanskrit times and do in our own ; they were as
destitute of temples or visible idols as the Veda itself describes them ; their land
was rich in teak ; their only articles of commerce were the spontaneous produce
of the forest, with the characteristic black pottery which still forms their sole
manufacture ; and, most curious of all, they chose their king, according to the
confused Arabian geography, from China, which no doubt means from among the
pure aboriginal tribes on the Indo-Chinese frontier. But I must refrain from
amplifications of this sort, and confine myself to a mere list of names taken at
random from the Arabian geographers of the tenth to the twelfth centuries. We
have in or near Sind, according to Ibn Khurdabda, the province of Kuli, the
district and town of Kol, and (r = l) Kura at the mouth of the Kolaroon
(Coleroon), in Southern India. Al Istakhri speaks of Kalwi or Kallari ; Al Idrisi
of Kulam-mali, an island near Sind, of Kuli on the Shore, of Kalari in the
interior, and then of a district called Kulam, far down on the coast, and north of
Malabar. In the Asiatic Society's Journal the ancient name for India is stated
to have been Kolaria, and turning to the modern map of India, we find indications
of the race in every province from Burmah to Malabar : in the Kols of Central India;
Kolas of Katwar ; the Kolis, inferior husbandmen and a landless clan of Gujarat ; the
Kolis, obscurely mentioned as helot cultivators on the Simla range ; the Kolitas of
Northern Bengal and Assam ; the Kolami of Central India, classed with the Nai-
kude, etc., in my vocabularies ; the Kalars, a robber caste in the Tamil country ;
the Kalars of Tinevelly : in the Kolis of Bombay ; in the names of the Kolarun
river in Southern India, of the Koel river, from the Chota Nagpore watershed,
of the Culinga and Koladyn rivers, and of many other streams ; in Kulna, a
district in Bengal ; Kulpac, in the Nizam's dominions ; Kulalpur, in the Panjab ;
Kulan and Kola Fort, in the distant north-west ; in Kulbunga, town and district,
near the Bombay Presidency, within, I believe, the territory of the Nizam ; and, to
be brief, in such names as the following, scattered over the whole length and
breadth of India,— names which the reader may identify in a moment by referring to
Dr. Keith Johnston's index to his Map from the Royal Atlas. Kuldah, Kulkeri,
Kulianpur in three separate districts, Kullavakurti, Kullean, Kuller-kaher, Kulu
district, Kullum, Kullung River, Kullunji, several Kullurs, Kulpani, Kulpi, Kulra,
Kulsi, Kolachi, Kolapur town and state, the three Kolars, Kolaspur, Kolbarea,
Koli, Kolikod (Calicut), Cola-Bira, Colair, Colgong, Collum (Kayan-kulam), Colur,
and Colombo in Ceylon. I would go further, and, if time permitted, could philo-
logically prove the connection of the above with hundreds of other names and
places in regular series. For example, writing d and r indifferently as r, and
ringing the changes upon the vowels a, u, and o, the first series would present the
h unchanged, as in Santali, /far, man : The Haris, semi-aboriginal tribes of Bengal;
II.—LINGUISTIC.] DISSERTATION. 27

Halgas, semi-aboriginal soldiers in the Maratta armies ; the Hunas of the Vishnu
Purana; the Hos of Western Bengal and Ho-lar-kas, by which term the Santals
call the Kols. In the second series h becomes k or kh. The Khar-wars of the
hill-country of Mirzapore ; the island of Khar-ak, according to Ibn Khurdabda, near
Sindh, and many similar names of places ; the Khas, the dominant race in Nepal,
outcast military tribes, according to Manu ; the Karans, a race of Eastern India,
described by Rashidu-d Din as ' barbarians, i.e. people whose ears hang down to
their shoulders,' and the Karens of Siam at the present day, two of whose dialects
I give; the Kurmis, semi-aboriginal cultivators to the south of the Rajputs and
Jats ; the Kurmis of Manbhum ; the Kurumbas, or aboriginal husbandmen of S.
Kanara; the Kukis of South-Eastern Bengal, and the Kumis of the Burman
frontier ; the Kurgs of the south-west coast of India ; Korea in Chota-Nagpore ;
the Koralis, Koras, Khonds, etc. In the third series h becomes gh or g, as Garrow,
Gurka, Gour, the aboriginal capital of Bengal ; Gwari, the capital of Nuddea; Gouri,
wife of the aboriginal god Siva (cf. Kali) ; Goa, in Southern India ; Gondwana, in
Central India ; Gol-parah (literally Kol-hamlet), on the west of Bengal, etc. In the
fourth series h becomes s, as in Santal, Savara Saka, also one of the outcast military
tribes, according to Manu ; Sandalia, the semi-aboriginal low-castes, as written by Ibn
Khurdabda, or Sandaliya, as Al Idrisi spells it ; the Sudras of Brahminical literature ;
the Sauras, now living with the Oraons ; the Sontals, as the word Santal is in some
places pronounced ; the Saundikas, whom the Mahabharata classes with Koli-sarpas
and Dravidas. In a fifth series the h is dropped, as in Uriya, or Uria, and the
district Uri-har, according to Rashidu-d Din ; the Uras-ir of Ibn Khurdabda, a
forest territory abounding in elephants and buffaloes ; Orissa ; the Odras, an outcast
military tribe mentioned in Manu ; and the Oraons or Odaons of the Bengal frontier,
whose vocabulary I give.
The pressing necessities of time and space compel me to draw this Disserta
tion to a close, and forbid me to bring forward my proofs of the above series.
But I cannot refrain from selecting the one which will probably be most questioned,
and following it out step by step. Many will doubt whether there can be more
than a fanciful connection between Ho and Kir-anti, and the proofs to be submitted
in this instance form a fair specimen of the general evidence. I write d and r
indifferently as r, the distinction seldom being uniformly observed by English
collectors of aboriginal words, on whose labours my work is based. The root
/tar, man, occurs in Santali as an affix to the names of the seven clans : thus,
Nijkasda-har, the Nijkasda clan, etc. ; and often with the h hardened into kh, as
Khar-oar or Kher-oar, the name by which the Santals called themselves in ancient
times. The first form, Khar-oar, is identical with the Khar-wars, a once nume
rous race of aborigines living in the distant hill-country of Mirzapore and Rewa
to the borders of Benares and Bahar ; with the Kor-wahs, one of the wildest of
28 DISSERTATION. [II.—LINGUISTIC.

the Kol tribes ; and it furnishes more than a hundred names of places or peoples
scattered over India, such as Khar-bu, Khar-dam, the Kar-ens of Burmah, Kar-or
or Khar-ur, Kar-u and Kar-i rivers, Kar-natik, Kari-kal, etc. In the other form,
Kher-oar, the e is represented by the ordinary changes i or at, and produces a
whole list of its own. Thus the Kher-iahs of Nagpore, who both by their
name and their customs are unmistakeably declared an offshoot of the Santal or
Ho race. One of the few things we know about them is that they worship their
river, the Koel, with rites similar to those with which the Santals adore the
Damudah. The root kher or ker—for English ethnologists transliterate it both
ways—appears also in the following names, which may be at once identified from
Dr. Keith Johnston's Index : Khera, Kherh district, Kherhi, the two Kheris,
Khersiong, Khirki, Kirbassa, Kira, Kiria, Kirinde, Kirpay, Kirtinassa river, the
three Khairs and Kheirs, Kheira-garh, and so forth. It also appears in the name
of the great ethnical group of the sub-Himalaya, the Kir-antis or Kir-atas, a war
like aboriginal tribe well known to ancient Sanskrit writers ; classed by both Manu
and the Mahabharata as outcast military peoples, along with the Khasas, Chinas,
Dravidas, and other recognised non-Aryan races ; and occupying at this day the
exact position assigned to them by the Vishnu Purana, to wit, ' the eastern border
of Bharatavarsha.' I would go a step further, and prove that the root ehi, as in
Chinas, is only another form of khi or ki, probably through k and s, and the sub
stitution is borne out by a whole list of proper names and of non-Aryan words.
For example, Chinese, Pekin, hsieh, blood, p. 108 ; the whole Kiranti group, hi ;
Gyami, sye ; Thulungya, si-si (a reduplicative); Garo, ehi; Bhramu, ehi-wi. Choli
and similar words constantly appear as other forms for Koli ; and indeed the very
name Kir-bassa, as it is pronounced on the west of the Nepal Mala-bhumi at the
foot of the Himalayas, is pronounced and spelt in official documents as Chyebassa
in the west of the other Mala-bhumi (now Bishenpore), on the distant south-western
frontier of Lower Bengal. The Chinas not only take their name from the same
wide-spread root that has furnished race-names to the aboriginal tribes of all India
north of the Vindhya range, but they are expressly classed with still existing
aboriginal tribes in Manu ; and their position can be inferred from Sanskrit authors
to be exactly where the Chinese frontier would be at that time, viz. in the extreme
east, but further into India than at present. This ancient connection of the Chinas
with the Indian aboriginal races is borne out by the mediaeval geographer Al
Kazwini, who says that the people of Kulam—whose name, habits, and surroundings,
as we have seen, mark them unmistakeably as aborigines—' when their king dies,
choose another from China ;' and I have written this book in vain, if it does not
concentrate these scattered indications into positive proof that the aboriginal races
of the Eastern Peninsula, Burmah, and India north of the Vindhya range, derived
their speech from a source common to themselves and the Chinese.
II.—LINGUISTIC. DISSERTATION. 29

I turn for a moment from the aboriginal tribes who have maintained their
ethnical identity in the forests and mountains of India, to those who were crushed
before the Aryan advance, and have merged as serfs into the Hindu population.
These unfortunate people appear chiefly under two names in post-Vedic Sanskrit
literature—Sudras and Chandalas. Their personal appearance, habits, and occu
pations, as detailed in ancient writers, mark them as non-Aryan helots ; the
Sanskrit scheme of society, as Roth well observes, was complete without them ;
and while the other three natural Aryan castes clearly derive their names from
Aryan roots, all attempt to establish a Sanskrit origin for the nomenclature of the
fourth or non-Aryan servile caste have failed. Professor Wilson, following the
Puranic etymologist, deduces the word stldra from s'ueh, grieve, and dru, run,—a
derivation with regard to which Dr. J. Muir writes to me: 'If we are to accept
this, we may accept anything.' The truth is, that both S'udra and Chandala are
based upon phonetic modifications of the great aboriginal root had, which appears
in Ho, Kol, Santal, Sontal, etc. Chandala becomes, in the mediaeval geographers,
Sandalia (Ibn Khurdabda), or Sandaliya (Al Idrisi), as the Salsas of Rashidu-d Din
is the Sanskrit Chelas, a town upon the Indus. This word Sandalia is arrived
at by the same process as the race-name Santali, and consists not merely of
the specific root had (h = s), vir, but also of the generic root, Ii, homo. The insertion
of a nasal and dental is a very common feature in tribal designations formed from
the root had: thus the Khonds and Gondis of Central India, whose languages I
give ; the Kalindas and Saundikas of the Mahabharata, which appear as outcast
military tribes in lists of aboriginal races, such as the Koli-sarpas, Kiratas, Chinas,
Dravidas ; and in Chandala, Saundika, Khond, Gond, etc., the dotted or aboriginal
d is uniformly used.
The enslaved Chandals, therefore, were of the same stock, and formed their
name from the same universal root, as the aboriginal races of Northern India at
the present day. If time permitted, it would be equally easy to follow the process
by which Sudra—the Sudaria of the Arabic geographers—and many similar names
in Sanskrit literature are evolved from the same base. The fact is, that the
whole nomenclature of the helot castes among the mixed Hindus, both in ancient
and modern times, is derived from the aborigines. Thus the Ma-lis, gardeners
and landless husbandmen in the Hindu community, take their name from the tribal
term for man, male, p. 139; from which many hill and forest peoples of Northerr
and Central India, possibly also the whole Malay race of the Archipelago, art
called, and the Malavas (cf. Modern Malwa), in the Vishnu Purana. The Doms
or corpse-bearers of the Hinduized lowlands, are the Dams of the Santal hills,
and the Dumis, still a well-defined tribe in sub-Himalayan Nepal. The Kharwai
helots of Gyah, etc., now perfectly Hinduized, had scarce a century ago a separatt
language of their own, as the Khar-wars of the Mirzapur highlands, the Kher
3° DISSERTATION. [ill.—GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.

oars or ancient Santals, and the wild ' mysterious ' Kher-iahs of Central India, still
have. The same may be said of the Chura serfs of the Punjab, the direct
descendants of the Chauras or military outcasts of the Mahabharata ; of the
Coolies (Kulis), hewers of wood and drawers of water through the length and
breadth of India ; and Hindu speech has enriched itself with a whole vocabulary
of abuse from the names of these races. Take, as a single example, the Hadis,
a helot caste spread over all Bengal, and called by the bare aboriginal word
for man, had, and who have supplied such terms as hadd, base, low-born ; /iadduk,
a sweeper ; hunda, hog, blockhead, imp ; kudukka, a drunken sot, etc. One word
in this series tells a peculiarly sad tale of its own. Hadi, in low Bengali Hadi-
kath, is the name of a sort of rude fetter or stocks by which the landholder
used to confine his serfs until they agreed to his extortions, — a practice within
the memory of Indian magistrates still living, and means literally ' the helot's-log.'
It was also used for fastening the head of the victim in the bloody oblations
which the Aryan religion adopted from the aboriginal races, especially in the
human sacrifices to Kali, to which the low-castes even now resort in times of
special need. Indeed, so intimately connected is the term with the worship of
this ferocious deity, that in the account of the last human offerings, during the
famine of 1866—an account given by an English journalist who knew nothing of
the aborigines—the word comes to the surface, and we are told that the bleeding
head was found fixed in the ' har-cat,' i.e. helot's-log.

III.—GENERAL CONCLUSIONS.

The points which I have endeavoured to establish are—


1st, That India is partly peopled by races distinct from the Aryan popula
tion,—races whom we have scarcely studied, and whom we do not understand.
2d, That while some of these races have preserved their ethnical identity in
sequestered wilds, others have merged as helots or low-castes into the lowland Hindus.
$d, That our ignorance of the first section brings forth incessant risings and
frontier wars, and that our imperfect acquaintance with the second forms a serious
blot in our internal administration.
4th, That these races are capable of being politically utilized, and by proper
measures may be converted from a source of weakness to a source of strength.
$th, That they are also capable of being scientifically investigated, and of
furnishing trustworthy materials to European philology.
6th, That indications are not wanting that these now fragmentary peoples
form the dgbris of a widely-spread primitive race ; and that from the northern
shores of the Indian Ocean and the Chinese Sea, traces are here exhumed of
IV.—ACkNOWLEDGM ENTS.] DISSERTATION.

ethnical evolutions and the ebb and flow of human speech, far more ancient, and on
a grander scale, than the prehistoric migrations of the Indo-Germanic stock.

IV.—ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

The construction of a dictionary such as I now submit is a work of compila


tion rather than of authorship. The main body of the vocabularies are taken from
lists printed in the Journals or Proceedings of the Asiatic Societies in Bengal and
in England, in the Records of the Government of Bengal, all drawn up by or
under the direction of Mr. B. H. Hodgson, late of the Bengal Civil Service, Chevalier
of the Legion of Honour, etc. Mr. Hodgson also kindly placed at my disposal two
large trunks of manuscripts, amassed during his long and honoured service in the
East, and subsequently made over for safe keeping to the India Office. In some
respects, therefore, I look upon myself as the editor of materials collected by him
rather than as the author of an original work. To the nucleus thus furnished I
have added everything that could be obtained from the Government archives, such
as the group left by the Rev. Stephen Hislop of Nagpore, and edited with addi
tions by Sir Richard Temple, of the Bengal Civil Service.
I cannot mention Mr. Hislop's name without acknowledging the zealous
co-operation which I have received throughout from missionaries of all denomina
tions, both in India and at home. It was to these noble and devoted men that I
owed my first materials, and from them I learned that missionary enterprise means
not only the propagation of the Christian faith, but also the civilisation of whole
races, and the winning back of long lapsed peoples to a new life. No history of
the British occupation of India will be complete without the mention of such names
as those of Mr. Williamson of Beerbhoom ; Mr. Puxley of Rajmahal ; the two Phillips,
father and son, of Orissa ; Dr. Batchelor, who worked the first Santali press at
Midnapore ; and many others, whose scholarship is warmed from the holy flame of
Christian zeal. Some who started with me in these researches have not been
permitted to see their fruits ; and in my venerable friend Mr. Williamson, who died
at Beerbhoom in 1867, after nearly fifty years of missionary service, the world lost
one of those lives of calm usefulness which seldom find a biographer here, but
which are assuredly written above. In this country I have to thank the London
Missionary and Church Missionary Societies in their corporate capacities ; the Rev.
Dr. Legge for MS. vocabularies of the Nankin, Pekin, and Canton dialects ; the
Rev. Mr. Muirhead for the Shanghai ; and the Rev. W. K. Lea for the Amoy.
To Prince Lucien Bonaparte I am indebted for a MS. Bask vocabulary
drawn up by His Highness, and for materials furnished in letters ; to the Royal
Asiatic Society and its president Viscount Strangford, for obtaining the additional
32 DISSERTATION. [IV.—ACkNOWLEDGMENTS.

leave which enabled me to bring out the work, and for valuable materials from
the Society's library; to Mr. Hyde Clarke, who long held a responsible office
under the Ottoman Government, for MS. lists of Turkish, Magyar, Circassian, and
Georgian ; to the Rev. Charles Malan of Broad Windsor, and Mr. S. Halkett of
the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh, for the Mongolian and Mantshu ; to Dr. John
Muir, late of the Bengal Civil Service, for portions of the Sanskrit list which I
could not myself overtake, and for many valuable suggestions ; to the Right Hon.
E. Hammond of the Foreign Office for procuring, and to Mr. Von Siebold of the
Japanese Mission for drawing up, the Japanese list ; to Mr Cull for the Finnic ;
to Mr. John Hutcheson, formerly of Beyroot, for the Arabic ; to Mr. W. Ralston
of the British Museum for the Russian, and for another Russian list to Mr. Fiske,
the American Consul at Leith ; to Mr. J. Purves, Fellow and Lecturer of Balliol, and
to Monsieur Gustave Masson of Harrow, eminent as a French litterateur and
honourably known as an English writer, for the Latin and French prefaces ; to Sir
Henry Rawlinson, and to Mr Watts of the British Museum, for the suggestion of
sporadic affinities which led me to give the three series of Inflecting, Compounding,
and Isolating types ; to Sir Bartle Frere, for access to his admirable collection of
the Bombay Records ; to Professor Max Miiller, and to General Briggs, for valu
able suggestions ; to Sir Erskine Perry, for many acts of kindness during the
compilation. My obligations to Dr. Rost, the Secretary to the Royal Asiatic Society,
for MS. lists drawn up from materials in his library, and for revising the proofs,
demand separate mention. But for his generous help, the work could not have
been brought out within the time allowed. To my secretary and salaried assistants
I have to make my acknowledgments for their fidelity and general accuracy. Many
things which ought to have been done by myself had to be entrusted to others ;
and this list would be incomplete without an acknowledgment of the affectionate
industry with which my Wife has corrected proof-sheets and manuscript, of which
each page contained five handwritings, and indeed done entire parts of the work,
such as the polyglot indices. The Dissertation itself has gone to press without
being read over ; but I felt that, having once taken in hand to bring out my
researches within the four months, it would have been mere cowardice to keep
back, through fear of a few verbal slips, ideas that have long been working in my
mind, and which I believe capable of doing good for millions of men. If I
am right in this belief, I can well afford to let the book go forth with all its
faults.
ERRATU M.

On eaeh page of Lexieon.

For ' Nepal (East to West)', read ' Nepal (West to East).'
CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.] UN—EIN—ONE—ODIN—UNUS.

Types. % f Bodo, Man-ehe.


■•g (Sanskrit, Dhimdl E-long.
Eka. "9 \ Kocch, Eh.
(Arabic, . Wahad. ^ Garo, Go-sha.
Bask, . . Bat. < [ Kdchdri, Man-she, mon-she.
Finnic, . Yksi. Munipuri, Amd.
Magvar, . Egy- Mfthdn Ndgd, . A'-ta.
Turkish, . Bir. Tablung Ndgd, . Chd.
Circassian, Zi. Khdri Ndgd, . . A-khet.
I \ Georgian, EHhi, szu* Angdmi Ndgd, . Po.
* i Mongolian, Nigen, niken, Uh,\ gri,% um- Ndmsdng Ndgd, Van-the.
Mantshu. Emou, iga* [u«,§ om-okon.\\ Nowgong Ndgd, . Ka-tang.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sa. fc Tengsa Ndgd, . Kha-tu.
Javanese, Krama, Sa. Abor Miri, . . A-ko.
Malav, . . . Sa, sdtu. Sibsdgar Miri, A-tero.
Chinese, Nankin, m. Deoria Chutia, . Dug-sha.
Chinese, Pekin, Yi. Singpho, . . . Ai-md.
Chinese, Canton, Yat. Burman (written), Taeh.
Chinese, Shanghai Ih. Burman (spoken), . Tit, ta.
Amov, Colloquial, Chit. Khyeng v. Shou, Nhdt.
[ Japanese, Fitots, i-ehi, h'to. Kdmi, .... Hd.
Kumi, .... Hd.
Brahuf, Asit. Mru v. Toung, . Loung.
Gydmi, I, iku. Sdk, .... Su-war.
Gydrung, Ka-ti. Talain v. Mon, . . . Mway.
Tdkpa, Thi. Sgau-karen, .... Ter, hta.
Mdnyak, Td-bi. Pwo-karen, .... Lung.
Thochu, A'-ri. Toungh-thu, .... Ta.
Sokpa, Nege. Shdn, Nan (noung I).
Horpa, Jid. Annamitic, .... Mot.
Tibetan (written), Tsehig, gehig. Siamese, Nttng, nein.
Tibetan (spoken), Chik. Ahom, Ling.
>: Khdmti, Nung.
Serpa, . Chik. Laos, Nung.
Siinwdr, Kd.
G'drung, Kri, ri. Ho(Kol), .... Miad.
Murmi, Ghrik, rik. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Mi.
Magar, Kdt. Santdli, Mih, midh.
Th'dksya, Di. Bhumij, Moy.
Pdjchya, Yek. Urdon, Untd.
Newar, Chhi. Mundala, Mid.
{ Limbu, Thit. Rdjmahali, .... Ort, ondong, kivoug.
Gondi Undi.
Kiranti, Ktai, ektai. Gayeti, Undi.
Rodong, Aura, itto. Rutluk, Wundi.
Rungchenbung, Eukta, eukehha, eukpop. Naikude, Wdkko.
Chhingtdngya, Thitta. Kolami, Okadu.
Ndchhereng, I-bhou. Mddi, Undi, wundi, wandi.
Wdling, . Aktai, akta. Mddia, Udi.
Ydkha, . Ikko. Kuri Nekor.
Chpurdsya, Kolo. Keikddi, Wanu.
Kulungya, Ubum. Kh'ond, Rondi.
Thulungya, Kwoiig, hong, hole. Sdvara, Aboy.
Bdhingya, Kwong, how;. Gadaba, Vokati.
Lohorong, Yekko. Yerukala, Votu/u ( Vondu ?).
Lambichhong Thibang, thili. Chentsu, Yek.
Bdldli, . . Ikku. Tamil, anc, .... Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Itta, euli, euhla-pang. Tamil, mod., .... Onru.
Diimi, . . Tdu, tdwa, man-hampo. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khd'ling, . Td, tdu, tdwo. Makiydlma, mod., . . Ouna.
Dungmdli, Akpo. Telugu, Voka.
Ddrhi, . . Eh. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwar, . Eh. Karndtaka, mod., . . Otidu.
Pahri, . . Chhi, ehhigit. Tuluva Onji.
Chepdng, . Yd-zho, ya-zyo. Kurgi, Wondu.
Bhrdmu, . De. Toduva,) .... Caret.
Vdyu, . . Ko-lu. Toda, | .... Vadd.
Kuswar, . Eh. Kdta, Vodde.
Kusunda, . Goi-sauf. Badaga, Vondu.
Thdru, . . Yek. Kurumba, .... Vondu.
Irula, Vondu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kdt. Malabar, Ondu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Chi. Sinhalese, Ehay.
34 DEUX—ZVVEI— TWO—DVA— DUO. [chap, I.—numerals.

Types. Bodo, Man-gne, man-ne.


■« (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, .... . Nhe-long, gne-long.
Dwi (dwd). - Kocch, .... . Du.
>§ (Arabic, . Ethndn. Garo, Gi-ning, a-ning.
Bask, . . Bi, bia, biga. Kdchdri, .... Man-nai, mu-nai.
Finnic, . Kaksi. ' Munipuri, . . . . Am.
Magvar, . Ketto. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . A'-nyi.
Turkish, Iki. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Ih.
Circassian, Oh. Khdri Ndgd, . . . A-ne.
Georgian, Ori, gi-gu.* Angdmi Ndgd, . Ka-ne.
Mongolian, Khoyar, kaet,\ siti,% dzi-un,\ Ndmsdng Ndgd, Van-yi.
Mantshu, Dehoue, lianga* [nadan.\\ Nowgong Ndgd, Anna.
Javanese, Ngoko, Ro. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Annat.
Javanese, Krama, Kalih. Abor Miri, . . . Ani-ko.
Malav, . . . Di'ta. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Ngo-ye.
f Chinese, Nankin, I Deoria Chutia, . . Duku-ni.
Urh (dr).
Chinese, Pekin, Urh. Singpho, .... Nkhong.
Chinese, Canton, I. Burman (written), . Nhaeh.
I 1 Chinese, Shanghai Ni. Burman (spoken), . Nhit.
Amov, Colloquial, Niig. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Pan-nhi.
[ Japanese, F'tats ni,/o. • Kdmi, . Ni.
Kumi, . Nku.
Brahui, Irat. Mru v. Toung, . . . Pre.
' Gydmi, A'r, liangku. Sdk, Nein.
Gydrung, . Ka-nes. ' Talain v. Mon, . . . Pa.
Tdkpa, . Nai. Sgau-karen, . . . . 'Ki, khi.
Mdnyak, . Nd-bi. Pwo-karen, . . . . Ne.
Thochd, . Gnd-ri. Toungh-thu, . . . . Ne.
Sokpa, Hoyur. Shdn, . H'tsoung.
Horpa, Gne. Annamitic, . Hai.
Tibetan (written), Gnyis, nyis. Siamese, .... Sang, tsoung, song.
Tibetan (spoken), Nyi. s Ahom, .... Sang.
Khdmti . Song.
Serpa, . Nyi. Laos, Song.
Sunwdr, Ni-shi. • Ho (Kol), . . .
Gurung, Ni. Barria.
Murmi, Gni, ni. Kol (Singhbhum), . Bdr-ia.
Magar, Nis. Santdli, .... Bdr-ea.
Thdksya, Gni. Bhumij, .... Bdr-ia.
Pdkhya, Dui. Urdon, .... En-otan.
Newdr, Ni. Mundala, .... . Bdr-ia.
Limbu, Nyetsh. Rdjmahali, . . . Tiur (?), mdkis.
Gondi, .... Ranu, rand.
f Kirdnti, Ha-sat. Gayeti, .... . Raml.
Rodong, Ha-kara. Rutluk, .... . Rand.
Rungchenbung, Heu-sa, heit-wang. ■ Naikude, .... . Indi.
Chhingtdngya, Hieh-ehe. Kolami, .... Ind-ing.
Ndchhereng, Nij-bhou. Mddi, Randu.
Wdling, . Ni, ha-sa, ha-sak. Mddia, .... Rand.
Ydkha, . Kieh-ehi. Kuri, . Bdr-kit.
Chourdsya, Ni-ksi. Keikddi, .... Rand.
Kulungya, Nih-ehi. Khond, .... . Jodekd.
Thulungya, Ni, ni-ehi, na-le. Sdvara, .... . Bd-gu.
Bdhingya, Ni-ksi. Gadaba, .... Rendu.
Lohorong, Hieh-ehi, hi-pang. Yerukala, .... Rendu.
Lambichhong, Hieh-ehi, hi-pang. Chentsu, .... Duyi.
Bdldli, . . Hieh-ehe. Tamil, anc, . Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Hieh-ehi, hi-sali, hi-slapang. Tamil, mod lrandu.
Dumi, . . Sdk-pu. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Sdk-po. Malaydjma, mod., . Randa.
[ Dungmdli, Hi-ehi. Telugu, .... Rendu.
Ddrhi, . . Dwi. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Dwi. Karndtaka, mod., Eradu.
Pahri, . . Ni, ning-gu. Tuluva, .... Erad.
Chepdng, . Nhi-zho, nhi-zyo. Kurgi, Dandu.
i Bhrdmu, . Ni. Toduva,) . . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . Nd-yung. Toda, ) ... . E4, a-ed.
Kuswar, . Dwi. K<5ta, . Yede.
Kusunda, . Ghi-gna. Badaga, .... Yeradu.
Thdru, Dui. Kurumba, . . . Yeradu.
Iruja . Retidu, iremiu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Nyet. Malabar, .... . Jrandu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Nyi. Sinhalese,. . . . . Dekay.
CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.] TROIS—DREI—THREE—TRI—TRES.
35

Types. Bodo, . . . Man-tham.


•5 (Sanskrit, Tri (tisri). % Dhimdl, . . Sum-lang.
(Arabic, . Thaldthat. Kocch, . . Tin.
Garo, . . . Ga-thdm, a-thdm.
Bask, . . Iru, hiru, hirur. Kdchdri, . Man-tang, mung-tung.
Finnic, . Kolme. Munipuri, Ahum.
Magvar, . Harom. Mfthdn Nrfgd, A-zam.
5 Turkish, . U'eh. Tablung Ndgd, Lem.
Circassian, Shi. Khdri Ndgd, . A-sam.
5 Georgian,
Sams, /iatt-ku* Angdmi Ndgd, Su.
i=" Mongolian, Khurban, kollem,\ nagor,% Ndmsdng Ndgd, Van-ram.
c Mantshu, /lan, sfan-ga* \il-en,§ Nowgong Ndgd, A-sam.
Javanese, Ngoko, Tdtt. \dagalk-un.\ Tengsa Ndgd, A-sam (a-sdm I).
Javanese, Krama, Tiga. Abor Miri, . Aom-ko.
Malav, . . . Tiga. Sibsdgar Miri, Auma.
f Chinese, Nankin, San. Deoria Chutia, Dug-da.
Chinese, Pekin, San. Singpho, . . Ma-sum.
Chinese, Canton, Sdm. Burman (written), Sung (sung ?).
Chinese, Shanghai San. Burman (spoken), Thong, thon.
Amov, Colloquial, San. Khyeng v. Shou, Thum.
[ Japanese, Mits, mi, san. 4 Kdmi, . . Ka-tun.
Kiimi, . . Tum.
Brahui, Musi/. Mru v. Toung Shun.
[ Gydmi, Sdn, sang ku. Sdk, . . Thin.
Gydrung, . Ka-sdm. Talain v. Mon, Pe.
Tdkpa, . Sdm (sum ?). Sgau-karen, Ther, theh, tho.
Mdnyak, • Si-bi. Pwo-karen, Thung.
Thochd, . Kshiri. Toungh-thu, TJiung.
Sokpa, Korbd. Shdn, . . H'tsan.
Horpa, Su. Annamitic, Ba.
Tibetan (written) Gsum, sum. h Siamese, .
s Sdm, tsan.
Tibetan (spoken), Sum. Ahom, . . Sam.
4 Khdmti, . Sdm.
[ Serpa, . , Sum. Laos, . .
Sunwdr, . Sdm.
Sdng (sung ?).
Gurung, . Song. Ho (Kol), Appid.
Murmi, Som. Kol (Singhbh um A-pid.
Magar, Song. Santdli, Fed.
Thdksya, . Som. Bhumij, . A-pid.
Pdkhya, . Tin. Urdon, Man-otan.
Newar, Son. Mundala, . A-pid.
Limbu, Syumsh. Rdjmahali, Tin.
Gondi, Munu, mum/.
f Kirdnti, . Sum-ya. Gayeti, Afund.
Rodong, . Sum-ra. Rutluk, . Mund.
Rungchenbung, Sum-yo. Naikude, . Mundi.
Chhingtdngya, Sum-ehe. Kolami, . Mutiding.
Ndchhereng, Suk-bhou. Mddi, . . Mundu.
Wdling, . Syum-yak. Mddia, Mund.
Ydkha, . Sum-ehi. Kuri, . . Akor, apkor.
Chourdsya, Sum-makha. Keikddi, . Munu.
Kulungya, Sup-ehi. Khond, Tinigo(a.
Thulungya, Syum, sule. Sdvara, Ydgi. '
Bdhingya, Sum (sdm ?). Gadaba, . Mudu.
Lohorong, Sum-ehi. Yerukala, . Mume.
Lambichhong. Sum-ehi. Chentsu, . Tin.
Bdldli, . . Sung-ehe. Tamil, anc,
Sdng-pdng, Caret.
Sum-ehi. Tamil, mod., Munru.
Ddmi, . . Suk-pu.
Khdling, . Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Suk'-po. Malaydlma, mod., Munna.
Dungmdli, Sum-ehi. Telugu, . . . Mudu.
f Ddrhi, . . Tin. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Tin. Karndtaka, mod., Muru.
Pahri, . . Sung, sung-gu. Tujuva, Muji.
Chepdng, . Sung-zho, sung-zyo. Kurgi, . Mundu.
Bhrdmu, . Swom. Toduva, ) Min.
Vdyu, . . Chhu-yung. Toda, j Mudu.
Kuswar, . Tin. Kdta, . Munde (mundef).
Kusunda, . Ddha. Badaga, Muru (mudu f).
Thdru, . . Tin. Kunimba, Muqu.
Iruja, . Muru (muqu T).
Lepcha (Sikkim), Sum (sam i). Malabar, Mundu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Sum. Sinhalese, Tunai.
36 QUATRE—VIER— FOUR—TCHETURE—QUATUOR. [chap, t.—numerals.

Types. ' Bodo Man-bre.


So Dhimdl, .... Dia-long.
S (Sanskrit, Chatur (ehatasri). 1. Kocch, .... Chdr.
I, (Arabic, . Arbaat. Garo . Bri.
Bask, . . . Lent, lanr. . Kdchdri Man-buri, mun-buri.
Finnic, . . Nelja. ' Munipuri, .... Mari.
Magvar, . . Negi. 'ift: Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . A'-li.
Turkish, . . Deurt. > Tablung Ndgd, . . . Pi-li.
Circassian, . Tley. Khdri Ndgd, . . . . Pha-li.
Georgian, . Othkhi, ou-ku* Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Deh.
Mongolian, . Turban, uille,+ ki-eta,% dig- Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . Be-li.
Mantshu, . Douin, sfi-gae. * [<«,§ ullan. \ \ Nowgong Ndga, Pazr.
Javanese, Ngoko, Pat, papal. x. Tengsa Nagd, . . . P/ia-le.
Javanese, Krama, Sakawan. Abor Miri, . . . A-pi-ko.
[ Malav, . . . Ampat. ,S Sibsdgar Miri, . A-pi-e.
Chinese, Nankin, Sze. Deoria Chutia, . . Dugu-ehi.
Chinese, Pekin, Sze, s'z. Singpho, .... . Me-li.
Chinese, Canton, Sze. ' Burman (written), . Le.
Chinese, Shanghai Sz. Burman (spoken), . Le, Id.
Amov, Colloquial, Si. Khyeng v. Shou, . . L/ii.
[ Japanese, Yt>ts, yo, s/ii. Kdmi, . Ma-li.
Kiimi, . Pa-lu.
Brahuf, . . Chdr. Mni v. Toung, . . Ta-li.
f Gyami, . . Si, sikit. Sdk, . Pri.
Gyarung, . . Ka-di. Talain v. Mon, . . . Pon.
Tdkpa, . . Pli. Sgau-karen, . . . Lu>i.
Mdnyak, . Re-bi. Pwo-karen, . . . . Li.
Thochu, . Gzhdre. Toungh-thu, . . Lit.
Sokpa, . . Ttrbd. 5 Shdn, . H'tse.
Horpa, Hla. En ' Annamitic, . . . . Bon.
Tibetan (written) Uzhi, s/ii. h Siamese, .... Si, tse.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Zhyi. Ahom, . Si.
Khdmti, .... . Si.
fSerpa, . . . Zhyi. Laos, . Si.
Siinwdr, . . Le.
Gdrung, . Pli. ' Ho (Kol), . . . Upi'tnia.
Murmi, . . Eli. Kol (Singhbhum), . Upun-ia.
Magar, . . Bull Santdli, .... Pon-ea.
Thdksya, . . Bla. Bhumij, .... Upun-ia.
Pdkhya, . . Chdr. Urdon, .... Ndkh-otan.
Newdr, . . Pi. Mundala, .... Upnia.
Limbu, Lish. Rdjmahali, . . Chdr.
Gondi, .... Ndlu, ndlung.
Kirdnti, . . Laya. Gayeti, .... Ndlung.
Rodong, . . Lyura. < Rutluk, .... . Ndlu.
Riingchenbung, Ldyd. Naikude, .... . CMr.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. Kolami, .... . Ndling.
Ndchhereng, Lik-bhou. 'J Madi, . Ndl.
Wdling, Ld-yak. Mddia, .... . Ndlgu.
Ydkha, . Li-ehi. Kuri, Upanku.
Chourdsya, Phi-bakha. Keikddi, .... . Ndl.
Kulungya, Li-ehi. Khond, .... Sdri.
Thulungya, Bli, ble-ule. Sdvara, .... Vonji.
Bdhingya, . Le. Gadaba, .... Ndlugu.
Lohorong, Li-ehi, ri-ehi, le-bang. Yerukala, .... Ndlu.
Lambichhong, Caret. Chentsu, .... . Chdr.
Bdldli, . . Li-ji. ' Tamil, anc, . . . Ndngu.
Sdng-pdng, La-kabo. Tamil, mod., . . Ndlu.
Diimi, . . Bhydl. Malaydlma, anc, . Caret.
Khdling, . Bhdl. Malaydlma, mod., . . Ndla.
Dungmdli, Li-ehi, ri-ehi. Telugu, .... Ndlugu.
Ddrhi, . . Chdr. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwar, . Chdr. Karndtaka, mod., . Ndlku.
Pahri, . . pi, Pi»g-g"- Tuluva, .... Ndlu.
Chepdng, . Ploi-zho, ploi-zyo. - Kargi, Ndlu.
Bhrdmu, . Bi. Toduva,) . . . Nonk.
Vayu, . . Bi-ning, bli-ning. 1 Tot) a, j ... . Ndnk.
Kuswar, . Chdr. Kdta, . Ndke.
Kusunda, . Pin-jang. Badaga, .... . Ndlku.
Thdru, . . Chdr. Kurumba, . . . . Ndlku.
Iruja, . Ndku.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Pha-li. Malabar, .... . Ndlu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Zhi. Sinhalese, .... . Hatarai.
CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.] CINQ—FUNF—FIVE—PYAT—QUINQUE. 37

Types. Bodo, . . Man-bd.


Dhimdl, Nd-lon^.
•a (Sanskrit, Panehan. Kocch, Pdneh.
-I {Arabic, . Khamsat. Garo, . . Bo-ngd.
Bask, . . Bost, bortz. [ Kdchdri, . Man-bd, mun-bd.
Finnic, . Wiisi. Munipuri, . Manga.
Magvar, . Ot. Mfthdn Ndgd, A-gd.
Turkish, . Besh. Tablung Ndgd, Ngd.
Circassian, Tpey. Khdri Ndgd, . Pha-ngd.
Georgian, Khouthi, tzilo-ku. Angdini Ndgd, Pa-ngu.
Mongolian, Tebun, lvet,'\ samfolenka,% Ndmsdng Ndgd, Ba-ngd.
Mantshu, Soundelia, u-gae* [tunya,§ Nowgong Ndgd, Pu-ngu.
Javanese, Ngoko, Lima. [degen.\\ Tengsa Ndgd, Phu-ngu.
Javanese, Krama, Gangsal. Abor Miri, . Pili-ngo-ko.
Malav, . . . Lima. Sibsdgar Miri, U-ngo.
Deoria Chutia, Dugu-mua.
Chinese, Nankin, Wu. [Singpho, . . Ma-ngd.
Chinese, Pekin, Wu.
Chinese, Canton, 'ng- ■- Burman (written). Ngd (gnd).
Chinese, Shanghai 'tig- i Burman (spoken), Ngd (gnd).
Amov, Colloquial, Go. Khyeng v. Shou Nghau (gnau).
[ Japanese, Lts', itsuts', go. Kdmi, . . Pang-gnd.
Kumi, . . Pan.
Brahuf, Panj. Mru v. Toung, Ta-ngd.
Gydmi, Wu, un'tku. [ Sdk, . . Ngd (gnd).
Gydrung, . Kung-gno. [ Talain v. Mon, Pa-tson.
Tdkpa, . Lid-gno. Sgau-karen, Yai.
Mdnyak, . Gnd-bi. Pwo-karen, Yed.
Thochu, . Wan. Toungh-thu, N%dt (gndt).
Sokpa, . . T/idbd. Shdn, . . Ha (Ad ?).
Horpa, Gwe. Annamitic, Nam.
Tibetan (written), Hnd. Siamese, . Hd, kgnd.
Tibetan (spoken), Gnd. Ahom, . . Hd.
Khdmti, . Hd.
Serpa, . . Gnd. Laos, . . Hd.
Sunwdr, . Gno.
Gurung, Gnd. Ho (Kol), Moya.
Murmi, Gnd. Kol (Singhbhum Moya.
Magar, Bagnd, bangd. Santdli, . Mane (mone ?).
Thdksya, . Gnd. Bhiimij, Monaya.
Pdkhya, . Pdelt. Urdon, Panje gotang.
Newdr, Gnd. Mundala, . Moria.
Limbu, Gnds/i. Rdjmahali, Pdneh.
Gondi, . . Saijhan, seiung.
Kirdnti, Gnd-yd. Gayeti, Seiyung.
Rodong, . . Gnd-ra. ■5 Rutluk, . Seiyu.
Rungchenbung, Gnd-yd. Naikude, . Pdneh.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. Kolami, Aidu.
Ndchhereng, Gna-kbhou. .5 Mddi, . . Aigu, siyu, hium, heingu.
Wdling, . Gnd-yak. Mddia, . . Heigi.
Ydkha, . Gnd-hi. Kuri, . . Maneiku.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, . Any.
Kulungya, Gnd-ehi. Khond, Pdnehu.
Thulungya, Gno, gtw-lo. Sdvara, Mollayi.
Bdhingya, . Gno. Gadaba, . Ayidu.
Lohorong, Gnd-ehi. Yerukala, . Anju.
Lambichhong, Caret. [ Chentsu, . Pdneh.
Bdlali, . . Gnd-ji. Tamij, anc, A'-in/lu.
Sdng-pdng, Gnd-kabo. Tamil, m<xl., Aindu (anju).
Diimi, . . Bhuong. Malayalma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Bhong. Malaydjma, mod. A'neha.
[ Dungmdli, Gnd-ehi. Telugu, . . Aidu.
Ddrhi, . . Pdneh. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwar, . Pdneh. Karndtaka, mod. Aidu.
Pahri, . . Gno, gnong-gu. Tuluva, A'yinu.
Chepdng, . Puma-zho, puma-zyo. Kurgi, . . Anji.
Bhrdmu, . Ba-gnd. Toduva, > Yaj.
Vdyu, . . U-ning, kolu-got-kulltp. Toda, j Utsh.
Kuswar, . J'aneh. Kdta, . . Anje.
Kusunda, . Pa-gndng-jam;. Badaga, Eidu.
Thdru, . . Pdehe. Kurumba, Eidu.
Iruja, . . Eindu.
Lepchai (Sikkim), Pha-gnon. Malabar, . /nthu.
BMtan :i v. Lhopa, Gnd. [ Sinhalese, . Pahai.
3« SIX—SECHS—SIX—CHEST'—SEX. [CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.

Types. Bodo, Man-do.


(Sanskrit, Shash. Dhimdl, Tit-long.
(Arabic, . Sitt'at. Kocch, Choi.
Garo, Krok.
Bask, . Set. Kdchdri, Man-do, mun-do.
Finnic, .... Kuusi. Munipuri, . . Taruk.
Magvar, .... , Hat. Mfthdn Ndgd, A'-rok.
Turkish, .... Alti. Tablung Ndgd, Vok.
Circassian, . . . Shu. Khdri Ndgd, . Ta-rok.
Georgian, . . . Ekousi, ekwisi, ankal-ga* > Angdmi Ndgd, So-ru.
Mongolian, . . . Jhir-goghan, kof,\ mot-to,% Ndmsdng Ndgd, I-rok.
Mantshu, . . . Ninggoun, lu-gae* nue-un,§ Nowgong Ndgd, Ta-rok.
Javanese, Ngoko, . Nem, nenem. gedin.\\ Tengsa Ndgd, The-lok.
Javanese, Krama, . Nem, nenem. Abor Miri, A-ke-ko.
Malav Anam. Sibsdgar Miri, A-kunge.
Chinese. Nankin, . Luh. Deoria Chutia, Dug-uehu.
Chinese, Pekin, Lin. Singpho, Kru
Chinese, Canton, . Luk. [ Burman (written), . . Khyok.
Chinese, Shanghai, Loh. Burman (spoken), . . . Khyauk.
Amov, Colloquial, . Ldk. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Sauk.
[ Japanese, . . . Mitts', tiiu, roktt. Kdmi, Ta-tt.
Kiimi, Ta-ru.
Brahuf, .... Shash. Mni v. Toung, . . . Ta-ru.
[ Gydmi, . . . Lit, luku. Sdk, Khyauk.
Gydrung, . . . Ku-tok. f Talain v. Mon, . . . Ka-roung.
Tdkpa, . . . Kro.
Mdnyak, . . . Tru-bi. 5 Sgau-karen, .... Khu.
Pwo-karen, .... Khu.
Thochii, . . . Khatdre. Toungh-thu, .... Ther.
Sokpa, . . . . Chorka. Shdn, Hoht(/wk?).
Horpa, . . . Chho. Annamitic, .... Sau.
Tibetan (written), Druk, dug. Siamese, Hok.
2 Tibetan (spoken), Thu. 5 Ahom, Ruk.
Serpa, . . . . Khdmti, Hok.
Tuk. Laos, Hok (hoht ?).
Sunwar, . . . Ruk.
Giirung, . . . Tu. Ho (Kol), .... Turiiia.
Miirmi, . . . Dhu. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Tu-ria.
Magar, . . . Caret. Santdli, Tu-ru-i.
Thdksya, . . . Tu. Bhrimij, Tu-ru-ya.
Pdkhya, . . . Chha. Urdon, Se-gotan.
I Newar, . . . Khu. Mundala, Tu-ria.
Limbu, . . Tuksh. Rdjmahali, .... Chah.
Gondi, Sdrong, sdritg.
[ Kiranti, . . . Tuk-ya. Gayeti, Sdrting.
Rodong, . . . Tuk-ara. Rutluk, Sdrug.
Rungchenbung, . Tuk-ya. Naikude, Saha (sdha ?).
Chhingtdngya, . Caret. Kolami, A'r.
Ndchhereng, . . Caret. Mddi, Aru, sdrum, sdru, /idrum.
Wdling, . . . Titk-yak. Mddia, Harug.
I Ydkha, Tuk-ehi. Kuri Ttt-rei-ku.
Chourdsya, . Caret. Keikddi, A'r.
Kulungya, Tuk-ehi. Khond, So.
Thulungya, Ru, ro, ru-le. Sdvara, Kttdru.
I Bdhingya, . . Ritk-ka. Gadaba, Aru.
Lohorong, Tuk-ehi. Yerukala, A'ru.
Lambichhong, Caret. Chentsu, Chhe.
Bdldli, . . . Tuk-ehi.
Sdng-pang, . Tamil, .inc, .... Caret.
Tuk-kabo. Tamil, mod A'ru.
Dumi, . . . Rd-wong. Malaydjma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, . . Re.
[ Dungmdli, Malaydlma, mod., . . A'ra.
Tuk-ehi. Telugu, A'ru.
■siDdrhi, . . . Chdh. Karudtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwar, . . Chdh. Karndtaka, mod., . . A'ru.
f Pahri, . . . Khu, khung-git. Tujuva, Aji (dji ?).
Chepdng, . . Kruk-zho, kruk-zyo. Kurgi, A'ru.
Bhrdmu, . . Caret. Toduva,) .... Or.
Vayu, . . . Chhu-niug. Toda, } .... A'r.
Kuswar, . . Chdh. Kdta, A're.
Kusunda, . . Caret. Badaga, A'ru.
=5 Thdru, . . . Chha. Kurumba, .... Aru.
Irula, A'ru.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Ta-rok. Malabar, Aru.
Bhutani v. Lhopa, Dhu. Sinhalese, Hayai.
CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.] SEPT—SIEBEN—SEVEN—SEM'—SEPTEM. 39

. Types. Bodo, . . . Man-sini.


Dhimdl, . . Nhi-long.
| (Sanskrit, Saptan. Kocch, . . Sdt.
«| (ARABIC, Sabaat. Garo, . . . Si-ning.
Bask, . Zazpi. Kdchdri, . . Man-shim, mun-shini.
Finnic, Seitsemdn. Munipuri, Taret.
Magvar, Neb. Mfthdn Ndga, A'-nath.
Turkish, Yedi. Tablung Ndgd, Nit/t.
Circassian, Dley. Khdri Ndgd, . Ta-ni.
Georgian, Shwidi, giuht-ku. * Angdmi Ndgd, T/ie-tie.
Mongolian, Dologhan, labef,\ seiba,% Ndmsdng Ndga, I-ngit.
Mantshu, Nadan, szi-gae* biad-uit,§ Nowgong Ndgd, Ta-net.
Javanese, Ngoko, Pitu. \.d<rinr.\\ Tengsa Ndgd, T/ia-nyet.
Javanese, Krama, Pitu. Abor Miri, . Ku-nit-ko.
Malav, . . . Tujuh. Sibsdgar Miri, Ku-nide.
Deoria Chutia, Dug-uehi (?).
Chinese, Nankin, Ts'fh. Singpho, . .
Chinese, Pekin, Si-nith.
Ch'i.
Chinese, Canton, Ts'at. Burman (written), Khwan-nhaeh.
Chinese, Shanghai Ch'ih. Burman (spoken), Khun-nith.
Amov, Colloquial, clnt. Khyeng v. Shou. S'he.
[ Japanese, Nanats', nana, sehi-ehi. Kdmi, . . . Sa-ri.
Kumi, . . . Sa-ru.
Brahuf, Haft. Mru v. Toung, Ra-nhit.
Gydmi, Chhi, ehhi-ku. Sdk, . . . Tha-ni.
Gyarung, Kush-nes. Talain v. Mon, Kha-pau.
Tdkpa, Ms. Sgau-karen, . Nwi.
Mdnyak, Skwi-bi. Pwo-karen, Mvat.
Thochu, Stdre. Toungh-thu, . Nwot.
Sokpa, Tolo. Shdn, . . . Tsit.
Horpa, Zne. Annamitic, . Bay.
Tibetan (written), Bdun. Siamese, . . Tsit, ehet.
Tibetan (spoken), Dun. s Ahom, . . . Tsit, ehet.
Khdmti, . . Tset.
Serpa, . Dvun. Laos, . . . Tset.
Sunwdr, Cha-ni.
Gurung, Nis. Ho (Kol), A'ia.
Murmi, Nis. 'Kol (Singhbhum 7yd.
Magar, Caret. Santdli, E-d-e, i-atr.
Thdksya, Gnes. Bhiimij, . Sdth.
Pdkhya, Sdt. Urdon, Sdt-gotang.
Newdr, Nhe. Mundala, . Sdth.
Limbu, Nush. Rdjmahali, Sdth.
Gondi, Yenu, yetu, yedung.
Kirdnti, Bhagya. Gayeti, Yerung.
Rodong, Rdikara. Rutluk, . Erug.
Rungchenbung, Bhangya. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. Kolami, . Yed.
Ndchhereng, Caret. Mddi, . . Sdtte, yedu, eirum.
Wdling, . Caret. Mddia, . Sdth.
Ydkha, . Nuehi. Kuri, . . Yeiku.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, . Yal.
Kulungya, Nuehi. Khond, Sdta.
Thulungya, Ser, seren, serle. Sdvara, Gulji.
Bdhingya, Chani. Gadaba, . Yedu.
Lohorong, Nuehi. Yerukala, . Yegtt, vogu.
Lambichhong, Caret. Chentsu, . Sdt.
Bdldli, . . Nuj'i. Tamil, anc, . Ezh.
Sdng-pdng, Mt-kabo. Tamil, mod., . Ezhu.
Diimi, . . Re. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Tar. Malaydjma, mod., Ezha.
[ Dungmdli, Caret. Telugu, . . . Yedu.
' Ddrhi, . Sdt. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, Sdt. Karndtaka, mod., Yelu.
Pahri, . Nhe, nhengu. -5 Tuluva, . . El.
Chepdng, Chana-zho, ehana-zyo. Kurgi, . . . Elu.
Bhrdmu, Caret. Toduva,') EL
1 Toda, j El.
Vdyu, . Caret.
Kuswar, Sdt. Kdta, . . . Yeye.
Kusunda, Caret. Badaga, . . Yellu.
Thdru, . Sat. Kurumba, Yellu.
Iruja, . . . Elu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Ka-kyot. Malabar, . . Elu.
Bhiitani v. Lhopa, Dun. Sinhalese, Hatai.
40 [CHAP. 1.—NUMERALS.

Types. Bodo, . . Man-jot (?).


if. Dhimdl, . Yelotig.
J Sanskrit, Ashtan. Kocch, A'th.
(Arabic, . Thamdniat. Garo, . Chet.
Bask, . . Zortzi. Kdchdri, . Man-jot, mun-jot.
Finnic, . Kahdeksan. Munipuri, Nipdl.
Magvar, . Nyole, nioltz.* Mfthdn Ndgd, A'-ehet.
Turkish, . Sekiz. Tablung Ndgd, Thath.
Circassian, Yi. Khdri Ndgd, . Sa-e/iet.
Georgian, Rua, moekbeg-gu* Angdmi Ndgd, The-tha.
Mongolian, Nemen, nilla,\ sitereta,X Ndmsdng Ndgd, J-sat.
Mantshu, Dehakon, ba-ya.* [gig-in,\ Nowgong Ndgd, Te.
Javanese, Ngoko, Wolu. [didr.\\ Tengsa Ndgd, The-sep.
Javanese, Krama, Wolu. Abor Miri, . Pit-nit-ko.
Malav, . . . Daldpan. Sibsdgar Miri, Pin-ye.
s Deoria Chutia, Dug-uehe.
Chinese, Nankin, Pah. [Singpho, . . Mat-sat.
Chinese, Pekin, Pa.
Chinese, Canton, Pdt. Burman (written), Rhaeh.
Chinese, Shanghai, Peh. Burman (spoken), Shyet, shyit.
Amov, Colloquial, Poeh. Khyeng v. Shou Sat.
[ Japanese, Yats1, yatsu, ha-ehi. h Kdmi, . . . Kayd.
Kiimi, . . . Tayd.
Brahuf, Hasht. Mru v. Toung, Riydt.
Gydmi, Pa, ha-ku. -- [Sdk, . . • Atseit.
Gydrung, . Oryet. Talain v. Mon, Khasan.
Tdkpa, Gyet. Sgau-karen, . Kho.
Mdnyak, . Zibi. Pwo-karen, . Kho.
Thochii, . Khrare. Toungh-thu, . That.
Sokpa, . . Nema. Shdn, . . . Tet.
Horpa, Rhi-ee. Annainitic, . Tam.
Tibetan (-utritten), lirgyud, syitd, doehad. Siamese, . Pet, tet.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Gye. Ahom, . . . Pet.
Khdmti, . . Pet.
[ Serpa, . . Gye. Laos, . . ■ Pet.
Siinwar, Zoh. Prilia.
Glirung, . Pre, re. [ Ho (Kol), .
Kol (Singhbhum), Mia.
Miirmi, Pre. Santdli, . Iral.
Magar, Caret. A'th.
Thdksya, . Bhre. Bhiimij,
Urdon, A'te.
Pdkhya, A'th, A'th.
Newdr, Chyd. Mundala, .
Rdjmahali, A'th.
Limbu, Yds/t. Anamur, yermud.
Gondi,
Kirdnti, Reya. Gayeti, Yermud.
Rodong, . Bhok-kara. Rutluk, Armur.
Rungchenbung, Reya. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. Kolami, A'th.
Ndchhereng, Caret. 5 Mddi, . . A'tte, atu, ermadi.
Wdling, . Caret. Mddia, At.
Ydkha, . Yeehi. Kuri, . . Ilarku, ilariya.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, . Yet.
Kulungya, Reehi. Khond, A'ta (ata ?).
Thulungya, Yen, yet, yetle, Sdvara, Tamuji.
Bdhingya, . Yd. Gadaba, . Yenimide.
Lohorong, Yeehi. Yerukala, . Yettit, vattu.
Lambichhong, Caret. [ Chentsu, . A'th.
Bdldli, . . Yeehi. [' Tamil, anc, Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Re-kabo. Tamil, mod., Ettu.
Diimi, . Ri. Malaydlma, Caret.
Khdling, . Rin. Malaydlma, mod Etta.
[ Dungmdli, Caret. Telugu, . . . Enimidi.
fDdrhi, . . A'th. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . A'th. Karndtaka, mod., Yetitu.
Pahri, . . Chya, ehyang-gu. Tuluva, Ename.
Chepang, . Prap-zho, prap-zyo. Kurgi, . . Ettu.
Bhrdmu, . Caret. Toduva,) Ett.
Vdyu, . . Caret. Toda, ) Ett.
Kuswar, A'th. Kdta, . . Yette.
Kusunda, . Caret. Badaga, . Yettit.
[ Thdru, . . A'th. Kurumba, Yettu.
Irula, . . Yeitu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Ka-ku. Malabar, . Ettu.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Gye. [ Sinhalese, Atai.
CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.]

Types. Bodo, . Man-shi-ko (?).


■a (Sanskrit, I Dhimdl, Kuha-long.
Navan. Kocch, Nau.
* (Arabic, . Tessaat. Garo, . /«■
Bask, . . Bederatzi, bedratzi. Kdchdri, Man-shi-ko, mun-shi-ko.
Finnic, Yhdeksan. Munipuri, Mdpal.
Magvar, . Kilene. Mfthdn Ndgd, A'-ku.
Turkish, . Dokuz. Tablung Ndgd, Thu.
Circassian, Bughu. Khdri Ndgd, . Te-ku.
Georgian, Tskhra, utsgu* Angdmi Ndgd, Tha-ku.
I Mongolian, Yisun, killien,\ nayma- Ndmsdng Ndgd, I-khu.
Mantshu, Oityoun,dshugae.*l(omrna.+ Nowgong Ndgd, Ta-ku.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sdngd. %iapkun,\ Tengsa Ndgd, Tha-ku.
Javanese, Krama, Sdngd. dgiur- Abor Miri, . Ko-nang-ko.
Malav, . . . Samb'ttan. diar.W Sibsdgar Miri, Ko-tiange.
I Deoria Chutia, Dugu-ehu-ba.
Chinese, Nankin, Kiu.
Chinese, Pekin Singpho, . . Tse-khu.
Chiu.
Chinese, Canton, Kau. Burman (written), Ko.
Chinese, Shanghai Kiu. Burman (spoken), Ko.
Amov, Colloquial, Kdu. Khyeng v. Shou Ko.
Japanese, Ku, kokono, kokonots'. *1 Kdmi,
Kiimi, .
. Ta-ko.
Ta-kau.
Brahuf, Nuh. Mru v. Toung, Ta-ku.
Gydmi, Sdk, . Ta-fu.
Chyu, ehyuku.
Gydrung, . Kung-gu. Talain v. Mon, Kha-si.
Tdkpa, Du-gu. Sgau-karen, Kwi, hkwi.
Mdnyak, . Gu-bi. Pwo-karen, Kwi.
Thochd, . Rgu-re. Toungh-thu, Kut.
Sokpa, . Yeso. Shdn, . Kaut.
Horpa, Go. Annamitic, Kyin.
Tibetan (written) Dgu. h Siamese, Kau, kaut.
Tibetan (spoken), Guh. .■=s Ahom, . Kau.
3 Khdmti, Kau.
Serpa, . . Guh. Laos, . Kau.
Sunwdr, . Guh.
G lining, . Kith. Ho (Kol) Arred.
Miirmi, Kith. Kol (Si nghbhum), A'red.
Magar, Caret. Santdli, A're.
Thdksya, . Ku. Bhumij, Nau.
Pdkhya, . Nau. Urdon, No-gotang.
Newdr, Gun. Mundala, Noko.
Limbu, Phangsh. Rdjmahali. Nau.
Gondi, No, nau.
Kirdnti, Phang-ya. Gayeti, Nau.
Rodong, . Kipttra. Rutluk, Caret.
Rdngchenbung, Phang-ya, wang-pop. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. Kolami, Nau.
Ndchheren; Caret. Mddi, . Nawe, ermtt, tumadi.
Wdling, . Caret. Mddia, Nau.
Ydkha, . Phang-ehi. Kuri, . Areiku.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, Wamberu.
Kulungya, Bong-ehi. Khond, Nogattd.
Thulungya, Gu, gu-le. Sdvara, Tinji.
Bdhingya, . Ghu. Gadaba, Tommidi.
Lohorong, Bdng-ehi. Yerukala, Ombadu.
Lambichhong, Caret. Chentsu, Lo, totd.
Mdli, . . Bdng-ji.
Sdng-pdng, Caret. Tamil, ane Onbakadu.
Dumi, . Caret. Tamil, mod Onbadu.
Khdling, . Ghu. Malaydlma, ane Caret.
Dungmdli, Caret. Malaydjma, mod Ombata.
Telugu, . . Tommidi.
Ddrhi, . . No-t't. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . No-u. Karndtaka, mod. Ombhattu.
Pahri, . . Gun, gitn-gu. Tujuva, Orambo.
Chepdng, . Taku-zho, taku-zyo. Kurgi, . Oyimbadu.
Bhrdmu, . Caret. Toduva, ) Onfiod.
Vdyu, . . Caret. Toda, I Anpath.
Kuswar, . No-u. Kdta, . Vorupdde.
Kusunda, . Caret. Badaga, Vombattu.
Thdru, . . Nau. Kurumba, Vombattu.
Iruja, . Vombadu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Ka-kyot. Malabar,
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Onpathu.
Gu. Sinhalese, Nawanama.
42 DIX—ZEHN—TEN—DESYAT'—DECEM. [CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.

Types. Bodo, . . Man-ji.


Dhimdl, . Te-long.
'« \ Sanskrit, Damn. Kocch, Das.
(Arabic, Aasherat. Garo, . . Chi.
fBAsk, . . Amar. Kdchdri, . Man-ji, mun-ji.
Finnic, . Kymmenen. Munipuri, Tard.
Magvar, . Tiz. Mfthdn Ndgd, Ban.
Turkish, . On. Tablung Ndgd, Pan.
Circassian, Tsey. Khdri Ndgd, . Ta-rah.
Georgian, A(hi, entzelgu* Angdmi Ndgd, Kurr.
Mongolian, Arban, yang,\ bi,% ziun,§ Ndmsdng Ndgd, I-ehi.
Mantshu, Dehouan, sehi.* [entzelgu. \\ Nowgong Ndgd, larr.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sapuluh. Tengsa Ndgd, The-lu.
Javanesf, Krama, Saddsd. Abor Miri, . U-ing-ko.
Malav, . . . Piilith, sapuluh. Sibsdgar Miri, U-ying-e.
Chinese, Nankin, Shih. Deoria Chutia, Dugu-ehuba-dugshe.
Chinese, Pekin, Shih. Singpho, . . Si.
Chinese, Canton, Shop. - Burman (written), Chhe.
Chinese, Shanghai Seh. Burman (spoken), S'he, ia-fse, shai.
Amov, Colloquial, Chdp. Khyeng v. Shou Hi.
[ Japanese, Djiu, to, tsuds'. h Kdmi, . . . Hd-suh.
Kumi, . . . Hau.
Brahuf, Dah. Mni v. Toung, Hd.
Gydmi, . . Ish-sa. Sdk, . . . Si-stt.
Gydrung, . . Sih. Talain v. Mon, Tsau.
Tdkpa, . . Pehi. Sgau-kareri, . Tsi, ta-tsi.
Mdnyak, . . Che-ehi-bi. Pwo-karen, . L'tsi.
Thochu, . . Hadure. Toungh-thu, . Tah-si.
Sokpa, . . . A'rba. Shdn, . Tseit.
Horpa, . . Sga. Annamitic, Muoi.
Tibetan (written) Br/iu, ehu-ihamba. Siamese, . . Sip, htseit.
Tibetan (spoken), Chuh, ehu-thamba. Ahom, . . . Sip.
Khdmti, . . Sip.
Serpa, . . Chuh. Laos, . . . Sip.
Sunwdr, . Sa-shi.
Gurung, . Chuh. Ho (Kol), . Gel.
Murmi, Chi-wai. Kol (Singhbhum Geled.
Magar, Caret. Santdli, . . Gela,
Thdksya, . Chyu. Bhvimij, . . Das.
Pdkhya, . Das. Urdon, . . Das-gotang.
Newdr, Sdnho. Mundala, . . Das-go.
Limbu, Gip, bong, ihi-bong. Rdjmahali, . Das.
Gondi, . . Pada, daha.
Kirdnti, . Kip. Gayeti, . . Daha.
Rodong, . Lip-ura. 1 Rutluk, . . Pad.
Rungchenbung, Kip, kip-u, dheuk-ya. Naikude, . . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. Kolami, . . Daha.
Ndchhereng, Caret. Mddi, . . . Daha, dase, pade.
Wdling, . Caret. Mddia, . . Das.
Ydkha, . I-bong, ik-bong. Kuri, . . . Gelku.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, . . Patu.
Kulungya, Uk-bong. Khond, . . Doso.
Thulungya, Kong-dvurn, kwong-dyum. Sdvara, . . Gal-iji (gel-iji?).
Bdhingya, . Kot-dvum, kwad-dvum. Gadaba, . . Padi.
Lohorong, Ip-pong. Yerukala, . . Pattu, pottu.
Lambichhong. Ip-pong. Chentsu, . . Das.
Bdldli, . . Ip-pong. Tamil, anc, . Orupakadu.
Sdng-pdng, Caret. Tamij, mod., . Pattu.
Diimi, . . Caret. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Tadham. Malaydlma, mod. Patta.
[ Dungmdli, Caret. Telugu, . . Padi.
Ddrhi, . . Das. Karndtaka, anc, Pattu.
Denwdr, . Das. Karndtaka, mod., Hattu.
Pahri, . . Gi,ging-git- ■3 Tujuva, . . Pattu.
Chepdng, . Gyib-zho, gyib-zyo. Kurgi, . . . Pattu.
Bhrdmu, . Caret. Toduva,) Pot.
Vdyu, . . Nayung-gof-khulup, i.e. two Toda, j Path.
Kuswar, Das. [whole hands. Kdta, . . . Patte.
Kusunda, . Caret. Badaga, . . Hattu.
Thdru, . . Das. Kurumba, Hattu.
Iruja, . . . Pattu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kati. Malabar, . . Pathu.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Cha-tham. Sinhalese, . . Dahadasa.
CHAP. I.—numerals.] VI N GT—ZWANZI G—TW E N T Y— DVADTSAT'—VI GINTI.
43

Types. I' Bodo, Chokai-ba, thai-khon, bisha-


5 J Sanskrit, . . • Vinsati. DhimdJ, Eiong-biska. [ehe.
<§, (Arabic, ..... Aasheroun. Kocch, Bis.
Garo, Rung-sha.
Bask, Ogei, ogoi. [ Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, .... Kaksikymmenda. [ Munipuri, .... Kul.
Magvar, .... IInsz. Mfthdn Nagd, . . . Chd.
Turkish, .... Yirmi, yighirmi. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Circassian, . . . Ot-shey. Khdri Ndgd, .... Ma-khi.
Georgian, . . . Ot-si, ots, kobbeggu.* Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Ma ku.
Mongolian, . . . Khorin, sitti-bi.% Ndmsdng Nagd, . . . Ruak-gni.
Mantshu, . . . Orin, ul-sehi* Nowgong Ndgd, . . Mat-su.
Javanese, Ngoko, . Rongpuluh likur. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Ma-ehi.
Javanese, Krama, . Kalihddsd likur. Abor Miri, .... Ir-ling-ko.
[ Malav, .... Duapuluh. Sibsagar Miri, . . . Uying-anyiko.
[ Chinese, Nankin, . Woh-shih, ar-shi. Deoria Chutia, . . . Caret.
•r Chinese, Pekin, Woh-shih. Singpho, Khun.
,5' Chinese, Canton, . l-shap. f Barman (written), . . Nhaeh-ehhe.
5 Chinese, Shanghai, Ni-e. Burman (s/>oken), . . . Nhit-fse, nhit-shai.
Amov, Colloquial, . Ji-ehdp. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Kur.
[ Japanese, . . . Ni-djiu, fatadsi. Kdmi, Ku-suh.
Kiiini, A-pum-re.
Brahm Bist. Mru v. Toung, . . . Pi-ra-mi.
[ Gydmi, . . Air-sa. Sdk, Hun.
Gydrung, . . Kinis-si. [ Talain v. Mon, Pa-sau.
h Tdkpa, . . Khali. Sgau-karen, . Ki-si, khi-tsi.
Mdnyak, . Nd-ehdbi. Pwo-karen, . Ni-tsi.
Thochu, . . . Gnina-so. Toungh-thu, . He.
Sokpa, . Khore. Shdn, . . . Htsoung.
Horpa, Na-ska. Annamitic, . Hai-mubi.
Tibetan (-.uritten), Nyi-ehuthamba, Siamese, Ye-sip, ya-fsit.
Tibetan (spoken), . Nyi-ehu. Ahom, Sau.
Khdmti, Sau.
[ Serpa, . . . . Nvi-shu. [ Laos, Sau-nung.
Siinwar, . . . Khal-ka,
Giirung, . Kuti. ' Ho (Kol), .... Hissi.
Murmi, . . . Nyi-shu. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Hissi.
Magar, Caret. Santdli, Mih-issi.
Thdksya, . . . Gni-yu. Bhumij, Bis.
Pdkhya, . . Bis. Urdon, Bis.
Newar, . . . Ni-e, sang-sanho. Mundala, Bis.
Limbu, . . . Ni-bong. Rajmahali, .... Bis.
Gondi, Bisa.
f Kirdnti, . . . Caret. Gayeti, Visa.
Rodong, . . . Caret. Rutluk, Caret.
Rungchenbung, . Caret. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . Caret. Kolami, Vis.
Ndchhereng, . . Caret. Mddi, Bis, visa, inva.
Wdling, . . . Caret. Mddia, Bis.
I Ydkha, . . . Hi-boug. Kuri, Bis.
Chourdsya, . . Caret. Keikddi, Vis.
Kulungya, . . Caret. Khond, Kode.
Thulungya, . Kong-usang, kwong-usang. Sdvara, Bo-kodi.
! Bahingya, . . A'sim, kwptig-dsiug. Gadaba, Yiruvai.
Lohorong, . . Ni-bong. Yerukala, Yiruvadu, yirapottu.
I Lambichhong, . Caret. Chentsu, Bis, patieh-ganda.
Bdldli, . . . . Caret. Tamil, ane Irupakuda.
Sdng-pdng, . . Caret. Tamil, mod Irubadu.
Diimi, . . . , Caret. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, . . . Khdl, khdl-tau, tau-khdl.
Dungmdli, , . Malaydlma, mod., . . Irupata.
Caret. Telugu, Iritvai.
fDdrhi, . . . . Bis. Karndtaka, anc, . , Caret.
Denwdr, . . . Bis. Karndtaka, mod., . . Ippattu.
i Pahri, . . . . Ni. Tuluva, Irvo.
Chepdng, . . . Caret. Kurgi, Iruvadu.
Bhrdrmu, . . . Caret. Toduva,) .... Ivvod.
Vdyu, . . . . Cholok-le-gof-kulup, i.e. Toda, ) .... Evoth.
Kuswar, . . . Bis. [fingers and toes. K(5ta, Irvdde.
1 Kusunda, . . , Caret. Radaga, Ibbatta.
[ Thdru, . . . . Bis. Kurumba, .... Ibbattu.
Iruja, Irvadu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kha-kdt. Malabar, Irupathu,
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Nyi-sho, khe-ehik. Sinhalese, Wist.
44 TRENTE— DREISZIG—TH I RT Y—TRI DTSAT'—TRIGINTA. [chap, I.—numerals.

Types. Bodo, . Caret.


(Sanskrit, Trinsat. Dhimdl, Caret.
| Kocch, Tis.
(Arabic, Thaldthoun.
Garo, . Rung-sha-ehi.
Bask, . . Ogeit-amar. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . Kolmekymmenda. Munipuri, Kunthra.
Magvar, . Harmine. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . Otuz. 1- Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, • Otsheyrey, hsirey. Khdri Ndgd, . Sam-rd.
Georgian', Otsda-athi, lowergu* Angdmi Ndgd, Surr.
Mongolian, Khuehin, nagor-bi.% Ndmsdng Ndgd, Ruak-ram.
Mantshu, Gosin, sang-sehi* Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Telungpuluh. I Tengsa Ndgd, Maehi-li-thelu.
Javanese, Krama Tigangddsa. Abor Miri, Uing-aomko.
Malav, . . . Tigapiiluh. Sibsdgar Miri, Uying-aumko.
Chinese, Nankin, San-shlh. Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, San-shih. Singpho, . . Tum-s't.
Chinese, Canton, Sdm-shap. Burman (written), Sung-ehhe.
1 Chinese, Shanghai San-seh. Burman (spoken), T/iong-fse, t/ion-s/iai.
-5 Amov, Colloquial, San-ehdp. Khyeng v. Shou Tun-gip.
Japanese, . . San-djiu, misodsi. Kdmi, . . Ru-ithun.
Kumi, . . Mphd-i-re.
Brahuf, . . . Si. Mni v. Toung. Tsum-gaum.
Gydmi, . . . Sdn-sa. Sdk. . . Thon-si.
Gyarung, . . . Ka-sam-si. Talain v. Mon, Pe-tson.
Tdkpa, . . . Caret. Sgau-karen, T/iu-tsi, theh-tsi.
Mdnyak, . . . Sd-ehd-bi. Pwo-karen, Thung-tsi.
Thochu, . . . Kshyd-so. 1 Toungh-thu, Thung.
Sokpa, . . . Koehhen. Shdn, . . Htsan/ilsict.
Horpa, . . . Sus-ka. Annamitic, Bamubi.
Tibetan (written), Sum-ehu-thamba. h Siamese, . Sdm-sip.
Tibetan (spoken), . Sum-ehu. Ahom, Sam-sip.
Khdmti, . Sdm-sip.
[ Serpa, .... Sum-e/iu. [ Laos, . . Sdm-sip.
Sunwar, Sa-si-sdn.
Gurung, . . . Caret. Ho (Kol), Dosi.
Murmi, . . . Bokal-ehe-shu. Kol (Singhbh uni Hissigeled.
Magar, . . . Caret. Santdli, . Hissigel.
Thdksya, . . - Som-bu. Bhumij, Moy-hissi-dasti.
Pdkhya, . . . Tis. Urdon, Dedh-kudi.
Newar, . . . Ni-sdnho, siiye. Mundala, Tis.
Limbu, Sum-bong. Rdjmahali, Tis.
Gondi, Tis, tisa.
Kirdnti, . . . Caret. Gayeti, Tisa.
Rodong, . . Caret. Rutluk, Caret.
Rungehenbung, . Caret. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . Caret. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Caret. Mddi, . . Tis, ded/t-7'isa.
Wdling, Caret. Mddia, Dedha-kodi.
Ydkha, . Sum-bong. Kuri, . . Tis.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, . Cannot eount above twenty.
Kulungya, Caret. Khond, Tirisigotta.
Thulungya, Kwong-usang-kodvum. Sdvara, Bokodigaliji.
Bdhingya, K'diong-asing-kot^dvum. Gadaba, . Muppai.
6 Yerukala, . Muppadu.
Lohorong, Sum-bong.
Lambichhong. Caret. Chentsu, . Sdt-gandd-doyieha.
Bdldli, . . Caret. Tamil, anc, Mupakudu.
Sdng-pdng, Caret. Tamii, mod Muppadu.
Dumi, . . Caret. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Tadham-khdl-tau. Malaydlma, mod., Muppata.
Dungmdli, Caret. Telugu, Muppai.
Ddrhi, . . Tis. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Tis. Karndtaka, mod Miivattu.
Pahri, . . Sun (san ?). Tuluva, Muppo.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . Nuppadu.
Bhrdmu, . Caret. Toduva,) Mupped.
(5 Vdyu, . . Caret. Toda, ) Mubath.
Kuswar, . Tis. Kdta, . Muvatte.
Kusunda, . Caret. Badaga, Muvattu.
Thdru, . Tis. Kurumba, Muvattu.
Iruja, . Mubbadu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kha-kdt-sa-kati. Malabar, Muppathu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Khe-pheddni. Sinhalese, Tihai, tis.
CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.] QUARANTE—VIERZIG— FORTY— SOROK—QUADRAGINTA. 45

Types. M Bodo, Bisha-gne.


? Dhimdl, .... Nhe-bisa, gne-long-bisha.
■S (Sanskrit, Chatwdrinsat. Kocch Chdlis.
<^ (Arabic, . Arbaaoun. Garo, Rung-ning.
Bask, . . Berrogei. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . Neljdnkymmenda. Munipuri, . . . . Niphu.
Magvar, . Negyven. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Pan-yi.
Turkish, . Keurk. Tablung Ndgd, . . Caret.
Circassian, Ot-shitk. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Li-rah.
Georgian, Ormotsi, kokawti* Angdmi Ndgd, . . Lhide.
Mongolian, Tuehin, tietta-bi.% s Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . Ruak-beli.
Mantshu, Dekhi, sig-sehi* Nowgong Ndgd, Li-ri.
Javanese, Ngoko, Pitangpuluh. Tengsa Ndgd, . Mesung-annat.
Javanese, Krama, Kawanddsd. RS Abor Miri, . . . Uing-apie.
Malav, . . . Ampatpuluh. 3 Sibsagar Miri, . . Uying-apiko.
<3 Deoria Chutia, . . Caret.
Chinese, Nankin, Sze-shlh. Singpho, .... . Mli-si.
Chinese, Pekin, Sze-shih.
Chinese, Canton, Sze-shap. « Burman (written), Le-ehhe.
Chinese, Shanghai Sz'-seh. Burman (spoken), . . Le-tse, le-zhai.
Amov, Colloquial, Si-ehdp. Khyeng v. Shou, . Lhi-gip.
Japanese, Si-djiu, shi-jiu, yosodsi. Kdmi, Ku-i-mali.
E Kumi, Wu-palu-ri.
Brahuf, . . CM. ■§ Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
a
fc L Sdk, Pri-si.
[ Gydmi, . . Syii-sa.
Gydrung, . . Kaplis-si. ' Talain v. Mon, . . Pon-tson.
Tdkpa, . . Caret. Sgau-karen, . . . Lwi-si.
Mdnyak, . . Zyi-zd-bi. Pwo-karen, . . . Li-tsi.
Thochu, . . Ghyi-so. § Toungh-thu, . . . . Lit.
Sokpa, . . Teehe. K • Shdn, . Btse-htsiet.
Horpa, . . Les-kd. Annamitic, . . . Bon-mubi.
Tibetan (written), 'Rzhib-ehu, shi-ehu-ihamba. h Siamese, .... . Si-sip, tsi-tsit.
Tibetan (spoken), Hip-ehu. Ahom, Si-sip.
Khdmti, .... Si-sip.
Serpa, . . . Hip-ehu. Laos, Si-sip.
Siinwdr, . Khdk-ne-shi. Bar-hissi.
Caret. Ho(Kol), . . .
Gurung, . . Kol (Singhbhum), . Bdr-hissi.
Miirmi, . • Bokal-nhi. Bdr-issi.
Caret. Santdli, ....
Magar, . . Bhumij, .... Bdr-issi.
Thdksya, . . Blib-yu. Bisend.
Chdlis. Urdon, ....
Pdkhya, . . . Mundala, .... Bar-hissi.
Newdr, . . Su-sdnho, hi-ye. Chdlis.
Li-gip. Rdjmahali, . . .
Limbu, . . Gondi, .... . Rand-eisai, ehdlis.
Kirdnti, . . Caret. Gayeti, .... Caret.
Rodong, . . Caret. Rutluk, .... Caret.
Rdngchenbung, Caret. Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. Kolami, .... Caret.
Ndchhereng, Caret. Mddi, Ratid-visa, ehdlis.
Wdling, . Caret. Mddia, .... Rand kodi.
Ydkha, . Li-git. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Caret. Kcikddi Caret.
Kulungya, Caret. Khond, .... Chalisigotta.
Thnlungya, Araasang. Sdvara, .... Bdgukodi.
Bdhingya, Ni-paehi. Gadaba, .... Nalabhai.
Lohorong, Rik-pong. Yerukala Nalubadu.
Lambichhong, Caret. Chentsu, .... Poun, das-gartdd.
Bdldli, . . Caret. Tamil, anc, . . Ndrpakudtt.
Sdng-pdng, Caret. Tamil, mod., . . . Ndrpadu.
Diimi, . . Caret. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Khdl-sdkpo. Malaydlma, mod., . . Ndlpata.
Dungmdli, Caret. Telugu, .... Nalubai.
Chdlis. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Ddrhi, . . Karndtaka, mod., . . Ndlvattu.
Denwdr, . Chdlis.
Hi. Tuluva . Ndrpo.
Pahri, . . R;~ Kurgi Ndpadu.
Chepdng, . Caret.
Caret. Toduva,) . . . . Ndlvod.
Bhrdmu, . Toda, j . . . Narsh-bath.
Vdyu, . . Nayung-eholok. Nalvatte.
Kuswar, . Chdlis. K<5ta,
Caret. Badaga, .... Nalvattu.
Kusunda, . Kurumba, . . . Nalvattu.
Thdru, . . Chdlis. Ndbadu.
Iruja,
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kha-nyet. Malabar, .... . Ndtpathu.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Khe-ni. Sinhalese,. . . . . Hata-lis.
46 CINQUANTE—FUNFZIG—FIFTY—PYAT-DESYAT'—QUINQUAGINTA. [chap, I.—NUMerALs.

Types. Bodo, . . . Caret.


Dhimdl, . . Caret.
(Sanskrit, Paiiehdsat. \ Kocch. . . Paehds.
I (Arabic, . Khamsoun. Garo, . . Rung-tiing-ehi.
s
f Bask, Berrogeit-amar. Kdchdri, . . Caret.
Finnic, . . . . . Wiisikymmenda. f Munipuri, Ydtig-kai.
Magvar, btven. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, .... EM. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, .... Seynuk. Khdri Ndgd, . Ta-nam.
Georgian, .... Ormots-da-athi, kikaldans- Angdmi Ndgd, Ri-pangu.
Mongolian, .... Tebin, samfolenka-bi.% [he* Ndmsdng Ndgd, Ruak-bangd.
Mantshu, .... Sousai, ug-sehi* Nowgong Ndgd, Than-am.
Javanese, Ngoko, . . Se'ket. Tengsa Ndgd, Mesung-annat-te-thelu.
Javanese, Krama, . . Seket. Abor Miri, Caret.
Malav, Limapuluh. Sibsdgar Miri, Ungo-uyingko.
\ Chinese, Nankin, . Wu-sMh. Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Wu-shih. [Singpho, . . Mangd-si.
Chinese, Canton, . 'Ng-shap. Burman (written), Ngd-ehhe, gd-ehhe.
Chinese, Shanghai, 'Ng-selt. Burman (spoken), Ngd-tse, gd-tse, ngd-zhai.
1 Amov, Colloquial, . Go-ehdp. Khyeng v. Shou Nghau-gip.
[Japanese, . . . Go-djiu, isodsi. Kdmi, . Ku-i-pang-nga .
Kumi, . Wi-pd-ri.
Brahuf, Panjdh. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, Wii-sa. Sdk, . Nga-si.
Gydrung, Kungno-si. [ Talain v. Mon, Patsu-tson.
Tdkpa, Caret. Sgau-karen, Ya-i-su, yay-tsi.
Mdnyak, Gna-zd-bi. Pwo-karen, Yea-tsi.
Thochd, Was-so. 13 Tounghthu, Ngat.
Sokpa, Shd-ehe. 8 Shdn, . . Ha-htsiet.
K Annamitic, Nam-mitbi.
Horpa, Gwes-ka.
.8 Tibetan (written), . . Gna-ehuthamba, hnab-ehu. Siamese, . Hd-sip, hd-tsit.
5 Tibetan (spoken), . . . Gnap-ehii. Ahom, Hd-sip.
Khdmti, . Hd-sip.
Serpa, Gnap-ehu. [ Laos, . . Hd-sip.
Sunwdr, Khak-nishi-sasika. r Ho (Kol),
Giirung, Caret. Bar-hiss't-gel.
Murmi, Bokal-ni-shu-ehu. Kol (Singhbh um Bdr-hissi-gil.
Magar, Caret. Santdli, . Bdr-issi-gel.
Thdksya Gna-syu. Bhumij, Bdr-hissi-dasti.
Pdkhya, Paehds. Urdon, Dharihe-kodi.
Newdr, Pi-sdn/io, gnid-ye. Mundala, . Bdr-hissi-dasgo.
Limbu, Gna-gip. Rdjmahali, Paehds.
Gondi, Caret.
Kirdnti, Caret. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Caret. Rutluk, . Caret.
Rungchenbung, . . Caret. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . . . Caret. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, .... Caret. Mddi, . . Rand-visa-dahi.
I Wdling, Caret. Mddia, Adheikodi.
Ydkha, Gnd-gip. Kuri, . . Caret.
Chourdsya, .... Caret. Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, .... Caret. Khond, Panehdso.
Thulungya, .... Naasatig-ko-dyum. Sdvara, Bdgukodigaliji.
Bdhingya, .... Ni-paehi-kot-dyum. Gadaba, . Ydbhai.
Lohorong, .... Gnd-k-pong. Yerukala, . Anjara-kapottu.
Lambichhong, . . . Caret. Chentsu, . Bara-ganda-doyieha.
Bdldli, Caret. Tamil, anc, Aimbakudu.
Sdng-pdng, .... Caret. Tamil, mixl. Aimbadu.
Ddmi, Caret. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, Khdl-sdkpo-ladham . Malaydjma, mod., Ambata.
Dungmdli, .... Caret. Telugu, . . . Ydbai.
Ddrhi, Paehds. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, Paehds. Karndtaka, mod., Avivattu.
I Pahri, Nge-e. Tuluva, Ayiva.
Chepdng, Caret. Kurgi, . Eimbadu.
Bhrdmu, Caret. Toduva,) Erb-bod.
Vdyu, Caret. Toda, | Eboth.
Kuswar, Paehds. Kdta, . Eivatte.
Badaga, Eivattu.
I Kusunda, Caret.
Kurumba, Eivattu.
Thdru, Paehds.
Irula, . Ambadu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kha-nyet-sa-kdti. Malabar, Aimpathu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, K'/ie-pheddngsiim. Sinhalese, Panas.
CHAP. I.—NUMERALS.] CENT—HUNDERT— HUNDRED—STO—CENTUM. 47

Types. Bodo, . . Bisha-ba.


Dhimdl, . Nd-bisa, na-Iong-bisha.
| (Sanskrit, Satam. Kocch, Sau.
4, (Arabic, . Mdyat. Garo, . . Rung-bonga.
Bask, . . Eun. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . Sata. Munipuri, Chdmd.
Magvar, . Szaz. Mfthdn Ndgd, Pu-gd.
Turkish, . Yuz. p- Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Koshed. Khdri Ndgd, . Ru-krd.
Georgian, Asi, tiosku* Angdmi Ndgd, Kre.
Mongolian, Saghott, girr.\ Ndmsdng Ndgd, Chd-the.
Mantshu, Tanggo, ibai* Nowgong Ndgd, Ro-kru.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sdtiis. Tengsa Ndgd, Mesutig-phungu.
Javanese, Krama, Sdtus. Abor Miri, Caret.
Malav, . . . Rdtus, sdrdtus. Sibsdgar Miri, Uying-uyingko.
Chinese, Nankin, Plh, i-pe. Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Pai. Singpho, . . La-tsd.
Chinese, Canton, Pdk. Burman (written), Ta-rd.
Chinese, Shanghai Ih-pah. Burman (spoken), Ta-yi, ta-yd.
Amov, Colloquial, Chit-pah. Khyeng v. Shou, Kla-dt.
Japanese, Hiaku (?), momo. 4 Kdmi. . . . Ta-rd.
Kumi, . . . Chum-wd-ri.
Brahuf, Sad. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
[ Gydmi, I-pe. Sdk, . . . Ta-yd.
Gydrung, Par-ye. Talain v. Mon, Ka-lun.
Tdkpa, Caret. Sgau-karen, . Ti'sdh, tdgdyah.
Mdnyak, lej< Pwo-karen, . L'vah.
Thochu, Ak-shi. I Toungh-thu, . Ta-loyen.
Sokpa, Cho-vo. Shdn, . . . Hpat.
Horpa, Rhyd. Annamitic, . Mot-tram.
Tibetan (wriiten) Tsehd-thamba, gyd-thamba. Siamese, . . Roi, rde-nung.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Gyd, gyd-thdmbd. Ahom, . . . Pak.
Khdmti, . . Pdk.
Serpa, . Gyd. Laos, . . . Hoi.
Sunwar, Srvai-kd.
Gurung, Caret. Ho (Kol), Mi-sau.
Murmi, Bokal-gnd. Kol (Singhbhum), Moy-hissi.
Magar, Caret. Santdli, Matie-issi.
Thdksya, Bhra. Bhiimij, . Sau.
Pdkhya, Saya. Urdon, Se.
Newdr, Gun-sdnho, sat-ehi. Mundala, . Midso.
[ Limbu, Thi-bong-gip. Rdjmahali, Sau.
Gondi, Nur, so.
Kirdnti, Caret. Gayeti, Nur.
Rodong, Caret. Rutluk, . Caret.
Riingchenbung. Caret. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Caret. Mddi, . . Num.
Wdling, . Caret. Mddia, . Hein-kodi.
Ydkha, . Maknai-bong. Kuri, . . Chovi.
Chourdsya, Caret. ' Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, Caret. Khond, . Soho.
Thulungya, Gtw-sang. Sdvara, Molloyikodi.
Bdhingya, . Giw-asing. Gadaba, . Nuru.
Lohorong, Ip-pong-pong. Yerukala, . Pattu padula.
Lambichhong, Caret. Chentsu, . Pdtieh vodi (pdtieh koqif).
Bdldli, . . Caret. Tamil, anc, Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Caret. Tamil, mod. Nuru.
Diimi, . . Caret. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Khdl-bhong. Malaydlma, mod., Nura.
Dungmdli, Caret. Telugu, . . . Ndru, vanda.
Ddrhi, . . Sou. .■5 Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . So. Karndtaka, mod., Nuru.
Pahri, . . Sd-ehi. Tuluva, Nudu.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . Nuru.
Bhrdmu, . Caret. Toduva,) Onnur.
Vdyu, . . Uning-eholok, kolu-goi-eholok, Torla, } Vaddnur.
Kuswar, . Sou. [i.e. one seore of hands. Kdta, Nur.
Kusunda, . Caret. Nuru.
Thdru, . . Sau. Kurumba, Nuru.
Iruja, . . Nuru.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Khd-phd-gnon. Malabar, . Nuru.
Bhii{ini v. Lhopa, Khe-gnd. Sinhalese, . Siya.
4« JE—ICH— I—YA— EGO. [CHAP. II.— PRONOUNS.

Types. Bodo, . Anq.


Dhimdl, Kd.
(Sanskrit, Aham (asmat). Kocch, Mu-i.
(Arabic, . Ana. Garo, . A'ng.
!
Bask, Ni, nik, neu, neuk, neur, Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, Mina. [neurk. Munipuri, Ei.
Magvar, En. Mfthdn Ndgd, Ku.
Turkish Ben. Tablung Ndgd, Tau.
Circassian, . . . Sayray. Khdn Ndgd, . Ni.
Georgian, . . . Me. Angami Ndgd, A'.
i Mongolian, . . . Bi. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Ngd.
0 Mantshu, . . . Bi. Nowgong Ndgd, Nvi.
Javanese, Ngoko, . A'ku. Tengsa Ndgd, Ngai.
Javanese, Krama, Kula. Abor Miri, Ngo.
Malav, A'ku. I Sibsdgar Miri, Ngo.
Chinese, Nankin, . Wo. Deoria Chutia, A'n.
Chinese, Pekin, . Wo. Singpho, . . Ngai.
Chinese, Canton, . Ngo. \ Burman (written), Ngd.
Chinese, Shanghai, Ngu. Burman (spoken), Ngd.
Amov, Colloquial, . Gba. Khyeng v. Shou Kyi.
Japanese, . . . Ware, washi, ko-ehira, Kdmi, . . . Kd-i.
„ [kono-ho. Kiimi, . . . Kd-i.
Brahuf, .... Mru v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, . . . Gnl>. Sdk, . . . Caret.
■is
Gydrung, . . . Gnd, gnd-yo. Talain v. Mon, Au>ai.
Tdkpa, . . . Gne, nye. Sgau-karen, . Yd, yah.
Mdnyak, . . A'. Pwo-karen, . Yer.
Thochii, . . . Chi, kd. \ Toungh-thu, . Khwa.
Sokpa, . . . . Mi, bi, abu. Shdn, . . . Koung.
Horpa, . . . Gnd. Annamitic, Toi.
Tibetan (written), Nd. h Siamese, . . Khd.
[ Tibetan (spoken), . Gnyd. Ahom, . . Kau.
Khdmti, . . Kau.
Serpa, . . . Gnd. Laos, . . . Ku, ong.
Sunwdr, . . . Go.
Gurung, . Gnd. f Ho (Kol), . I'ng.
Murmi, . . . Gnd. Kol (Singhbhum Aing.
Magar, . . Gnd. Santdli, . . Ing, inge.
Thdksya, . . . Ghydng. Bhiimij, . . Ing.
Pdkhya, . . . Ma. Urdon, . . Enan.
Newdr, . . . Ji- Mundala, . . Ing.
Limbu, . . Ingd. Rdjmahali, En.
Gondi, . . . Mdnu, anna.
Kiranti, . . A'nka. Gayeti, . . Nana.
Rodong, . . Ka, ka-nga, ing-ka. Rutluk, . . Nan-na.
Rungchenbung, Arts;, awka, ung-ka. Naikude, . . An.
Chhingtdngya, A'kd. Kolami, . An.
Ndchhereng, . Kd, kdgnd. Mddi, . . . Nanna, nan.
Wdling, . . Ing-ka, ang-ka. Mddia, . . Ana.
Ydkha, . . Kd. Kuri, . In (ing?).
Chourdsya, . Unggu. Keikddi, . . Namt.
Kulungya, Ko-gnd. Khond, A'nu.
Thulungya, Go. Sdvara, . . Gtid.
I Bdhingya, Go. Gadaba, . Nai-sa.
Nd-nu.
Lohorong, Kd, kd gnd. Yerukala, .
I.ambichhong, Kd, kd-gnd. [ Chentsu, . . Hd-me, hd-mi.
BdMi, . . . Kd, kd-gnd. Tamil, anc, . Ydn.
Sdng-pdng, . Kdgnd. Tamil, mod., . Nan.
Diimi, . . . Ung, dnggnu. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . . Ung. Malaydlma, mod. Nydn.
[ Dungmdli, Ang-ka, ing-ka. Telugu, . . Ninu.
Ddrhi, . . . Md-i. Karndtaka, anc, A'n.
Denwdr, . Mu-i. Karndtaka, mod. Ndnu.
Pahri, . . . Nung, jd. s Tujuva, . . En.
Chepdng, . . Ngd. Kurgi, . . . Ndnu.
Bhrdmu, . Ngd. Toduva, ) One.
Vdyu, . . . Go. Toda, ) . A'nu.
Kuswar, . . Md-ha. Kdta, . . . A'ne.
Kusunda, . . Chi. Badaga, . . Nd, nd-nu.
I Thdru, . . . Hang. Kurumba, Nd, ndnu.
Iruja, . . . Ndnu, nd.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Go. Malabar, . . Ndn, ydn.
Bhiatdni v. Lhopa, Gnd. [ Sinhalese, . . Ma.
CHAP. II.— PRONOUNS.] TU—DU— T H O U—TI—TU.

Type ' Bodo, Nang.


■3 (Sanskrit, Dhimdl . Nd.
Twdm (twat, yushmat). ■ Kocch, .... . Tu-i.
<§, \ Arabic, . Atita. Garo, Nang.
[ Bask, . . Hi, hik ; zu, zuk. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . Sina. ' Munipuri, . . . Nung.
Magvar, . Te. Mfthdn Nagd, . . Nang.
Turkish, . Sen. Tablung Ndgd, . . Nang.
Circassian, VVeyru. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Nang.
Georgian, S/ien. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . No.
Mongolian, Tselii, tehi. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . Nangma.
Mantshu, Si. Nowgong Ndgd, . Nd.
Javanese, Ngoko, Kowe. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Nang.
Javanese, Krama, Sampeyan. Abor Miri, . . . . No-na.
Malav, . . . Angleau. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . No.
-2 Deoria Chutia, . . No, dni.
f Chinese, Nankin, Ni.
Chinese, Pekin, Ni. Singpho Nang, ni.
Chinese, Canton, Ni. ' Burman (written), . Nang, matig.
Chinese, Shanghai Nung. Burman (spoken), . . Nen, men.
Ahov, Colloquial, Lt. Khyeng v. Shou, . Nang.
[ Japanese, Nanji. Kdmi, . Nan.
Kiimi, . Nang.
Brahuf, Ni. Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
f Gydmi, Ni. . Sdk Caret.
Gydrung, . Sdn-re. ' Talain v. Mon, . . . Bai.
Tdkpa, . r. Sgau-karen, . . . . Nah, tha.
Mdnyak, . No. Pwo-karen, . . . . Ner.
Thochu, . Kwd, kwi. Toungh-thu, . . . . Nd.
Sokpa, . . Chhd. Shdn, Moung.
I Annamitic, . . . . Anh, mdii.
Horpa, Ni.
Tibetan (written), Kh^od. Siamese, .... Ren, tua, mung.
Tibetan (spoken), Khe. Ahom, . Mo.
Khdmti, .... Maii.
Serpa, . . Khyo. Laos, Toa.
Sunwdr, . Gai.
Gurung, . Ken. ' Ho (Kol), . . . . Um.
Murmi," . Ai. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Um (dm ?).
Magar, Ndng. Santdli, .... . A'm, umge.
Thdksya, . Gna. Bhumij, .... . A'm (am ?).
Pdkhya, . Ta. Urdon, .... . Ni-en.
Newar, Chha. Mundala, .... . A'm (am ?)
[ Limbu, Khene. Rdjmahali, . . . . Nin.
Gondi Imma, imme.
Kirdnti, Khand (khdna f). Gayeti, .... Ime.
Rodong, . Khdna. Rutluk, .... . Imd.
Riingchenbung, Khdna. ■ Naikude, .... Niwa.
Chhingtdngya, Hdna (hand ?). Kolami, .... Niwa.
Ndchhereng, Ana. Mddi, Nima.
Wdling, . Hdna, khdna. Mddia Caret.
Ydkha, . Ing-khi, 'nkhi. Kuri, Am.
Chourasya, Gno-me, unit. Keikddi, .... . Ninu.
Kulungya, A'na. Khond, .... Yi-nu.
Thulungya, Gdna. Sdvara, .... . Aman.
Bdhingya, . Ga. Gadaba, .... . No.
Lohorong, A'na, hdna. Yerukala, .... Ni-nu.
Lambichhong. Khdna. Chentsu, .... Yi-ke, tu-myi, tu.
Bdldli, . . A'na. ' Tamil, ane Caret.
Sdng-pdng, A'na. Tamil, mod . Ni.
Diimi, . . In, dnu. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . In. Malaydlma, mod., . Ni.
[ Dungmdli, Hdna. Telugu, .... Nivu.
Ddrhi, . . Ta-i. Karndtaka, anc, . Nin.
Denwdr, . Tu-i. 5 Karndtaka, mod., . Ninu.
Pahri, . . Chhung, ehhi. Tujuva, .... . 7.
Chepdng, . Ndng. Kurgi, . Nin.
Bhrdmu, . Ndng. Toduva, ) . . . . Ni.
Vdyu, . . Gon. Toda, ) . . . . Ni.
Kuswar, . Td-ha. K<5ta, . Ni-ye, ni.
Kusunda, . Nu. Badaga, .... . Ni.
Thdru, . . Tong. Kurumba, . . . . Ni.
Iruja, . Ni.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Hau. Malabar, .... . Ni, nir.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Chhd. Sinhalese, .... . To.
5o IL—ER— HE (SHE, IT)—ON— ILLE. [chap, n.—pronouns.

Types. Bodo, . . Bi.


•« (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . Wd.
Sas, sd, tat. Kocch, On-i.
<| (Arabic, Hou, he. Garo, . . U'.
Bask, . Hura, ark. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, Han. Munipuri, Ma.
Magvar, 6. Mfthdn Ndgd, Mih.
Turkish, O, ol. Tablung Ndgd, Tau-pd.
Circassian, Sisha. 4 Khdri Ndgd, . Pan.
Georgian, Igi, iman. Angdmi Ndgd, Me.
Mongolian, Tere, ene, tere. Ndmsdng Ndgd, A'te.
Mantshu, Tere, i. Nowgong Ndgd, Pd.
Javanese, Ngoko, Dewe. Tengsa Ndgd, Pd.
Javanese, Krama, Piyambak. Abor Miri, . Bu, no.
[ Malav, . . . I'va. Sibsdgar Miri, Bu.
Deoria Chutia, Bare-ni.
[ Chinese, Nankin, Td. [Singpho, . . Khi.
Chinese, Pekin, Td.
Chinese, Canton, K'ii. Burman (written), Su.
Chinese, Shanghai Yi. Burman (spoken,) Thtf, tho.
Amov, Colloquial, /. Khyeng v. Shou Ni.
[ Japanese, Kare. 4 Kdmi, . . Ha-nd-i.
Kumi, . . Hu.
Brahuf, Dd. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
[Sdk, . . Caret.
Gydmi, Thd.
Gydrung, Gnd-pos, watu. Talain v. Mon, Nyd.
Tdkpa, PI, be. Sgau-karen, Awa-i, au.
Mdnyak, Thi. Pwo-karen, Ur.
Thochii, Kwdn-td-eha. Toungh-thu, Wa.
Sokpa, . Thd. Shdn, . . Koung-niek.
Horpa, JaJya. Annamitic, A'i, no.
Tibetan (written), Kho. Siamese, . Koung-ni, man.
Tibetan (spoken), Khu. Ahom, . . Heu.
>: Khdmti, . Man.
[ Serpa, . K/nvo. \jxo%, . . Man, tan.
Slinwdr, Han. Ho (Kol), A'i, a'io.
Giirung, Thi. Kol (Singhbh um Ini.
Miirmi, The. Santdli, Huni, uni, ona.
Magar, Hos. Bhumij, Im.
Thdksya, Chana, h'mi. Urdon, Asdn.
Pdkhya, U-kya. Mundala, . Inni.
Newdr, Wo. Rdjmahali, A'th.
Limbu, Khune. Gondi, Hore ; war ; wur.
Kirdnti, Moko. Gayeti, Wor ; war ; wur.
Rodong, Khu, tvdko, hydko. Rutluk, . Ad.
Rungchenbung, Oko, moko, eu-hydko. Naikude, . Ound; ad.
Chhingtdngya, Yoko, mogo, mogwa. Kolami, . Ad.
Ndchhereng, Mauka, yako. Mddi, . . Worn; oru.
Wdling, . Aya, hayako, moko. Mddia, . Caret.
Ydkha, . Ikhi, k/iena, yona, mona. Kuri, . . Hdn.
Chourdsya, Time, yome, yame. Keikddi, . Ado.
Kulungya, Ndko, muko, netako. Khond, Yanju; toliyadu ; monju.
Thulungya, Hdtia. Savara, Ani.
Bdhingya, Harem, igo, mogo. Gadaba, . Tulokku ; tnlo ; tulo.
Lohorong, Mi, mo, mo-nu. Yerukala, . Avanu ; avalu, paidi ; adu.
Lambichhong. Ako, mona, yona, toma. [ Chentsu, . Vu; vamhi ; mayata ; vahe.
Bdldli, . . Mo, kho. Tamil, anc, Akudu.
Sdng-pang, Moko, meko. Tamil, mod Avan; aval; adu.
Dumi, . . Momi, yakdm, mam. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Tam, yakdm, mam. Malaydlma, mod. Avan; aval; ada.
[ Dungmdli, Mugo. Telugu, . . Vadu ; ame ; adi.
Karndtaka, anc, Avam ; aval.
Ddrhi, . U. Avanu; avalu; adu.
Denwdr, I. Karndtaka, mod.
Ho, u. Tuluva, Aye; aval ; av.
Pahri, . Caret.
Chepdng, U. Kurgi, . .
U. Toduva, \. Caret.
Bhrdmu, Adum, avan; aval ; adu.
Vdyu, . Mu ; wdthi; d, i. Tod a, \
Hu-lo, hd-lo. Kdta, . . Avane ; avale; ade.
Kuswar, Ava ; avla ; adu.
Kusunda, hi, it, gida (lokpya f). Badaga, .
Kurumba, Avanu; avalu; adu.
[ Thdru, . U-tu. Ava; avla; adu.
Irula, . .
Lepcha (Sikkim), Heu. Malabar, . Avan, aval, athu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Kho. [ Sinhalese, . Ohu, ae, eka.
CHAP. II.—PRONOUNS.] NOUS—WIR—WE—MI—NOS. 51

. Types. Bodo, . . . Jong (jong-ehur).


Dhimdl, . . Ayel.
S (Sanskrit, A'vdm,1 vayam} Kocch, . . Ham- i.
(Arabic, . Nahna. Garo, . . . Ning.
Bask, . . Git, Gttk. Kdchdri, . . Caret.
Finnic, . Me. Munipuri, Ei-khoi.
Magvar, . Mi. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . Biz. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Teyru. Khdri Ndgd, . Akau.
Georgian, Chwen. Angami Ndgd, Awe.
Mongolian Bida. Ndmsdng Ndgd, N'tmd.
Mantshu, Be. Nowgong Ndgd. Annok.
Javanese, Ngoko, Akit. Tengsa Ndgd, Akhala.
Javanese, Krama, Kula. Abor Miri, . Ngolu.
[ Malav, . . . Kami, kita. Sibsagar Miri, Ngosin.
f Chinese, Nankin, Wo-men. Deoria Chutia, Jaru-ratt.
Chinese, Pekin, Wo-men. Singpho, . . I.
Chinese, Canton, Ngo-ti. Burman (written), Nga-to.
Chinese, Shanghai Ngu-ni. Burman (spoken), Ngd-do.
Amov, Colloquial, Ldn. Khyeng v. Shou Kin-n't.
Japanese, Warera. Kdmi, . . . Ka-ehi.
Kumi, . . . Kd-i-no.
Brahuf, . Nan. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
[ Gydmi, Gno-me. Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gyarung, . Yb. Talain v. Mon, Pwd.
Tdkpa, . Gtia-ni. Sgau-karen, . Pwa't.
Mdnyak, . A-dur? a-ju} Pwo-karen, . Pun-dah.
Thoc.hu, . Chuklan/iikita eheun.1 Toungh-thu, . Ne.
Sokpa, . . Mi-ni. Shdn, . . . Koung-niht.
Horpa, Gna-ni, gna-riggi, rigya. Annamitic, . Kyung-tdi.
Tibetan (written), iVa-ehag, h Siamese, . . Khd-aen, ran.
[Tibetan (spoken,) Gnd-njo. Ahom, . . . Rau.
Khdmti, . . Hait.
Serpa, . . Ni-rang. Laos, . . . Halt.
Sunwdr, Gov-ki.
Gurung, . Gni-mo. Ho (Kol), A'lie, dbii.
Miirmi, Gna-ni. Kol (Singhbhum A1Zing;1 dle}
Magar, Kan-ki'trik. Santdli, . . A'litii;,3 dlang ;* dle, dban:
Thdksya, . G/iyatig-si ; 1 ghyang-eha} Bhiimij, . . A'le (?).
Pdkhya, . Caret. Urdon, . . En.
Newdr, Ji-ping. Mundala, . . A'Ilege.
Limbu, Anige. Rdjmahali, . Nam, om.
Gondi, . . A'mot.
Kirdnti, Ankan. Gayeti, Mamad.
Rodong, . Kai, ka i;' ha.* Rutluk, . . Caret.
Rungchenbung, Ung-kan ,-5 ung-kanka" Naikude, . . A'le(?).
Chhingtdngya, Kana-na, kanga-na. Kolami, . . Anandun,
Ndchhereng, Kai;' ka" Mddi, . . . Matn.
Wdling, . I-ka" u-ha,' kong-kai-ka} Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . Kani;s ka} Kuri, . . . A'le.
Chourdsya, Unggu-tieha. Keikddi, . . Nang.
Kulungya, Kekd-d, ko-i; ko-ni. Khond, . . Caret.
Thulungya, Go-ku ; 0 go-i? [go-kit." Sdvara, . . Mo-ni.
Bdhingya, . Gosi;1 gosuku ;* Go-i;" Gadaba, . . Ne-yam.
Lohorong, Kdehi ;3 hdehiha;* kdni," Yerukala, . . Namu, nam-buru.
Lambichhong, Kdnehhi* etc. [kdningha." Chentsu, . . Hame.
Bdldli, . . Kdehi* kdehika* ikin* ikka} Tamil, anc, . Yam.
Sdng-pdng, A'delii,1 etc. ; hayi;* kani? Tamil, mod., . Nam, nangal.
Dumi, . . Iehi ? oeliu,* iki * ogne" Malaydjma, ane Caret.
Khdling, . Iriehi ;3 anehu ;* ik;' ok.* Malaydjma, mod Nam, gna-ngal.
Dungmdli, Anehd-kdelu;3 etc. ; inkan- Telugu, . . Memu, manamu.
TT, .
Hd-mt. L[ga ;* ankan.1 Karndtaka, anc, Am.
[ Ddrhi, . .
Denwdr, . Ha-mi. Karndtaka, mod. Navu.
Pahri, . . Jd-di. Tuluva, . . Enklit.
Chepdng, . Ngi-lum. Kurgi, . . . Eng.
Bhrdmu, . Ni. Toduva, ) Caret.
Vdyu, . . Go-khdta. Toda, ) . Am, em.
Kuswar, . Hd-mi. Kdta, . . . Ye-nge.
Kusunda, . Tok-jhigna , i eho-baki} Badaga, . Ye-ngal, ye-ngla.
Thdru, . . Hang-dtt;1 hang-log} Kurumba, Ye-nga.
Inula, . . . Navu.
Lepeha (Sikkim), Kayii, kd. Malabar, . . Ndm, nangal.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Gnd-ehd. Sinhalese, . . Api.
52 VOUS—IHR—YE—VI—voS. [CHAP II.—

Types. Bodo, Nang-ehur.


■5 (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, .... . Ny-el.
Yuvdm,1 yuyam} I Kocch, .... Tum-i.
<8 1 Arabic, Atttom. Garo, Nan-ok.
Bask, . Zuek. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, Te. Munipuri, . . . . Nung-khoi.
Magvar, Ti. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish. Siz. Tablung Ndgd, . . Caret.
Circassian, Sorisher. Khdri Ndgd, . . . . Ni-khala.
Georgian, Thkwen. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . No-to-leli.
Mongolian, Ta. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . Nemd.
Mantshu, Souwe, soue. Nowgong Ndgd, Na-kara.
Javanese, Ngoko, Kowe. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Na-khala.
Javanese, Krama, Sampeyan. Abor Miri, . . . . No-lu.
Malav, . . . Kdmu. Sibsdgar Miri, ■ . No-lu-sin.
' Chinese, Nankin, Ni-men. 1 Deoria Chutia, . . . Jdkugro-ni.
Chinese, Pekin, Ni-men. . Singpho Ni-Uutig.
Chinese, Canton, Ni-ti. ' Burman (written), Nartg-to.
Chinese, Shanghai Nd, nung-nd. Burman (spoken), . Nen-do.
Amov, Colloquial, Lin. =5 • Khyeng v. Shou, . Nang-ni.
Japanese, Nanjira. Kdmi, Nan-ehi.
Kumi, Nang-ehi-no.
Brahuf, Num. Mni v. Toung, . . Caret.
f Gydmi, Ni-me. Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, Nyo. Talain v. Mon, . Bin-tau.
Tdkpa, I-rd. Sgau-karen, . . . . Thu.
Mdnyak, Non-dur. Pwo-karen, Nun-dah.
Thochu, Kwbiiko, kwa-nik-lat : Toungh-thu, . . . Nd-the.
Sokpa, . Chhi-ni. Shdn, Htsuh-niht.
Horpa, Ni-ni, ni-riggi. Annamitic, . . . Kyung-bay.
Tibetan (written), Khyod-ehag. Siamese, .... Aen, su.
Tibetan (spoken), Khe-njo. Ahom, .... . Khau.
Khdmti, .... Mau-su.
Serpa, . Khyo-rang. Laos, Caret.
Siinwdr, Gaiv-ki.
Giirung, Ken-mo. Ho (Kol), . . . . A'ppe.
Murmi, Ai-ni. Kol (Singhbhum), . . ApeQ).
Magar, Ndng-kurik. Santdli, .... Aben ;1 dpe}
Thdksya, Gni-si ;i gna-eha. - Bhiimij, .... . Ape (?).
Pdkhya, Caret. Urdon, .... . A'su.
Newdr, Chha-ping. Mundala, .... Inkoghi.
Limbu, Khenih. Rdjmahali, . . . Nina.
Gondi Unde, immet.
Kirdnti, Khananin. Gayeti, .... . Im.
Rodong, Khdna-i, khain-i. Rutluk, .... Caret.
Rungchenbung, Khdnd-nin ; khdnd-na. Naikude, .... . APeQ).
Chhingtdngya, Hdnd-nina. Kolami Ntwa.
Ndchhereng, A'nd-i, dn-rtimo. Mddi, Mirad.
Wdling, . Hdnd-ni. Mddia Caret.
Vdkha, . Inkhi-ni, 'nkhi-ni. Kuri, . Ape.
Chourdsya, Unit, grwme-tieha. Keikddi, .... . Ne.
Kulungya, A'nd-i, dn-i. Khond, .... Caret.
Thulungya, Gdn-i. Sdvara, .... A man.
Bdhingya, . Gasi ;^ gani? Gadaba, .... . Pen.
Lohorong, Hdndehiy1 hdnina} Yerukala, .... Ning-alu, avaru.
Lambichhong. Khdndehi ; 1 khdndni} Chentsu, .... Te, tu-myi.
Bdldli, . . Andehi ;i dnin.5 Tamil, anc, .
A'ndehi ;l dndni? Ni-vir.
Sdng-pdng, Tamil, mod., . . . Nir, ningal.
Diimi, . . Yeehi dm." Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Yee/ii,1 anehi ;l yen." Malaydlma, mod., Ning-al.
Dungmdli, Hdndehe ? kananin.' Telugn, .... . Mi-ru.
Ddrhi, . Take. Karndtaka, anc, Nim.
Denwdr, To-ho. Karndtaka, mod., Ni-vu.
Pahri, . Chhd-di. Tuluva, .... Inukulu.
Chepdng, Ning-lum. Kurgi, . Ning.
Bhramu, Mtng. Toduva, ) . . . Namma.
Vdyu, . Gone-khata. Toda, } . . . . Niv.
Kuswar, Tit-mi. Kdta . Ning-e.
Kusunda, Nok-jhigna noki-baki} Badaga, .... . Ning-la.
[ Thdru, . Tong-du,1 tu-sal} Kurumba, . . . . Ning-a.
Iruja, Niv.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Hdyu. Malabar, .... Niu-gal.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Khdehd. Sinhalese, .... Topi.
CHAP. II.—PRONOUNS.] 53

Types. •> Bodo, Bi-ehur.


■« (Sanskrit, Tau,1 te,t1 tdni} Dhimdl, .... . [T-bal.
1 . Kocch, .... . Un-i.
^ ^Arabic, . Hom. Garo, On-ok, won-ok.
Bask, . . Ayek. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . He. ' Munipuri, . . . Ma-khoi.
Magvar, . Ok. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish, . Anlar. 1 Tablung Ndgd, . . Caret.
Circassian, Aris/ter. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Titng-khala.
Georgian, Igini. Angdmi Ndgd, . . To-thete.
Mongolian Ete, eteger, tedct. i Ndmsdng Ndgd, Sening.
Mantshu, Tese, fehe. s Nowgong Ndgd, Yau.
Javanese, Ngoko, Dave. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Tebepd.
Javanese, Krama, Piyambak. K Abor Miri, . . . . Bulu.
[ Malav, . . . I'ya. 3 Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Ullu-bullu.
f Chinese, Nankin, Deoria Chutia, . . Bario.
Ta-men. Singpho, .... . Khini.
Chinese, Pekin, Ta-men. ■5;
Chinese, Canton, K'ii-ti. r Burman (written), Su-to, Thu-to.
Chinese, Shanghai Yi-ldh. Burman (spoken), . . Thu-do.
Amov, Colloquial, In. Khyeng v. Shou, . Ni-di, ni-li.
[ Japanese, Karera. 4 ' Kdmi, Hun-na, ha-ni-ehi.
Kumi, Caret.
Brahuf, Ddfk. Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
[ Gydmi, . Thame. . Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, Yapos. ' Talain v. Mon, . . Nvi-iau.
Tdkpa, Pe-rd. Sgau-karen, . . . Awa-i-tha, ya-we-da.
Mdnyak, Thi-dur. Pwo-karen, . . . Athi-we.
Thochii, Tdho, thdk-lar. I Toungh-thu, . . Wd-the.
Sokpa, . Tha-ni. Shdn, Mau-niht.
Horpa, Ji-ni, ji-riggi. Annamitic, . . . Kyung-no.
Tibetan (written), Kho-ehag. <'j Siamese, .... . Loung-ni, khauarai.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Khb-njo. .- Ahom, .... Khreu.
Khdmti, .... Man-khau.
Serpa, . Khwo-rang. Laos, Caret.
Sunwdr, Harev-ki.
Giirung, Thi-mo. Ho (Kol), . . . . A'ko.
Murmi, The-tti. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Onko (?).
Magar, Hos-kurik. San tdli, .... Ondkin onko!1
Thdksya, fPmi-si} h'mi-ehd.1 Bhumij, .... . Onko (?).
Pdkhya, Caret. Urdon, . Onko (?).
Newdr, Wo-ping. Mundala, .... A'nko.
[ Limbu, Khunehi. Rdjmahali, . . . A'sabar, divar.
Gondi, Hurk, wurk.
Kirdnti, Moko-ehi. Gayeti, .... Wor.
Rodong, Khu-i, khu-ehu, hay-i. Rutluk . AdQ).
Riingchenbung, Moko. Naikude, .... . OundQ).
Chhingtdngya, Yo-go, yo-gitidrta. Kolami, .... Awar.
Ndchhereng, Yako-i, maka-i. a Mddi, Worn.
Wdling, . Haya-ni, moko-ni, hayak. Mddia Caret.
Ydkha, . Ikhi-ni, yona-ni. Kuri . Arko.
Chourdsya, Yome-tieha. Keikddi, .... . Ado (?).
Kulungya, Ndko-ni. Khond, .... Caret.
Thulungya, Hanom-mim, hanom-nu. Sdvara, .... Ani.
Bdhingya, . Haremdd-si ; 1 haremdd? Gadaba, .... Mai.
I .ohorong, Mdhd-ehi,1 etc. ; mihdna.1 Yerukala, .... Tila, avallu.
Lambichhong Yona-ehi,1 etc. ; yokha, etc. Chentsu, .... Vamhi.
Bdldli, . . Khoehi-hippang ; 1 khoehi.b
Tamil, ane Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Mokoehi ;1 mekoni,* etc. Tamil, mod., . Avar, avargal.
Dumi, . . Ydkdm-sn yakam-hamS Malavdjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Omsa ;l am ham?
Malaydlma, mod., . Avara.
[ Dungmdli, Mu,1 moko-ehi ;1 mu-kha.1 Telugu, .... Varu.
Ddrhi, . . U-nin. Karndtaka, anc, Avar.
Denwdr, . U-ho. Karndtaka, mod., Avaru.
Pahri, . . [/-si, ho-si. Tuiuva, .... Akulu.
Chepdng, . ^ - Kurgi, Avaru.
Wo-mai.
Bhrdmu, . Hu-du. Toduva,^ . . . Adam.
Vdyu, . . Mii-khata, ko-me, d-me. Toda, ) ... Avar adam.
Kuswar, . Hu-ri, hd-ri, hd-ring. Kdta Avare.
Kusunda, . Gida-jhigtia ; 1 gida-baki} Badaga, .... . Avaka.
Thdru, . . U-nudu ;l u-sal1 Kurumba, . . . Avaru.
Irula, . Adurit.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Hbyi. Malabar, .... . Averkal, avei.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Khbng. Sinhalese,. . . . Owun.
54 MIEN—MEIN— MINE—MOI—MEUS. [chap, it.—pronouns.

Types. Bodo, . . . . A'ngni.


^Sanskrit, .... Madiya. Dhimdl, . . . Kdng.
(Arabic, 4. Kocch, . . . Mor, dngni.
Garo, . . . . Caret.
(■ Bask, Nere. Kdchdri, . . . Caret.
Finnic, Minun. Munipuri, . . Ei-gi.
Magvar, -m. Mfthdn Nagd, . Kukuhe.
Turkish, 4m. Tablung Ndgd, . Tesei.
Circassian, Caret. -< Khdri Ndgd, . . Ni.
Georgian, . . Cheni. Angdmi Ndgd, . Caret.
Mongolian, . . Minn, mini. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . Ni;a.
Mantshu, . . Mini, Nowgong Ndgd, Ka.
Javanese, Ngoko, -ku. Tengsa Ndgd, . Ngaiehi.
Javanese, Krama, . Kula. Abor Miri, . . Ngoke.
Malav, A'ku-punya. Sibsdgar Miri, . Ngoke.
f Chinese, Nankin, . Wo-tih. Deoria Chutia, . Anyo.
Chinese, Pekin, . Wo-ti. Singpho, . . . Ngena.
Chinese, Canton, . Ngo-ke. { Burman (written), . . Ngdi.
1 Chinese, Shanghai, Ntpt-koh. Burman (spoken), . . . Ngdi.
•5 Amov, Colloquial, . Khyeng v. Shou, . . Ki-ko.
Gba-i.
[Japanese, . . . Watakusinoto. Kdmi, Kd-i-un.
Ki5mi, Caret.
Brahuf Kand. Mni v. Toung, . . . Caret.
Gydmi, Gno-ti. [ Sdk, Caret.
Gyarung, Gnd. Talain v. Mon, . . . Kharu-awdi.
Tdkpa, Gne-ku. Sgau-karen, .... Vwardan.
Mdnyak, A-i. Pwo-karen, .... Y'wadah.
Thochii, Kdk-ehi. Toungh-thu, .... Caret.
Sokpa, Caret. Shdn, Khoung-kau.
Horpa, Gtid-d. Annamitic, .... Toi-minh.
Tibetan (written), . . Nahi, nayi. Siamese, Khon-kha.
Tibetan (spoken), . . . Gtiayi. Ahom, Au (?), kau.
Khdmti, Kau.
Serpa, Gna ti. Laos, Caret.
Siinwdr, A'ki.
Gurung, Gnd ld. Ho (Kol), .... Inya.
Murmi, Gnd ld. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Iyan.
Magar, Gnou. Santdli, Ting ; ing-red.
Thdksya, Ghyang-ge. Bhumij, Inya.
Pdkhya, Mero. Urdon Enghi.
Newdr, fi-gu, ji-mha. Mundala, Jhdtand.
Limbu, Ingd-in. Rdjmahali, .... Ongki.
Gondi, Ndvd dngdo, ndwd.
f Kirdnti, Ang-ko. Gayeti, Idana, awd.
Rodong, A', ang, ang-ma. Rutluk, Ndwd.
Rungchenbung, . . . Ang, ang-ko. Naikude, Anet.
Chhingtdngya, ... A', dkwa, ako-o. Kolami, Aneten.
Nachhereng, .... Ang-mi. Mddi, Ndwd.
Wdling, A', dng-pik. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, A'-ga. Kuri, Ing.
Chourdsya, . . . . A', d-leme. Keikddi, ATamtu.
3 Kulungya, .... Caret. Khond, Ndnde.
Thulungya A', dmd. Sdvara, Grdnate.
Bdhingya, A', wd, wd-ke. Gadaba, Noinyo.
Lohorong, .... Ung, kdngd-mi. Yerukala, . . . . . Nungtidedi, namburudu.
Lambichhong, . . . Ang, um, ung, kdkha. Chent.su, Hamdr.
Bdldli, Um, ung, kdiig-mi. Tamil, anc, .... Caret.
Sdng-pang, .... A'n, ana-mi. Tamil, mod., .... Enadit, yennudaya.
Diimi, O, o-po. Malaydjma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, A', d-po. Malaydlma, mod., . . Enre.
Dungmdli, .... Ang, ang-bi. Telugu, Nddi, nayokka.
Ddrhi, Me-ro. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwdr, Mo-ra. Karnataka, mod., . . Nannadit.
Pahri, Nung-gu,jd-gu. Tujuva, Ennou.
Chepdng, Ngd-ku. Kurgi, Caret.
Bhrdmu, Ngd-ku. Toduva,) .... Caret.
Vdyu, Ang, ang-mu. Toda, j .... Yennadu.
Kuswar, Mdha-na, -im. Kdta, Yennade.
Kusunda, Chi-yi. Badaga, Yennadu.
a5 Thdru, Caret. Kurumba, .... Nanadu, yennadu.
Irula, Nannadu, yennadu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . . Kaseiisa. Malabar, Ennudeyathu, enathu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, . . Gne-gi. Sinhalese,
CHAP. II.—PRONOUNS.] TIEN—DEIN—T H I N E—tvoi —tuuS. 55

Types. Bodo, . . Ndng-ni.


Dhimdl, . Ndng.
* JbANSKR]
(Sanskrit, Twadiya. Kocch, Tor, nang-ni.
(Arabic, -ak, -ki (fem.). Garo, . . Natig-ni.
Bask, . . Hire, zure. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . Sinun. Munipuri, Nung-gi.
Magvar, . -tl. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . -in, -ing. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Caret. s Khdri Ndgd, . Nang.
Georgian, Sheni. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
1[ Mongolian Tsehinu, tehini. Ndmsdng Ndgd, MA.
Mantshu, Sini. Nowgong Ndgd, Nd.
Javanese, Ngoko, -mu. Tengsa Ndgd, Meehi.
Javanese, Krama, Sampeyan. Abor Miri, . Noke.
[ Malav, . . . Angkau-punya. Sibsdgar Miri, Noke.
Deoria Chutia, Niyo.
Chinese, Nankin, Ni-tih. Singpho, . . Ndna.
Chinese, Pekin, Ni-ti.
Chinese, Canton, Ni-ke. Burman (written), Matigi.
Chinese, Shanghai Nimg-koh. Burman (spoken), Meni.
Amov, Colloquial, Li-e. Khyeng v. Shou Nang-ko.
[. Japanese, Sonomonoto. Kdmi, . . Nan-un.
Kumi, . Caret.
Brahuf, Nd. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
I Sdk, . . Caret.
Gydmi, Ni-ti.
Gydrung, M. Talain v. Mon, Kharu-hpa.
Tdkpa, I-ku. Sgau-karen, Nwaidah.
Mdnyak, Nb-i. Pwo-karen, Nwadah.
Thochii, Kwek ehi. Toungh-thu, Caret.
Sokpa, . Caret. Shdn, . . Khoung-moung.
Horpa, Ni-i. Annamitic, Anh-minh.
Tibetan (written), Khyod-kyi. h Siamese, . Khoung-aeng.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Khe-yi. Ahom, . . Mo.
Khdmti, . Mau.
[ Serpa, . Khyb-ti. Laos, . . Caret.
Sunwdr, I'ke.
Ciirung, Kaild. Ho (Kol), Umma.
Murmi, Ai ld. Kol (Singhbh um), Ummd.
Magar, Nuwo. Santdli, Tdm ; dm-rea (dmi ?).
Thdksya, Gnd-ye. Bhrimij, . Ummd.
Pdkhya, Tero. Urdon, Ni-englii.
Newdr, Chhang-gu. Mundala, . A'md-tana.
Limbu, Khene-in. Rdjmahali, Ning-ki.
Gondi, . . Nidvu-triand, niwd.
Kirdnti, Am-ko. Gayeti, Niwd.
Rodong, Khd, khd-mo. Rutluk, . Niwd.
Rungchenbung, A'hi, dm-ko. Naikude, . Inet.
Chhingtdngya, Hdna, hdnd-yakwa. Kolami, . Ineten.
Ndchhereng, A'm, dm-mi, dn-mi. Mddi, . . Niwd.
Wdling, . A'm, dm-pik. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . In-ga. Kuri, . . A'ma.
Chourdsya, I-leme. Keikddi, . Nimtu.
Kulungya, Ammi. Khond, . AHtide.
Thulungya, I, ye-ma. Sdvara, Ammanate.
Bdhingya, . I, i-ke. Gadaba, . Nome.
Lohorong, A'm, hdnd-mi. Yerukala, . Ningadeo, ttinadidi.
Lambichhong, A', dm, dn, khdnd-kha. 1. Chentsu, . Thor. '
Bdldli, . . A', dm, dp, dm-mi. Tamil, anc, Ninadu.
Sdng-pdng, A'm, dm-mi. Tamil, mod. Unadu, unnudaya.
Diimi, . . A', d-po. Malayajma, anc Caret.
Khdling, . I, in-po. Malaydlma, mod Ninra.
Dungmdli, A'm, dm-bi. Telugu, . . Nidi, niyokka.
f Ddrhi, . . Tero. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . To-ra. Karndtaka, mod., Nimiadu.
Pahri, . . Chhung-gu. Tuluva, '. Innou.
Chepdng, . Ndng-ku. Kurgi, . . Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Nang-ku. Toduva, ) Caret.
Vdyu, . . Ung, ung-mu. Toda, ) Ninnadu.
Kuswar, . Taha-na ; -ir. K6ta, . . Ninnade.
Kusunda, . Niyi. Badaga, . Ninnadu.
Thdru, . . Caret. Kurumba, Ninnadu.
Iruja, . . Ninnadu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Hadosa. Malabar, . Ummudiathu, umathu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Chhe-gi. Sinhalese, . Toge.
56 SIEN—SEIN— H IS— EHO—SUUS. [CHAP. II. —PRONOUNS

Types. fBodo, . Bi-ni.


Dhimdl, .... Wans;, oko-wang.
c (Sanskrit, Tad'tya. 1 Kocch, .... . Or.
<!, (Arabic, . Ho. | Garo U-ni.
Bask, . . . Bere, aren. [Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . . Hanen. ' Munipuri, . . . Ma-gi.
Magvar, . . -ja, -je. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish, . . -i. Tablung Ndgd, . . Caret.
Circassian, . Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Georgian, . Thwyesi. Angdmi Ndgd, . . Caret.
Mongolian, . Ta. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . Ate.
Mantshu, Terei, ini. Nowgong Ndgd, . Pd.
Javanese, Ngoko, -e. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Pdehi.
Javanese, Krama, -ipun. Abor Miri, . . . . Biike.
Malav, . . . / 'ya-punya. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Biike.
Chinese, Nankin, Ta-tih. 3 Deoria Chutia, . . . Biyo.
Chinese, Pekin, Ta-ti. Singpho, .... Khitia.
Chinese, Canton, Kii-ke. ' Burman (written), Sui.
Chinese, Shanghai Yi-koh. Burman (spoken), . . . Thui, thu-/w.
Amov, Colloquial, 14. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Ni-ko.
[ Japanese, Anofitonoto. - Kdmi, Ha-na-i-un.
s Kiimi, Caret.
Brahuf, Dana. Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
Gydmi, Tha-ti. Sdk, Caret.
Gyarung, . Wd. ' Talain v. Mon, . . . Kharu-nyung.
Tdkpa, . Pi-ku. Sgau-karen, . . . A-7vaidah.
Mdnyak, . T/ii-o. Pwo-karen, . . . A-wadah.
Thochu, . Thdkehi, kwandkehi. Toungh-thu, . . . . Caret.
Sokpa, . . Caret. Shdn, Khoimg-pen.
Horpa, Jyd-a. Annamitic, . . . A'i-minh.
Tibetan (written) Khb-yi, khb-hi. Siamese, .... Khoung-troung.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Khb-yi. A hom, . Heu.
Khdmti, .... . Man.
Serpa, . . Khwo-ti. Laos, Caret.
Sunwdr, . Hared-ke, mere-ke.
Gurung, . Thi-ld. ' Ho (Kol), . . . . Ai-d.
Murmi, T/ie-ld. Kol (Singhbhum), . Inni.
Magar, Ho-ehu. Santdli, .... Tdi ; hun-rea (un-ea ?).
Thdksya, . Hmi-ye. Bhumij, .... Aige.
Pdkhya, . Usai-ko. Urdon, .... . A'sghi.
Newdr, Waya-gu. Mundala, .... Amierd-tana.
Limbu, Khune-in. Rdjmahali, . . . . A'hiki.
Gondi Ond, hond.
f Kirdnti, . Mbsb. Gayeti, .... Ond.
Rodong, . U, o, um, khu-mo. Rutluk, .... . Wand.
Rungchenbung, U, o, mo-so, ya-u-so. • Naikude Awanet, yennet.
Chhingtdngya, U, mo-gwa-sekkwa. Kolami, .... Awanel.
Ndchhereng, U, um, yak-mi, manka-mi. Mddi Wond, hatundu.
Wdling, Hayek-pik. Mddia, .... . Wond.
Ydkha, . I, i-g'h yona-ga. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, Gneme-lane. Keikddi, .... Atuti.
Kulungya, Wa, nakwa-mi. Khond, .... Yevdnetara.
Thulungya, U, o-kam, hanom-kam. Sdvara, .... Ani-nate.
Bdhingya, . A', a-ke, harem-ke. Gadaba, .... Mayino.
Lohorong, Um, mo-mi, meyem-mi. Yerukala Avanudu, attamudidi.
Lambichhong, Im, ako-im, yona-gndkha. Chentsu, .... Vahdr.
Bdldli, . . U, o, mom, kliomi. ' Tamil, anc, . . . . Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Um, me-kitm, me-komi. Tamil, mod., . . Avanadu, avanudaya.
Dumi, . . U, mom, mom-po. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . U, ydkdm, ydkdm-po. Malaydjma, mod., . Avanre.
[ Dungmdli, I-gem, mo-gom, mo-gombi. Telugu, .... Vddidi, vadiokka.
Ddrhi, . . Uker. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Wok-rak. Karndtaka, mod., Avana.
Pahri, . . Hong-gu, hivang-git. Tuluva, .... Avanou.
Chepdng, . U-ku. Kurgi, Caret.
Bhrdmu, . U-ku. [rninurig-mu. Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . A1, d-mu ; wathim-mu ; Toda, j ... Avandu.
Kuswar, . Hulo-kara ; -ik. Kdta, Avanade.
Kusunda, . Gida-yi. Badaga, .... . ■Avanadu.
Thdru, . . Caret. Kurumba, . . . Avanadu.
Irula, . Avanudu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Heusa. Malabar, .... . Avanudeyathu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Kheugi. Sinhalese, .... Ohuge.
CHAP. II.—PRONOUNS.] 57

Types. ' Bodo, • Jong-nt.


■« (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, .... . King.
Asmadiya. • Kocch, .... Hdm-aro.
^ (Arabic, . -na. Garo, . Ning-ni.
' Bask, . . Gure, geure, geren. [Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . Meidan. ' Munipuri, . . Eikhoi-gi.
Magvar, . -nk. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish, . -imiz. Tablung Ndgd, . Caret.
Circassian, Caret. • Khdri Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Georgian, Chweni. Angdmi Ndgd, . . Caret.
Mongolian, Manu, bidanu. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, Mem, musei. Nowgong Ndgd, . . Asdn.
Javanese, Ngoko, -ku. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Akhali.
Javanese, Krama, Kula. Abor Miri, . . . Caret.
Malav, . . . Kdmi-puiia, kita-puna, -ku. Sibsdgar Miri, . . Ngo-luke.
Chinese, Nankin, Wo-men-tih. Deoria Chutia, . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Wo-men-ti. Singpho, .... Caret.
Chinese, Canton, Ngo-ti-ke. ' Burman (written), . Ngd-toi.
Chinese, Shanghai Ngu-ni-kuh. Burman (spoken), . . . Ngd-doi.
Amov, Colloquial, Ldn-e. Khyeng v. Shou, . Kini-ko.
Japanese, Wataks-domotwto. Kdmi, Kaehi-un.
Kumi, . Caret.
Brahuf, Nand. Mru v. Toung, . . . Caret.
Gydmi, Gnome-ti. . Sdk, Caret.
Gyarung, Caret. Talain v. Mon, . Kharu-away-tau.
Tdkpa, Gnard-ku. Sgau-karen, . . . Pwaidah.
Mdnyak, Adur-i. Pwo-karen, . . . Pwadah.
Thochu, Chikuk. Toungh-thu, . . . Caret.
Sokpa, Caret. Shdn, Khoung-houng.
Horpa, Gnddr'tgya. Annamitic, . . . Kyung-tdi-minh.
Tibetan (written), Naehag-gi. Siamese, .... Khonkha-tsoung.
[Tibetan (spoken), Gndnjo-yi. s Ahom, Rau.
Khdmti, .... . Hau.
Serpa, . Nird-ti. Laos, Caret.
Siinwdr, Go-ain-ke.
Gurung, Gnimo-lo. ' Ho (Kol), . . . AIlea, abud.
Murmi, Innd. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Alle-d.
Magar, Kan kurikiim. Santdli, .... . Tdling* tdle, taban?
Thdksya, Ghyang-si-ye ghyang- Bhumij, .... . A'busa-ban. [(alled ?)
Pdkhya, Caret. [elia-ye.1 Urdon, .... Emhi.
Newdr, Jiping-gii. Mundala, .... Ahud-tana.
Limbu, Anigen-in. Rdjmahali, . . . Emki, ndm-ki.
Gondi, .... Mdbai, mawa.
Kirdnti, A' in ko. Gayeti, .... ldana, awa.
Rodong, I-mo, di-mo. Rutluk, .... Ma7va.
Rungchenbung, A'in-kwa. - Naikude, .... A'med.
Chhingtdngya, Kdnu-gnaikkwa. Kolami, .... Anet.
Ndchhereng, Woki-mi. Mddi, . Mawa, adunawand.
Wdling, . Ang-kapik. Mddia, .... Caret.
Ydkha, . Aen-ga. Kuri . Nan.
Chourdsya, Iki-leme. Keikddi, .... Caret.
Kulungya, Wokhi-mi. Khond, .... Caret.
Thulungya, A'ki-ma, iki-ma. Sdvara, .... . Motti-nate.
Bdhingya, J-si,3 wa-si ,A ikke,s wake" Gadaba, .... Niyyino.
Lohorong, Kd-ehim? kd-e/iikam* Yerukala, .... Namburudu.
Lambichhong. Kdn-ehhi ,s kan-ehhigna* Chentsu, .... . Hamdr.
Bdldli, . . Kd-ehim,skd-ehigam;*i-king.s ' Tamil, ane
U-ehu* an-ehit ,•* ye.1 Emadit.
Sdng-pdng, Tamil, mod., . . . Namadu, yengaludaiya.
Diimi, . . l-eki,3 o-ehu * in-ki.1 Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . ls* os;* ik,5 nk.* Malaydlma, mod., . Nammute, nangngalute.
[ Dungmdli, An-eha? an-ehaga ;* an-ga." Telugu, .... Mddi, md-yokka.
Ddrhi, . . Ham-ro. Karndtaka, anc, . Cant.
Denwar, . Ham-rai. Karndtaka, mod., . . Nammadu.
Pahri, . . Jd-gu. Tujuva, .... Enkulanou.
Chepdng, . Ngi-ku. Kurgi, Yengada, nangada.
Bhrdmu, . Ni-ku. Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . Ang-ki, ang-ehimo. Toda, j ... Yemmadu, nammadu.
Kuswar, Ham-dra. Kdta, Nangude.
Tok-jhigna-yi;1 ehobaki-yida. 1 Badaga, .... Yengadu, nammadu.
Thaiu, . Hamarnu-hye ,x ham-log- Kurumba, . . . Yengadu.
„ . \kau? Irula, Nammudu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kayu-pongsa. 1 Malabar, .... . Engaludevathu, emathu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Gndehegi. Sinhalese, .... Api.
5«S VOTRE—EUER—YO U R—VASH—VESTER. [chap, n.—PRONOUNS.

Types. Bodo, Nangehur-ni.


5 (Sanskrit, . . Yushmad'tya. 1 Dhimdl, .... . Ning.
Kocch, .... Tum-aro. '
<i* '^Arabic, . . . -kom. Garo, Natiok-ni.
Bask, .... Zitett, zeuen, zerat. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . . . Teidan. ' Munipuri, . . . Nungkhoi-gi.
Magvar, . . . -tok, -tek. -J Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Turkish, . . . -itiiz. if Tablung Ndgd, . Caret.
Circassian, . . Caret. <§ Khdri Ndgd, . . Caret.
Georgian, . . Thkweni. Angdmi Ndgd, . . Caret.
I Mongolian, . . Tanu. 1. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, . . Suoii. ."- Nowgong Ndgd, . Nii.
Javanese, Ngoko, -mu. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Ndkhali.
Javanese, Krama, Sampeyan. Abor Miri, . . Caret.
[ Malav, . . . Kdmu-puiia, -mu. Sibsdgar Miri, . . No-luke.
fc Deoria Chutia, . . Caret.
Chinese. Nankin, Ni-men-tih.
Ni-min-ti. Singpho, . . . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, •<
Chinese, Canton, Ni-ti-ke. Burman (written), Mang-toi.
Chinese, Shanghai Na-kuh. Burman (spoken), . . Men-doi.
Amov, Colloquial. Lin-e. Khyeng v. Shou, Nangni-ko.
y Japanese, Nanjiranoto. * • Kdmi, Nanehi-un.
Ar ait Kiimi, Caret.
Brahuf, Numd. Mni v. Toung, . . Caret.
Gydmi, Arime-ti. . Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, . Caret. Talain v. Mon, . . Kharu-hpay-tau.
Tdkpa, Ird-ku. Sgau-karen, . . . Thu-waidah.
Mdnyak, . Nondur-i. Pwo-karen, . . . N't/ii-wadah.
Thochii, . Kwdnikuk. g Toungh-thu, . Caret.
Sokpa, . . Caret. Shdn, Khoung-moung-pen.
Horpa, Niirigya. K - Annamitic, Kyung-bay-minh.
Tibetan (written), Kyhodehag-gi. Siamese, .... Khrong-tsoung-aen.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Khenjo-yi. Ahom, Khau.
to Khdmti, .... Mau-su.
Serpa, . . Khyord-ti. Laos, Caret.
Sunwdr, Gai-ain-ke, in-ke.
Giirung, . Kememo-lo. Ho (Kol), . . . . AppM.
Murmi, Anna. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Appea.
Santdli, .... . Tdben ,A tdpe ;3 (appe ?).
Magar, Nang-kurikum.
Thdksya, . Eni-si-ye;1 gtia-eha-ye} Bhumij, .... . (Appe, tape/)
Pdkhya, . Caret. Urdon, .... A'ssglii.
Newdr, Chhaping-gu. Mundala, .... Apid-tana.
Limbu, Khenih' in. Rdjmahali, . . . . Nimki.
Gondi, .... Nia-hille, niwa, miwa.
Kirdnti, . A'mno. Gayeti, .... Ida-wonatt.
Rodong, . Kha-mo, khdi-mo. Rutluk Miwa.
Riingchenbung, A'mno. 5 - Naikude, .... Imed.
Chhingtdngya, Hdni-yakkwa. Kolami Yeinnaton.
Ndchhereng, Amni-mowd. Mddi, Miwa, aduniwand.
Wdling, . Haye-kapik. Mddia, .... . Caret.
Ydkha, . Ning-ga. Kuri, Caret.
Chourasya, Muyem-hme. Keikddi, .... Miwa ?
Kulungya, Amni-mi. Khond, .... . Caret.
Thulungya, Ini-md. Sdvara, .... Amannate.
Bdhingya, . I-si,1 i-sike;J i-ni.1 Gadaba, .... Caret.
Lohorong, Am-ehi;1 am-ni} Yerukala, .... Ningalidt, nine-bududu.
Lambichhong, Khdna-ehhi ; 1 khdnani."1 Chentsu, .... Thor.
Bdldli, . . A'nd-ehim;1 dnitiim.1 ' Tamil, anc, . Numadu.
Sdng-pdng, A'm-ehu amnu.1 Tamil, mod Umadu, ungaludai.
Diimi, . . An-ehi ;1 anni" Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Yes;1 yen1 Malaydjma, mod., . Ningngalu(e.
[ Dungmdli, Am-e/ta;1 amga} Telugu, .... Midi, miyokka.
Ddrhi, . . Taharo (tumharo ?). Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Caret. Karndtaka, mod., Nimmadu.
Pahri, . . Chhdgit. Tuluva, .... Inkulatiou.
Chepdng, . Ning-ku. Kurgi, Ningada.
Bhrdmu, . Nung-ku. Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . Ung-ehimu ;1 un-nimu.1 Toda, \ ... Nimmadu, ningadu.
Kuswar, Tum-drd. Kdta, Ningude.
Kusunda, . Nok -jhigtia - yi ; nokibaki - Badaga, .... . Ningadu.
[ Thdru, . . Tahdrasa-bake. [yida.- Kurumba. . . . . Ningadu.
Inda, . Nimmudu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Hayii-pongsa. Malabar, .... Ungaludtyathu, umathu
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Khen-ehegi. Sinhalese, .... Topi.
CHAP. II.—PRONOUNS.] 59

Types. Bodo, . . . Biehur-ni.


Dhimdl, . . Ubal-ko.
| (Sanskrit, Tad'tya. Kocch, . . Un-ndr.
(Arabic, . -hom. Garo, . . . Onok-ni.
Bask, . . Burn, ayen, aen, en. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . Heidan. Munipuri, Makhoi-gi.
Magvar, . -Jok. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . -lare. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . Caret.
Georgian, Mathi. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
Mongolian, Edenu. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, Telieni. Nowgong Ndgd, Pd-ri.
Javanese, Ngoko, -e, Tengsa Ndgd, Pd-li.
Javanese, Krama, -ipun. Abor Miri, Bulu-ke.
Malav, . . . /'ya-puna, -na, Sibsdgar Miri, Bulu-ke,
Chinese, Nankin, Ta-men-tlh. Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Td-men-ti. [Singpho, . . Caret.
Chinese, Canton, K'ii-ki-ke. Burman (written), Su-toi.
Chinese, Shanghai Yi-la-kuh. s Burman (spoken), TJiu-doi,
Amov, Colloquial, In-e. Khyeng v. Shou Nidi-ko.
[Japanese, Kareranoto. ■h Kdmi, . . Haniehi-un.
Kumi, . . . Caret.
Brahuf, Ddfta. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, Thame-ti. Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gydrung, Caret. Talain v. Mon, Kharum-yin-tau.
Tdkpa, Perd-ku. Sgau-karen, . Awaitha-watdah.
Mdnyak, Thidur-l, Pwo-karen, . Athi-wadah.
Thochii, Thakuk. Toungh-thu, . Caret.
Sokpa, Caret. Shdn, . . . Khoung-houng-pen.
Horpa, Jaa-rigya. Annamitic, . Kyung-no-minh.
Tibetan (written), Khoehag-gi. Siamese, . . Khonkha-tsoung-aen.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Khonjo-yi. .■5 Ahom, . . . Khreu.
Khdmti, . . Man-khau.
[Serpa, . Klnvord-ti. Laos, . . . Caret.
Sunwdr, Hariain-ke.
Gurung, T/iame-la. Ho (Kol), . Akod.
Miirmi, Thettnd. Kol (Singhbhum ), En-kod.
Magar, Akurikum. Santdli, . . Tdkin tdko1 (unkureT).
Thdksya, Hmi-si-ye hmi-eha-ye. " Bhiimij, . . Tdko (?).
Pdkhya, Caret. Urdon, . . Caret.
Newdr, Waping-gu. Mundala, . Ankod-tana.
Limbu, Khunehi-in. Rdjmahali, . A'sd-beriki.
Gondi, . . Ona-dnd, /ion, uwra, wura,
Kirdnti, Afyatieho, mayo-so. Gayeti, . . Ada-u>onan.
Rodong, Khn-mo, khu-i-mo. Rutluk, . . Haile-nae.
Rungchenbung, Myd-u-eho. Naikude, . . Awaned.
Chhingtdngya, H,ung-eheikkwa. Kolami, . An'areten.
Ndchhereng, Yakmo-mi. Mddi, . . . Wona, adun-monandana.
Wdling, . Kayan-kapik. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . Iehi-ga. Kuri, . . . Caret.
Chourdsya, Gono-matieha-leme. Keikddi, . Wora I
Kulungya, Ku>aelii-rni, na-kwaehimi. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, Hanom-mikam. Sdvara, Aninate.
Bdhingya, A'sike;1 dni} Gadaba, Mayyino.
T.ohorong, Mahaehim mihaehim} Yerukala, . Avanitdu.
Lambichhong, Akoehhi aokha} Chentsu, . . Vahdr.
Bdldli, . . Miehim ,-i moehim} Tamil, anc, . Avaradu.
Sdng-pdng, Me-ko-eltim.1 Tamil, mod., . Avaradu, avargaludaiya.
Dumi, . . Ydkdm-supo y1 man-hdm} Malaydlma, ane Caret.
Khdling, . Unsu ;1 ydkdm} Malaydlma, mod Avarute.
I Dungmdli. Mugum ,-i mugumga" Telugu, . . Vdridi, vdndla.
Darhi, . . Un-karo. Karndtaka, anc. Caret.
Denwdr, . Wal-ko. Karndtaka, mod., Avaradu.
Pahri, . . Asya-gn. Tuluva, Akulunou.
Chepdng, . Umai-ku. Kurgi, . . Ayanda, adanda.
Bhrdmu, . Un-ktt. [/>o»iu. 1 Toduva,) Caret.
1 Toda, j Avardu.
Vdyu, . . A'ehimu, 1 wdthim-nak-
Kuswar, . Hdring-kara. [yida.1 Kdta, . . Avarade.
Kusunda, . Gida-jhigna-yi gidabaki- Badaga, . Avaradu, avakaradu.
Thdru, . . Udu-wonko ;1 una-kara. 1 Kurumba, Avaradu.
Iruja, . . Avarudu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Hoyu-pongsa. Malabar, . Oni.
Bhu^dni v. Lhopa, Khong-gi. [ Sinhalese, Ungi.
6o CE—DIESER—THIS—ETO (SEI)—HIC. [CHAP. II.—

Types. -<■= Bodo, /mbe, imbo.


-r Dhimdl /'thoi, iti, idong.
'« (Sanskrit, >
Eshas (etad), ayam, idam. Kocch, .... Ydhi.
«, '(Arabic, . Hdza. Garo, I'mara.
Bask, . . Au, onek, oyek ;1 auk, oek} Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . Tama. Munipuri, .... . Yo.
Magvar, . Ez. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . Hi-ha.
Turkish, . Bu. Tablung Ndgd, . . Thoi-nan.
Circassian, Wusey. < Khdri Ndgd, . . . . Pio.
Georgian, Es. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Halve.
Mongolian Ene. •fe■g Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . A'ra.
Mantshu, Ere. 1 Nowgong Ndgd, . Yd-e.
Javanese, Ngoko, Iki. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Igdkd.
Javanese, Krama, Punniki. Abor Miri, . . . Si, issi.
Malav, . . . I'ni. Sibsdgar Miri, . . Shidebulu.
Chinese, Nankin, Che-ko. Deoria Chutia, . . Taihoni.
Chinese, Pekin, Che-ko. Singpho, .... . Ndai.
Chinese, Canton, Li-ko. ' Burman (written). I, sin.
Chinese, Shanghai Ti-kuh. Burman (spoken), . . . I, (hi.
Amov, Colloquial, Chit-e. Khyeng v. Shou, Nt, i-ni.
Japanese, Kore, kono. Kdmi, . Hi.
a Kiimi Caret.
Brahui, Ddd. Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
Gydmi, Thikou. Sdk, Caret.
~s
Gyarung, . Chidi. ' Talain v. Mon, . . Enan.
Tdkpa, Woehu. Sgau-karen, . . . . Tah-i.
Mdnyak, . Thu. 6 Pwo-karen, . . . . A'vu.
Thochu, . Chd. Toungh-thu, . . . Yo.
Sokpa, . . Ani, yeni. | Shdn, Tso-niht.
!
Horpa, U'de. Annamitic, . . . . N&i.
Tibetan (written), Hade. h Siamese Ni-lai, ni.
Tibetan (spoken), Di. E Ahom, . lu.
Khdmti, .... An-nai.
[ Serpa, . . Dining. Laos, . Ni.
Sun war, . Yekwe.
Giirung, . Chun-yo. Ho (Kol), . . . . Ni.
Muimi, Chun. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Nea.
Magar, Ise-nd. Santdli Nu-i, nu-d, ni-d.
Thdksya, . Pa-dng-kyungpa. Bhumij, .... . Ni.
Pdkhya, . Yelii, yo. Urdon, .... . Edah.
Newar, Tho. Mundala . Nia.
Limbu, Kon. Rdjmahali, ... . Ih.
Gondi, .... Yer (mas.), id (fem
Kirdnti, . Wo. Gayeti . Id(}).
Rodong, . Hvd, hyd-ko. | Rutluk, .... . Id (?).
Riingchenbung, O, oko. *a ' Naikude, .... . Id.
Chhingtdngya, Oko, bago, tiago. Kolami, .... . Idda.
Ndchhereng, Unu, ang-na. Mddi Veru, viru, attu.
Wdling, . Ognd, oko, ipigna. Mddia, .... Caret.
Ydkha, . Khena, nd, nd-md, A-me. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, .... . Kite.
Kulungya, Ing-kong, inkopi. Khond, .... . Caret.
Thulungya, Wo, woram; woelii;1 wo- Sdvara, .... . Ani.
Bdhingya, . Yam, yem. [mitn} Gadaba, .... Caret.
Lohorong, Pgo. Yerukala, .... Avanu.
Lambichhong. Nd, ndrok. Chentsu, .... Vahare, vu.
Bdldli, . . Ko-b. ' Tamil, anc, . . . Ivan, ival, idu.
Sdng-pdng, Noko, nokognd. Tamil, mod., . . . . Ivan, ival, idu.
Diimi, . . Tem, temgna. Malaydlma, anc, . Caret.
Khdling, . Tomgnd. Malaydlma, mod., . Ivan, ival, ita.
[ Dungmdli, Igo. Telugu, .... Vidu, idi.
' Ddrhi, . . U. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . I. <: Karndtaka, mod., Ivanv, iva/u, idu.
Pahri, . . U, ho. S Tujuva, .... A'yino.
Chepdng, . U. Kurgi, Ivu, iva, idu.
Bhrdmu, . V. i:1 ' Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . I. 1 Toda, 1 ... Avan.
Kuswar, . Hu-lo, hd-lo. Kdta, Avane.
Kusunda, . Td-i, td. Badaga, .... . Avana.
Thdru, . . Caret. Kurumba, . . . . Avana.
Iruja, . Ava.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Are. Malabar . Avanudeva.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Di, didi. Sinhalese,. . . . . Me.
CHAP. II.—PRONOUNS.] 01

Types. Bodo, . Obe, hobo.


Dhimdl, Uthoi, uti, udong.
(Sanskrit, Asatl (atlas, amu), etad. Kocch, Vohi.
(Arabic, . Zdlik. Garo, Omara.
Bask, . . Ori, orrek, oriek ;1 hura, ark, Kdchdri, . . Caret.
Finnic, . Tuo. [ayek;1 ak, aek!1 Munipuri, . . Ta-hlon.
Magvar, . Az. Mfthdn Ndgd, Hi-ha.
Turkish, . 01, o. Tablung Ndgd, Thoi-theo.
Circassian, Sz'showah. Khdri Ndgd, . Poieho ehu.
Georgian, Is. Angami Ndgd, Liwe.
Mongolian, Tere. Nam sang Ndgd, Frapd.
Mantshu, Tere. Nowgong Ndgd, Aunehika.
Javanese, Ngoko, Ika. Tengsa Ndgd, Oi/iika.
Javanese, Krama, Punnika. Abor Miri, Iiina.
\ Malav, . . . I'tu. Sibsdgar Miri, Ullubullu.
ATa-ko. Deoria Chutia, Bare.
Chinese, Nankin, Singpho, . . Orarvd.
Chinese, Pekin, Ara-ko.
Chinese, Canton, Ko-ko. Burman (written), Tho, ho.
Chinese, Shanghai Ku-kuh. Burman (spoken), Tho, ho.
Amov, Colloquial, HU4. Khyeng v. Shou Oni.
Japanese, Sore, sono. Kdmi, . Ma-hd.
Kiimi, . . Caret.
Brahuf, Od, ed. Mni v. Toung. Caret.
Sdk, . . Caret.
Gydmi, Lakou.
Gyarung, . Hadi. Talain v. Mon, Ta't-kau.
Tdkpa, Wotho. Sgau-karen, Tah-tiu, a-nd.
Mdnyak, . Quathu. Pwo-karen, A'nau.
Thochu, . Thd. Toungh-thu, Ta-hl<m.
Sokpa, . . Theni. Shdn, . . Tso-nan.
Horpa, Oitthd, ye. Annamitic, Kia.
Tibetan Written), Di. Siamese, . Nan-lai, nan.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Phi-di. Ahom, . . Heu.
Khdmti, . An-nan.
{ Serpa, . . Phi-dirdng. Laos, . . Nan.
Sunwdr, . Makwe. Ho (Kol), En.
Glirung, Ho-ehiin-yo. Kol (Singhbhum End.
Miirmi, Ho-ehan. Santdli, Uni, hdnd, hond, ond.
Magar, O-se-nd. Bhiimij, Caret.
Thdksya, . C/ia, khapami. Urdon, Hudah.
Pdkhya, . Wohi u. Mundala, . A'nd.
Newdr, Wo. Rdjmahali, A'h.
Limbu, Khen. Gondi, . . Hud, war, wor.
Kirdnti, . Mo. Gayeti, Wor.
Rodong, . Tya, tya-ko. ■5 Rutluk, . Wor.
Rungchenbung, Mo, mo-ko, kho-kho. Naikude, . Ad.
Chhingtdngya, Kho-kho, mo-%o. Kolami, . Atol.
Ndchhereng, Khdn-ko-u ; yak-gna. Mddi, . . Worn, oru, attu.
Wdling, . Khog-nd, kho-ko, haya-ya. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . Yo-na, yo-ndmd, ime. Kuri, . Handi.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, . Ture.
Kulungya, Mung-kong, nd-kong, na-kopi. Khond, Yerivi.
Thulungya, Myo, myo-rdm, han-um. Sdvara, Ani.
Bdhingya, . Mydm, mem-harem. Gadaba, . Tono.
Lohorong, Mo. Yerukala, . Adu.
Lambichhong. Yond, yonarok, dko. Chentsu, . Vahe, he.
Bdldli, . . Mo-6. Tamij, anc, Avatt, aval, adu.
Sdng-pdng, Moko, mokognd. Tamil, mod Avan, aval, adu.
Dumi, . Momi, ydkdm, yakamgna. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Mdmgnd. Malaydlma, mod Avan, aval, ata.
Dungmdli, Mu-go. Telugu, . . Vddu, adi.
Ddrhi, . . U. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
I. Karndtaka, mod. Avanu, avalu, adu.
Denwar, .
Pahri, . . U, ho. s Tuluva, Avu.
Chepdng, . u. Kurgi, . . Avu, ava, adu.
5 ! Bhrdmu, . u. Toduva, ) Ad.
Vdyu, . . Wdthi, mi (mu ?). Toda, { Adu.
Kuswar, . Hu-lo, hd-lo. Kdta, . . Adu.
- Kusunda, . Issi, it. Badaga, Adu.
Thdru, . . Kurumba, Adu.
U. Irula, . . Adu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Ore. Malabar, . Ah thu, athu.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Phe, pliedi. Sinhalese, . Ara.
62

Types. Bodo, . . Je,jai (rel.), bi (c.orc.),hdshu.


| (Sanskrit, Yas, yd, yat. Dhimdl, . Jedong (rel.), kodong (corr.).
<§, (Arabic, . Illazi. Kocch, Je (rel.), so-i (corr.).
Garo, . . Jon (rel.), won (corr.).
Bask, . . Zeii, zeiia, zenak ; zeirt, zeina. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . Joka (root = jo). Munipuri, Lisa-may-miy.
Magvar, . Mellv. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, Caret. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Terrahrey. Khdri Ndgd, . Kubai.
Georgian, Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, Kiuru. >
Mongolian, Caret. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Mapd.
Mantshu, Caret. Nowgong Ndgd, i dkung.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sing, kang(rt\. and correl.). Tengsa Ndgd, Katiti.
Javanese, Krama, Ingkang, Aang(re\. and cor.). Abor Miri, Ing-kono.
[ Malav, . . . Yang (rel. and correl.). Sibsdgar Miri, Okolone.
[ Chinese, Nankin, So, sho. Deoria Chutia, Boroshini.
Chinese, Pekin, So, sho. [Singpho, . . Gadenud.
Chinese, Canton, So, sho. Burman (written), Abhe.
1 Chinese, Shanghai Su. Burman (spoken), Abhe.
Amov, Colloquial, So. Khyeng v. Shou, I-ni-a-ka.
[ Japanese, Dore, doehi, dono. •j Kdmi, . . . Na-nd-i.
Kumi, . . . Caret.
Brahuf, Aid. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
[ Gyami, Hi-me (rel.), la'-me (corr.). Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gydrung, Caret. Talain v. Mon, I-la-rau.
Tdkpa, Caret. Sgau-karen, . Lir-la-i, pai-lai-ga-lai.
Mdnyak, Caret. Pwo-karen, . lA-r-lai.
Thochu, Caret. Toungh-thu, . Lisa-may-nay.
Sokpa, Caret. Shdn, . . . An-louiig-lai.
Horpa, Caret. Annamitic, Ke (rel.), ki (corr.).
Tibetan (written), Caret (rel.). Siamese, . . Nihn-Iottk, khon-dai.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Thinda (rel.), the (corr.). Ahom, . . Panktt.
Khdmti, . . An-naii.
[ Serpa, . Stain (rel.), thi-ddng (corr.). [ Laos, . . . Caret.
Siinwdr, Tekiae (rel.), mekwe (corr.).
Gurung, Su (rel.), thi (corr.). Ho (Kol), . Chikana.
Murmi, Khd-ehud (rl.), ho-ehua (cor.). Kol (Singhbhum), Caret.
Magar, Kos(re\.),hos (corr.). Sjiemhi. Santdli, . . Jdhdng-e.
Thdksya, Khatidng-pemhi, khaju- Bhumij, . Caret.
Pdkhya, Jimanehha, jattnamdnehha. Uraon, . . Ikrah.
Newdr, Gii, si'i (rel.), wo (corr.). Mundala, . . Okah.
Limbu, A'ti (rel.), khen (corr.). Rdjmahali, . Caret.
Gondi, Bad.
Kirdnti, Sd (rel.), kho (corr.). Gayeti, . . Bad.
Rodong, Tyo-so ; tva-kwa, ehi. Rutluk, . . Bako.
Rungchenbung, Sdng; khog-nd. Naikude, . . Yand.
Chhingtdngya, Hokkogo ; ho-ett. Kolami, . . Yetten.
Ndchhereng, A's ; khan. Mddi, . . . B-ona, patenind.
Wdling, . Khd-ti; khog-nd. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . Isd ; ikhi. Kuri, . . . Caret.
Chourdsya, Thdme; arie. Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, A'sd; kho. Khond, . . Yes tanju.
Thulungya, Uhem; myo. Sdvara, Vongd.
Bdhingya, Mem. Gadaba, . Bhuidm.
I,ohorong, Caret. Yerukala, . . Yedu.
Lambichhong, IPndok. Chentsu, . . Kahd.
Bdldli, . . Khosd, khosdlo. Tamil, anc, . Yddu.
Sdng-pdng, Khognd. Tamil, m<xl., . Edu, yedu.
Dumi, . . Mom. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Caret. Malaydjma, mod Eda,
Dungmdli, Hd-go. Telugu, . . Edi, yedi.
Ddrhi, . . I-sek, tt-sek (rel.). Karnataka, anc, Caret.
Denwar, . / (rel.), U' (corr.). Karndtaka, mod. Ydv-adtt.
Pahri, . . A'rkhyd-git (rel.), luvkhyd- Tuluva, . Erno.
Chepdng, . Caret. [gu (corr.). Kurgi, . . Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Hetu (rel.), ho-tu (corr.). Toduva,» Caret.
Vdyu, . . Si'tdo (rel.), mido (corr.). Toda, ) Yddu.
Kuswar, . Je (rl.), /ittle (cor.), [ya-hak. Kdta, . . Yede.
Kusunda, . Hdgim-ya-hdk, hdgit, nataim- Badaga, . Yeadu.
Thdru, . Kun-manai, um-manai. Kurumba, Y-av-adu.
Irula, . . Yedu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Sare (rel.), ware (corr.). Malabar, . Thu (rel.).
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Kddi (rel.), ttdi (corr.). [ Sinhalese, . Ko-koda.
CHAP. II.—PRONOUNS.] QUI—WER—WHO ?—KOTOR—QUIS. 63

Types. Bodo, Chur.


Dhimdl, .... Heti, hdshu.
va (Sanskrit, Kas, kd. Kocch, . Kd-i.
4 (Arabic, . Man. Garo, Chdng.
f Bask, . . Nor, nork; zen, zein. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, Ken. Munipuri, . . Pd-rnay-nay.
Magvar, . Ki. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Oveh.
Turkish, . Kim. Tablung Ndgd, . . Owai.
Circassian, S/iet. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Sui.
Georgian, Win. Angdmi Ndgd, . . Soru.
II Mongolian, Ken. •I- Ndmsdng Ndgd, . Hand.
Mantshu, We. 1 Nowgong Ndgd, Sirau.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sapa. 1 Tengsa Ndgd, . . Sine.
Javanese, Krama, Sinten. utern Abor Miri, . . . . Seko.
[ Malav, . . . Sidpa. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Seko.
Chinese, Nankin, Deoria Chutia, . . Bas-ani.
Shin-mo-jin. Singpho, .... Gadaimd.
Chinese, Pekin, Shen-mo-jen.
Chinese, Canton, Mat-shut. Burman (written), Bhesu.
Chinese, Shanghai > Burman (spoken), . Bhethu.
Sd-niang.
Amov, Colloquial, Chi-ehui. Khyeng v. Shou, U-ii-am.
Japanese, Dare, tare. Kdmi, A-pd-i-me.
Kiimi, . Caret.
Brahuf, Der.
2c Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
[ Gydmi, Syd, hima. Sdk, . Caret.
Gyarung, Su. Talain v. Mon, . . Nyaygau-rau.
Tdkpa, Su. Sgau-karen, . . . . M'tah-tghah-la-i.
Mdnyak, Su. 1 Pwo-karen, . . . Ma-paw-lai.
Thochu, Su. | Toungh-thu, . . . Pdrmay-nay.
Sokpa, Caret. K . Shdn, Hpoung.
Horpa, Su, lo. A Annamitic, . . . . Ai.
Tibetan (written), Su, Ma. Siamese, .... Nihn-loung, khrai, sung.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Khangi, su. Ahom, . Phreu.
Khdmti, .... Phau.
Serpa, . Sii. ^ Laos, Kliai, pliai.
Sunwar, Sukd.
Giirung, Sii. Ho (Kol), . . . Okoi.
Murmi, Khd. Kol (Singhbhum), . Caret.
Magar, Sura, hira. Santdli, .... Oko-e, ehele.
Thdksya, Td. Bhumij, .... Caret.
Pdkhya, Kaunamanehha. Urdon, .... Ekoa.
Newdr, Sd. Mundala, .... . O-kowe.
[ Limbu, Hdt. Rdjmahali, . . . . Ik.
Gondi, .... . Bor, boni.
Kirdnti, Di. Gayeti, .... Bor, boni.
Rodong, Sa. | Rutluk, .... Bor.
Rungchenbung, Sdng. Naikude, .... Yenendiv.
Chhingtdngya, Hokkogo, sdlb. Kolami, .... Niveniv.
Ndchhereng, A's. Mddi, Boru, ponimla.
Wdling, . Dei. Mddia, .... Bor.
Ydkha, . Hetndmd, het-nd. Kuri, Tune, eiye.
Chourdsya, A'-ehu. Keikddi, .... Yedu.
Kulungya, A'se. Khond, .... Yestdnju, yinu.
Thulungya, Syu, uhem. Sdvara, .... Bote.
Bdhingya, Syu. Gadaba, .... . Ldyi.
Lohorong, A'sd. Yerukala, .... Ydru.
Lambichhong, Se-png. Chentsu, .... Ke, vuhe.
Bdldli, . . A'sdlo, dsd. ' Tamil, anc, . . . Ydr.
Sdng-pdng, A'sd, asdle. Tamil, mod., . . A'r.
Diimi, . . Syugo, syu. Malaydima, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Khdm. Malayalma, mod., . . A'ra.
Dungmdli, Sdg, khigo. Telugu, .... Evadu, yevafa.
Ddrhi, . . Ko-no. Karndtaka, anc. Caret.
Denwdr, . Kb-hik. i Karndtaka, mod., . Ydvanu.
Pahri, . . Gi't-gu, gu-hmo. < Tuluva, .... Evanda.
Chepdng, . Caret. 5 ■ Kurgi, . Yarn.
Bhrdmu, . Hai. Toduva,) . . . . In.
Vdyu, . . Su. Toda, \ ... . A'r.
Kuswar, . Ke. Kdta, . A're.
Kusunda, . Ndtdt. Badaga, .... Y-dru.
[Ttaru,. . Kaunmanai. Kurumba, . . . Y-arit.
Iruja, Aru.
Lepcha (Sikkim To. Malabar, .... Y-ar, ever.
Bhutani v. Lhopa, Kd. Sinhalese,. . . . Kauda.
64 OUOI—WAS—WHAT ?—CHTO—QUID. [chap, II.—pronouns.

Types. Bodo, . Md.


Kim (kat), kdni1 Dhimdl, .... . Hai.
| {Sanskrit, Koceh, .... . Ki.
<^ (Arabic, . At, ayyon. Garo, . A'to.
Bask, . . Zer, ze. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . Mika, kuka. Munipuri, . . . Pd-may-nay.
Magvar, . Mi. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Tem.
Turkish, . Neh. I Tablung Ndgd, . . Toi-nan.
Circassian, Paps/iev. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Chabau.
Georgian, Ra. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Kaje.
Mongolian, Yaghon. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . Chend.
Mantshu, Ai, ai-gese. Nowgong Ndgd, Kaehisur.
Javanese, Ngoko, Apa. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Chaba.
Javanese, Krama, Punnapa. Abor Miri, . . . Ingkua, ong-kokko.
[ Malav, . . . Apa. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Okko.
4 Deoria Chutia, . . Damdarini.
[' Chinese, Nankin, Shin-motung-si.
Chinese, Pekin, Shen-motung-si. Singpho, .... Phakaimd.
Chinese, Canton, Mat-ye-mat-kin . Burman (written), . Abhe.
Chinese, Shanghai, Sd-neh-sz. Burman (spoken), . . . Abhe, bhd.
Amov, Colloquial, SiA-mih. 4 Khyeng v. Shou, I'ni-hdm.
[ Japanese, Nani. Kdmi, . A-pa-i-me.
Kiimi, . Caret.
Brahuf, Ant, der. I Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
Gydmi, Svdeha, hima. -. Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, . f/iii. ' Talain v. Mon, . Mti-gait-rau.
Tdkpa, Si. Sgau-karen, . Mtah-tghah-la-i.
Mdnyak, . Hdno. Pwo-karen, . . . Ma-paw-lai.
Thochd, . Su. Toungh-thu, . . . Lo-may-nay.
Sokpa, . . Caret. Shdn, Ka-tsan-lay.
Horpa, Aehin. I Annainitic, . . . . Shi,yi.
Tibetan (written), Chi. Siamese, .... Ayo-loun^, ami.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Khdng. Ahom, . Re.
Khdmti, .... . Sang.
f Serpa, . . Khdng. Laos, . Sang.
Siinwdr, Maro.
Gdrung, . Td. ' Ho (Kol), . . . Chid.
Murmi, Tigi. Kol (Singhbhum), . Caret.
Magar, Hi. Santdli, .... Chet.
Thdksya, . Khajupere. Bhumij, .... Caret.
Pdkhya, . Kyd. Urdon, .... , Indrdri.
Newdr, Chhu. Mundala Chikina.
[ Limbu, The. Rdjmahali, . . . . Ik.
Gondi, .... Bard-dnd, bang.
[ Kirdnti, . Di, de. Gayeti, .... Baddnga.
Rodong, . Dakd. Rutluk, .... Baddng.
Rungchenbung, Diyi. Naikude, .... Tdne.
Chhingtdngya, Them. Kolami, .... Tdtieten.
Ndchhereng, U'le. Mddi, Bara.
Wdling, . Tikwa. Mddia, .... Bara.
Ydkha, . I,e. Kuri, Tune, yo.
Chourdsya, A'-md. Keikddi Yendu.
Kulungya, Us6, iii. Khond, .... Annd.
Thulungya, Hdm. Sdvara, .... Vongddo.
Bdhingya, . Mara. Gadaba, .... Caret.
Lohorong, Imang. Yerukala, .... Y-anna, yemmatuku.
Lambichhong, Th'tya. Chentsu, .... Ki, koeheher.
Bdldli, . . Ifkha. ' Tamil, ane Yedu, yddu.
Sdng-pdng, Yen. Tamil, mod Enna, yenna.
Dumi, . Mimgna. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Mangga. Malaydjma, mod., . Enta.
[ Dungmdli, Tigo. Telugu Emi, edi.
fDdrhi, . . Ko-tw. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, Ko-hik. Karndtaka, mod., . Yenu.
Pahri, . . Gu-gu, gu-hmo. Tuluva, .... Jdna.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, Yennu.
Bhrdmu, . Hai. - Toduva,| . . . . In.
Vdyu, . . sa. Toda, ) ... . En.
Kuswar, Ke. Kdta, Vena.
Kusunda, . Ndtdng. Badaga, .... Yena.
Thdru, . . Kd. Kurumba, . . . Yenu.
Irula, Yenna.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Shu. Malabar, .... . Enna, entha.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Kang-ehi, kan. Sinhalese, . . . Mokada.
chap, II.—pronouns.] QUELQU'U N—J EMAN D— A N YBODY—KTO-N IBUD—ALI QUIS. 65

Types. { Bodo, Chur, jishldp.


Dhimdl, Hdshu, hete.
I (Sanskrit, Kasehit, kdehit. Kocch, Kdho.
^ (Arabic, . Kol wahid, fuldn. Garo, Jd-td.
' Bask, . . Arorbait, iiior. Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, . Caret. Munipuri, . . Caret.
Magvar, . Volamelly. Mithdn Ndgd, . Caret.
Turkish, . Kimseh. Tablung Ndgd, . Caret.
Circassian, ZayJ>it. Khdri Ndgd, . . Koi-murh.
Georgian, Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, . Chakra-parn.
Mongolian, Ali-yaghon, Ndmsdng Ndgd, . Caret.
Mantshu, Caret. Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sapa-sapa. Tengsa Ndgd, . Caret.
Javanese, Krama, Sinten-sinten. Abor Miri, . . Caret.
Malav, . . . Bdrang saorang. Sibsdgar Miri, . Sekodi.
f Chinese, Nankin, Puh-lun-shin-mo-jin. Deoria Chutia, . Shdmddu.
Chinese, Pekin, Puh-lun-shen-mo-jen. Singpho, . . . Caret.
Chinese, Canton, Mo-lun-mat-shin. Burman (written), Bhesumhya.
Chinese, Shanghai Sui-bien-sa-niang. Burman (spoken), . Bhethunahya.
Amov, Colloquial, Put-Ittn-sian-rnih-lang. Khyeng v. Shou, Caret.
[ Japanese, Daredemo, taremo. Kdmi, .... A -pd-i-me.
Kiimi, .... Caret.
Brahuf, Khadr-bandagh. Mru v. Toung, . Caret.
Gydmi, Ohki, hiong. Sdk Caret.
Gydrung, . Si. f Talain v. Mon, . . Kha-ra-tan-mwai-mwai.
Tdkpa, Strang. Sgau-karen, . . . Caret.
Mdnyak, . Siiye. Pwo-karen, . . . Caret.
Thochri, . Ning-wan, song-wang. Toungh-thu, . . . Caret.
Sokpa, . Cant. Shdn, Pen-htsaytsb-tsb.
Hoqja, Suyo. Annamitic, .... He-ai.
Tibetan (written), Siizhig, khae/iig. h Siamese, Hpayla-righn.
{ Tibetan (spoken), Sii-in. Ahom, Pheu.
Khdmti, Kan-phong.
Serpa, . . Siii-ndng. [ Laos, Caret.
Sunwdr, . Siikd.
Gurung, . Suzdn%. [ Ho (Kol), . . . Amba.
Murmi, Khd-ldi. Kol (Singhbhum), . Oko-ho.
Magar, Siir. Santdli, Tind, tindng, okuren-horh.
Thdksya, . Sabadhydngpd. Bhumij, Okoji.
Pdkhya, . Kohimdtuhhd. Urdon, E'ko-drten.
Newdr, Sl'llt!?. Mundala, Oko-waihi.
I Limbu, Hdt-lo. Rdjmahali, .... Ni-gbti.
Gondi, Vbndi-dndi.
Kirdnti, . Aktai (ak-tdi?). -5 Gayeti, Bore, bati.
Rodong, . Isdma, soi. Rutluk, Bore.
Rungchenbung, Sdngelt/idng. Naikude Yanna-katir.
Chhingtdngya, Sdlb-ydng. Kolami, Amdenen.
Ndchhereng, A'sa. Mddi, Bortadi.
Wdling, . Asakehhu. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Isdehd. Kuri, Caret.
Chourasya, A'-ehii-ye. Keikddi, Yedagas.
Kulungya, A'so, as. Khond, Yestdndte.
Thulungya, Syubwa. Sdvara, Bote, botegdni.
Bdhingya, . Syuye. Gadaba, Loyis-d.
Lohorong, A'sd-sdng (mettef). Yerukala, Yeduayind.
Lambichhong, Sieli/ids Chentsu, Kevu, jeliaive.
Bdldli, . . A'sdne. f Tamil, .inc, .... A'rdyinum.
Sdng-pdng, A'sd-sdng. Tamil, mod., .... A'rdgilum.
Dumi, . Syi'tyo. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Sui-yo. Malaydlma, m<xl., Yddaruttorum.
Dungmdli, Sdgehhang. Telugu, . . . Ev-araina.
f Ddrhi, . . Kolho-pun. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Kothu. Karndtaka, mod., Ydrddaru.
Pahri, . . Siiniing. Tuluva, Caret.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, Caret.
Bhrdmu, Siing. Toduva, ) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . St'tna. Toda, j . . . Caret.
Kuswar, . Ke-hu. Kdta, Caret.
Kusunda, . Nataim 'yahak vel hyak. Badaga, Caret.
Thdru, . . Konamatiai. Kurumba, Caret.
Iruja Caret.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Tbld. Malabar, Everayenum, yaraunum.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Kdye, ka-imehi. Sinhalese, Kaurn-wat.
66 QUELQUE CHOSE— ETWAS—ANYTHING—CHTO-NIBUD—ALIQUID. [CHAP. II.—PRONOUNS.

Types. Bodo, . Mi'tngbb, jishlap.


•« J Sanskrit, Dhimdl, Hete, Iiaidong.
Kinehit, keehit,1 kdniehit} Kocch, Kueeh.
4^ (Arabic, Kol s/iai. < Garo, . Harj-miirj.
• Bask, . Zerbait, zeredozer. Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, Caret. Munipuri, Caret.
Magvar, Volamdli. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish Kimseh. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Zaypit. Khdri Ndgd, . Kuiai.
Georgian, Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, Kajipuru.
Mongolian, Ali-ken. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, Caret. 5 Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Apa-apa. Tengsa Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Krama, Punnapa-punnapa. Abor Miri, Anjoko.
Malav, . . . Bdrang-dpa. Sibsdgar Miri, Okko.
Deoria Chutia, Damasirini.
Chinese, Nankin, Pu-litn-shin-mo-tungsi. Singpho, . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Pu-lun-shen-mo-tungsi.
Chinese, Canton, Mo-lun-mat-ye-mat-kin. Burman (written), Bhemhya.
Chinese, Shanghai, Sui-bien-sd-meh-sz. Burman (spoken), Bhdmhya.
Amov, Colloquial, Put-litn-siart-mih. Khyeng v. Shou Caret.
[ Japanese, Nanimo, arumono. Kdmi, Ta-u-i.
S Kumi, . . Caret.
Brahuf, Khadr-gidd. Mrd v. Toung, Caret.
i Sdk, . . . Caret.
[ Gydmi, Hiong.
Gydrung, Tenzi, tizze. Talain v. Mon, Mway-theik-payai.
Tdkpa, Strattg. Sgau-karen, . Caret.
Mdnyak, Tdkd. Pwo-karen, . Caret.
Thochu, Nitig. Toungh-thu, . Caret.
Sokpa, . Caret. Shdn, . . . Pen-hts-aytso-tso.
Horpa, A'ke. Annamitic, . Deu-g\.
Tibetan (written), Chizhig. Siamese, . . Hpayla, arai.
Tibetan (spoken), Khd-itt. Ahom, . . . Caret.
Khdmti, . . Caret.
Serpa, . Kliai-ndng. Laos, . . . Asang.
Siinwdr, Mdrkd.
Giirung, Taydng. Ho (Kol), Chikanna.
Murmi, Tigi. Kol (Singhbhum\ OMitte.
Magar, Hihi-ko. Santdli, . Chet-hong, oka-dhon.
Thdksya, Khajang-pemhi. Bhiimij, . Ako-dhon.
Pdkhya, Kehi-bastu. Urdon, Indara.
Newdr, Chhung. Mundala, . Jdlia, tidgi.
[ Limbu, The-re. Rdjmahali, Indarbadi.
Gondi, Bittiehij, bore.
Kirdnti, Dimin. Gayeti, Bore.
Rodong, De-i, dyett, nyi't. Rutluk, . Bore.
Rungchenbunj Diehhdng. Naikude, . Yanna-kdtir.
Chhingtdngya, Them-ydng. Kolami, . A mdeiun.
Ndchhereng, Usa. Mddi, . . Bdnataki.
Wdling, . Ti-ikehhu. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Iehd. Kuri, . . Caret.
Chourdsya, A'md-ye. Keikddi, . } edagao.
Kulungya, (/'so. Khond, . A unatiki.
Thulungya, Hambwa. Sdvara, Yetagani, jitagani.
Bdhingya, Mdrdye. Gadaba, . Mddisd.
Lohorong, Imdtig-sang. Yerukala, . Yemmadaitid.
Lambichhong. Thiehhd. Chentsu, . Kiehu, jehaive.
Bdldli, . . U'k-hdng. Tamil, anc, Ydddkilum, yeddgilum.
Sdng-pdng, Yon-sdng. Tamil, mod. EddkUum.
Dumi, . . Mdng-yb. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Mdtig-yb. Malaydjma, mod., Yddonnengil.
Dungmdli, Tiehhang. Telugu,' . . . Edaina, vedaina.
f Ddrhi, . . Kyd-hu-je. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Ki-ehhu. Karndtaka, mod., Ydvadddaru.
Pahri, . . Chala. 1 Tuluva, . Erdnda.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . . Caret.
I Toduva, | Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Hang.
Vdyu, . . Mis-ehe. Toda, j Caret.
Kuswar, . Ke-hu. Kdta, . . Caret.
Kusunda, . Nataum-va-hdgit. Badaga, . Caret.
[ Thdru, . . Kttnbastu. Kurumba, Caret.
Irula, . . Caret.
Lepcha (Sikkim), S/iiiri, tham. Malabar, . Ethum.
Bhdtdni v. Lhopa, Kdtidoehi. Sinhalese, . Monawdda.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] AU-DESSUS—UBER—ABOVE—NAD—SUPER. 67

Types. Bodo, . . . Chhd.


•£ (Sanskrit, I Dhimdl, . . Rhutd.
Upari. Kocch, . . Rhutd (?).
>§, '^Arabic, . . Fauk. Garo, . . • Pirvai.
Bask, . . . Goyan, goyen, goiti, gora. [Kdchdri, . . Sa.
Finnic, . . Padllinen. f Munipuri, Mathuk.
Magvar, . . Fait. Mfthdn Ndgd, Ding.
Turkish, . . Ust, yokaru. Tablung Ndgd, Kawang.
Circassian, . Ahpsey. 85 Khdri Ndgd, . Tamaehingu.
Georgian, . Maghla. Angdmi Ndgd, Bale.
Mongolian, . Caret. Ndmsdng Ndgd. A'khbnang.
Mantshu, Dergi. 1 Nowgong Ndgd Talak.
Javanese, Ngoko, Ing-4uwur. ' Tengsa Ndgd, Tat/iak.
Javanese, Krama, Nginggil. Abor Miri, . Taleng.
Malav, . . . Didtas. Sibsdgar Miri, Talitto.
Shang. Deoria Chutia, Pieho.
Chinese, Nankin, [Singpho, . . Ning-tsang.
Chinese, Pekin, Shang.
Chinese, Canton, Sheong. Burman (written), Apo-mhd.
Chinese, Shanghai Zong-deu. Burman (spoken), Apo-mhd, a-Met-ma.
Amov, Colloquial, Teng. Khyeng v. Shou Ada-ma ka.
[ Japanese, Uycni, uye. Kdmi, . . . A-koung-be.
Kumi, . . . r-klun.
Brahuf, . . Burzd. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, . . Sydng-thou. [Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gyarung, . . U'rkyi. f Talain v. Mon, Atotd.
Tdkpa, . . Gdng. Sgau-karen, . Apawko.
Mdnyak, . . Chii. Pwo-karen, . Apangku, ler-tah.
Thochii, . . Tikh. Toungh-thu, . Enke.
Sokpa, . . • Tere. Shdn, . . . Pamon.
Horpa, . • Child. Annamitic, . Tren.
Tibetan (written) Stengna. Siamese, . . Ti-nan-bon.
Tibetan (spoken), Teng, ehe, yegi. Ahom, . . . Nu.
Khdmti, . . Kanlu.
f Serpa, . . Tydng. [ Laos, . . . Pin.
Sunwar, . Ri.
Gurung, . Tunri. Ho (Kol), . Sirma-re.
Murmi, Toydng. Kol (Singhbhum Sirma.
Magar, Dhenam. Santdli, . . Sirma, muehdt-re.
Thdksya, . Caret. Bhumij, . . Sirma.
Pdkhya, . Hapra. Urdon, . . Meyah.
Newar, Cho. Mundala, . . Chaitan.
[ Limbu, Thdng. Rdjmahali, . Meehe.
Gonrli, . . Kis, parro.
Kirdnti, . Madhani. Gayeti, . . Caret.
Rodong, . Dhdla, dhdlo. Rutluk, . . Caret.
Riingchenbung, Euehokda, euehongda, Naikude, . . Caret. :
Chhingtdngya, Utenbe. [eukhukda. Kolami, . . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Itwa ta, itb-ta. Mddi, . . . Caret.
Wdling, . ltd, adlidni, angyuni. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . To. Kuri, . . . Caret.
Chourdsya, Bhdta, imtola. Keikddi, . . Mele.
Kulungya, U'mdi'tptu, metwdka, Khond, . . Caret.
Thulungya, Denda. [ metyoka. Sdvara, . . Lanka.
Bdhingya, . Hdtvu, apiye-di. Gadaba, . . Tommd.
Lohorong, Songpittu, mittu, mito. Yerukala, . . Mene.
Lambichhong, Itemdu, to. Chentsu, . . Vupdr, vuparot.
Bdldli, . . Miittu. f Tamil, anc, . Misei.
Sdng-pdng, Mitdni. Tamil, mod., . Mel, mile.
Dumi, . . Tukdld. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Tukd. Malaydjma, mod Mile, mite.
Dungmdli, Hdte-dd. Telugu, . . Payina, midd.
Ddrhi,} . . U'para. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Akdsai. Karndtaka, mod. Mele.
Pahri, . . C/iogu-tha. Tukiva, . . Melt.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . . . -mike, -kodi.
Bhrdmu, . Hu-khai. Toduva, ) Caret.
V Vdyu, . . Wa-ne. Toda, I . Mel.
Kuswar, . Vpara. Kdta, . . . Mele.
Kusunda, . Drasuok. Badaga, . . Mele, vodega.
[ Thdru, . . Upara. Kurumba, Mele.
Iruja, . . . Mele, moke.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Attn, tal, aplbng. Malabar, . . Melei, uyara.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Ten-khd, teng. [ Sinhalese, . . Ihala.
68 [CHAP. III.—adverbs, etc.

Types. Bodo, . . Bi, bo.


Dhimdl, . Edong.
■S (Sanskrit, Cha, apt. Kocch, Evong, o, dro.
(Arabic, . Wa,fa, thomma. Garo, . - Bd.
Bask, . . Ere, bere, Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . Ja, myos. Munipuri, Sung, ama-suh i.
Magvar, . Caret. Mi'thdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . Caret. Tablung Ndgd, OQ).
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . Caret.
Georgian, Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
Mongolian, Ts/iu. Ndmsdng Ndgd, O, dro (?).
Mantshu, Geli. Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Lan. Tengsa Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Krama, Kaliyan. 5 Abor Miri, Ain.
Malav, . . . Dan. Sibsdgar Miri, Caret.
Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Nankin, Ho. Singpho, . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Ho.
Chinese, Canton, Tung. Barman (written), Lin-kong.
Chinese, Shanghai Yd, loh. Burman (spoken), Ugattttg, yuay.
Amov, Colloquial, /it. Khyeng v. Shou Caret.
Japanese, Soste, -mo. Kdmi, . . . Caret.
Kiimi, . . . Caret.
Brahuf, U. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
[ Gydmi, Oreha. Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gyarung, . Caret. Talain v. Mon, Young.
Tdkpa, Caret. Sgau-karen, . Dau, daw, sa-kaw.
Mdnyak, . Caret. Pwo-karen, . Dai.
Thochii, . Tan, dah. ■= Toungh-thu, . La.
Sokpa, . . Piehhe. Shdn, . . - Caret.
Horpa, Re. Annamitic, Vd.
Tibetan (written), Ydtig. Siamese, . . Le, kap, tak.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Yang. Ahom, . . Caret.
Khdmti, . . Caret.
Serpa, . . Ddng, ang. Laos, . . • Le.
Sunwdr, . Nu.
Gurung, . Ye. Ho (Kol), . Ando, ando (?).
Miirmi, Yen, den. Kol (Singhbhum), [Pndo.
Magar, Ra. Santdli, . . A'do, ar, rehong.
Thdksya, . Bikigang. Bhumij, . • Ar.
Pdkhya, . Ra. Urdon, . . Anr.
Newdr, Ang, natig. Mundala, . . Inn',.
Limbu, Ang. Rdjmahali, Inseki.
Gondi, . . [/tide, iide.
' Kirdnti, . Ning. Gayeti, . . Caret.
Rodong, . Pini, pitigiw. Rutluk, . . O (?), ar.
Rungchenbung, Ning, ehlidng. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Ye. nang, ydtig. Kolami, . . O (?), ado.
Ndchhereng, Sa, lb. Mddi, . . . Caret.
Wdling, . C/t/ia. Mddia, . . OQ).
Ydkha, . Yd, dng. Kuri, . . . Caret.
Chourdsya, Ye. Keikddi, . . Caret.
Kulungya, So. Khond, . . Caret.
Thulungya, Nuni;, bo. Sdvara, . . Caret.
Bdhingya, . Yb. ' Gadaba, . . Tonnb.
Lohorong, Sd, song. Yerukala, . . Num.
Lambichhong, Chha. Chentsu, . . Ke, ye.
Bdldli, . . Sdng. Tamil, anc, . Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Sdng. Tamil, mod., . -um.
Dumi, . . Yb. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Nung-yo. Malaydlma, mod. -um, num.
Dungmdli, Chhang. Telugu, . . -nni, -tuiu, -nunnu.
Ddrhi, . . Ra, putt (?). Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Sa, sua (?). Karndtaka, mod -6.
Pahri, . . Khd (?). Tuluva, . No.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . . -u.
Bhrdmu, . Wong. Toduva, \ Caret.
Vdyu, . . Le. Toda, } 0(7).
Kuswar, . Gyi't. K6ta, . . Caret.
Kusunda, . Caret. Badaga, . OQ).
Thdru, . . Kd. Kurumba, Caret.
Irula, . . Caret.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Ld. Malabar, . Um, thanum.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Dd. Sinhalese, . -ta, -da.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] COMME—WIE—AS— KAK—UT.

Types. fBodo, . Jirin.


Dhimdl, .... Jedong.
| (Sanskrit, Yathd. Kocch, .... Jemon.
4=, ^Arabic, . K (insep. prefix). Garo, . Jegdndd.
rBask, . . Bezala, bezela, bekela, legez, Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . Alittkuin. [laso. ' Munipuri, Asundouna.
Magvar, . Mint. **» Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish, . Gebi. Tablung Ndgd, . Caret.
Circassian, Beddeh. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Georgian, Mebr. Angdmi Ndgd, . Caret.
Mongolian, Caret. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, Caret. Fron, Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sapolah. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Caret.
Javanese, Krama, Satingkah. Abor Miri, . . . Caret.
Malav, . . . Saparti. Sibsdgar Miri, . . Caret.
\
f Chinese, Nankin, Che-yang. Deoria Chutia, . . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Che-yang. Singpho, .... Caret.
Chinese, Canton, Kom-yeong. ' Burman (written). Keso.
Chinese, Shanghai Ki-zen ; zii-dung. Burman (spoken), . Getho, Kai-tho.
Amov, Colloquial, Nd. Khyeng v. Shou, . Caret.
Japanese, Yoni. Kdmi, . Hi-nd-i.
5: Kiimi, Caret.
Brahuf, Handunos. Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
1
[ Gydmi, Ah-men-ti. b k Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, . Caret. ' Talain v. Mon, . Nwaytseik-nau.
Tdkpa, Dantang. Sgau-karen, . . . De-i, di-ne.
Mdnyak, . Mi. ' T; Pwo-karen, . . . Bayi.
Thochu, . Tek. Toungh-thu, . Nay-yb.
Sokpa, . . Caret. K ■ Shdn, Neik-youk.
Horpa, Naya. Annamitic, . Nhu\
Tibetan (written) Hadetsug. 4> Siamese, .... . Ni.
Tibetan (spoken), Khdnda. .« Ahom, .... Caret.
Khdmti, .... Caret.
Serpa, . . Kdnde. Laos, Caret.
Sunwdr, . Dbdio.
Gurung, . Khaga-liyon. Ho (Kol), . . . Unuhileka.
Murmi, Khdju. Kol (Singhbhum), . Nud-leko.
Magar, Kuddngeha. Santdli, .... Ind-leko, rtung-kd.
Thdksya, . Khajibd. Bhumij, .... . Nun-kd.
Pdkhya, . Caret. Urdon, Caret.
Newdr, Gat/iing. Mundala, .... Nimmi.
Limbu, Aphddong-bd. Rdjmahali, . . . Nttng-kd.
Gondi, . Inehur mandd.
Kirdnti, Khdin suko. .a Gayeti, .... Caret.
Rodong, . Caret. ■n5 Rutluk, .... Caret.
Riingchenbung, Caret. Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Hbkhyakk/ia (?). I Kolami, .... . Nim-kd (?).
Ndchhereng, Ddkhtb (?). Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . Hague kagrta. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Irok-ha. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, A'sijokeho. Keikddi, .... Caret.
Kulungya, Ddtukwa. Khond Caret.
Thulungya, Heka, hikgndm. Sdvara, .... Caret.
Bdhingya, . Gekho (?). Gadaba Caret.
Lohorong, Mantok (?). Yerukala, .... Caret.
Lambichhong Caret. Chentsu, .... . Lakha.
Bdldli, . . Caret. r Tamil, anc, . . . Kaduppa.
Sdng-pdng, Caret. Tamil, mod., . . -pbla.
Diimi, . . Caret. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Caret. Malaydlma, mod., . -Pol.
Dungmdli, Caret. Telugu, .... Vale.
Ddrhi, . . Ja-sai. Karndtaka, anc, -pol.
Denwdr, . Jd-nhe. Karndtaka, mod., . -hdge.
Pahri, . . Ge-re. Tuluva, .... Anehane.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Jun. Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . Hdng-nga. Toda, } . . . . Yingei.
< Kdta, Yete.
Kuswar, . Jdsege.
Kusunda, . Natiya. Badaga, .... . Hvinge, yetate.
{ Thdru, . . Jaisan. Kurumba, . . . Yetate.
Irula, Yepadi.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Salom. Malabar, .... Pol, ena.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Kate. Sinhalese,. . . . -wage.
7o AU-DESSOUS—UNTER— BELOW—VNIZU—SUBTER. [chap, ht.—adverbs, etc.

Types. Bodo, tying-


Dhimdl, Letd.
« (Sanskrit, Adhas. -j Kocch Letd, ad/iar (?).
<§, (Arabic, . Taht. Garo Churik vai.
Bask, . . Azpian, azpira, bean. [ Kdchdri, Sin.
Finnic, . Alla. [ Munipuri, .... Makha.
Magvar, . Lent-ala. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . Hopang.
Turkish, . Alt, ashagh. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Opang.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, .... Tamoksing.
Georgian, Dabla. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Chakise.
Mongolian, Caret. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . Akhannang.
Mantshu, Fedshergi. Nowgong Ndgd, . . Tasung.
Javanese, Ngoko, Ngisor. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Taehung.
Javanese, Krama, Ngandap. Abor Miri, .... Rumking.
[ Malav, . . . Dibdwah. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Rumkube.
Chinese, Nankin, Hia. Deoria Chutia, . . . Kumo.
Chinese, Pekin, Hia. [ Singpho, Katai.
Chinese, Canton, Ha. Burman (written), . . Okmha.
Chinese, Shanghai O-deti'. Burman (spoken), . . . Aukmha.
Amov, Colloquial, E-bin, e-toe. Khyeng v. Shou, . . De-kan.
[ Japanese, Sta, sita. Kdmi Thing-be.
Kiimi, I-klot.
Brahuf, S/ief. Mni v. Toung, . . . Caret.
f Gydmi, . Ti syd. [ Sdk, Caret.
Gyarung, . Wdki. \ Talain v. Mon, . . . Kha-ta-ta.
Tdkpa, . Wd. Sgau-karen, . A'pawlah.
Mdnyak, . Zve. Pwo-karen, A'punglah.
Thochii, . Kbl. Toungh-thu, .... Enla.
Sokpa, . . Torb. Shdn, Palon.
Horpa, Wb. Annamitic, .... Dwoi.
Tibetan (written), Ho-gtia. Siamese, Khan-la, ti.
Tibetan (spoken), Wb, syu, magi. Ahom Lep.
Khdmti Caret.
[ Serpa, . . Wag. [ Laos, .... Lum.
Sunwdr, . Yd.
Giirung, . Munri. f Ho (Kol), . . Suba-re.
Murmi, Moyang. Kol (Singhbhum), Subd.
Magar, Mhdka. Santdli, . . . Phed, butdre, ldtdrate.
Thdksya, . Mast. Bhiimij, Athe.
Pdkhya, . Tala. Urdon, Kiya/t
Newar, Ko. Mundala, Ldtin.
Limbu, Mb. Rdjmahali, Pissi.
Gondi, . Naili, sir, khdlai, mandar.
Kiranti, . Mbyuni. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . Hila, hwilo. Rutluk, . Caret.
Rdngchenbung, Miipuni, uyuni. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Mbba. Kolami, Caret.
Nachhereng, V'yuyit. Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . Itu, akhukyu. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Mb. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Bhdya, bhayola. Keikddi, Digit-
Kulungya, U'mdhbkpu, nukka-ah. Khond, Nede.
Thulungya, Goyu. Sdvara, Jayitd.
Bahingya, . Hdyu, apum-di. Gadaba, Albm.
Lohorong, Khukmemo, mih'-mu. Yerukala, Tallen.
Lambichhong, Ikhuk-be-mb. [ Chentsu Tolot, tbl.
Bdldli, . . Muh'-mu. Tamil, .inc, .... Kizhakku, kilakku.
Sdng-pdng, Mu-yiini. Tamij, mod Kizh, k'tz/ie.
Dumi, . . Yukdld. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, . Yukd. Malaydjma, mod., . . Tdzhe, tdzhe.
[ Dungmdli, Utigk-hok-mo. Telugu, Kinda.
f Ddrhi, . . Het. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . He-then. Karnataka, mod., Kelage.
Pahri, . . Ko-gii-t/id. I Tuluva, Sett.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, -k'tda.
Bhrdmu, . Hu-mai. I1 Toduva,) Caret.
Vdyu, . . Hu-t/u: Toda, j Erg, tieshg
Kuswar, . Het. Kdta, Kriyage.
Kusunda, . Tumdi. Badaga, Kria.'
[ Thdru, . . Tare. Kurumba, .... Kelate.
Irula, Rdlake.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Aehum, ehad, sadam. Malabar, Kelet.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Wbh. { Sinhalese, Pa/iala.
CHAP. Ill—adverbs, etc.] ENTRE—ZWISCHEN— BETVVE E N—MEZHDI—INTER. 71

Types. Bodo, . . Gejer.


Dhimdl, . Majhata.
'« (Sanskrit, Antar. Kocch, Atitar (?).
<§, (Arabic, . Brin. Garo, . . Majdr-vai.
Bask, .... Artean, artera, arte. [Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . . . Waihella. f Munipuri, Moyaida.
Magvar, . . . Caret. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . . . Caret. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
-5 Circassian, . . Et-katsh. I Khdri Ndgd, . Tiong.
Georgian, . . Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
V Mongolian, . . Caret. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, . . Sidende. Nowgong Ndgd, Kimd.
Javanese, Ngoko, Selan. Tengsa Ndgd, Ulam.
Javanese, Krama, Selan. Abor Miri, . Radang.
[ Malav, . . . Ditangah. Sibsdgar Miri, A'rdso.
Chinese, Nankin, . C/iung-kiett. 3 Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, . [Singpho, . . Caret.
Chung-ehien.
1 J Chinese, Canton, . Chung-kan. f Burman (written), Akrdmhd.
V Chinese, Shanghai, Tong-tsung. 5 Burman (spoken), Akydmhd-alay-mha.
Amov, Colloquial, . Tiong-ng. Khyeng v. Shou A-thd-ka-ku.
[ Japanese, . . . Aida, naka. Kdmi, . . . T/iiti-be, u-thin-d.
Krimi, . . . Si-ld.
Brahuf, Caret. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
J' Gydmi, . . • Tung-jen. [Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gydrung, . . • Ule, tile. \ Talain v. Mon, Adl1o.
h Tdkpa, . • • But-kd, kepd. Sgau-karen, . A1bersir.
Mdnyak, . . • Onglhe. Pwo-karen, . A'bang-tsung.
Thochd, . • • Tigu. Toungh-thu, . Akha.
Sokpa, . . • • Toung dii. Shdn, . . . Akhun.
Horpa, . • • Kyuku. Annamitic, . Yiu'a.
Tibetan (wriiien), Bar, du. Siamese, . . Khalan wang.
z Tibetan (spoken), . B/iar. Ahom, . . . Klang.
Khdmti, . . Caret.
Serpa, .... Par. Laos, . . . Caret.
Sunwdr, . . • Date.
Giirung, . • • Khionri. Ho (Kol), . Caret.
Murmi, . • • Gungari. Kol (Singhbhum Talari
Magar, . • • Mi kltidug. Santdli, Tdldre.
I Thdksya, . . • Kutig ri. Bhrimij, . Talare.
Pdkhya, . . • Mdjha. Urdon Majin.
Newdr, . • • Dathu. Mundala, . . Talar.
[ Limbu, . • ■ Kuh'tm. Rdjmahali, . Mdji.
Gondi, . . . ATuddum, biehte mandar.
Kirdnti, . . . Li'tndi. Gayeti, . . Caret.
Rodong, . . . Mrd, mant. Rutluk, . . Caret.
Rungchenbung, . Lumda, rddoa. Naikude, . . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . Urhdbe. Kolami, . . Caret.
Ndchhereng, . Umlam. Mddi, . . . Caret.
Wdling, . . Umrdpe, arddlia, adhung-ya. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . . . Hum. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, . . Khdehi, khaehilo, gota. Keikddi, . . Naduwa.
Kulungya, . . Umrdpi. Khond, . . Madde.
Thulungya, . . T/iete. Sdvara, . . Lanka.
Bdhingya, . . . A'lyo, aleu-da. Gadaba, . . Vomidi.
Lohorong, . . Lumbe, li'tmpi. Yerukala, . . Neduve.
Lambichhong, . Iliim-be. Chentsu, . . Mayidhit, mbyid.
Bdldli, . . . . Mdjhdbi, luhpi. Tamil, anc, . Ndppan.
Sdng-pdng, . . A mmrdpi. Tamil, mod., . -nadu, -naduve.
Ddmi Mdjhdbi. Malaydlma, ane Caret.
Khdling, . . . OUpphibi. Malaydjma, mod Natukke, na(uvil.
Dungmdli, . . U'mrd, iimrdbi. Telugu, . . -nadama, -naduma.
f Ddrhi, . . . . Mdjhai. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwar, . . . Majhen. Karndtaka, mod., -maditve.
Pahri, . . . . Ddri. Tuluva, -nadu.
Chepdng, . . . Caret. Kurgi, . . Caret.
Bhrdmu, . . . A-sal. Toduva, ) Caret.
Vdyu, . . . . Mddum-be. Toda, \ Ndrth, -kdshi.
Kuswar, . . . Manjhi. Kdta, . . -nadle.
Kusunda, . . . Gijhdgda. Badaga, . -native.
Thdru, . . . . Biehe. Kurumba, -naduve.
Irula, . •naduve.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . Abik, aehuk. Malabar, . -iidei, -idiyil.
BhiStdni v. Lhopa, . Pdnd. Sinhalese, . -atare.
72 PAR— DURCH (VON)— BY—OT (SO)—PER. [CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC

Types. Bodo, J°"S-


(Sanskrit, -d, -bhydm? -Mis1 (instr.). Dhimdl, Dong, ow, sho.
(Arabic, B- (insep. prefix). Kocch, Diyd.
Garo, Man.
Bask, . -z, -zas. Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, Caret. Munipuri, .... Na.
Magvar, -a, -rol. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Turkish, -dan. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, .... Caret.
Georgian, -gan. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Mongolian, -yer, -ber. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Mantshu, Caret. Nowgong Ndgd, . . Wd.
Javanese, Ngoko, Dene. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Nu.
Javanese, Krama, Dening. Abor Miri, .... Umnus.
Malav, . . . U'lih. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Appunge.
f Chinese, Nankin, Yung. Deoria Chutia, . . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Yung. Singpho, Caret.
Chinese, Canton, Yung. Burman (written), . . Phrang.
Chinese, Shanghai Tdtig. Burman (spoken), . . . Phyen.
Amov, Colloquial, Eng. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Caret.
[ Japanese, -de, motte. Kdmi, Md.
Kumi, Caret.
Brahui, -ene. Mni v. Toung, . . . Caret.
Gydmi, La. Sdk, Caret.
Gyarung, Gi. Talain v. Mon, . . . Nakeu.
Tdkpa, Gi. Sgau-karen, .... Aghaui'ti,
Mdnyak, Li. Pwo-karen, .... Boh-koh.
Thochu, I'. Toungh-thu, .... Tome.
Sokpa, . Rd. Shdn, Caret.
Horpa, Khd, wu. Annamitic Tu.
Tibetan (written). Kyis, gis, his, yis. Siamese, Caret.
Tibetan (spoken), I'. Ahom, Caret.
Khdmti, Caret.
Serpa, . Elongation of terminal Laos, Caret.
Siinwdr, Mi. [vowel.
Gurung, Ho (Kol), .... -/<?.
A Kol (Singhbhum), . . /ete.
Murmi, Sye.
Magar, Ye, i. Santdli -iydte, -idte, -hatete.
Thdksya, Kau. Bhumij, By affix.
Pdkhya, Le. Urdon, By affix.
Newar, Aug. Mundala, Atam.
Limbu, llfe, mt. Rdjmahali, .... By affix.
Gondi, lgat, turse, durse.
Kirdnti, Yd, Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Wd. Rutluk, Caret.
Rungchenbung, Ya, d. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Gtid. 1 Kolami, Caret.
Ndchhereng, A. 0 Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . A'. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Gnd. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Kho. Keikddi, Caret.
Kulungya, A. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, Kd. Sdvara, Sitholo.
Bdhingya, . Mi. Gadaba Rom.
Lohorong, E,ye. Yerukala, Valla.
Lambichhong, Gnd. Chentsu, Soyi.
Bdldli, . . Gnd. Tamil, anc, .... -dn.
Sdng-pdng, A. Tamil, mod., .... -dl, -mile.
Dumi, . . A, gnd. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, . A. Malaydlma, mod., . . -dl, -konJa.
Dungmdli, A. Telugu -valla, -wulla. -Mia.
• Ddrhi, . . Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Caret.
Denwdr, . Caret. Karndtaka, mod., . . -inda.
Pahri, . . Caret. Tuluva, -ath.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, -gondit.
Bhrdmu, . Caret. Toduva,) .... Caret.
Vdyu, . . Caret. Toda, ( .... -ind, ar.
Kuswar, . Caret. K<5ta, -inde.
Kusunda, . A'i. Badaga, -inda,
Thdru, . . Le. Kurumba, .... -inda.
Irula, -irinda, inda.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Aratt, sa. Malabar, -kondu, dl.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Ki, <ld. Sinhalese, -wisin.
CHAP. HI.—ADVERBS, ETC.] LOIN—FERN (WEIT)—FAR— DALEKO—LONGE.

Types. fBodo, . . . Gajdng.


I Dhimdl, . , Dure.
(Sanskrit, Duram, paras. 05 ■ Kocch, . . Dur.
I. (Arabic, . Baatd. Garo, . . . Pijdng.
Bask, .... Urruti, urrun, Kdchdri, . . Caret.
Finnic, . . ■ Kaukainett, Munipuri, Ardpa.
Magvar, . . . Messze. Mfthdn Ndgd, Atai.
Turkish, . . . Uzak, Tabbing Ndgd, Kdtike.
Circassian, . . Tshihshey, 4 Khdri Ndgd, . Uragu,
Georgian, . , Kide. Angdmi Ndgd, Chawe,
Mongolian, . . Khola. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Hdlb.
C Mantshu, . . Goro. Nowgong Ndgd, Talang.
Javanese, Ngoko, Ado/t. Tengsa Ndgd, Langla.
Javanese, Krama, Tebih. Abor Miri, . Caret.
[ Malav, . , . Dakat. Sibsdgar Miri, Modo.
I Deoria Chutia, As-ain.
Chinese, Nankin, Yuen, Singpho, . .
Chinese, Pekin, Yuan. Tsan,
| Chinese, Canton, Un. Burman (written), We.
5 ' Chinese, Shanghai Yiin. Burman (spoken), We, a-wd-mha.
Amov, Colloquial, Hng. Khyeng v. Shou. Tsua-alau-ame.
Japanese, . . Toku. Kdmi, . . . Khdn-ld.
Kiimi, . . . Pi-lu-pa-i.
Brahuf, . . . Caret, Mni v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, . . Ywen. Sdk, . , . Caret.
S Gydrung, . Ka-sri. Talain v. Mon, Numa-way.
h Tdkpa, . . Ringbu, Sgau-karen, . Yi, yizi.
Mdnyak, . . Rassd. Pwo-karen, . Yaing.
Thochii, . Grikho, Toungh-thu, . Hyd.
Sokpa, ... Khblb. Shdn, . . . An-kehn.
Horpa, . . , Cheehi. Annamitic, . Xa.
Tibetan (written), Ne, nye. Siamese, . . Ka-rihn, klt.
Tibetan (spoken), . Thdring, Ahom, . . . Jau, sat.
Khdmti, . . Kai.
Serpa, . . . , Rimbo. Laos, , , .
Sunwdr, . . . Gnani. Kai.
Giirung, . . . Rhemb. f Ho (Kol), . Sanging.
Murmi, Thdring, Kol (SinghbhunV Sdnging, sdnginiya.
Magar, . . , Lbs. Santdli, . . Sdnging.
Thdksya, . . . Chari. Bhiimij, . . Sdnginiya.
Pdkhya, . . . Tdhi. Urdon, . . Geeha.
Newdr, . , . Tdpd. Mundala, . . Sdngin.
Limbu, , , . Mdnkhb, Rdjmahali, . Geehi.
Gondi, . . Lak, langkak mandar.
Kirdnti, , . Mdngsd. Gayeti, . . Lak.
Rodong, . . Mokhd, mise, mose. Rutluk, . . Lab.
Rungchenbung, Mdngsa, mangkh'tyada, Naikude, . . Daw.
Chhingtdngya, Afdngutva, mangno. [mattg. Kolami, , . Pereddw.
Ndchhereng, . Chhiburu. Mddi, , . . Vilak, jeku.
Wdling, . . Mdngkhaya. Mddia, , . Lap.
Ydkha, . . Mangduna. Kuri, . , . Atar.
Chourasya, . Bht'tna. Keikddi, . . Duram.
Kulungya, Chhugri. Khond, . . Atumane.
Thulungya, . Chhyubat. Sdvara, , , Sangayi.
Bdhingya, . . , Brdba, hare. Gadaba, . . Sulbm.
Lohorong, . . IVb, miyo. Yerukala, . Tura, kitte.
Lambichhong, Mdtiglok. Chentsu, . . Dur.
Bdldli, . . . Tdrho.
Sdng-pdng, , . Chhusi. Tamil, .inc, Seimei.
Dumi, . . . . Chhyii. Tamil, mod Tulei, duram.
Khdling, . , . Chhy-upd. Malaydjma, anc, Caret,
Dungmdli, . , Mdng, mang-khd-yd, Malaydlma, mod. Aliaie.
Telugu, . . DaiTtt, duramu.
Ddrhi, . . . . Tdrho. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
5 Denwar, . , , Tar-hai. Karndtaka, mod. Caret.
Pahri, . . . , Ta-pa-le. Tuluva, Caret.
Chepdng, . , . Dydng-to. Kurgi, . . Caret.
Bhrdmu, . , , Ka-loh. Toduva, ) Caret.
Vdyu Ho-ldm. Toda, J PodtMshi.
Kuswar, . , , Dure. Kdta, . . Durame.
Kusunda, . . . Isinha. Badaga, . Dura.
I Thdru,. . . . Uhd. Kurumba, Dura.
Iruja, . . Dura.
(Sikkim), Maram. Malabar, . Thi'tra.
v. Lhopa, Thdring. Sinhalese, . Dura.
74 DE—VON—FROM—OT—AB (DE). [CHAP. III.— adverbs, etc.

. Types. [Bodo, . . -phra.


•« (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . -sho.
-as, -bhydm,1 -b/iyas1 (abi.). Kocch, -hoite (?).
4, (Arabic, . Min. Garo, . . Prd.
Bask, .... -dik, -tik, -gandik, -ganik. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . . . -lta. Munipuri, Digi.
Magvar, . . . -rol, -bol. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . . . -dan. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, . . Cant. Khdri Ndgd, . Bine.
Georgian, . . -sagan, -sgan. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
Mongolian, . . Etse. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, . . -tehi. Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Teka, saka. Tengsa Ndgd, Caret.
Javanesf, Krama, Sangking, saking. Abor Miri, . Odankang.
[ Malav, . . . Dart. Sibsdgar Miri, Lokke.
Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Nankin, . Ts'utig. [Singpho, . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Ts'ung, kheu.
■ Chinese, Canton, . Ts'ung. [ Burman (written), Ka.
-| ' Chinese, Shanghai, Dzyung. I Burman (spoken), Ga.
Amov, Colloquial, . Liii. Khyeng v. Shou Ld.
Japanese, . . . -yori, kara. Kdmi, . . Nd-i.
Kumi, . . Caret.
Brahuf, -dug, -an. < Mni v. Toung. Caret.
[ Sdk, . . Caret.
Gydmi, Li.
Gyarung, Shis, -s. Talain v. Mon, Nu.
Tdkpa, J'■ Sgau-karen, Ler.
5 Pwo-karen, Ler.
Mdnyak, T/ia, ni.
Thochu, -k, to, ge. Toungh-thu, A.
Sokpa, Gdsd. Shdn, . Kohn.
Horpa, L/idno, gka. Annamitic, Boi.
Tibetan (written), Nas, las. Siamese, . Tway, -ie.
Tibetan (spoken), . Ne, dini. Ahom, . . Caret.
Khdmti, . Luk.
Serpa, Nebd. Laos, . . Caret.
Sunwdr, Grtd. -te.
Gurung, Wdje. Ho (Kol),
Kol (Singhbhum Te (-te?).
Murmi, Yanehe. -thenkhon, -khond, -khon.
Magar, In. Santdli, .
Bhiimij, . khon.
Thdksya, Kydehe. Te.
Pdkhya, Bdto. Urdon,
Newdr, Ni s/iyang, ang, ydkbt. Mundala, . Si.
Rdjmahali, -khon (?).
Limbu, Nit, mam't. -te (?).
(iondi,
Kirdnti, Ddnkd. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Ddkd, dano. Rutluk, . Caret.
Rungchenbung, . . . Ddngkd. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . . . Gtid. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, .... A'm. Mddi, . . Caret.
Wdling, Pangkwa. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, Bwang. Kuri, . . Caret.
Chourdsya, .... Lo-gno. Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, .... Gna, d,pikd. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, .... D-ang, kdng. Sdvara, Sitholo.
Bdhingya, Ding. Gadaba, . Rom.
Lohorong, .... Bdng, pdng. Yerukala, . Nunehe.
Lambichhong, . . . Belwttg. Chentsu, . Singa.
Bdldli, Pang, pi. Tamil, anc, -il.
Sdng-pdng, .... Pikd. Tamil, mod., -ninru.
Dumi, Bikd. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, Bikd. Malaydjma, mod., -ninna, -ilninna.
Dungmdli, .... Bang, ibangd. Telugu,' . -nunehi.
Ddrhi, NM. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, Sun. Karndtaka, mod., -inda, -deseyinda.
Pahri Ang. Tuluva, . Caret.
Kurgi, . . -ehellitu.
Chepdng, /. -n.
Bhrdmu, J<ing,gdng. Toduva,)
Vdyu, Khen. Toda, ) -ind, ar.
Kuswar, Bat/io, dekhi. Kdta, . . -inde.
Kusunda, Jang,jai. Badaga, . -inda.
4 Thdru, Paidddekhalbat. Kurumba, -inda.
Irula, . . -irinda, inda.
Lepcha (Sikkim), ATan, Hang. Malabar, . -dl, irunthu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Nd/e, le ehdle. Sinhalese, . -gen.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC] ICI—HIER— HERE—ZDYES—HIC.

Types. ' Bodo, Imbo.


■5 j Sanskrit, Dhimdl, .... . I'sho.
I/ia, atra. < ■ Kocch, .... Ya/idn.
<^ (Arabic, Hond, hdhond, Garo, Yaydn.
Bask, . Emen, ona, onara, onat, unat. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, Tasa. Munipuri, . . . As'tda.
Magvar, It. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
£ I Turkish. Buraya. Tablung Ndgd, . . Card.
K= I Circassian, Medehshey (?). Khdri Ndgd, . . . . Nikb.
Georgian, Aka. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Haki.
Mongolian. Ende. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . Anatig.
Mantshu, Ubade. K Nowgong Ndgd, . Ybng.
Javanese, Ngoko, Kene. 1 Tengsa Ndgd, . . ■ Iga-
Javanese, Krama, Ngriki. Abor Miri, . . . . Sho.
[ Malav, . . . Disini, Sibsagar Miri, . . . So.
Chinese, Nankin, Chedi. Deoria Chutia, . . Lohore.
Chinese, Pekin, Che-li. Singpho, .... . Nade.
Chinese, Canton, Ni-ehii. ' Burman (written). Simhd.
Chinese, Shanghai Ti-teh. Barman (spoken), . . Thimha.
Amov, Colloquial, Chi-tau, ti-ehia. Khyeng v. Shou, . . M-dm.
Japanese, Kokoni, koko. Kdmi, Hia, ya.
Kiimi, Hi-bang.
Brahuf, Bdde. Mni v. Toung, . . Caret.
g
Gydmi, Thi-me. Sdk, . Caret.
Gydrung, Chidu. ' Talain v. Mon, . . Kha-na-nau.
Tdkpa, Wo eho. Sgau-karen, . . . 'Pali.
Mdnyak, Khopu, daii. Pwo-karen, . . . Taung-yu,
Thochu, C/io, kuzgd, ehaksi, thaksi. g Toungh-thu, . . . . Yo.
Sokpa, . Inde. Shdn, Kaniht.
Horpa, U'du. Annamitic, . . , . Dai.
Tibetan (written). Hadina. Siamese, .... . Hta-ni, ni.
Tibetan (spoken), Dieho. s Ahom, U, tinai.
.g
Khdmti, .... . Phe, t/uii.
Serpa, . Diru. Laos, . Ni.
Siinwdr, Watha.
Giirung, Churi. ' Ho (Kol), . . . Nendre.
Murmi, Jydse. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Nethd.
Magar, Ilak. Santdli, .... . Nante.
Thdksya, Kesiehosi. Bhdmij, .... . Nethai.
Pdkhya, Yetd. Urdon Isan.
Newdr, T/iuke. Mundala, .... . NUhi.
Limbu, Kot-nd. Rdjmahali, . . , Jno.
Gondi, . Ingabard.
f Kirdnti, Wadd. Gayeti, .... Caret.
Rodong, Wada. Rutluk, .... Caret.
Riingchenbung, Oda. Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Bdye, bdyetni. Kolami, .... Caret.
Ndchhereng, Ik, yeksa. to Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . I'ydk, wada, waya. Mddia, .... Caret.
Ydkha, . Kln; ndkhi. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Alo, amtia, alvi. Keikddi, .... Caret.
Kulungya, Yeksa, ingkwdpi. Khond . Caret.
Thulungya, A' no, dsi, asinda. Sdvara, .... . Tenne.
Bdhingya, Ydkdre, eke, yeke. Gadaba, .... Tennb.
Lohorong, Igobe, igiyii, kiyi't. Yerukala, .... Yatukire, yinge.
Lambichhong. Ndbe, nate. Chentsu, .... I'hand, yechhini.
Bdldli, . . Kobi, koyii. Tamil, anc, . lvan.
Sdng-pdng, Nopvd, nopi. Tamil, mod I'ngu.
Dumi, . . Teb'i. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Tdbi, tdbignd. Malaydlma, mod., . Jvite.
[ Dungmdli, Ibi, ydk. Telugu,' .... lkkada.
f Ddrhi, . . r-eki. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Yi-ti. d Karndtaka, mod., . . lln.
Pahri, . . Thugudlid. 1 Tuluva, .... lnehi.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . /Hi.
Bhrdmu, . Nidi. Toduva,) , , . . M
Vdyu, . . l-tie, it/ie. to8 Toda, > . . . ■ /*, ing.
Kuswar, . Aehi-na. Kdta, . lvdne.
Kusunda, . Tau-wa. Badaga . lln.
[ Thdru, . . Yehara. Kurumba, . . . . /Hi.
Iruja, ■ Inge.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Alim, aba. Malabar, .... Ingd.
Bhutani v. Lhopa, Di ti. Sinhalese, .... Me/ie.
76 COMMENT—W IE— HOW ?—KAK—QUi. [CHAP. III.—adverbs, etc.

Types. ' Bodo, . Bre.


•« (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, .... He-sd, he-dong.
Katham. k Kocch, .... Kemon.
<§, (Arabic, . Keif. Garo, Bigdndd.
f Bask, . . Nola, zelan. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . Kuitika. ' Munipuri, . . . . Kurumtouna.
Magvar, . Hogy. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish, . Nasl. Tablung Ndgd, . . Caret.
Circassian, Sii/u shit. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Kotisau.
Georgian, Kith. Angdmi Ndgd, . . Nokidihika.
Mongolian, Yaghon-yer. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, Adarame. Nowgong Ndgd, Kotau.
Javanese, Ngoko, Kapriye. I Tengsa Ndgd, . . Katikiang.
Javanese, Krama, Kadospundi. Abor Miri, . . . . Kdppida.
[ Malav, . . . Bagimdna. 1 Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Kapu.
Deoria Chutia, . . Dakang.
Chinese, Nankin, Tsen-mo-yang. Singpho, .... Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Tsen-mo-yang.
Chinese, Canton, Tim-yeong. Burman (written), Bheso.
3 1 Chinese, Shanghai Na-ndng. Burman (spoken), . . Bhetho-
Amov, Colloquial, Chiah-iun. Khyeng v. Shou, . rban.
Japanese, Doste, ikart. Kdmi . Nd-ha-be.
s Kumi, Caret.
Brahuf, Kan. Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
. Sdk, . Caret.
Gydmi, Thi-md.
Gydrung, . T/iigupso, this-pe. Talain v. Mon, . Tsou-Ia.
Tdkpa, Katingyd. Sgau-karen, . . Di-lai.
Mdnyak, . Hanus-moh. Pwo-karen, . Baithele.
Thochd, . Nikanju, nikaehan. Toungh-thu, . . . Leu-may.
Sokpa, Caret. Shdn, Tso-hu.
Horpa, A'ehibi. Annamitic, . . . TM-ndo.
Tibetan (-written), Tsug, ehitsug. Siamese, .... . Ran rihn, thau phra het.
Tibetan (spoken), Khd-ehe, khanda. 5 Ahom, .... Caret.
Khdmti, .... . Caret.
Serpa, . . Kdnde, kdndd. Laos, Caret.
Sunwdr, . Dbdiv. Ho (Kol), . . . Chialeka.
Giirung, . Khaga liyon. Kol (Singhbhum), . Chi-lika.
Mdrmi, Khdtpd. Santdli, .... . Chetleko.
Magar, Kuddng-eha. Bhumij, .... Chi-lika.
Thdksya, . Khajuldba. Urdon, .... Yekassi.
Pdkhya, . Caret. Mundala, .... . Chilke.
Newdr, Gathe, ge. Rdjmahali, . . . Ikna.
Limbu, A'pha. Gondi, .... . Bdhun.
Kirdnti, . . A'irisuko. Gayeti, .... Caret.
Rodong, . . Ddskwa, ddsbkwa. Rutluk, .... Caret.
Rdngchenbung, Khainsaki, khdinse. Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Hbkhyakkha. Kolami, .... Caret.
Ndchhereng, Ddkhtb. ■3 Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . Hagnekagna. Mddia, .... Caret.
Ydkha, . Ndhbk. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, A'si ehokeho. Keikddi, .... Yedanu.
Kulungya, U'ddim, ddim. Khond, .... Caret.
Thulungya, Hesaka, heka, he. Sdvara, .... Yengd.
Bdhingya, Gekho, gekhom. Gadaba, .... Yerdndi.
Lohorong, Mantok, mantok'ye. Yerukala, .... Yate.
Lambichhong, Hetide-khd. Chentsu, .... Kemune.
Bdldli, . . Apto. " Tamil, ane Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Ydn-tako. Tamil, mod., . Eppadi, yeppadi.
Ddmi, . . Hemp/iem. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Hemphem. Malaydlma, mod., . Engine.
[ Dungmdli, Tete. Telugu, .... . Et'ld, yetld.
Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
f Ddrhi, . . Kd-sai. Karndtaka, mod., . Hvdnge, yerttu.
Denwdr, . Ka-n/ie. Tuluva, .... Caret.
Pahri, . . Gi-re. Kurgi, Yennane.
Chepdng, . Caret. Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Bhrdmu, . ffi-tu. . Hyage.
Hung-ngd. 4 Toda, \ . . .
Vdyu, . . K6ta, ■ Yege.
Kuswar, . Kd-sege. Badaga, .... Yetete, hyage.
Kusunda, . Natuwan. Kurumba, . . . . Yetate.
Thdru, . Caret. Irula, . Yepadi.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Salom. Malabar, .... . Eppadi, evoethamaka.
Bhdtdni v. Lhopa, Kdte-be. Sinhalese,. . . . Kohotnada.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] COMBIEN—WIE VIEL— HOW MUCH ?—SKOLKO—QUANTUM. 77

Types. ' Bodo, Beehi-ehibdng.


Dhimdl He-jokho.
'« J(Sanskrit,
SANSKR] Kiyat. • Kocch, .... . Koto, kiti.
<§, (Arabic, Kam. Garo, . Bipdng.
Bask, . . Zembat, zeimbeste. Kichdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . Kititika paljo. Munipuri, Caret.
Magvar, . Mennyivel. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish, . Kaeh. Tablung Ndgd, . Caret.
Circassian, Yet-shash. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Kuia.
Georgian, Raoden. Angdmi Ndgd, . . KUhttru.
I Mongolian, Kediir-tsineg/ten . Ndmsang Ndgd, . . Chento.
Mantshu, Udu. Nowgong Ndgd, Kayitka.
Javanese, Ngoko, Pira. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Katekat.
Javanese, Krama, Pinten. Abor Miri, . . . . Eritko.
[ Malav, . . . Bardpa. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Uduko.
Chinese, Nankin, Yu-to-shaou. Deoria Chutia, . . Ameha.
Chinese, Pekin, Yu-to-shaou. Singpho, .... Gadema.
Chinese, Canton, Ki-to. Burman (written), . Bhelok.
Chinese, Shanghai Ki-ho. Bunnan (spoken), . . Bhelauk.
Amov, Colloquial, Jod-ehoe. Khyeng v. Shou, . Hvatt-um.
[Japanese, Dono gurai, ikura. • Kdmi, Ha-ye-to.
Kumi, Caret.
Brahuf, Akhadr. Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
Gydmi, To syb. Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, . This-ti. ' Talain v. Mon, . . Ma-tsi.
Tdkpa, . Gb. Sgau-karen, . . . Si-ah-la't, tse-ah.
Mdnyak, . Trimni. Pwo-karen, . . . Tsai-ah-lai.
5 Thochii, . Nikal. Toungh-thu, . . . Khdng hmay.
Sokpa, In ehhin yi'tbi. Shdn, Hta-noung.
Horpa, Haisyi. Annamitic, . . . . May.
Tibetan (written) Tsam, tsoma. Siamese, .... Htau-riht, ki lem.
[Tibetan (spoken), Khd ehwe. 5 Ahom, Caret.
Khdmti, .... . Caret.
[ Serpa, . . Kajb. Laos, Kilam.
Sunwdr, . Gist.
Gurung, . Kd te. Ho (Kol), . . . Cheminang.
Kol (Singhbhum), . Chimidng.
3 Murmi, Gdde.
Santdli, .... Tin, tindlt, tintiri.
Si Magar, Kudit.
Bhumij Chimidng.
Thdksya, . Kang nya.
Pdkhya, . Kati. Urdon ■ Yfagpagi-
! Newdr, Guli. Mundala, .... Chimna.
[ Limbu, A'khen. Rdjmahali, . . . Ina.
Gondi, .... . Baehola, banehur.
f Kirdnti, . De mbye. Gayeti, .... . Caret.
Rodong, . Dum no. Rutluk Caret.
Rungchenbunf Dim ye. ■ Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, A'suk. Kolami, .... Caret.
Ndchhereng, Del. Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, Tem, dem. Mddia Caret.
Ydkha, . Ingkhbg ha. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, A'skwalo. Keikddi, .... Yentabaru.
Kulungya, Detye-Dei. Khond Mesbni.
Thulungya, Hala, hayu, hamko. Sdvara, .... Dite.
I Bdhingya, G'isko. Gadaba, .... Addisugb.
Lohorong, Yeh-wa. Yerukala, .... . Yiitana.
5 Lambichhong Caret. Chentsu, .... . Keita, ketta^uld.
Bdldli, . Aptoklo. Tamil, anc, . . . Ettitnei.
Sdng-pdng. Ddhile. Tamil, mod., . . . Evalavu, yevvalavu
Diimi, . Hebe. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, Hebe. Malaydjma, mod., . . Etra.
[ Dungmdli, Tem. Telugu, .... Enta, yenta.
[ Ddrhi, . Kat-ha. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, Kat-ha. Karndtaka, mod., . . Estitu.
■5 Tuluva, .... . Ett.
Pahri, . Git-pi.
Chepdng, Caret. Kurgi, Caret.
Bhrdmu, Ku-wa. Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . Hd-thd. Toda, j ... Yet.
Kuswar, Katak. Kdta, Ytje.
Kusunda, A'sina. Badaga, .... Ye/a.
Thdru, . Ketand. Kurumba, Yesaga.
Iruja, Yettani.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Satet. Malabar, .... Evvalovu.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Kdjhu. Sinhalese,. . . . Koeeharada.
78 EN— IN— IN—V—IN. [CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.

Types. ' Bodo, -hd, -ou, -ehou, -nou.


■« (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, .... -td, -rhutd.
-os,1 -su"1 (loc.). ■ Kocch. .... . *(?)•
« (Arabic, . Fi. Garo, Pumvai.
Bask, . . -n, -barrenen, -gan. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, . -ssa. ' Munipuri, . . . . Da.
Magvar, . -ban. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . Khd.
Turkish, -deh. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Sah.
Circassian, Ehkotz. Khdri Ndgd, . . . . Gu.
Georgian, -shin. Angami Ndgd, . Kinu.
Mongolian, Tur, dur. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . Hum-nyu.
Mantshu, Dolo, dorgi. Nowgong Ndgd, Long.
Javanese, Ngoko, Jero. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Atap.
Javanese, Krama, Lebet. Abor Miri, . . . A'rang.
[ Malav, . . . Di. Sibsagar Miri, . . . A'rdlo.
Deoria Chutia, . . Chikimo.
[' Chinese, Nankin, Tsdi. Singpho Katai.
Chinese, Pekin, Tsdi.
Chinese, Canton, Hat. Burman (written), . Nhaik.
Chinese, Shanghai Leh-lah. Bumian (spoken), . . Nhaik, a-htamha.
1t Khyeng v. Shou, . Diika.
Amov, Colloquial, Ti.
[Japanese, -ni. -'6 - Kdmi, . Yd.
Kumi, Caret.
Brahuf, -ii. Mni v. Toung, . . Caret.
Ld. Sdk, . Caret.
Gydmi,
Gydrung, -s, pri. Talain v. Mon, . Atway.
Tdkpa, Nd. Sgau-karen, . . . A'pu.
s Ler-pung.
Mdnyak, Khu, ehoh. Pwo-karen, .
Thochu, . Kuku, tik, ti. 1 Toungh thu, . . . . Pu.
Sokpa, Thii, td. Shdn, Kanoitng.
- Annamitic, . . . Trong.
Horpa, Nd, no, ehi.
Tibetan (written), Ld, na. Siamese, .... Khan-nd, nai.
1:z [ Tibetan (spoken), Ld. Ahom, .... Khau.
Khdmti, .... Kannu.
Serpa, . . Ld. Laos, . Nai.
Sunwar, Mi.
Ri. ' Ho (Kol), . . . -re.
Giirung, . -re.
Murmi, Ri. Kol (Singhbhum), .
Ydng, ang. Santdli, .... -tdldre, -re.
Magar, Bhumij, .... . Bhitar, re (?).
Thdksya, . Hisono.
Pdkhya, . Beli. Urdon, .... . Uld.
Newdr, E', ti. Mundala, .... . Bhitar (within).
Mo, khep-mo, kuthung-tho. Rdjmahali, . . . . -tdldre (?).
[ Limbu, . Imitte.
Gondi, ....
\ Kirdnti, . Dd. Gayeti, .... . Caret.
Rodong, . Dd. Rutluk, .... . Caret.
Rdngchenbung, Dd. Naikude, .... . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Be, pe. Kolami . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Pi. Mddi Caret.
Wdling, . Inan, da, ida. Mddia, .... Caret.
Ydkha, . Be, songbe. Kuri, Caret.
Lo. Keikddi, .... Caret.
3 Chourdsya,
Kulungya, Pd, pi, gopd, pitd, themtii. Khond, .... Caret.
Thulungya, Ard, dd, du, duda. Sdvara, .... Logna.
Bdhingya, Di, bore, gware. Gadaba, .... . Ra(?).
Lohorong, Be, bi. Yerukala, .... Kore, koku.
Lambichhong. Be. Chentsu, .... . Gant, ta.
Bdldli, . . Pi, ehapittu. ' Tamil, anc, . . . . -kan.
Sdng-pdng, Pi. Tamil, mod . -il.
Diimi, . . Yo, bi. Malaydlma, anc, . Caret.
Khdling, . Bi. Malaydjma, mod., . . -il.
Dungmdli, Pi, yd. Telugu, .... -lo, -andu.
f Ddrhi, . . Yer, her. Karndtaka, anc, . -ol.
■3 Karndtaka, mod., -olage, -alii.
Denwdr, . In.
Pahri, . . Gar-hi-ne. Tuluva, .... -olai-idu.
Chepdng, . Hani;. Kurgi, . -lu, -pakka.
Bhrdmu, . Thd-ehi. Toduva,) . . . . -ol.
Vdyu, . . Be. Toda, ; . . . . -tilt.
Kuswar, . Kana. Kdta, -voltage.
Kusunda, . Tdi. Badaga, .... . -voltage.
[ Thdru, . Bdkinahi. Kurumba, . , . . -vollage.
Irula, . -idle.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kd, plbng. Malabar, .... . -il, ul.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Nd. Sinhalese, . . . -atitie.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC] PEU—WENIG— LITTLE—MALO—PAULUM 79

Types. Bodo, . . . Tisi, kitisi.


Dhimdl, . . A'toisd.
« (Sanskrit, A/pa. Kocch, . . Gutik.
^ (Arabic, . JfalU. Garo, . . Kitek si.
[ Bask, . . Guehi, giehi, guti. Kdchdri, . . Caret.
Finnic, . Waha. Munipuri, Ydmde.
Magvar, . Caret. Mfthdn Ndgd, Ohipia.
Turkish, . Az. Tablung Ndgd, Eehinghd.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . Iehadango.
Georgian, Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, Katuno.
Mongolian, Utsoghen tedui, tsiighen. Ndmsang Ndgd, Aehd.
Mantshu, Madehighe, kheni. Nowgong Ndgd, Ishika.
Javanese, Ngoko, Satitik. Tengsa Ndgd, Tesu.
Javanese, Krama, Satedik. Abor Miri, . Caret.
Malav, . . . Sadikit. Sibsdgar Miri, Ajo-da.
Deoria Chutia, Poiani.
Chinese, Nankin, S/iaou. Singpho, . . Katsi.
Chinese, Pekin, Shaou.
Chinese, Canton, Shiu. Burman (written), Chhitkhali.
■| 'j Chinese, Shanghai Siaw. Burman (spoken), Seik-khale.
Amov, Colloquial, Soe. =5 Khyeng v. Shou A-ldk-ehd-i.
[Japanese, Skoshi, sukoshi. Kdmi, . . . Tsei-du-to.
Kumi, . . . A-htan.
Brahuf, Maih. Mrii v. Toung, Caret.
Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gydmi, Sybti.
Gydrung, . Kiih-ehe. Talain v. Mon, Sut.
Tdkpa, Chuti. Sgau-karen, . 'Si-ku, tse, at/he.
Mdnyak, . Tameh. Pwo-karen, . Re-pu.
Thochd, . Khwini. Toungh-thu, . Pa.
Sokpa, Bdgd. Shdn, . . . Ait.
Horpa, A'mohe. Annamitic, . It.
Tibetan (written), Nyung. Siamese, . . Aret-ta-rb, leknoi.
|. Tibetan (spoken), Niguva. Ahom, . . . Chut.
Khdmti, . . Lek kye.
Serpa, . . Chdyak ehik. Laos, . . . Caret.
Siinwar, . Iskd. Anga.
Chi^i-de. Ho (Kol), .
Gurung, . Kol (Singhbhum), Hitding.
Murmi, Udit. A'dhan, eharakoi-ehakoih.
Chek-jd. Santdli,
Magar, Bhumij, . Huditig.
Thdksya, . Chipri. Sani.
Yokai, thokdi. Urdon,
Pdkhya, . Mundala, . Huding.
Newdr, Bhati. Jbk'd.
Mi-sa. Rdjmahali,
Limbu, Gondi, Thodko, jardso mandar.
Kirdnti, . Chiehi. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . P'uhhe. •5 Rutluk, . Thor.
Rungchenbung, Chi-ehi. Naikude, . Torra.
Chhingtdngya, Mih-mo. Kolami, . Turra.
Ndchhereng, Chiehha. Mddi, . . Iehnn, huduk.
Wdling, . A'ehiehi, aehi. Mddia, Hudu, itgunam.
Ydkha, . Misydha. Kuri, . . T7iatii.
Chourdsya, Chig-ndpu. Keikddi, . Tode.
Kulungya, Chiehha, giehha. Khond, . Yike.
Thulungya, Kiehwe. Sdvara, Tite.
Bdhingya, . Kd-ehi. Gadaba, . Khandiki.
I.ohorong, Mig'-mo. Yerukala, . Rutana.
Lambichhong. Miyo. Chentsu, . Raj, ehone.
Bdldli, . . Meehhuk. Tamil, anc, Caret.
Sdng-pdng, U'ttu-ehhe. Tamil, mod. Siriya, ehinna.
Diimi, . . Tibiehyo. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Tibiehe. Malaydjma, mod., Kora, kure.
Dungmdli, Aehiehi. Telugu,' . . . Kdsta, konehemu.
Chut-hi. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Ddrhi, . . Karndtaka, mod., Tus-a, tho-de.
Denwdr, . Chut-ek-pe.
Bhd-e/td. Tujtiva, . Ottda.
Pahri, . . Kurgi, . . Chennang.
Chepdng, . Caret.
Sbn-bi. Toduva,) Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Toda, \ Yeddi, kinud.
Vdyu, . . /ti-bang.
Thbre. Kdta, . . Kunade.
Kuswar, . Badaga, . Kuna, konji.
Kusunda, . Dyoro.
Thoro. Kurumba, Vbsi.
I Thdru, . . Irula, . . Konja.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Amdn. Malabar, . Siru, konjam.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Nyiing-bo. Sinhalese, . Tika.
BEAUCOUP—VIEL—MUCH— MNOGO—MULTUM. [CHAP. III.—adverbs, etc.
So

Types. [Bodo, . Gab-dng, gobdtig.


Dhimdl, Eshiito.
.sr (Sanskrit, Baku. Bhclela.
Kocch,
(Arabic, . Kathir. Garo, . Takkri.
Asko, aski, lar, gei, geyegi. Kdchdri, Caret.
Bask, . .
Finnic, Paljo. Munipuri, Yame.
Magvar, . Sok. Mfthdn Ndgd, Taihu.
Turkish, . Chok, Tablung Ndgd, Eselai.
Circassian, Bedded. ! Khdri Ndgd, , Kwalangau.
Georgian, Bekri. Angdmi Ndgd, Hvapur.
Mongolian, Olan, tedu'ighen, 5 Ndmsdng Ndgd, A'jd.
Mantshu, Labdu. Nowgong Ndgd, Ayuka.
Javanese, Ngoko, Akeh. Tengsa Ndgd, Tebe.
Javanese, Krama, Katah. Abor Miri, . Caret.
Malav, . . . Bafiak. 1 Sibsdgar Miri, A'b-ako.
Deona Chutia, Poini.
Chinese, Nankin, To. [Singpho, . . Lo.
Chinese, Pekin, To. f Burman (written), Myd.
Chinese, Canton, To. Burman (spoken), Myd, apon.
Chinese, Shanghai Tu. A-pd-luk.
Amov, Colloquial, Choe. Khyeng v. Shou
Kdmi, . Pa, ong-je.
Japanese, . . Takusan, tanto. No*.
Kiimi, .
Brahuf, . , , Bdz. Mni v. Toung Caret.
Sdk, . Caret.
Gydmi, . . . Td-ti. Hbau.
Gydrung, . , . Kak-ti. Talain v. Mon,
Sgau-karen, Ah, ahmah.
Tdkpa, . . , Shibo. Ahmah.
Mdnyak, . . . Tabrd. Pwo-karen,
Toungh-thu, A.
Thochu, . . . Brobo. Taima.
Sokpa, .... Elvik. Shdn, . .
Kagari. Annamitic, Nhieu.
Horpa, . . . Hhm, lai, bundd.
Tibetan (written), Mang, tumo. h Siamese, ,
Tibetan (spoken), . Md-gud (mdngnd ?), Ahom. . Rd.
Khdmti, . Nam.
Serpa, . . A'ld. Laos, , , Nak, ldi.
Sunwar, Iteh-kd. f Ho (Kol), Pura, essu.
Gurung, . Lheyb. Kol (Singhbhum) Esu.
Miirmi, L/tdnd, Santdli, Udi, udi-utdr, ater, atua,
Magar, Dher. Bhumij, Bara (udi?). [dkutd, dmdd.
Thdksya, . Dhan-hd. Urdon, Udi, dher.
Pdkhya, . Mauti. Mundala, Dher (dmdd ?).
Newar, Apd. Rdjmahali. Gduri.
Limbu, Yorik. Gondi, . Wale, pharol, bale mandar.
Kirdnti, Badlio. -■ Gayeti, Wale.
Rodong, . Kebha. Rutluk, Walle.
Rungchenbung, . Bad-dho. Naikude, Da^dr.
Chhingtdngya, . Dhera, bddhe. Kolami, Kub.
Ndchhereng, Antkhbpa. Mddi, . Velle,
Wdling, . DhSrdug, badlie, Mddia, Bel.
Ydkha, . Pydg-ha. Kuri, . Galetakig.
Chourdsya, Yetikhblse. Keikddi, Wanrdsi.
Kulungya, Waddetwa, wadetto. Khond, Purd-dte.
Thulungya, Dhekbtig. Sdvara, Bari.
Bdhingya, Ydko. Gadaba, Burn,
Lohorong, Dhe-rok, dilik, khwa, ehopmo. Yerukala, Mettd.
Lambichhong, Badhebdk. Chentsu, Bhbri.
Bdldli, . . Duklo. Tamil, anc Mikka,
Sdng-pdng, Otto, wotto. Tamil, mod Mikunda, miehamana.
Dumi, , Thobe. Malaydjma, anc Caret.
Khdling, . Thebe, gole. Malaydjma, mod. Valara.
Dungmdli, Nindm-md, Telugu,' . . Nindd, mikkili.
Karndtaka, ane Caret.
Ddrhi, , , Dherai. Karndtaka, mod Bahala.
"5 Denwdr, . Dhere. Tulu'va, Din/a.
Pahri, . . Chb-hbng. Kurgi, . Perta.
Chepang, . Jhb. Toduva, | Uppom.
Bhrdmu, . Bud-he. Toda, \ Upam.
Vdyu, . . Ching-ngak, sing-ye. Kdta, . Yeddame.
Kuswar, Dhere. Badaga, Thumba, appara.
Kusunda, . Mang-gni. Kurumba, Appara.
Thdru, . . Bahut. Irula, . Thumba.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Ag-ydp. Malabar, Met-tha.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Mdng-bo. Sinhalese, Bohoma.
chap, ill.—adverbs, etc.] PROCHE—NAHE— N E AR—BLIZKO—PROPE. s

Types. Bodo, Khdtai.


•| (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, Cheng-so.
Antikam. Kocch, Nag-ieh.
(Arabic, . Kar'tb. Garo Ka/ai.
•2
Bask, . . Aldean, alboan, urbill, arras. Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, Lahi, -lasna. f Munipuri, .... Nugle.
Magvar, . Kozel. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . Hole.
Turkish, . Yakin. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Otike.
Circassian, Tlagha. Khdri Ndgd, .... Anhagu.
Georgian, Akhlo. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Chagnno.
Mongolian, Oira. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . Therkb.
Mantshu, Khan/ehi. Nowgong Ndgd, . . . Tats-aka.
Javanese, Ngoko, Cherak. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Annangld.
Javanese, Krama, Chelak. Abor Miri, .... Aninda.
[ Malav, . . . Jduh. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Aniinse.
Kin. i Deoria Chutia, . . . Buttigain.
[ Chinese, Nankin, [ Singpho, Ni.
Chinese, Pekin, Chin.
Chinese, Canton, Kan. f Burman (written), . . Ni.
Chinese, Shanghai Kidng. Burman (spoken), . . . Ni, a-ni-mha.
Amov, Colloquial, Kiin'. Khyeng v. Shou, . . A-shyo-zo-yan.
Japanese, Chikaku. Kdmi, Net.
Kumi Ki-sd.
Brahuf, Musti. Mni v. Toung, . . Caret.
Jhin. Sdk, Caret
[ Gydmi,
Gyarung Kaehing Talain v. Mon, . . . Tsottk.
Tdkpa, Thungbii. Sgau-karen, .... Bu.
Mdnyak, Rini. Pwo-karen, .... Boh.
Thochii, Grin, grinista. Toungh-thu Lau.
Sokpa, Nangni. Shdn, An-san.
Horpa, Thane. Annamitic, .... Gdn.
Tibetan (written). Ring. h Siamese, Kard, klai.
Tibetan (spoken), Thdni. .5 Ahom, Klai.
3 Khdmti, Kan.
Serpa, . Uiak-nimbo. [ Laos, Kai.
Siinwar, Nethd.
Giirung, Kendo. fHo(Kol), .... Ndite.
Murmi, Jyat-na. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Nia.
Magar, Klnvep. Santdli, Phed, thdh, t/ien, thenare.
Thdksya, Nyese. Bhrimij, Jdreyd.
Pdkhya, Nesai. Urdon, Hidi.
Newdr, Satti. Mundala, Najtk, nagieh.
Limbu, Neng ddng. Rdjmahali, .... Atgi.
Gondi, Kantm, muntosa mandar.
{ Kirdnti, Nektd. Gayeti, Karitm.
Rodong, Gnari, gnan'ge, nenge. Rutluk, Karitm.
Riingchenbung, Nek-ta, nekkhida, neek. Naikude, Daia.
Chhingtdngya, Tanghe, tangne. Kolami, Maihnvattan.
<r I Ndchhereng, Caret. Mddi, Vere, here.
i Wdling, . Mumikgnd, nek-yang. Mddia, Hor.
Ydkha, . Ningddng. Kuri, Merd.
Chourdsya, A'mna. Keikddi, Kilte.
Kulungya, Nbt-kha. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, Gnipa. Sdvara Tttya.
Bdhingya, Neng-tha, pumbi. Gadaba, Tantel.
Lohorong, Nen, ning-tdng. Yerukala, KPtta, kittdyi.
Lambichhong, Tang-neklok. Chentsu, Ldg.
Bdldli, . . Netd. Tamil, ane-' .... Anmei.
Sdng-pdng, Neti, yubhi. Tamil, mod., .... Kitta.
Diimi, . . Mebignd. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, . Nephdm. Malaydjma, mod., . . Atukke.
Dungmdli, Nek, nektdng. Telugu, Ddpu, daggera.
' Ddrhi, . . Nd-gik. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwdr, . Yen-ehi. Karndtaka, mod., . . Hattara, sdre.
Pahri, . . Nhydr-ke. Tujuva, Khayi, tob.
Chepdng, . Lok-to. Kurgi, Pakka.
Bhrdmu, . Ka-nydk. Toduva,) .... Kegttri.
Vdyu, . . Khe-wa. Toda, \ .... Kehuri.
Kuswar, . Pas-yong. Kdta, VottU.
Kusunda, . Ista. Badaga, Vottura, sdri.
^ [Thdru, . . Ihyd. Kurumba, .... Pakkaru.
Iruja, Kitta.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Atho/. Malabar, Kitta.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Thd-m. [ Sinhalese, Langa.
82 NUL (NON)—NEIN— NO—NYET—NON. [CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.

Types. (' Bodo, 0ngd, geyd.


'« (Sanskrit, Na (md = not). Dhimdl, Md, mdtithu.
< Kocch, Nah, nabin.
^ (Arabic, . La, lam, Ieis.
Garo, Ahd.
Bask, Ez. [ Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, .... En, et, ei, etc. (neg. particle Munipuri, Nate.
Magvar, .... Sent. [=<)• Mfthdn Ndgd, . Mantai.
Turkish, . . . Yok. Tablung Ndgd, . Mang-eha.
Circassian, . . . Shgeb. Khdri Ndgd, . . Nongb.
Georgian, . . . Nu. Angdmi Ndgd, . Mowe.
I Mongolian, . . Ugei. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Md.
Mantshu, . . . Ako. Nowgong Ndgd, Matt, nonga.
Javanese, Ngoko, . Ora. Tengsa Ndgd, . Nongo.
Javanese, Krama, Boten. Abor Miri, . . Mama.
Malav Bukan.
! Sibsdgar Miri, . Md.
[ Chinese, Nankin, . Puh-shi. Deoria Chutia, . Hbya.
Chinese, Pekin, . Pu-shih. Singpho, . . . Galai.
Chinese, Canton, . 'M-hai. Burman (written), Mahitt.
Chinese, Shanghai, Veh. Burman (spoken), Mahok, mahot-bu.
Amov, Colloquial, . Bo, -m-si. Khyeng v. Shou, Hi-a.
[Japanese, . . . Nat, iya, iye. Kdmi, .... Na-u-kd.
Kumi, .... Na-o.
Brahuf, .... Ahd. Mni v. Toung, . Caret.
f Gydmi, Pi'tsitieyb. Sdk, .... Caret.
Gyarung, Dimek. Talain v. Mon, . . Ha-tsen.
Tdkpa Men. Sgau-karen, . . . Tmabah, tho-mi-bah.
Mdnyak, Md-zyi. Pwo-karen, . . . Mwai-ai.
Thochii, Mdngwd, mang. I Toungh-thu, . . . Ta-mwd-tu.
Sokpa, Bi-si. Shdn, Ma-tsouk.
Horpa, Nver. Annamitic, .... KhSng.
Tibetan (written), . . Md. mi. Siamese, Mai-htsa, miehi.
[ Tibetan (spoken), . . Men. 5 Ahom, .... Bukhewo.
Khdmti, Ma-tsau.
Serpa, Men. Laos, Bo-tsai.
Sunwdr, Ma-mai.
Gurung A'ni. Ho (Kol), .... Bautio.
Murmi, A'nin. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Bdno.
Magar, Mdle. Santdli, Ah, bang, bdi, bdnu, = is not.
Thdksya, Ai. Bhumij Bdno.
Pdkhya, A'sin. Urdon Mdld.
Newdr, Makhu, mai, ahang. Mundala, Bdno.
Limbu, Men, nd. Rdjmahali, .... Malld.
Gondi, Halli, hille.
f Kirdnti, Mdng. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Ai-na. Rutluk Caret.
Rungchenbung, . . . Md-dng. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . . . Mdhd. ■ Kolami Caret.
Ndchhereng, .... Md, md-d. Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, Mdin, mdang. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha Minna, imunna. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, .... A'tti. Keikddi, Illa.
Kulungya, .... Md. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, .... Mie. Sdvara, Yajja.
Bdhingya, .... Mdh'-d. Gadaba, Vure.
Lohorong, .... Caret. Yerukala, Villd.
Lambichhong, . . . Mdhd, mdle. [ Chentsu, Nahi.
Bdldli, He-gnane. [ Tamil, ane. Caret.
Sdng-pdng, .... Mdnd. Tamil, mod IIlei, alla.
Dumi, Mo-b. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, Ma-an. Malaydjma, mod., . . Illa, alla.
[ Dungmdli, .... Man, je, soh'. Telugu, Letlu.
[ Ddrhi, Hbi-ne. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwdr, Boy-in. Karndtaka, mod., . . Illa, alla.
Pahri, Makhi. Tujuva, Iddi.
Chepdng, Caret. Kurgi, . . . Alla.
Bhrdmu, Mami, alik. Toduva,) ■ . . Caret.
Vdyu, Md, ma-nom. Toda, j . . . A'.
Kuswar, Nd. Kdta, . . . Illa.
Kusunda, A'vewd. Badaga, Illei.
Thdru, Ndhi. Kurumba, .... Illa.
Irula, /t/,..
Lepcha (Sikkim), Md ne. Malabar, Alla, illei.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Mi-tup, men. [ Sinhalese, Na;.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] NE (NON)—NICHT— NOT— NE (NYET)—NE (NON). 83

Types. Bodo, . . . Dd.


•| (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . . MA.
Md. Kocch, . . Mat.
<^ ^Arabic, Ld. Garo, . . . Td.
Bask, . Ez. Kdchdri, . . Caret.
Finnic, E- (insep. particle as in en, Munipuri, Nate.
Magvar, Son. [ei, epa, etc.). Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, Yok. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Shgeb. Khdri Ndga, . Td.
Georgian, Ara. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
Mongolian, C/gei. Ndmsdng Ndga, Nak.
Mantshu, Ako. Nowgong Ndga, (Tok) ri (shi).
Javanese, Ngoko, Aja. Tengsa Ndga, (Tha) m' (//</).
Javanese, Krama, Sampun. Abor Miri, . Ioka.
Malav, . . . Jdngan. Sibsdgar Miri, Yoka.
Chinese, Nankin, Puh-yaou. Deoria Chutia, Dd.
Pu-yaou. Singpho, . . Ng, phung.
Chinese, Pekin,
Chinese, Canton, 'M-ho. Burman (written), Ma (pru) nhang.
Chinese, Shanghai. Veh-yau-tsu. Burman (spoken), Ma (pya) nhen, ma-lot- u.
Amov, Colloquial, 'Al-fang. Khyeng v. Shou, Ne-e.
[ Japanese, Suruna, na. Kdmi, . . . Na, nan.
Kiimi, . . . Caret.
Brahuf, Mat (-fa, -pa, infixed). Mrii v. Toung, Caret.
[ Gydmi, Pusyo. Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gydrung, Met. Talain v. Mon, Hb-ka-lon.
Tdkpa, Ma, magyd. Sgau-karen, . Tmabah, tho-mi-bah.
Mdnyak, Thd. Pwo-karen, . Mwai-ai.
Thochu, Chi. Toungh-thu, . Caret.
Sokpa, Puthi-kl Shdn, . . . Ma-het-a.
Horpa, Md, di. Annamitic, . Di'ing
Tibetan (written), Caret. Siamese, . . Mai-htan, mi, yd.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Md. Ahom, . . . Bu, ma.
Khdmti, . . Le, tak.
[ Serpa, . Md. Laos, . . . Bo, mai, yd.
Sunwar, Mo.
Gurung, A', tuaehe. Ho (Kol), . Kd.
Murmi, Thd. Kol (Singhbhum Aha (alam ?).
Md. Santdli, . . Ah, dlo-, eto-, bdnu-.
Magar, Aham, alape.
Thdksya, Kino. Bhiimij, .
Pdkhya, Na. Urdon, . . Ampd.
Newar, Ma-te. Mundala, . . Ahi, aha.
Limbu, Ma-ne. Rdjmahali, . Aha.
Gondi, . . Hille bard.
[ Kirdnti, Man. Gayeti, . . Caret.
Rodong, Mi, mai, dd. ■5 Rutluk, . . Caret.
Riingchenbung, Man. Naikude, . . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Md, thd. Kolami, . . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Nb. Mddi, . . . Caret.
Wdling, . Md-yS, mdi. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . An. Kuri, . . . Caret.
Chourdsya, A', nb. Keikddi, . . Caret.
Kulungya, Na. Khond, . . Kundmd.
Thulungya, Me. Sdvara, . . Tiggo-
Bdhingya, Ma. Gadaba, . . Ayide.
Lohorong, E. Yerukala, . Mdnu, Yikkara.
Lambichhong. Ang-, -n (ang before, n after Chentsu, . . Kdmnai, kdmnahi.
Bdldli, . . Nd. [the word). ' Tamil, anc, . . . Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Na.
Dumi, . . Mi. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Mb. Malaydlma, mod., . Vendd.
[ Dungmdli, Man'-to. Vaddu.
f Ddrhi, . Jun. Karndtaka, anc, . Caret.
Denwdr, Jii-nu. Karndtaka, mod., . . Beda.
Pahri, . Mi-re. Botri.
Chepdng, Caret. Kurgi,
Bhrdmu, Man. Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . Thd. Toda, ) ... Aehadi.
Kuswar, Md-md. Kota Ve4a.
Kusunda, Hvd. Beda.
[ Thdru, . Rahare. Kurumba, . . . . Boda.
Vdnda.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Md-nan. Malabar, .... Seyathei.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Md.
84 MAINTENANT—JETZT— NOW—TEPER—NUNC. [CHAP. III.—adverbs, etc.

Types. Bodo, . Ddnb.


Dhimdl, Elang.
« (Sanskrit, fdd, iddmm, ttarhi. «1 Kocch, Abhi (?).
% (Arabic, Eldn. Garo, . Tayan.
Bask, . Orart, orain. Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, Nyt. Munipuri, Huehik.
Magvar, Most. Mfthdn Ndgd, Atha.
Turkish, Shimdi. Tablung Ndgd, Chdha.
Circassian, Heg-gi. Khdri Ndgd, . Hiku.
Georgian, Akhla, ats. Angdmi Ndgd, Akihawe.
Mongolian Eduke. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Dokko.
Mantshu, Te. Nowgong Ndgd, Tang.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sakiki. Tengsa Ndgd, Thong.
Javanese, Krama, Sapunnika. Abor Miri, . Supdb.
[ Malav, . . . Sakdrang. Sibsdgar Miri, Su.
Deoria Chutia, Derereni.
[ Chinese, Nankin, Che-shi. [Singpho, . . Yd.
Chinese, Pekin, Che-shi.
Chinese, Canton, Ni-shi. Burman (written), Yakhu.
Chinese, Shangha Yen-ze. Burman (spoken), Yakhu.
Amov, Colloquial, Chit-si. Khyeng v. Shou Tii-a.
[ Japanese, Ima, Kdmi, . . . Avd-i.
Kumi, . . . Wd-i-nu.
Brahuf, Ddsd. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, Sdk, . . . Caret.
Chhd-ye.
Gydrung, Pi'tz-diii. Talain v. Mon, La-mod.
Tdkpa, Dd. Sgau-karen, . Kaikinai, kaikane.
Mdnyak, Mile. Pwo-karen, . Rongniang-yu.
Thochii, Patino. Toungh-thu, . Ngd-khayen.
Sokpa, . Otb, nbtb. Shdn, . . . Maybhnihn.
Horpa, Habdeu. Annamitic, Nay.
Tibetan (wriiten), Dengtse, da, deiig. h Siamese, . . Pd-tu-ni, reu, than-ehai.
Tibetan (spoken), Thdtidd. s Ahom, . . . Titiai.
Khdmti, . . Tsang, ngai.
[ Serpa, . Tdnyld. Laos, . . . Leng.
Siinwar, I'M.
Gurung, Tasso. Ho (Kol), Nd.
Mdrmi, Dande. Kol (Singhbhum), Na,
Magar, Chamldn. Santdli, Nit, nito, nita-bade. nitoh-do,
Thdksya, Ghydngehye. Bhumij, Nit (?). [nit-ge.
Pdkhya, Yeso. Urdon, U'ku.
Newdr, A'. Mundala, Ndhd.
[ Limbu, Alo. Rdjmahali, Aneki.
Gondi, Itiga.
Kirdnti, Hande. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Wbs-ara, wospa. Rutluk, Caret.
Rdngchenbung, Hangde, hande. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Bdgdri. Kolami, Caret.
Ndchhereng, Ha. C Mddi, . Caret.
Wdling, . Is-ghdring. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Akku. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, Bokkemse, bokemmo. Keikddi, Ipo.
Kulungya, Wadolo, wollb. Khond, Idddli.
Thulungya, At/id. Sdvara, Nami.
Bdhingya, . Ye-khona. Gadaba, A'.
Lohorong, Ho^nok, honok. Yerukala, Yepputfu.
Lambichhong, Hdlik. [ Chentsu, Yekhdn, yeehini.
Bdldli, . . Hogno. f Tamil, ane Ippozhudu.
Sdng-pdng, Otolo, wotolo. Tamil, mod Ippodit, ippo.
Dumi, . . Tholo. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . A'nagnd. Malaydlma, mod., Ippol.
[ Dungmdli, Ighdri. Telugu, . . . Ippudu.
f Ddrhi, . . Yihe. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Akhan. Karndtaka, mod., /'ga.
I Pahri, . . Alaga. Tuluva, . Itten.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . . Ikkale.
Bhrdmu, . Tha-ehi. Toduva,) Itwan.
Vdyu, . . Vm-be. Toda, } Eni.
Kuswar, . Jd-khett. Kdta, . . Innale.
Kusunda, . Ipwaji. Badaga, . Iga.
Thdru, . . Amai, abhai. Kurumba, lgale.
Irula, . . I'pd.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Along. Malabar, . Ippothu.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Dhdto. Sinhalese, . Ddn.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] DE—VON— OF— -OT— -AE (-AS), -IS, etc. 85

Types. Bodo, -ni.


Dhimdl, -ko.
I (Sanskrit, .... -as, -os,1 -dm1 (gen. case). «5 Kocch, -ro, -r.
(Arabic, -*• Garo, Ni.
Bask, »• Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, Munipuri, Caret.
Magvar, -a. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Turkish, -in, -»»• Tablung Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Circassian, .... Caret. I Khdri Ndgd, .... Caret.
5 \ Georgian, .... -is, -isa, -as, -ast. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Mongolian, .... -at. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Mantshu, .... -ni. Nowgong Ndgd, . . Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, . . Caret. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Javanese, Krama, . . Caret. Abor Miri, .... Met.
Malav, Caret. Sibsdgar Miri, . . . Caret.
Deoria Chutia, . . . Caret.
' Chinese, Nankin, . . Tth. Singpho, Na.
Chinese, Pekin, . . Ti. -1-
Chinese, Canton, . . Ke. Burman (written), . . I.
Chinese, Shanghai, . Koh. Burman (spoken), I.
Amov, Colloquial, . . E. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Caret.
Japanese, .... -no. h Kdmi, U'n.
Kumi, Caret.
Brahuf -nd, -td. 'a Mru v. Toung, . . . Caret.
£ Sdk, Caret.
Gydmi, Ti.
Gyarung, Caret. Um (?). Talain v. Mon, . . . Mken.
Tdkpa, Ku. Sgau-karen, .... Bah-khah, ah.
Mdnyak, I'- Pwo-karen, .... Ler.
Thochu, A. . Toungh-thu, .... A.
Sokpa, Na,ne. Shdn, Caret.
Horpa, DangQ). Annamitic, .... Caret.
Tibetan (written), Kyi, gi, hi, yi. Siamese, Thi.
[ Tibetan (spoken), . Gi. Ahom, Caret.
to Khdmti, Caret.
Serpa, Ti. Laos, Caret.
Siinwar, Kwi, kye. Ho (Kol), . . . . -d.
Giirung, Ye, ld, bb. Kol (Singhbhum), . . -rinih.
Murmi, Ld. Santdli, -rinih, -renkin, -renko.
Magar, Yb, wo. Bhumij, -red.
Thdksya, Chdye. Urdon, Ye.
Pdkhya, Ko. Mundala, Ki.
Newdr Yd. Rdjmahali, .... Bv affix.
Limbu, Le, in. Gondi, Ord, bard.
Kiranti, Wb. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Mi, mo. Rutluk, Caret.
Rungchenbung, . . . Caret. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . . O. Kolami, Caret.
Ndchhereng, .... Mi. Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, O. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, T, ga Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Lema. Keikddi, Caret.
Kulungya, Mi. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, Kam. Sdvara, Ti.
Bdhingya, . . Ke, kem, dim. Gadaba, Mbyi.
Lohorong, Mi. Yerukala, Vakka.
Lambichhong, I, khd, im, grtd, ka. Chentsu, Vbr.
Bdldli, 'M, mi (-m ?). Tamil, ane -adu.
Sdng-pdng, .... Mi. Tamil, mod., .... -udeiya.
Ddmi Pi. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, Pb. Malaydlma, mod., . . -ute.
[ Dungmdli, .... Bi, um. Telugu, -yokka.
Ddrhi, Ko. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwdr, I'k, dk. Karndtaka, mod. . . -na, -da.
Pahri, Yd, ydgu. Tujuva, -no, -du.
Chepdng, Ku. Kurgi, -da, -andu.
Bhrdmu, Kit. Toduva, \ .... Caret.
Vdyu, Mu, mo, mi. Toda, ) .... -na.
Kuswar, Na, kara. K<5ta, -na.
Kusunda, Nata igin. Badaga, -ya, -na.
[ Thdru, Keha. Kurumba, .... -ya, -na.
Irula, -no.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . . Sa. Malabar, -in, -udeya, -thu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, . . Gi, ye. Sinhalese, -i, -ge.
86 SUR—AUF—ON—NA—SUPER. [CHAP. III.—adverbs, etc.

Types. ' Bodo, -/id, ou, ehou.


3° if- Dhimdl, .... -rhutd.
■S (Sanskrit. -», -os,1 -sit1 (loc. case). Kocch . -te.
(Arabic, Aala. Garo, Pirvai.
f Bask, . Gaiiean, ganera, gaindi. Kdchdri, .... Caret.
Finnic, Padlla. ' Munipuri, . . . Thuk.
Magvar, Ra. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish Uzere. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Tamuge.
Georgian, Isa. Angdmi Ndgd, . Caret.
Mongolian, Deghora. Ndmsdng Ndgd, A'klwnang.
Mantshu, Derghi. Nowgong Ndgd, . Talak.
Javanese, Ngoko, /ng. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Tathak.
Javanese, Krama, Ing. Abor Miri, . . Teo-sb.
Malav, . . . Didtas. Sibsdgar Miri, . Talulo.
Deoria Chutia, . . Piehoni.
C Chinese, Nankin, Shang. Singpho, .... . Let/id.
Chinese, Pekin, Sliang.
Chinese, Canton, Sheong. ' Burman (written), . Pomhd.
Chinese, Shanghai Lah-long. Burman (spoken), . . Bomha, apau.
Amov, Colloquial, Ti. < Khyeng v. Shou, . Hd-nang.
Japanese, Uyeni, -uye, -ni. Kdmi, A-koung-be.
s Kiimi, . Caret.
Brahuf, Swdr, -ai. Mni v. Toung, . . Caret.
i Sdk, Caret.
Gyami, La.
Gydrung; S, pri. Talain v. Mon, . . . Atu.
Tdkpa, Nd. Sgau-karen, . . . . Apau 'ko.
Mdnyak, Khu, ehoh. Pwo-karen, . . . Apaingu.
Thochd, Kukii, tik, ti. Toungh-thu, . . . . Long.
I Shdn, Ka-tiouk.
Sokpa, . T/ti't, tu.
Horpa, Nd, no, ehd. Annamitic, . . . . Tren.
Tibetan (written) Nd, la. Siamese, .... Khan-mon, bbn.
Tibetan (spoken), Ld. S Ahom, . Nu.
*0 Khdmti, .... . Nau.
[ Serpa, . Ld. v Laos, . Nu.
Sunwdr, Mi. r Ho (Kol), . . .
Gurung, Ri. -re.
Miirmi, Ri. Kol (Singhbhum), . . -re, ehitdn.
Magar, Yang, ang. Santdli, .... Chetan, -re, -tdldre.
Thdksya, Caret. Bhumij, .... ■ -«<?)•
Pdkhya, Caret. Urdon, .... . U'ld.
Newdr, E, te. Mundala, .... . -te (?), upar (?).
Limbu, Mo, khep-mo, kiithung-tho. Rdjmahali, . . . . Bv affix, -re (?).
Gondi, .... Imitte.
Kirdnti, Dd. ta Gayeti, .... Caret.
Rodong, Cho-top. 1 Rutluk, .... Caret.
Rungchenbung, Chokdo, dungda. s . Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Caret. 2 Kolami, .... Caret.
Ndchhereng, Caret. 1 Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . Caret. Mddia, .... Caret.
Ydkha, . Caret. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, .... Caret.
Kulungya, Caret. Khond, .... . Sendb.
Thulungya, Caret. Sdvara, .... . Lanka.
Bdhingya, . Tore, taure. Gadaba, .... . Te.
Lohorong, Wettu, songpi, sokbe. Yerukala, .... Paini.
Lambichhong, Temdi'. Chentsu Vuparbru, vuparot.
Bdldli, . . Chdpittu. Tamil, anc, . . . Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Chhopi. Tamij, mod., . . . -mil.
Ddmi, . . Cho-tu, lvu, teyo. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Ti. Malaydlma, mod., . -mel, -mile.
Dungmdli, Chokpi, ehokyd. Telugu,' .... -mida, -paina.
Ddrhi, . . Her, upare. Karndtika, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . In, upare. Karndtaka, mod., . -mile.
1 Tuluva, .... -mittu.
Pahri, . . Gar-hi-ne. 1
Chepdng, . Hdng. Kurgi, . -mile.
Bhrdmu, . T/id-elii, gdi. Toduva,) . . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . Be, uane. 1 Toda, } ... -mel, -mok.
Kuswar, . Kana, -te, -e. Kdta, -melte.
Kusunda, . Caret. Badaga, .... -mele.
Thdru, . . Caret. Kurumba, . . . -mele.
Irula, -mele.
T.epcha (Sikkim), Kd, plbng. Malabar, .... -mil, -pa il.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Nd. . Sinhalese, .... . -pita.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC] OU—ODER-OR—ILI—AUT. 87

Types. Bodo, . . Nd.


Dhimdl, . Nd.
(Sanskrit, Vd. Kocch, Ki.
(Arabic, . Aou. Garo, . . Nd.
Bask, Edo. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, Tahi, taikka. Munipuri, Caret.
Magvar, Vagy. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, .... Yoksa. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, . . . Caret. r5' Khdri Ndgd, . Caret.
Georgian, Amu. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
Mongolian, . . Esepsu. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, . . Ememu. Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Utawa. Tengsa Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Krama, Utawi. Abor Miri, . Caret.
I Malav, Atdu. Sibsdgar Miri, Caret.
Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Nankin, . Hwoh-ehe. Singpho, . .
Chinese, Pekin, . Hwo-ehe. Caret.
Chinese, Canton, . Wak-ehe. Burman (written), Sbmahut.
Chinese, Shanghai, O/isz1. Burman (spoken), Thbmalwk.
Amov, Colloquial, . A'. Khyeng v. Shou Caret.
Japanese, . . . Matarva, ya. h Kdmi, . . . Caret.
-< Kumi, . . . Caret.
Brahuf, .... Yd. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
I Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gydmi, Thdtig.
Gydrung, Kb, wove. Talain v. Mon, Ho-to-tseik-ko.
Tdkpa, Na, ind. Sgau-karen, . Magna, md-t-md.
Mdnyak, Li. Pwo-karen, . A'B'muaibaA.
Thochii, Gnod. Toungh-thu, . Caret.
Sokpa, Caret. s Shdn, . . . Tso-neik-rna-tsouk.
Horpa, Nd. Annamitic, . Hay ld.
Tibetan (written), . . Caret. h Siamese, . . Mai-pen-yau.
Tibetan (spoken), . . . Mo. Ahom, . . . Caret.
Khdmti, . . Caret.
Serpa, Nam, inam. Laos, . . . Caret.
Sunwdr, De.
Gdrung, Bani, gi. Ho (Kol), Bandreto.
Miirmi, Wd. Kol (Singhbhum■), Nado.
Magar, Ki. Santdli, Se.
Thdksya, Howoehuehhydng. Bhumij, . Se.
Pdkhya, Caret. Urdon, I's.
Newdr, Ld. Mundala, . Ani.
Limbu, Bi. Rdjmahali, Male.
Gondi, Idare.
Kirdnti, He. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Wo. Rutluk, . Caret.
Rungchenbung, . . . He. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . . . Yang. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, .... Be. Mddi, . . Caret.
Wdling, He. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, E. Kuri, . . Caret.
Chourasya, Ke. Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, Yo. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, De. Sdvara, Caret.
Bdhingya, Ki. Gadaba, . Vure.
Lohorong, Du, do (?). Yerukala, . Taradote.
Lambichhong, A' (?). Chentsu, . Nahi.
Bdldli, Caret. Tamil, anc, . Caret.
Sdng-pdng, .... Li (?). Tamil, mod., . AUadu.
Dumi Yi. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, Yi. Malaydjma, mod Engkil, adalla, alltngkU.
Dungmdli, .... He. Telugu, . . . Leka.
Ddrhi, 77. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, Ldne, tie. Karndtaka, mod., A'dani, illavi.
Pahri, Ki, ld. Tuluva, . . Andala.
Chepdng, Caret. Kurgi, . . . Allengi.
Bhrdmu, Ke. Toduva,) Caret.
Vayu, Ki. 3 Toda, j Blade.
Kuswar, Na. Kdta, . . . Illave.
Kusunda, Caret. Badaga, . . Illave, illadhole.
Thdru, Ihe. Kurumba, Binad/iole.
Irula, . . . IUavitta.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Yang, eu. Malabar, . Allathu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Ydng, mo. Sinhalese, Nohot.
88 DEHORS—AUSZEN— OUTSIDE—VNYE—EXTRA. [chap, in.—adverbs, etc.

Types. Bodo, Bdhirou.


| JSanskrit, Dhimdl, . . . . Bdhiro.
Bahis. ■ Kocch, .... . Bdhir.
<^ (ARABIC, . Birra. Garo, Bdhir-vai.
Bask, . . Kampoan, landan, lekora. Kdchdri, . . . . Shotla.
Finnic, Ulkoinen. Munipuri, . . . Mapdl.
Magvar, . Ki. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish, . Dieheru. Tablung Ndgd, . . Caret.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Takigu.
Georgian, Gali. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Kite.
Mongolian, Ghadana. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . Vdkdnatig.
Mantshu, Toulergi. Nowgong Ndgd, Tamd.
Javanese, Ngoko, Ingjaba. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Ma.
Javanese, Krama, Ingjawi. Abor Miri, . . . . Lulo.
[ Malav, . . . Diluar. Sibsdgar Miri, . . Rongongolo.
[ Chinese, Nankin, Wat. Deoria Chutia, . . Bajuni.
Chinese, Pekin, Wat. Singpho, .... Caret.
Chinese, Canton, Ngoi. ' Burman (written), Prangmha.
Chinese, Shanghai Ngd-dew. Buiman (spoken), . .
Pyen-mhd.
Amov, Colloquial, God-bin. Khyeng v. Shou, . Kldng-d-me.
Japanese, Soto, so-totii. • Kdmi, A-kham-be.
Kumi, A-ngdm.
Brahuf, Peshan. Mru v. Toung, . . Caret.
[ Gydmi, Wai-thu. - Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, . Wonpo. ' Talain v. Mon, . . Ma-ngd.
Tdkpa, . Phit-ka. Sgau-karen, . . . A'klor, Ier-ko.
Mdnyak, . Nwd. Pwo-karen, . . . Ler-kaung.
Thochii, . Khanyis. Toungh-thu, . . . Ta-h'tanu.
Sokpa, . . Gdehd. Shdn, Ka-nouk.
Horpa, Pheu-so. Annainitic, . . . Ngoai.
Tibetan (written), Phyi, rohna. Siamese, .... Khan-nouk, thi-twk.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Chi. Ahom, Bi..
(■ Serpa, . . 3 Khdmti, .... Caret.
Ydng. Laos, Caret.
Sunwdr, Bdhir. • Ho (Kol), . . .
Gdrung, Hu-jeri. Caret.
Mang-gyir. Kol (Singhbhum), . Rdehdre.
5 Miirmi, Santdli, .... Ue/un^-re, rdehdte.
Magar, Bdhar.
n Thdksya, . Phelori. Bhumij, .... . Rdehdre [rdehdte ?).
Pdkhya, . Bdhira. Urdon, .... . Bdhari.
Newdr, Pine. Mundala, .... . Bdhari.
Limbu, Bdhar. Rdjmahali, . . . . Dwdre.
Gondi, .... Bahro, bahiro mandar.
Kirdnti, . Udung-yd. Gayeti, .... Caret.
Rodong, . Biing-ya. Rutluk, .... Caret.
Rungchenbung, Ubungya, udungya, huviya. Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Bdhari. 2 Kolami, .... Caret.
Ndchhereng, Pdkhd. Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . Hibu, bungkhdya. Mddia, .... Caret.
Ydkha, . Caret. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Bhdnd, twala. Keikddi, .... .. Beilu.
Kulungya, Hoehho, pbtel, haehlwpa. Khond, .... Caret.
Thulungya, Chepnba. Sdvara, .... . Vo-dite.
Bdhingya, . Atola. Gadaba, .... Valumusd.
Lohorong, Song-be, ung-phi't. Yerukala, .... . Bele.
Lambichhong, A'yb. Chentsu, .... Bahar.
Bdldli, . . Pdkha yu. Tamil, ane Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Amkonpb. Tamil, mod Veliyil, veliye, tavira.
Ddmi, . . Ghobai, ghoyo. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Pdtel. Malaydjma, mod., . . Purame, puratta.
Dungmali, Kubu-yd. Telugu, .... Bayita, beita, find.
Ddrhi, . . Bdhir. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Bahir. Karndtaka, mod., . . Horage.
1
s Tuluva, .... . Pedi.
Pahri, . . Pen-M.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, Porame.
Bhrdmu, . Am-bu. Toduva,| . . . . Parmutak.
Vdyu, . . Tongma, lok. Toda, ) ... Pormud.
Kuswar, . Bdhir. K<5ta, Porenje.
Kusunda, . Bang-jo. Badaga, .... Horasu.
Thdru, . . Bahera. Kurumba, . . Honage.
Irula, Valli.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Pong. Malabar, .... Veliye, purdtuber.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Phi. Sinhalese, . . . . Pifata, bahir.
C HAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] AINSI—SO— SO—TAK—ITA. 89

Types. Bodo, . . U'rin.


■S (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . Kodong.
Tat/id. Kocch, Temon.
'(Arabic, Hdkaza. Garo, . . Uganda.
Bask, . . Ala, onela, alan, onla, aiii. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . Nun. Munipuri, Asundouna.
Magvar, . Ugy. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . Beuileh. Tabbing Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Arahrey. ! Khdri Ndgd, /tango.
Georgian, Ats. Angdmi Ndgd, Tsa7oe.
Mongolian, Dayin. Ndmsdng Ndgd, A'rarang.
Mantshu, Tuttu. Nowgong Ndgd, A'nyakang.
Javanese, Ngoko, Mangkana. Tengsa Ndgd, A'nyakong.
Javanese, Krama, Mangkaten. Abor Miri, Dipit, an.
[ Malav, . . . Bagittt. Sibsdgar Miri, Sempidatig.
I Deoria Chutia, Lakireni.
Chinese, Nankin, Ye-ehe-yatig. [Singpho, . . ATdaisat.
Chinese, Pekin, Ye-ehe-yang.
Chinese, Canton, Yau-kom-yeong. Burman (written), Lo, so.
Chinese, Shanghai Seh-kah-nang. Burman (spoken), Lo, t/to.
Amov, Colloquial, A'n-ni, dn-hiun. Khyeng v. Shou Caret.
[ Japanese, Sayoni. k Kdmi, Ka.
Kumi, Caret.
Brahuf, . Handunos. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, Ld-menti. [ Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, . Caret. Talain Mon, Nyoung-tseik-kau.
Tdkpa, . Dantarang. Sgau-karen De-'t, de-ne.
Mdnyak, . Thiizyo. Pwo-karen, Bayi.
Thochu, . Stdkd. Toungh-thu, Nay-yo.
Sokpa, . . Yeniehirt. Shdn, . Tso-tieik-youk.
Horpa, Nvii. Annamitic, Vay.
Tibetan (written), Dtesug. Siamese, . Ram-ni.
Tibetan (spoken), Thendd. Ahom, . . Caret.
Khdmti, . Ce.
' Serpa, . . Phdnde. Laos, . . Caret.
Sunwdr, Modiv. Etileka.
Gurung, . Hi'tehuga-liyon. Ho (Kol),
Waspa. Kol (Singhbh urn I'nlikate.
Murmi, Nangkd, otiakd, nundh,
Magar, Addng-eha. Santdli,
Bhumij, . Natigkd. [onakd%e.
Thdksya, . Khapribd khaju.
Pdkhya, . Caret. Urdon, Yeli.
Athing. Mundala, . Se.
Newar, Indeki.
[ Limbu, Khem-phd-dong-ba. Rdjmahali,
Gondi, . Arobara.
f Kirdnti, . Khoin-suko. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . Kyaskwa, kyasokwa (?). Rutluk, . Caret.
Rungchenbung Khoinsa (?). 1 Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Hungkhyakkha. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Khdngtokgnd. Mddi, . . Caret.
Wdling, . Mugnek. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . Ikhbkha. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, Imsimegnd. Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, KMntukwa. Khond, . Caret.
Thulungya, Mehomka, mihopmd, ohopma. Sdvara, Kanindsan.
Bdhingya, . Mekho. Gadaba, . Vottu.
Lohorong, Mado-knok. Yerukala, . Ate.
T .ambichhong. Na'tte. Chentsu, . Vtt, vumane.
Bdldli, . . Caret. Tamil, anc, Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Caret. Tamil, mod. Appadi.
Drimi, . . Caret. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Caret. Malaydlma, mod, Angngine.
[ Dungnidli, Caret. Telugu, . . At/a.
f Ddrhi, . . Wo-sai. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Td-nhe. Karndtaka, mod. Hdge.
Pahri, . . He-re. ■5 Tuluva, Do.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . Aunane.
Bhrdmu, . U'ehi. Toduva, ) Caret.
Vdyu, . . Me-md. Tot'la, J Ingei.
Kuswar, . Hd-sege. Kdta, . A'te.
Kusunda, . Ndpawai. Badaga, Hinge.
Thdru, . . Wunaisan. Kurumba, Hage.
Irula, . Ipadi.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Olom. Malabar, Appadie, avoannam.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Ote. [ Sinhalese, Mese.
M
ALORS—DANN—THEN—TOGDA—TUNC. [CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.

Types. Bodo, . . . Obeld.


■* (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . . Kold.
Tadd, taddnim, tarhi. Kocch, . . Te, te-khong.
4 (Arabic, Hintf izen. Garo, . . . Te-eng.
f Bask, . Orduan. Kdchdri, . . Caret.
Finnic, Sitte. Munipuri, Asai.
Magvar, Akhor. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, [By circumlocution.] Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, [Id.] Khdri Ndgd, . Jiku.
Georgian, Misha. Angdmi Ndgd, Lilitiha.
I Mongolian, Detsighe. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, Utkhai. Nowgong Ndgd, Tas-au.
Javanese, Ngoko, Nuli. Tengsa Ndgd, Kab-dng.
Javanese, Krama, Nunten. Abor Miri, . Caret.
Malav, . . . Tatkdla-itu. Sibsdgar Miri, Kojo.
Deoria Chutia, Deremai.
Chinese, Nankin, Na-shi. Singpho, . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Na-shi.
Chinese, Canton, Ko-shi. Burman (written), Tho-akhd.
Chinese, Shanghai Na-koh-sz-en. Burman (spoken), Tho-akhd.
Amov, Colloquial, Hit-si. Khyeng v. Shou Ni-kho-d.
[ Japanese, Sonotoki, anotoki. Kdmi, . . . Ho-nd-i-gdn.
Kiimi, . . . Caret.
Brahuf, O-wakt. Mni v. Toang, Caret.
Sdk, . . . Caret.
[ Gyami, Ld-khun.
Gydrung, Tis-dui. Talain v. Mon, Akha.
Tdkpa, Tene. Sgau-karen, . Tu'nuts'u.
Mdnyak, Thile. Pwo-karen, . Taungnaut-putig.
Thochd, Stdka, hatiis. Toungh-thu, . Moung-ma.
Sokpa, . Caret. Shdn, . . . Chyain-huigh.
Horpa, Tdbdeu. Annamitic, . Thi.
4 Siamese, . . Hpa-la, mua.
Tibetan (.written) De-t'se.
Tibetan (spoken), Thi-dwi. Ahom, . . . Tamnai.
Khdmti, . . Caret.
[ Serpa, . Tdmd. Laos, . . . Caret.
Siinwdr, Maid. Emindr'e.
Giirung, Chok-lene. Ho (Kol), .
Kol (Singhbhum En.
Miiimi, Jdmd. Unare, un-khona, endng,
Magar, Arnan. Santdli, . .
Bhdmij, . . En (?). [inakhdnage.
Thdksya, Khaghdngehye. Pis-d.
Pdkhya, Caret. Urdon, . .
Mundala, . . I'nam.
Newdr, Wala. Am.
Limbu, Khem-phale. Rdjmahali, .
Gondi, . . Anni, ada.
f Kirdnti, Khwomlo. Gayeti, . . Caret.
Rodong, Khonglo, tespa. Rutluk, . . Caret.
Rungchenbung, Khomlo, khollo. Naikude, . . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Uilhe. ■5 Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Khontalo. C Mddi, . . . Caret.
Wdling, . Hiilong. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . Ikhoning. Kuri, . . . Caret.
Chourdsya, Ingyelo. Keikddi, . . Apo.
Kulungya, Khodolo. Khond, . . Caret.
Thulungya, Mehomlo. Sdvara, . . Nambde.
Bdhingya, Mekhona. Gadaba, . Appudu.
Lohorong, Moklona, wanok. Yerukala, . . Appudu.
Lambichhong. U'ndena. Chentsu, . . Tekhdn, areghodi.
Bdldli, . . Mudoklo. Tamil, anc, . Appozhudu (appoladu).
Sdng-pdng, Khotolo, kholo. Tamil, mod., . Appodu, appo.
Diimi, . . Mela. Malaydlma, anc Caret.
Khdling, . Mebelo. Malaydlma, mod Appol (appos/i).
[ Dungmdli, Ughdri. Telugu, . . Appudu.
f Ddrhi, . . Wohe. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
■5 A'ga, andu.
Denwdr, . Takhen. Karndtaka, mod.
Pahri, . . Welhe. Tuluva, . Apal (apazli).
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . . Anda, akka.
c Toduva, ) Ahvan.
Bhrdmu, . Wd-lhe.
Vdyu, . . Me-t/u. I Toda, f A'ni.
Kuswar, . A-khen. Kdta, . . Annale.
Kusunda, . Nhu. Badaga, . Aga.
Thdru, . . Nabhai, thabhai. Kurumba, Agale.
Iruja, . . Apale (apazlie).
Lepcha (Sikkim), Othd. Malabar, . Appothu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Ode, odigdng. Sinhalese, . Ewita.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] LA—DA— THERE—TAM—ILLIC. 91

Types. fBodo, . Hobo.


\ (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, Vsho.
Tatra, amutra. 4 Kocch, Tahdn.
f, < Arabic, . Hondk, hondlek. Garo, . Wdng (tdngt).
f Bask, . . An, or, hor, ara, orrat. Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, . Siella. f Munipuri, Asomda.
Magvar, . Ott. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
if Turkish, . Orda. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
1 Circassian,
Georgian,
Medehshey (?). ! Khdri Ndgd, . Wadengu oju.
Ik. Angdmi Ndgd, Lithe.
Mongolian, Tende. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Dinang.
Mantshu, Tubade. 1 Nowgong Ndgd, Aunehi.
Javanese, Ngoko, Kono. Tengsa Ndgd, Otiga.
Javanese, Krama, Ngrika. Abor Miri, . Caret.
Malav, . . . Disitu. Sibsdgar Miri, Ulo.
Chinese, Nankin, Na-Ii. Deoria Chutia, Hobong.
Chinese, Pekin, Na-li. Singpho, . . Tode.
Chinese, Canton, Ko-eh'ii. Burman (written), Homhd.
Chinese, Shanghai Ku-teh. Burman (spoken), Homhd.
Amov, Colloquial, Hi-tau, ti-hia. Khyeng v. Shou. Tsu-d.
Japanese, Asoko, as-koni. Kdmi, . Hd-bhe.
Kiimi, . Caret.
Brahuf, .... . Ode. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
r Gydmi Ld-me. Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, .... . Hadi't. Talain v. Mon, Kha-na-ko.
Tdkpa, .... Wo-tho. Sgau-karen, 'Paina.
Mdnyak Thungd-pu, kwonait. Pwo-karen, Taung-nau.
Thochu, .... . Hdto. Toungh-thu,
i Shdn, . . Ea-h'su.
Sokpa, . Yd-bu. Ka-po.
| Horpa, .... . Out/in. Annamitic, Do.
Tibetan (written). Hena. Siamese, . Hainan, thi-nau.
8 Tibetan (spoken), . . Hdeho. Ahom, . . Tet.
Khdmti, . Hanpun.
f Serpa, . Chi'tru. [ Laos, . . Caret.
Sunwar, . Yere.
Giirung, , Kyuri. Ho (Kol), Endri.
Murmi, Kersye. Kol {Singhbh um EtUai.
Magar, Alak. Santdli, . Hdnde, hdndre, entege, atde.
Thdksya, . Khatdikhanti. Bhiimij, . Eta thdi.
Pdkhya, . U'ta. Urdon, Hdhd.
Newar, Uke. Mundala, . Unthi.
[ Limbu, Na. Rdjmahali, A no.
Gondi, Hukkai.
Kirdnti, Mlydnu. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . Tukhe, tuku. Rutluk, . Caret.
Rungchenbung, Euhyana, eudhako, moda, Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Yotni. [miyanung. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Meksa, miyaya. Mddi, . . Caret.
Wdling, . Muydk, modo, moya. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Yona, yokhyd. Kuri, . . Caret.
Chourasya, Bhanala, bhdna, gnbna. Keikddi, . Akada.
Kulungya, Meksa, nakwdpa, ndya. Khond, . Caret.
Thulungya, Hdno, hanopna. Sdvara, Vodite.
Bdhingya, . Nekare, meke, hare. Gadaba, . Tonno.
Lohorong, Miyu, mobe, hdkiyu. Yerukala, . Atukire, ange.
Lambichhong, Yo. [ Chentsu, . Unhami, vuha.
Bdldli, . . Mobi, moyii. Tamil, anc, Avan.
Sdng-pdng, Meni, mopyd. Tamil, mod, Angu, ange.
Diimi, . . Ydkdmbi. Malaydlma, ane Caret.
Khdling, . Yakdmbi. Malaydjma, mod Apite.
[ Dungmdli, Hdyeyd, muhydk. Telugu, . . . Akkada.
f Darhi, . . ITehi. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Wo-ti. Karndtaka, mod., Alli.
Pahri, . . Hong-tha. Tuluva, Anehi.
Chepang, . Caret. Kurgi, . Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Hu-di. Toduva, ) Caret.
Vdyu, . . Mi-ne, wa-the. Toda, ) At, ang.
Kuswar, . U'-ehi-tia. K<5ta, . Able.
Kusunda, . Isdga. Badaga, Alli.
Thdru, . . Uhara. Kurumba, Alli.
Iruja, . Ange.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Pil, woba. Malabar, Angei.
Bhi^dni v. Lhopa, Phd-te. [ Sinhalese, Ehe.
92 AINSI—SO—TH US—TA K—SIC. [CHAP. III.—adverbs, etc.

Types. Bodo, . . Worin, risha, idi, fain.


^- i Dhimdl, . U'dong, usdng.
5 \ Sanskrit, Evarn, it7'harn. ^ \ Kocch, . Weo-mott, teman.
<§, ^Arabic, Kizd. Garo, . . Ugandd.
f Bask, . Orrela, orla, orlatan, orlanka. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, Nun. f Munipuri, Asundouna.
Magvar, Ugy. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, Euileh. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Arahrey. Khdri Ndgd, . Itango.
Georgian, Ats. Angdmi Ndgd, Tsawe.
Mongolian, Deguntsilen. Ndmsdng Ndgd, A'raratig.
Mantshu, Teuteke. Nowgong Ndgd, A'nyakdng.
Javanese, Ngoko, Mangkana. Tengsa Ndgd, Atti.
Javanese, Krama, Mangkaten. Abor Miri, Pva.
Malav, . . . Bagtni. Sibsdgar Miri, Umpe.
3 Deoria Chutia, Lakireni.
f Chinese, Nankin, Chdou-ehe-yang. [Singpho, . . Ndaisal.
Chinese, Pekin, Chdou-ehe-yang.
Chinese, Canton, Chiu-kom-yeong. Burman (written), Thoso.
Chinese, Shanghai Seh-keh. Burman (spoken), Tho-tho, fhe-ni.
Amov, Colloquial, A'n-nl, dn-Mun. Khyeng v. Shou. Caret.
[ Japanese, Chodo, koste. Kdmi, . . Ka.
Kumi, . . Caret.
Brahuf, Handoan. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, Thi-men-ti. [ Sdk, . . Caret.
Gydrung, Caret. Talain v. Mon, Top-peun.
Tdkpa, Usti'tm. Sgau-karen, De-i, de-tie.
Mdnyak, Thusu, moh. Pvvo-karen, Bayi.
Thochd, Chen. Toungh-thu, Nay-yo.
Sokpa, . Yeniehhin. Shdn, . . Tso-tia-youk.
Horpa, Wode. Annamitic, Vai.
Tibetan (written), Jitsung. Siamese, . Men-ran-tii, yang nan, ehen.
Tibetan (spoken), Ditidd. Ahom, Phi.
Khdmti, . Nang nai.
Serpa, . Dintle. Laos, . . Caret.
Sunwar, Akko.
Gurung, Chuga-liyon. f Ho (Kol), Enleka.
Miirmi, Chuspd. Kol (Singhbhum), /'nlikate.
Magar, I'ddng-eha. Santdli, . Nangkd, onko, hutikate, ind-
Thdksya, Ho-aldba. Bhumij, . Nekagia. [leko, netikdn.
Pdkhya, Caret. Urdon, Yeli.
Newar, Tha-thing. Mundala, . Nikemeh.
Limbu, Kon-pha-dong-ba. Rdjmahali, Indeki.
Gondi, . . I'hun.
Kirdnti, Wdttt suko. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Tyaskwa ngo. Rutluk, . Caret.
Rungchenbung, Wbitisa. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Bdkhyakkha. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Antok-gtid. Mddi, . . Caret.
Wdling, . Mugnek. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Naktog-ha% nd. Kuri, . . Caret.
Chourdsya, Amsi-me. Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, Wdtitwa, wadommo. Khond, Yisingi.
Thulungya, Ohom. Sdvara, Yettend.
Bdhingya, . Yekho, mekho. Gadaba, . Vokke.
I ,ohorong, Idok, mo dok. Yerukala, . Yite.
Lambichhong. Natte-khd, khd. Chentsu, . Yi, yemune.
Bdldli, . . Kodokpd. Tamil, anc, Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Otd. Tamil, mod., Ippadi.
Dumi, . . Temphem. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Tdmphem. Malaydlma, mod., Ingngine.
[ Dungmdli, Igne-go. Telugu, . . . Ittd.
Darhi, .' . Ye-sai. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Ye-nhe. Karndtaka, mod., Hige, intu.
Pahri, . . Ye-re. Tuluva, Inehene.
Chepdng, . Caret. •! Kurgi, . . Innane.
Bhrdmu, . He, khdksd. Toduva, \ Iggas.
Vdyu, . . I'-ma. Toda, | Ingei, angei.
Kuswar, . r-sege. Kdta, . . A'te, angei.
Kusunda, . Tantan. Badaga, . Hdge.
Thdru, . . Hdtt. Kurumba, Hdge.
Irula, . . Ipadi.
I.epcha (Sikkim), A'lom. Malabar, . Ippadi, avoethamaka.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Ode, de. [ Sinhalese, . Mes't.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] A—ZU (NACH)—TO—K'—AD. 93

Types. Bodo, .
■S (Sanskrit, -e, -bhydm,1 -bhyas1 (dat.). Dhimdl, -eng.
^ |Arabic, Ila, I (insep. prefix). Kocch, -ko, -no (?).
Garo, . Nd.
' Bask, . -ra, -rat ; gana, %anat. [ Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, -lie. [ Munipuri, Da (na )).
Magvar, -ra, -ba. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish -ah, -elt. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Caret, Khdri Ndgd, . Nd.
Georgian, -sa. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
Mongolian, -to, -tu, -do, -du. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Nang.
Mantshu, -de. Nowgong Ndgd, Tang.
Javanese, Ngoko, Marang. ■5 Tengsa Ndgd, Nai.
Javanese, Krama, Dateng. Abor Miri, . Telbpu.
Malav, . . . Ka, dkan. I Sibsdgar Miri, Lope.
f Chinese, Nankin, Kih. Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Kei. [Singpho, . . Fe.
Chinese, Canton, Kwo. Burman (written), A'.
Chinese, Shanghai TaU>. Burman (spoken), A', go.
Amov, Colloquial, Kdu. Khyeng v. Shou A'.
[ Japanese, -ni. Kdmi, . A'.
5 Kumi, . Caret.
Brahuf, -tie, -te. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
[' Gydmi, K/id. Sdk, . Caret.
Gyarung, Caret. Talain v. Mon, Pway.
Tdkpa, Svd, la. Sgau-karen, Su.
Mdnyak, We. Pwo-karen, Tsu.
Thochii, Shil. Toungh-thu, En.
Sokpa, . Tu. Shdn, . . Caret.
Horpa, Gi (?), da. Annamitic, Kyo.
Tibetan (written), Ld, tu, du, ra, sii. Siamese, . Ke.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Ld. Ahom, Caret.
3 Khdmti, . Hang, ti.
Serpa, . Ld. Laos, . . Caret.
Sunwdr, Kali.
Gurung, De. Ho (Kol), te.
Murmi, Dd. Kol (Singhbhum Te (then ?).
Magar, Ki. Santdli, Seh (in.'compos.), -the, -then,
Thdksya, Dhydri. Bhiimij, the. [-p/ied.
Pdkhya, La. Urdon, . Gai.
Newar, Ydta. Mundala, Ko.
Limbu, Mo, nin. Rdjmahali, -the (?).
Gondi, . Baina.
Kirdnti, Caret. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Caret. ■5
Rutluk, Caret.
Rungchenbung, Caret. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Lagi. Kolami, Caret.
Ndchhereng, Caret. Mddi, . Caret.
Wdling, . Caret. Mddia, . Caret.
Ydkha, . A'. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, Caret. Keikddi, Ku.
Kulungya, Caret. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, Caret. Sdvara, Ti.
Bdhingya, . Caret. Gadaba, No.
Lohorong, Caret. Yerukala, Ku.
Lambichhong, Caret. [ Chentsu, Ku.
BdlaTi, . . Caret. f Tamil, ane, Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Caret. Tamil, mod -ku, -gu.
Diimi, . . Caret. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Caret. Malaydlma, mod., -kka, -nna.
[ Dungmdli, Caret. Telugu, . . . Ku, ki.
Ddrhi, . . Lai. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Ki. Karndtaka, mod., Ge, kke.
Pahri, . . Ydta. -5 Tuluva, Ku, ge.
Chepdng, . Sdi. Kurgi, . -ku, gu.
Bhrdmu, . Tu. Toduva,) K.
Vdyu, . . Caret. Toda, | Ge.
Kuswar, . Ldi. K<5ta, . Ge.
Kusunda, . Ldi. Badaga, Ga.
Thdru, .... Kerdke. Kurumba, Ge, ke.
Irula, . Ke.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Kd, rem. Malabar, Ku.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Lb. [ Sinhalese, -fa.
94 AUJOURD'HUI—HEUTE—TO-DAY—SEHODNYA—HODIE. [CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.

Types. Bodo, . Dine.



« (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, Nani.
Adya. Kocch,
^ (Arabic, . Ilvoum. Aj, adhya (?).
Garo, . Tingni.
Bask, . . Gaur, egun. Kdchdri, Dinesanehe.
Finnic, . Tanapana. Munipuri, Ashi.
Magvar, . Ma. Mfthdn Ndgd, . Anyi.
Turkish, . Bugun. Tablung Ndgd, . Tinyi.
Circassian, Nep. Khdri Ndgd, . . Thani.
Georgian, Dghes. Angdmi Ndgd, . Teje.
I Mongolian, Ene, edttr. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . Tajd.
Mantshu, Enenggi. Nowgong Ndgd, Tannu.
Javanese, Ngoko, Dinna-iki. Tengsa Ndgd, . Thanglu.
Javanese, Krama, Dinten-punniki. Abor Miri, . . Silo.
Malav, . . . Har'tni. Sibsdgar Miri, . Silo.
Chinese, Nankin, Kin-jih. Deoria Chutia, . Dinineni.
Chinese, Pekin, Chin-jih. Singpho, . . . Daini.
Chinese, Canton, Kam-yat. Burman (written), Yane.
Chinese, Shanghai Kiang-tsaw. Burman (spoken), . Yane, thu-khana.
Amov, Colloquial, Kin-nd-jit. Khyeng v. Shou, Tun-ap.
[ Japanese, Kott-niehi. h Kdmi, . . Wei-ni.
Kumi, . . Wd-i-ni.
Brahuf, Ainii. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
Gydmi, Chin-the. Sdk, . . Caret.
Gydrung, . Pish-nyi. f Talain v. Mon, Thang waynau.
Takpa, . Tashi. Sgau-karen, APsah, m'tsai.
Mdnyak, . Tanyur. Pwo-karen, L'ni-yu.
Thochu, . Pashi. Toungh-thu, Han-ne.
Sokpa, . . In dur. Shdn, . . Ma-hniht.
Horpa, Pas-ni. Annamitic, Hom-nay.
Tibetan (written), Dering. 4 Siamese, . Wan-ni, wan ni.
[ Tibetan (jpokeu), Thiring. Ahom, . . Banai.
to Khdmti, .
Caret.
Serpa, . . Tdring. [ Laos, . . Wanni.
Stfnwar, . Mun-ldti.
Gurung, . Tim. f Ho (Kol), Tising.
Murmi, Tim. Kol (Singhbhium), Nd.
Magar, Chini. Santdli, Teheng.
Thdksya, . Ndmd. Bhumij, Tising.
Pdkhya, . A'ja. Urdon, Inam.
Newdr, Thawon. Mundala. Tihin.
Limbu, Ain. Rdjmaha Im.
Gondi, . Araind, naiii.
f Kirdnti, . AL Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . A"i, dle. Rutluk, Caret.
Rungchenbung, Aya, di. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Pdyam. Kolami, Caret.
Ndchhereng, A'se. Mddi, . Caret.
Wdling, . A'ilo, dyo. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Hoh'yen. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourisya, Tianso. Keikddi, Iuanu.
Kulungya, Yese. Khond, Nenju.
Thulungya, Anep. Sdvara, Nangadini.
Bdhingya, . A'na. Gadaba, Yinehd.
Lohorong, A'yu. Yerukala, I'mdn.
Lambichhong. Hdlok. Chentsu, Ayije, ajko.
Bdldli, . . I-sin. f Tamil, anc, Ittai.
Sdng-pdng, Yese. Tamil, mod., Inru, innaki.
Dumi, . . A'nyol. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Anyalo. Malaydlma, mod., lima.
[ Dungmdli, A'-i. Telugu, . . . Nedu.
' Ddrhi, . . A'ju. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwar, . A'-ju. Karnataka, mod., I'hottu.
Pahri, . . Tha-ra. Tuliiva, . Ini.
Chepdng, . Te-n. Kurgi, . . Indu.
Bhrdmu, . Ti-ya. Toduva,) Ltd.
Vdyu, . . Ti-ri. Toda, j Edit.
Kuswar, . A'-ja. K6ta, . . hide.
Kusunda, . Itwaji, ipwaji. Badaga, . Indu.
Thdru, . . Aju. Kurumba, Indu.
Irula, . . Indu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Sarong. Malabar, . Indu, indeikku.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Dharing. [ Sinhalese, . Ada.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] DEMAIN—MORGEN—TO M O R ROW—ZAVTRA— CRAS. 95

Types. [ Bodo Gdbun.


■c (Sanskrit, Dhimdl Jumni.
'Svah. | Kocch Kal, kalya (?).
(Arabic, . Bukra, ghadd. Garo, Gdndp.
Bask, . . Bigar, biar. [ Kdchdri Kapun sanehe.
Finnic, . Huomenna. f Munipuri, . . Ardng.
Magvar, . Kolnap. Mfthdn Ndgd, . Nai-ni.
Turkish, . Yarin. Tablung Ndgd, . Ngai-ni.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . . Asang.
Georgian, Khkal. Angdmi Ndgd, . Thedu.
Mongolian, Managhai. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Ninap.
Mantshu, Chimakha, ehimari. Nowgong Ndgd, Asong.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sesok. Tengsa Ndgd, . A'sang,
Javanese, Krama, Benjing-enjing. Abor Miri, . . lampo.
[ Malav, . . . Esok-hdri. Sibsdgar Miri, . Yampo.
Deoria Chutia, Disuini.
[ Chinese, Nankin, Ming-jlh. Singpho, Mphoni.
Chinese, Pekin, Ming-jih.
Chinese, Canton, Ming-yat. Burman (written), . . Nakphan.
Chinese, Shanghai Ming-tsaw. Burman (spoken), . . . Netphdn.
Amov, Colloquial, Bin-nd-jit, bin-nd-ehdi. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Nhdt-ta.
Japanese, Myoniehi, meo-niehi. Kdmi, Cha-khon.
Kiimi, Qui-ddm.
Brahuf, Pag't. Mni v. Toung, . . . Caret.
f Gydmi, [ Sdk, Caret.
Min the.
Gydrung, Sos-nyi. Talain v. Mon, . . . Li-ya.
Tdkpa, Nogor. Sgau-karen, .... 'Kai-ghaw.
Mdnyak, Soruh. Pwo-karen, .... Ke-gluiu-koh.
Thochu, Sozyu. Toungh-thu, .... Mu-reu.
Sokpa, . Mdgdr. Shdn, Md-hpot.
Horpa, Khasi. Annamitic Ngay-mai.
Tibetan (written) Sang, thore. Siamese, Hpunei phrungni.
Tibetan (spoken), Sdng. Ahom, Sang-manai.
Khdmti, Maphok.
[ Serpa, . Thordng. Laos, Phuk.
Siinwdr, Dis.
Gurung, Nhdgd. Ho (Kol), .... Gappa.
Miirmi, Kol (Singhbhum), . . Giiphd.
Nangar. Santdli, Gdpd (declined with -ko, -b,
Magar, Pyungura.
Thdksya, Tila. Bhiimij, Giiphd. [;Pe)-
Pdkhya, Bholi. Urdon, Neld.
Newdr, Ka-nhai. Mundala, Gdpd.
Limbu, Tdndik. Rdjmahali, .... Lele.
Gondi, Nadi, ningnai.
Kirdnti, Mang-koleng. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Sen-la, sen-lam. Rutluk, Caret.
Rungchenbung. Mdngkolen. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Wdrangda. Kolami, Caret.
Ndchhereng, Sdla. Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . Hdmdye, mangkolen. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Wang1 di. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Dis'-na. Keikddi, Nalaka.
Kulungya, Desa ah'. Khond, Rost.
Thulungya, Dika. Sdvara, Biyo.
Bdhingya, . Dil'la. Gadaba, Beyyar.
Lohorong, Weng-dd. Yerukala, Nesu.
Lambichhong, Wdring. Chentsu, Kayil.
Bdldli, . . Selmd. Tamil, anc, .... Pinrei.
Sdng-pdng, Seldmd. Tamil, mod Ndlei, ndleikku.
Diimi, . . Dis'yd. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, . Disd-d. Malaydjma, mod., . . Ndle.
[ Dungmdli, Hdmd-young. Telugu, EUi (anc), repu (mod.).
Ddrhi, . Kdlu. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwdr, Ka-lhi, ka-l-hi. Karndtaka, mod., . . Ndlc.
Pahri, . Kin-ehi. Tujuva, Elli.
Chepdng, Sydng. Kurgi, Ndle.
Bhrdmu, Wo-gai. Toduva, | Mokol.
Vdyu, . Nu-kana. Toda, \ Belkash.
Kuswar, Kdl-hi. Kdta, . . Nalke.
Kusunda, Gorak. Badaga, . Nale.
Thdru, . Kdlhi. Kurumba, Nale.
Irula, . . Mile.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Lttk. Malabar, . Ndlei.
Bhdtdni v. Lhopa, Ndbah. Sinhalese, Heta.
96 QUAND—WANN—WHEN ?—KOGDA—QUUM. [chap, ht.—adverbs, etc.

Types. Bodo, . . Mdbeld.


Dhimdl, . Helou.
'« (Sanskrit, Kadd, karhi. Kocch, Kab.
<§, (Arabic, . Lamma, mata, iza. Garo, . . Bibd.
Bask, .... Noiz. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, . . • Koska. Munipuri, Horen.
Magvar, . . . Mikor. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, . . . Caret. 1 Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, . . Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . Kuim.
Georgian, . . Odes. Angdmi Ndgd, Tadzune.
Mongolian, . . Ghetsighe. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Matu suanta.
Mantshu, . . Atanggi. Nowgong Ndgd, Kodang.
Javanese, Ngoko, Kapan. Tengsa Ndgd, Kdpd.
Javanese, Krama, Kapatt. Abor Miri, . Caret.
[ Malav, . . . Kapan. Sibsdgar Miri, Udilo.
Deoria Chutia, Dumoni.
Chinese, Nankin, . Shin-mo-shi. Singpho, . . Yango.
Chinese, Pekin, Shetimo-shih.
Chinese, Canton, . Ki-shi. Burman (written), Bhesokhd.
Chinese, Shanghai, Ki-sz'. Burman (spoken), BhethokM.
Amov, Colloquial, . Ti-si. Khyeng v. Shou, P-'kho-d.
[ Japanese, . . . Itsugoro, itsu. Kdmi, . . . Hdni-kdn.
Kumi, . . . Md-na-kd.
Brahuf, Chi-wakt. Mrii v. Toung, Caret.
Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gydmi, Na-khien.
Gydrung, This-di'ti, kwustra. Talain v. Mon, A-khalarau.
Tdkpa, Kashu. Sgau-karen, . Tu, kai-lai.
Mdnyak, Ninkhe. Pwo-karen, . Taung.
Thochu, Thisni. Toungh-thu, . Tu-ma.
Sokpa, Kheeh-ehe. Shdn, . . . Chyain-lu.
Horpa, Sa-deu. Annamitic, . Khi-nao.
Tibetan (written), . . Gang-tse, nam. Siamese, . . Hpalahighn, nua-dai.
Tibetan (spoken), . . . Kha-dwi. Ahom, . . Phreu-nai.
Khdmti, . . Caret.
Serpa, Tanam. Laos, . . . Caret.
Sunwar, Gend. Chooila.
Gurung, Kdi-mo. Ho (Kol), .
Kol (Singhbhum), Chuild.
Murmi, Kdi-ma. Tin-jolio, tinare, okdhildh,
Magar Syen. Santdli, . .
Thdksya, Tigni. Bhiimij, . ■ Caret. [tisah.
Pdkhya, Caret. Urdon, . . Ekd here.
Newdr, Gola. Mundala, . Chielo, ehimto.
Rdjmahali, . l-kono.
Limbu, Aphdle. Baska, vang-pur.
Gondi, . . •
Kiranti Demkhe. Gayeti, . • Caret.
Rodong, Delo. Rutluk, . . Caret.
Riingchenbung, Demkhe. Naikude, . ■ Caret.
Chhingtdngya, A'ndm. Kolami, . . Caret.
Ndchhereng, . A'dem. Mddi, . . • Caret.
Wdling, . . Demkha, khinam. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . . Hetning, heh'ning. Kuri, . . • Caret.
Chourdsya, . A'seh. Keikddi, . . Yepo.
Kulungya, /lddolo, hddemiye. Khond, . . Yesekd.
Thulungya, . Hdm-syukd. Sdvara, . ■ Yenga.
Bdhingya, Gydna. Gadaba, . . Yindoyi.
Lohorong, .... A'ndm, hdndm. Yerukala, . . Yeppudu.
I .ambichhong, . . . Hembina. [ Chentsu, . . Kekhan, kekkotieki.
Bdldli, Hddemlo. Tamil, anc, . Eppozhudu.
Sdng-pdng, .... Hallo. Tamil, mod., . Eppodit, yeppo.
Dumi, Helo. Malaydjma, ane Caret.
Khdling, Hebelo. Malaydlma, mod Eppol.
Dungmdli, .... Kliindm. Telugu, . . Eppudu, yeppudu.
Ddrhi, Kdhe. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, Kanhtn. Karndtaka, mod. Ydvdga.
Pahri, Gwe-the. Tuluva, Epag.
Chepdng, Caret. Kurgi, . . Ekka.
Bhrdmu, Kai-lhe. Toduva,) Caret.
Vdyu, Ha-ke. Toda, j Efran.
Kuswar, Ka-khert: Kdta, . . Yennale.
Kusunda, A'sahi. Badaga, . Yegva.
'< Thdru, Kabahu. Kurumba, Yega.
Irula, . . Yepa.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . . Sathd. Malabar, . Eppothu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, . . Nam. [ Sinhalese, . Kawadd.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] OU—WO—WHERE ?—GDYE—UBI. 97

Types. fBodo, . . Moulia.


| Dhimdl, . Hes/io.
(Sanskrit, . . Kva, hitra. <! Kocch, Kahdn.
(Arabic, . . . Ayn, haith. Garo, . . Bil.
s Kdchdri, . Caret.
f Bask, .... Non, nun.
Finnic, . . . Kitsa. Munipuri, Keida.
Magvar, . . . Hol. Mfthdn Ndgd, Pau-pu.
Turkish, . . . Nereye. Tablung Ndgd, Taw-wai.
Circassian, . . TeMuey. Khdri Ndgd, . Kuehi.
Georgian, . . Kidre. Angdmi Ndgd, Kiraporu.
Mongolian, . . Ali. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Makoa.
Mantshu, . . Aibide. Nowgong Ndgd, Kon%.
Javanese, Ngoko, Endi. Tengsa Ndgd, Otiga.
Javanese, Krama, Fundi. Abor Miri, . Ungkolo.
Malav, . . . Dimdna. Sibsdgar Miri, Okolon.
Deoria Chutia, Borong.
Chinese, Nankin, Shin-mo-ti-fang, na-li. [ Singpho, . . Gadegui.
Chinese, Pekin, Shen-mo-ti-fang, na-li.
Chinese, Canton, Pinehit. f Burinan (written), Bhemhd.
Chinese, Shanghai Hdli. Burman (spoken), Bhemhd.
Amov, Colloquial, Tadoh-ui. Khyeng v. Shou Inidm.
Japanese, Doko, do-koni. Kdmi, . . . Nd-nd-be.
Kumi, Md-mo.
Brahui, Ardde. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
Ld-li. Sdk, . . . Caret.
Gy.imi,
Gydrung, . Katu. Talain v. Mon, Alorau.
Takpa, . Gd, gdhd. Sgau-karen, . Pat-lat.
Mdnyak, . Khade. Pwo-karen, . Shaing-ie.
Thochu, . Tano. 5 Toungh-thu, . Eu-hmay.
Sokpa, . . T/iyerthor. Shdn, . . . Kalau.
Hoqia, Lore. ! Annamitic, . Ddu.
Tibetan (written), Gangna. Siamese, . . Kalau, thi-nai.
Tibetan (spoken), Khdeho. Ahom, . . . Ho.
Khdmti, . . Thau.
Serpa, . . Kdni. Laos, . . . Tinai.
Sun war, . Dotha, getha.
Gurung, . Khanlri. Ho (Kol), Okoire.
Mdrmi, Khdin. Kol (Singhbhum Okotai.
Santdli, . . Ukuri, okdre, okdte, okathen.
| -j Magar, . Kulak.
Tomi. Bhumij, . . Oko-thdi.
1 Thdksya, . Eksan.
Pdkhya, . Kota. Urdon, . .
Newdr, Giikhe. Mundala, . . Ifthi.
Limbu, AIdtig. Rdjinahali, . Ikeno.
Gondi, Bugga, vagd.
Kirdnti, Khdddnu. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . Kltoda. Rutluk, . . Caret.
Rungchenbung, Khdda, khdda-nung. Naikude, . . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Hoket. Kolami, . . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Hdppa, kdpbdle. Mddi, . . . Caret.
Wdling, . Khini, khdda. Mddia, . . Caret.
Ydkha, . He/ina, hennehe. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, T/idlo. Keikddi, . . Yekada.
Kulungya, Hdpise, hdkwade. Khond, Caret.
Th ulungya, Bdte, bdnte. Sdvara, . . Tengd.
Bdhingya, . Gydla, a-juju-di. Gadaba, . . Ammano.
Lohorong, Ildngbe, hdmpe. Yerukala, . . Yite, yenge.
Lambichhong. Heine. Chentsu, . . Kuhand, kahd.
Bdldli, . . Hdpdbi, hdpdng. Tamil, anc, . Evan.
Sdngpdng, Hd-pi. Tamil, mod., . Engu, yenge.
Dumi, . Khebi. Mahiydlma, anc Caret.
Khdling. . Khdbi. Malaydlma, mod Evite.
[ Dungmdli, Khibi, khibiyd. Telugu, . Ekkada, eda.
Ddrhi, . . Kd-ehi. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
.■3 Karndtaka, mod., Elli.
Denwdr, . Ka-ehi.
Pahri, . . Git-thd. Tuluva, . Odeke.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, . . Yelli.
Bhrdmu, . Ku-nai. Toduva,) Ett.
Vdyu, . . Hd-ne. Toda, ) Et.
Kuswar, . Ka-ehi-na. Kdta, . . Yeye.
Kusunda, . A'naka. Badaga, . Yelli.
Thdru, . Kdnha. Kurumba, Yelli.
Iruja, . . Yenge.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Saba, sabi. Malabar, . Engei.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Kdnd-te. Sinhalese, Koheda.
98 POURQUOI—WARUM—WHY ?—•POCHEMU—
! CUR. [CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.

Types. Bodo, . . Mdno.


Dhimdl, . Hai-pdli.
(Sanskrit, Kim-artham. Kocch, Ki-tdne.
(Arabic, Limdza, laish. Garo, . . A'tdng.
Bask, . Zergatik, zegaiti, zeren. Kdchdri, . Caret.
Finnic, Mita. f Munipuri, Karigi-tumuk.
Magvar, Caret. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, Niehun. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Sida. Khdri Ndgd, . Chibatsawi.
Georgian, Rad. v. Angdmi Ndgd, Kaji.
Mongolian, Yahonotola. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Reto.
Mantshu, Ainu. Nowgong Ndgd, Kashia.
Javanese, Ngoko, Punnapa/ut. Tengsa Ndgd, Kado.
Javanese, Krama, Yagenne. Abor Miri, . Okkiduna.
Malav, . . . A pakdrana. Sibsdgar Miri, Kappu.
Deoria Chutia, Damno.
Chinese, Nankin, Wei-shin-mo. Singpho, . . Fari.
Chinese, Pekin, Wei-shen-rno.
Chinese, Canton, Wai-mat-ye. Burman (written), Bheprulo.
Chinese, Shanghai Wei-sah. Burman (spoken), Bhepyulo.
Amov, Colloquial, Sian-su. Khyeng v. Shou, I'-tM-to-dm.
[ Japanese, Nazhe, nase. Kdmi, . . . Ta-ti-sd-n'e.
Kumi, . . . Caret.
Brahuf, Antai. Mru v. Toung, Caret.
[Sdk, ... Caret.
[ Gydmi, Syd-ehii.
Gydrung, Thus-pe. f Talain v. Mon, Mu-parau.
Tdkpa, Sagyak. Sgau-karen, . M'nulai, mu-lai.
Mdnyak, Hdmile. Pwo-karen, . Nau-lai.
Thochii, Niblin, nishi. Toungh-thu, . H'twa-may.
Sokpa, . Thariehhin. Shdn, . . . Pen-htsau.
Horpa, A'ehu-gno. Annamitic, . Ldm-sao.
Tibetan (written), Caret. Siamese, . . Hta mihn, phra aurai.
Tibetan (spoken), Khd-in. Ahom, . . . Wd.
Khdmti, . . Caret.
[ Serpa, . Kdng. Laos, . . . Caret.
Sunwar, Mara. f Ho (Kol), . Chikan-mente.
Gurung, Ta. Kol (Singhbhum Chikan-minte.
Murmi, Tik. Santdli, . Chdh, ehedd, ehetldgih.
Magar, Kutta. Bhiimij,' . Chi-lika.
Thdksya, Caret. Urdon, Indari.
Pdkhya, Caret. Mundala, . Chikanle.
Newir, Chhd. Rdjmahali, Indrik.
Limbu, The-jokma, the-dng. Gondi, . . Bass-dti, bdrad, barri.
f Kirdnti, Khdinse. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Dema. Rutluk, . Caret.
Riingchenbung, Dena, dene. Naikude, . Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Meehehhd. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, U'mu. 5 Mddi, . . Caret.
Wdling, . Dehd-nd. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Irok-hd, irok. Kuri, . . Caret.
Chourdsya, A'se, dmd. Keikddi, . Yendtuku.
Kulungya, Ddi, ddtt'tkwa. Khond, Annddeki.
Thulungya, Hdgna, hamta. Sdvara, Jitdsamgnd.
Bdhingya, . Mareho, martha. Gadaba, . Caret.
Lohorong, /mang-musi, manthoug. Yerukala, . Yemmatuku, phaldyd.
Lambichhong, Thimmd. Chentsu, . Kissdle.
Bdldli, . . Ifkhdlo. Tamil, anc, Ennei.
Sdng-pdng, Ydnpi. Tamil, mod. En, yidu.
Drimi, . . Mdpune. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Maln. Malaydjma, mod., Entina.
[ Dungmdli, Tend. Telugu, . . . Ela, yenduku.
Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
f Ddrhi, . . Caret. . Karndtaka, mod., Ydtake, ydke.
Denwdr, . Caret. Jayekk.
Pahri, . . Caret. Tuluva,
Kurgi, . Caret.
Chepdng, . Caret. Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Caret. Toduva,)
Toda, ]' A'ed.
Vdyu, . . Mis-pa. 4 Kdta, . Yendea.
Kuswar, . Kyii-hun. Yeka.
Kusunda, . Caret. Badaga,
Kurumba, Yeka.
Thdru, . . Caret. Yenna.
Irula, .
Lepcha (Sikkim), Shu-mat. Malabar, En, ethukkuka.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Kdm-bt. Sinhalese, Ayi.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] AVEC—MIT—WITH—S'—CUM.

Types. cngal. ' Bodo, Lago, Jong.


•c (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . . . . Dopd, dosd.
Sam-, sa-, sa/ia. •*) ■ Kocch, . . . . . Dosor, sdthe.
(Arabic, . Maa. Garo, Mon.
f Bask, -gaz, -kin, -ki. Kachdri, .... Caret.
| Finnic Kanssa. ' Munipuri, .... Loi-nit-na.
Magvar, .... -val. Mfthdn Nagd, . . Caret.
Turkish, .... -ileh.
Circassian, . . . Caret, I Tablung Ndga, . . Caret.
Khdri Ndgd, . . . Ashe.
Georgian, . . . -tha. Angdnri Ndgd, . . Caret.
Mongolian, . . . Logha, tula. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . Caret.
Mantshu, . . . Sasa. Nowgong Ndgd, . Yam.
Javanese, Ngoko, . Sambi, kambi. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Suga.
Javanese, Krama, . Kalayan. Abor Miri, . . . Caret.
[ Malav, .... Dangan. - Sibsdgar Miri, . . Logolo.
f Chinese, Nankin, . Tung. Deoria Chutia, . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Tiling. Singpho, .... Caret.
■«
Chinese, Canton, . Tung. ' Burman (written), Nhang.
Chinese, Shanghai, Teh-tsz\ ho. Burman (spoken), . . . Nlun, hnen.
Amov, Colloquial, . Kap. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Yung.
[Japanese, . . . -to, tomoni. *• Kdmi, . Hd-i.
Kumi Caret.
Brahuf, .... ■to.
1 Mni v. Toung, . . Caret.
c . Sdk, Caret.
[ Gyami, Khdng-ehhen.
Gydrung, Kri, khyds. ' Talain v. Mon, . . . Ku.
Tdkpa, Num-lang. Sgau-karen, . . . Dan, atho.
Mdnyak, Phde. Pwo-karen, . . . Dai.
Thochii, Ong. Toungh-thu, . . . Caret.
Sokpa, Thdngdi. | Shdn • . . Han.
K ■
Horpa, A'ehe. Annamitic, . . . Kung.
Tibetan (written), . . Lhanehig. Siamese, .... Klia, duei.
[ Tibetan (spoken), . . . Ld, dd. Siam
6 Ahom, Chum.
Khdmti, .... Caret.
f Serpa, Tang. k Laos, Caret.
Siinwar, Nuh.
Gurung, De, deye. 'Ho(Kol), . . . Lo, teinredo.
Mdrmi, Ta. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Tote.
Magar, Le-t/idng, khdta. Santdli Gdte, tului, saiingte.
Thdksya, Gndyero. Bhdmij, .... . Tului (?).
Pdkhya, Saga. Urdon Sang.
Newdr, Yaken, ndpo. Mundala, .... Gatt, minna.
Limbu, Nu, teng. Rdjmahali, . . . Guni.
Gondi, Sang.
f Kirdnti, Dd. 4 Gayeti, .... Caret.
Rodong Pida. Rutluk, .... Caret.
Riingchenbung, . . . Ifnan. a . Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, . . . Niing. is Kolami, .... Caret.
Ndchhereng, .... Gndng, mdng. 1 Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, Pi, edd, inart. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, Nung. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, .... Bib. Keikddi, .... . Caret.
Kulungya, .... Gdmpi, lo. Khond, .... Caret.
Thulungya, .... Nung. Sdvara, .... . Ruhd.
Bdhingya, Nung. Gadaba, .... Bonom.
Lohorong, Nung. Yerukala, .... . Tote.
Lambichhonc Lok. Chentsu, .... Satig.
Bdldli, Lung. Tamij, anc, . . . Caret.
Sdng-pdng, .... Pi. Tamil, mod . -bdu, -kuda.
Diimi, Bi, ke. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, Pobi, kolo. Malaydima, mod., . . -ote, -kute.
[ Dungmdli, .... Bifpi, ndng Telugu, .... . -to.
[ Darhi, Sui. Karndtaka, anc, . Caret.
Denwdr, I'n. Karndtaka, mod., . . -kiida, -sangada.
4 Tujuva, .... -ottugu.
Pahri, Nang.
Chepdng, /. ? ' Kurgi . -kude.
Bhramu Chon. I Toduva, ) . . . . Caret.
Vdyu, Nong. Torla, J . . . Caret.
Kuswar, Sin. Kdta, -sengada.
Kusunda, Tangehe. Badaga, .... -koda.
Thdru, Saga. Kurumba, . . . -sangatfa.
Iruja, -kuda.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . Sd, tyol. Malabar, .... . -udan, odu, idat-thu.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, . Chd, dd, ehdro. Sinhalese,. . . . -samaga.
IOO DEDANS—INNERHATT—WITHIN—VNUTRI— INTRA. [chap, nr.—adverbs, etc.

Types. ' Bodo, Singou, sing.


51 Dhimdl Lipta.
(Sanskrit, Antar. J Kocch, .... . Bhitar.
I (Arabic, . Joud. Garo, Pimavai.
f Bask, . . . Barman, barrena, barrura, Kdchdri, .... Nu noishing.
Finnic, . . Sisainen. [barnen. r Munipuri, .... Yimung.
Magvar, . . Be. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Caret.
Turkish,. . Ieh. Tablung Ndgd, . . Caret.
Circassian, . Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Tisinge.
Georgian, . Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, . Kinu.
Mongolian, . Todova. Ndmsang Ndgd, . . Caret.
Mantshu, . Dorgi. Nowgong Ndgd, Talong.
Javanese, Ngok o, Sajero. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Atap.
Javanese, Krama, Salebetting. Abor Miri, A'rdso. -
[ Malav, . . . Diddlam. Sibsdgar Miri, . . Araso.
f Chinese, Nankin, Arei. Deoria Chutia, . . Chikimi.
Chinese, Pekin, Nei. Singpho, .... Caret.
Chinese, Canton, Not. ' Burman (written). Atwang.
Chinese, Shanghai Li-hiang. Burman (spoken), . Atwen, a-hlay-mha.
A.mov, Colloquial, Ldi-bin. Khyeng v. Shou, . Di'tgdme.
Japanese, Uehi, naka. Kdmi, A'-thunt-be.
Kiimi, Thum.
Brahuf, . . Fahti. Mni v. Toung, . . Caret.
Gydmi, . . Lithu. Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, . . Ugu, wogd. ' Talain v. Mon, . . Kha-tivay.
Tdkpa, Nengd. Sgau-karen, . . . A'-pit, len-pu.
Mdnyak, . . KM. Pwo-karen, . Ler-a-pung.
Thochu, . Kiiku^ Toungh-thu, . En-pu.
Sokpa, . . . Tatar. Shdn, Ka-noung.
Horpa, . . Ndng. Annamitic, . Trong.
Tibetan (written). Ndng, nd. Siamese, .... Khannoung, thmai.
Tibetan (spoken), Ndng. Ahom, Khauju.
Khdmti, .... Titian.
Serpa, . . . JVdug. Laos Caret.
Sunwar, . . A'gd.
Gurung, . . Nhori. ' Ho (Kol), . . . . Tallarl.
Miirmi, . . Tunggyer. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Bhitar.
Magar, . . Bhitar. Santdli, .... Bhitar. bhitarite.
Thdksya, . Nhdri. Bhumij, .... . Bhitar.
Pdkhya, . . Bhitra. Uraon, .... . U'ld.
Newdr, . . Dune. Mundala, .... . Bhitar.
Limbu, . . Ki'tsigang, hong. Rdjmahali, . . . U'le.
Gondi, Rappu, nupd mandar.
Kirdnti, . . Ukung-yd. Gayeti, .... Caret.
Rodong, . . Kung-ya. [kongda. Rutluk, .... Caret.
Rungchenbung, Ukonghud'ya, ukongva, Naikude, .... Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Ukutnbe, khimbdyu. Kolami, .... Caret.
Ndchhereng, Khimgwa, khimgo. Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . 0 Mddia, ....
Khimko, akungya. Caret.
Ydkha, . Caret. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Kudukwdya, koya. Keikddi, .... . Wulle.
Kulungya, Gopa. Khond, .... Caret.
Thulungya, Gona, tigu>a-atia. Sdvara, .... Alogna.
Bdhingya, . Agti'ddi, agwa-la. Gadaba, .... Vomidi.
Lohorong, Hongsiyii. Yerukala, .... . Vulle.
Lambichhong, lehhite. Chentsu, .... . Bhitar.
BdJdli, . . Hoksyuyu. ' Tamil, anc, . . . Caret.
Sdng-pdng, Hoptdn. Tamil, mod., . . -ultt.
Dumi, . . U'tong. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Ugo-ya. Malaydlma, mod., . . Akatta.
Dungmdli, Um-kong-ya. Telugu,' .... Lopala, logd.
Ddrhi, . . Bhitar. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwdr, . Bhitar. Karndtaka, mod., Olage.
I Pahri, . . Dohon. s Tujuva, .... . on.
Chepdng, . Caret. Kurgi, Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Trka, ndng. Toduva,) . . . . UUu.
Vdyu, . . Arettg, bek. Toda, j . . . ■ Ulf.
Kuswar, . Bhitar. Kota, . Vluli.
I Kusunda, . Wdha. Badaga, .... Volage.
Thdru, . . Bhitra. Kurumba, . . . Vollage.
Iruja, . Ulle.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Sagong. Malabar, .... . Ulla.
Bhdtani v. Lhopa, Ndng. Sinhalese, . . . . Atuli.
CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.] SANS—OH N E—W I T H O U T—BEZ—SI N E. IOI

Types. Bodo, . Otigd, geya.


Dhimdl, Mdnthu.
•« (Sanskrit, Vind. Kocch, Bine.
4, (Arabic, Beld. Garo, . Thong e/iani gamang.
Bask, . -gabe, -ke; gabe, baga bake, ^ [ Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, Tta. ' [-bake, Munipuri, Caret.
Magvar, -nelkiil. Mfthdn Ndgd, Caret.
Turkish, -siz. Tablung Ndgd, Caret.
Circassian, Weyrey, burey. Khdri Ndgd, . Caret.
Georgian, T/nvienier. Angdmi Ndgd, Caret.
Mongolian, Ughei, iighei-bar. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Caret.
Mantshu, De ako. Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Ora-nganggo. Tengsa Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Krama, Boten-ngangge. Abor Miri, . Caret.
Malav, . . . Korang. Sibsdgar Miri, Caret.
Deoria Chutia, Caret.
Chinese, Nankin, Puh-yu. [Singpho, . . Caret.
Chinese, Pekin, Mei-yu. •-- Burman (written), Ba.
Chinese, Canton, Mo. I Burman (spoken), Caret.
Chinese, Shanghai Veh-yu, veh-i-daw. Caret.
Amov, Colloquial, Bo. ' Khyeng v. Shou,
h Kdmi, . Caret.
I Japanese, Foka, nakute. Caret.
Kumi, .
Brahuf, Baghar. Mni v. Toung, Caret.
Sdk, . Caret.
f Gyami, Momd, meyu-md.
Gydrung, Kamei. Talain v. Mon, Hpa.
Tdkpa, Ma-nona. Sgau-karen, Ler-koung (?).
Mdnyak, Mdju. Pwo-karen, Ler-koung.
Thochii, Maruk. Toungh-thu, Caret. .
Sokpa . Ug-gwe. Shdn, . . Mai.
Horpa, Mdehu. Annamitic, Kyang-ko.
h Siamese, . Caret.
Tibetan (written), Caret.
[ Tibetan (spoken), T/idna. Ahom, . . Caret.
Khdmti, . Caret.
Serpa, . Me-tdla. |. Laos, . . Caret.
Sunwdr, Mabdthu. f Ho (Kol), Kai-tainredo.
Glirung, Ar-esyd. Kol (Singhbhum Bdnod.
Miirmi, A'dd-nd. Santdli, Bdnuh (= is not), begar.
Magar, Mdmule. Bhiimij, Caret.
Thdksya, A'robhoja. Urdon, Ni.
Pdkhya, Bholi. Mundala, Sdmd.
Newdr, Madaya-kang. Rdjmahali Walo.
Limbu, Menne. Gondi, . Ba/tro, bigur.
Kirdnti, Mddang. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, Madang. Rutluk, Caret.
Rungchenbung, Madang, mandang. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngy Mdngehi. Kolami, Caret.
Ndchherent Mdngdi. Mddi, . Caret.
Wdling, . Moehhi. Mddia, . Caret.
Ydkha, . Mdnnung, metmng. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, Sokho. Keikddi, Beilu.
Kulangya, Mdndi. Khonrl, Caret.
Thulungya, Mdnthi. Sdvara, Y'ejja.
Bdhingya, . Mdnthi. Gadaba, Vuregusu.
Lohorong, Meddin'g. Yerukala Yilladote.
Lambichhong, Mdngehhi. Chentsu, Navundnai.
Bdldli, . . Medding. f Tamil, anc, -anri.
Sdngpdng, Mand, mdn. Tamil, mod., -illdmal.
Diimi, . . Mduthine, mandi. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Aldng-thd. Malaydlma, mod -illdte, -kutdte.
Dungmdli, Aldnehhi. Telugu,' . . -lekundd.
Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Ddrhi, . . Bdhir. Karndtaka, mod. -illade.
Denwar, . Bdhir. Tuluva, . -horata.
Pahri, . . Fen-hd. Kurgi, . . Caret.
Chepdng, . Caret. ^ Toduva,) Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Am-bu. I Toda, I -allade.
Vdyu, . . Tongma, lok. K<5ta, . . -a/lade.
Kuswar, . Bdhir. Badaga, . -allade.
Kusunda, . Kduthd-i. Kurumba, -allade.
Thdru, . . Nahiho-i. Iruk, . . -adalla.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . 71. Malabar, . -vittu, allathu, ittdi.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, . Te-lo. Sinhalese,. -ndtua.
102 O UI—JA—Y E S—DA—ITA. [CHAP. III.—ADVERBS, ETC.

Types. f Bodo, Ongo, ong-thdrgo.


J. Dhimdl, He, Jetig.
(Sanskrit, Bddham.
% (Arabic, . Kocch, Hen.
Naam, eiwa, bela. Garo Hd.
Bask, . . Bai. Kdchdri, Caret.
Finnic, . On (= it is). Munipuri,. . . Hoi.
Magvar, . Igen, Mfthdn Ndgd, . Vai.
Turkish, . Evet. Tablung Ndgd, . Aiya.
Circassian, Wayhi. ^5 Khdri Ndgd, . . Hau.
Georgian, He. Angdmi Ndgd, . E.
Mongolian, Miin. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . Idanga.
Mantshu, Inu. Nowgong Ndgd, An.
Javanese, Ngoko, /ya. Tengsa Ndgd, . Ho.
Javanese, Krama, Inggih. Abor Miri, . . Iu.
[ Malav, . . . Be/ikan. Sibsdgar Miri, . U.
{ Chinese, Nankin, Shi. 3 Deoria Chutia, . Hoi.
Chinese, Pekin, Shih. Singpho, . . . Raia.
- . Chinese, Canton, Hai. Burman (written), . . Hotkhe.
Chinese, Shanghai, Si. Burman (spoken), . . . Hohhe, hot-kai.
Amov, Colloquial, St, ehidn-st. Khyeng v. Shou, . . A-hi.
[ Japanese, He, /iai, ha. h Kdmi, Ta-ko-kd.
Kdmi, Ndn.
Brahuf, Handon. Mni v. Toung, . . . Caret.
C Gydmi, Syo. Sdk, Caret.
Gydrung, . Do-mos. f Talain v. Mon, . . . Tot-kwai.
h Tdkpa, . In. Sgau-karen, .... Ma, ma-li, meye.
Mdnyak, . Zvi. Pwo-karen, .... Mwai.
Thochd, . Gnowd, gno. 1 Toungh-thu, .... Mwd.
Sokpa, . . Bi. Shdn, Htsouk-hi.
Horpa, Gnor. Annamitic, .... Phai.
Tibetan (wriiten) Caret. Siamese, Tsen, Mid.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Bn. s Ahom, Kluwo.
3 Khdmti, Tsau.
f Serpa, . . In. Laos, Tsai, men.
Siinwar, . Mai.
Giirung, . Wot. [ Ho (Kol) Eya.
Murmi, Minnd, yd. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Han, ho.
Magar, Ho, le-au. Santdli, Hung, ho, ho-i, hong-mdr.
Thdksya, . Hin. Bhumij, Hong.
Pdkhya, . Hoho. Urdon, Hah.
Newdr, Khau, da-ang. Mundala Hdh, ho.
Limbu, Ok. Rdjmahali, .... Onon, ho.
Gondi, Hingi, inge.
[ Kirdnti, . Angd. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . Ou, ai. Rutluk Caret.
Rdngchenbung, Ang-gna. Naikude Caret.
Chhingtdngya, Ye, yet. Kolami, Caret.
Ndchhereng, Le, ho. Mddi, Caret.
Wdling, . Hanan, o, d. Mddia, Caret.
I Yakha, . Ihhi. ' Kuri, Caret.
Chourasya, Ttme. Keikddi, A'mbo.
I Kulungya, Ye. Khond, Vujje.
Thulungya, Misi, bit. Sdvara, Jddite.
Bahingya, . Moko. Gadaba, Vom.
\ Lohorong, Ye. Yerukala, Ambo.
.5 Lambichhong. Ye. Chentsu, Sehehhd, hoyyd.
Bdldli, . . Hegne. f Tamil, anc, .... Caret.
Sang-pang, Ye, inehhung, ingnd. Tamil, mod., .... A'm.
Dumi, . . Anrnd. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, . Go, am' md. Malaydjma, mod., . . Ate, uvva.
[ Dungmdli, Han-an, go, imehang-bd. Telugu Avunu.
Darhi, . . Ho. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwar, . Te. Karndtaka, mod., . . Haudtt.
Pahri, . . Khy&. *5 Tuluva And.
Chepang, . Caret. Kurgi, Akku.
Bhramu, . Mo, lik. Toduva,) .... Caret.
Vayu, . . Dik-sa, nom. Toda, j' . ... Ha.
Kuswar, . Ah, an. Kdta Ha.
Badaga, Ha.
I Kusunda, . A'ydbakiho.
Kurumba, .... Haudu.
[ Thdru, . . Ndhibd.
Irula, A'ma.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Ah, euk. Malabar, A'm, om.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Tup, in. { Sinhalese, Ou.
CHAP. HI.—ADVERBS, ETC.] HIER—GESTERN—YESTERDAY—VCHERA.—HERI.

Types. Bodo, . Mia.


I Dhimdl, Anji.
•5 j'SANskRIT, Hyah. Kocch, Kal-gata-kalva (?).
(Arabic, . Ams, imbdrieh. Garo, . Mi-vai.
Bask, . . Atzo. Kdchdri, Mia-sanehe.
Finnic, . Eilen. Munipuri, Hai-yeng.
Magvar, . Tegnap. Mfthdn Ndgd, Manyi.
Turkish, . Dun. Tablung Ndgd, Manyi.
Circassian, Boghaz. 1 Khdri Ndgd, . Hashi.
Georgian, Gushin. Angdmi Ndgd, Koshe.
Mongolian, Utsik-edur. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Maja.
Mantshu, Sikse. Nowgong Ndgd, Yashi.
Javanese, Ngoko, IVingi. Tengsa Ndgd, Osi.
Javanese, Krama, Wingi. Abor Miri, . MUo.
Malav, . . . Kalamdri. Sibsdgar Miri, Melobo.
Deoria Chutia, Dupuroni.
[ Chinese, Nankin, Tsdh-jlh. [Singpho, . . Mani.
Chinese, Pekin, Tso-jih.
Chinese, Canton, Tsok-yat. f Burman (lorittt>i\ Yamanne.
Yamanne, ma-na-ga.
Chinese, Shanghai, Dzo-nieh. 5 Burman (spoken), Yam-tii.
Amov, Colloquial, Chd-jit. Khyeng v. Shou,
Japanese, Saku-dsitsu, sakusiehu. Kdmi, . . . Ya-diim.
Kumi, . . . Caret.
Brahuf, Daro. I Mru v. Toung, Caret.
Sdk, ... Caret.
[ Gydmi, Hou-the.
Gydrung, . Pusyiir. Talain v. Mon, Let-ka-na.
M'hah.
Tdkpa, . Dang. 5 Sgau-karen,
Pwo-karen, .
.
Ler-mu-gah.
Mdnyak, . Ydhd.
Thochu, . Narr. Toungh-thu, . Md-ha.
Sokpa, . . Nokhor. s Shdn, . . . Ma-ma.
Horpa, Naga, dwesnl. Annamitic, . Hom-qua.
Tibetan (written), Mddng. h Siamese, . . Ma-wa-ni, wa, wan.
[ Tibetan (spoken), s Ahom, . . . Poi.
Ddng.
Khdmti, . . Mangd.
Serpa, . . Ddng. Laos, . . . Caret.
Sunwar, . Sindti. Ho (Kol), . Hold.
Gurung, . Tela. Kol (Singhbhum), Hald.
Miirmi, Tild. Santdli, Hald, haldng.
Magar, Tisyengmi. Bhumij, Hald.
Thdksya, . Kemieliuri. Urdon, Chelo.
Pdkhya, . Hijo. Mundala, Hald (/tola ?).
Newdr, Mhlgo. Rdjmahali, Chewr.
Limbu, Mek'ma. Gondi, . Nadi, nara, khai.
Kirdnti, . Akhomdng. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . A'se. Rutluk, Caret.
Rungchenbung, A'khomdng. Naikude, Caret.
Chhingtdngya, A'sinda. Kolami, Caret.
Ndchhereng, A'spa. Mddi, . Caret.
Wdling, . A'se, akomang. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . A'eh/ien. Kuri, . Caret.
Chourdsya, Saisa, Keikddi, Ninnd.
Kulungya, lspa. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, Bdsta. Sdvara, Amannt.
Bdhingya, . Satiam'ti. Gadaba, Minde.
Lohorong, A-set, dsen, a-sye. Yerukala, Nesu yenndyi.
Lambichhong, A'sen. [ Chentsu, Kdyil, porusu.
Bdldli, . . Ye-md. f Tamil, anc, . Nerunal.
Sdng-pdng, A'-thepd. Tamil, mod., . Nettu.
Diimi, . . A'meski. Malaydlma, anc Caret.
Khdling, . Amiske. Malaydlma, mod. Iutiale.
Dungmdli, A'se. Telugu,' . . Ninna.
Karndtaka, anc Caret.
Ddrhi, . . Km. 3 Karndtaka, mod Ninne.
Denwdr, . Kd-li't. Kode.
Mi-zye. Tujuva,
Pahri, . . Kurgi, . Nenne, ninndndu.
Chepdng, . Yon. Enner.
Mi-lya. Toduva,)
Bhrdmu, . Toda, > Enner.
Vdyu, . . Ti-jong. Ner.
Kal-hai. K6ta, .
Kuswar, . Badaga, Ninne.
Kusunda, . Bindgd. Ninne.
Thdru, . . Bydhan. Kummba,
Iruja, . Nctu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Tasso. Malabar, Nettu.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Khdehd. Sinhalese, I'vi.
io4 AIR—LUFT—AIR—VOZDUKH—AER. [CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.

Types. Bodo, . Bdr, nokhorong.


v. Dhimdl, Birima, bhirma.
•g (Sanskrit, Antariksha, vyoman, vdyu, Kocch, Batds.
>^ (Arabic, Hawd. [gagaria, dkdsa. Garo, . Lampdr.
Bask, . Aire, Kdchdri, Bar.
Finnic, lima. Munipuri, Nungsit.
Magvar, Leg. Mfthdn Ndgd, Rangben.
Turkish, Caret. Tabbing Ndgd, Wang-yak.
■§ Circassian, Skuey. Khdri Ndgd, . Aning.
'Js Georgian, Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, Tikhe.
a. Mongolian, Ki, kei. Ndmsang Ndgd, Pong.
Mantshu, Snkdun, apka. Nowgong Ndgd, Mabung.
Javanese, Ngoko, Angin. Tengsa Ndgd, Mapung.
Javanese, Krama, Angin. Abor Miri, . Asar.
Malav, . . . Angin. Sibsdgar Miri, Esdr.
' Chinese, Nankin, Deoria Chutia, Bmi.
KH. [Singpho, . . M'bung.
Chinese, Pekin, CA'i.
Chinese, Canton, Hi. Burman (written), Le.
Chinese, Shanghai. Ti-ehi (earth-air). Burman (spoken), Le, ld.
Amov, Colloquial, K'i. Khyeng v. Shou Kee.
Japanese. Kuki, kaza. h Kdmi, . Ga-li.
Kumi, . A-li.
Brahuf, . • Caret. Mni v. Toung, Ra-li.
£ Sdk, Mwi-ya-he.
[ Gydmi, . . Sphi'tn.
Gyanmg, . . Tali. Talain v. Mon, Kya.
h Tdkpa, . ■ Rhot. Sgau-karen, Kdli, kli.
Mdnyak, . . Merdah. Pwo-karen, Li.
Thochu, . . Mozyu. Toungh-thu, Tali.
Sokpa, . • Sdlki. Shdn, . . Irfnma.
Horpa, . . Puryu. Annamitic, KM.
Tibetan (written) 'Rsungnia, rlungma. Siamese, . /jm, lom.
2 Tibetan (spoken), Shdkpd, lhakpd. A hom, . . Lom.
Khdmti, . Lom.
[ Serpa, . Liingbo. Laos, . Lom.
Sunwar, Phase.
Glirung, Ndng mro. Ho (Kol), Hoyo.
Miirmi, Lhdbd. Kol (Singhbh um), Hoiyo.
-I Magar, Namsu. Santdli, . Hoye, ehat (sky), haeddt
Thdksya, Nammar. Bhumij, . Hoyo. [(wind).
Pdkhya, Baydlo. Urdon, Thdkd.
Newdr, Phai. Mundala, . Hoyoh.
Limbu, Sammit. Rdjmahali, ldke, tdphe.
Gondi, Bdribd itd, wadi.
Kirdnti, Hak. Gayeti, . Wadi.
Rodong, Jfyu. Rutluk, . Wadi-wadi.
Rungchenbung, Hik, hak. Naikude, . Gdli.
Chhingtdngya, Hintma. Kolami, . Gdli.
Ndchhereng, Hi, i. Mddi, . . Wadi wadigu.
Wdling, . Him'ma, hak. Mddia, Wadi.
Ydkha, . Hig'wa-phdk, hik'gwa. Kuri, . . Koyo.
Chourdsya, Phurim. Keikddi, . Gdli.
Kulungya, Nik-pa. Khond, . Billu.
Thulungya, Pit. Sdvara, Ringe.
Bdhingya, . Ju. Gadaba, Gamvdyi.
Lohorong, Hnvd-bd, higivd-phak. Yenikala, . Gdli.
Lambichhong, Him-md. [ Chentsu, . Batds.
Bdldli, . . IPihvdpa, huwd-ma. [ Tamil, anc, Kdl.
Sdng-pdng, Him'md, heu. Tamil, mod., Kdtht, wdyu.
Diimi, . . Iluh'-tt, hu'-u. Malaydlma, anc Caret.
Khdling, . Jhiing. Malaydjma, mod. Kdtta.
[ Dungmdli, Heuk, himma. Telugu, . . Gdli.
Ddrhi, . . Batds. Karndtaka, anc, Iilaru.
Bdtds. Karndtaka, mod. Ghdli.
5 Denwar, . Tuluva, Ghd'li.
Pahri, . . Phii-sd.
Chepdng, . Md-ru. Kurgi, . Bdna, kdttu.
Bhrdmu, . A-si. Toduva,) Kott.
Vdyu, . . Hujum, Iwjum. Toda, j Kdtu.
Kuswar, . Batds. Kdta, . Gdle.
Kusunda, . Kdi. Badaga, Glai.
Thdru, . . Baydr. Kurumba, Gdli.
Iruja, . Kdtu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Sagmat. Malabar, Akayam.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Lung. Sinhalese, Bhuvana.
CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.] FO U RM I—AM E I SE—A N T—M URAVE I—FORM I CA.

Types. Bodo, .... Hdsd-brai, moeha-rdm.


Dhimdl, . . . Nhd-mui.
-S (Sanskrit, Pip'tlikd, vamr't. ■{ Kocch, . . . Nuti-pipara.
4, (Arabic, . Naml. Garo, .... Gongd, sdmbur.
f Bask, .... Chingurri, ehindurri, inurri. Kdchdri, . . . Caret.
Finnic, . . . Muurainen. Munipuri, . . Kukeheng.
Magvar, . . . Hangya. Mfthdn Ndgd, . Tiksd.
Turkish, . . . Karinja. Tablung Ndgd, . Tikhd.
Circassian, . . Caret. =5 Khdri Ndgd, . . Hung-zah.
Georgian, . . Caret. Angdmi Ndgd, . Haehe.
Mongolian, . . Sirgoltehin. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Tsip-ehak.
,5 Mantshu, . . Caret. Nowgong Ndgd, Moehd.
Javanese, Ngoko, Semut. Tengsa Ndgd, . Mathdn.
Javanese, Krama, Semut. Abor Miri, . . Mirang.
Malav, . . . Samiit. ? Sibsdgar Miri, . Merdng.
[ Chinese, Nankin, . p. Deoria Chutia, . Chi-meehi.
Chinese, Pekin, . p. Singpho, . . . Gagin.
Chinese, Canton, . Ngai. Burman (written), Parwak-ehhit.
Chinese, Shanghai, Md-tii. Burman (spoken), . Paynet-seik, panevt.
3 Amov, Colloquial, . Kau-hid. Khyeng v. Shou, Lhing-sd-mi.
Japanese, . . • Ari. Kdmi, . . Ba-lin.
Kumi, . . Pa-lin.
Brahuf, Caret. Mru v. Toung, Loung-tsa-ring-jd.
Gydmi, Mai-thun. Sdk, . . Phun-si-gyd.
Talain v. Mon, Khamol.
Tdkpa, Rhok-po Sgau-karen, Ter, ta-g/ii-sau.
Mdnyak, Bll;r,a,-\ Pwo-karen, Tung.
Thochu, Tu-khra Toungh-thu, Jrtung.
Sokpa, Khoro-klnve. Shdn, . . Mot.
Horpa, Skhro. Annamitic, Kiln,
Tibetan (written), . ■ Grogtna. Siamese, . Mot.
z Tibetan (spoken), . . ■ Thoma. 5 Ahom, . . Nyuehu.
Khdmti, . Mot.
gerpa, Rhunmd. Laos, . . Mot, puak.
Sunwdrj Ragmaehi.
Gurung, chijl- . Ho (Kol), Nid'tr.
Murmi, Syourt. Kol (Singhbh um), Mui.
Magar, M«*r- Santdli, Muih, muni, upi (white and
Thdksya, Nat-°- , Bhumij, . Mue. [winged).
Pdkhya, Krunula. Urdon, Poh.
Newdr I,no- Mundala, . Munj.
Limbu, Sikehemba. Rdjmahali, Pok.
Gondi, Patte (black) ; Uddi (white).
f Kirdnti, Sdehakdva. Pate (bl.) ; alu (wh.).
Rodong, Chikarepa. 4 Gayeti,
Rutluk, Dhvar (wh.).
Rungchenbung, . . . Sdehakdwa, elukyang. Naikude, . Simdl (bl.) ; sedal (wh.).
Chhingtdngya, . . . Pongkharok. Kolami, . S/iimel (bl.) ; sedal (wh).
Ndchhereng,. . . - Chhdmpalyi. Mddi, . . Chutti (b\.);yelam, nusu (w.).
Wdling, Chhikyang. Mddia, Caret.
f Ydkha • • Khelek, khelem. Kuri, . Chdti (bl.) ; ninder (wh.).
Chourdsya, .... Po urung'ma, pworum'm. Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, .... Khdlem. Khond, Caret.
Thulungya, .... Khdhm. Sdvara, Bobo.
Bdhingya, Gdga elummo, gagaelungmo. Gadaba, . Gusdld.
Lohorong, .... Pong-khorok, yangkhrepa. Yerukala, . Chima.
Lambichhong, . . • Pong khorok, ya-khrepa. Chentsu, . Peppidi.
Bdldli .... Yd khlepa. f Tamil, anc, Uravi.
Sdng-pdng, .... CMidmphalu, ehampa-leu. Tamil, mod., Erumbu (bl.) ; karaiydn (w.).
Dumi, Chikd-repu. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, Grdkmo. Malaydjma, mod., lrumba.
[ Dungmdli Chig-ydng. Telugu,' . . • Chima (bl.) ; ehedullu (wh.).
f Ddrhi, Cheunta, t-seu-n-ta. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Karndtaka, mod., Irivi.
5 Denwkr, Cheu-ti, t-seu-ti.
Tulu'va, . . • Pijin.
Pahri, Mig-za.
Chepdng, Tul-tt. Kurgi Caret.
Bhrdmu, A-nap. Toduva,{ . • Erbb.
Vdyu, Chiki-bulla. Toda, J • • Erb.
Kuswar, Kimili. Kdta, .... Irbe.
I Kusunda, Pyai-kt. Badaga, . . • Irupu.
Thdru, Dokd. Kurumba, . • Irupu.
Irula, .... Irumbu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Takphyiil. Malabar, . . • Erumbu.
Bhihdni v. Lhopa, Kyom'd. |. Sinhalese, . . • Kumbiyd.
io6 FLECHE—PFEIL—ARROW—STRYELA—SAGITTA. [CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.

. Types. Bodo, . . Bald.


•| (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . K/ier, tir. ,
Sdyaka, bdna, sara, ishu. Kocch, Ttr.
<§, J Arabic, Sahm. Garo, . . Phe-e.
Bask, . Guezi, isto, sayeta, lutzi [Kdchdri, . Bola-kdrai.
Finnic, Nuoli. [tragaz. [ Munipuri, Tel.
Magvar, NyU. Mfthdn Ndgd, Sdn.
Turkish, Ok. Tablung Ndgd, Ld-han.
Circassian, Bzey. Khdri Ndgd, . Takaba.
Georgian, lsari. V Angdmi Ndgd, Thiwu.
Mongolian, Somon. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Latehan.
Mantshu, Niru. Nowgong Ndgd, Lasang.
Javanese, Ngoko, Pannah. Tengsa Ndgd, Lasan.
Javanese, Krama, Jemparing. Abor Mm, . Epuk.
I Malav, . . . A'mk-pdnak. 1 Sibsdgar Miri, Epug.
Chinese, Nankin, Deoria Chutia, Atd.
Tsien. Singpho, . . Peld.
Chinese, Pekin, Chun.
Chinese, Canton, Tsut. Burman (written), Mra.
Chinese, Shanghai Tsien. Burman (spoken), Myd, hmya.
Amov, Colloquial, Chin. =5 Khyeng v. Shou Thwd.
[ Japanese, Ya. Kdmi, . . Li.
Kumi, . . Li-td-i.
Brahuf, Sum. Mni v. Toung, Sa, qwd-i.
[ Gydmi, Chen. Sdk, . . To-li-mald.
Gydrung, Ki-pi. Talain v. Mon, Lau.
Tdkpa, Mld. Sgau-karen, Plah, khli.
5 Pwo-karen, Plah.
Mdnyak, Md.
Thochii, Jdh. I Toungh-thu, Pla.
Sokpa, . Selime. Shdn, . . Pen.
Horpa, \Jd. Annamitic, Ten.
Tibetan (written), M<//«z, mddh. h Siamese, . Tsdn, luk-son.
Tibetan (spokcu), Da. s Ahom, . . Lem.
t-5 Khdmti, . Lim.
fSerpa, . Dd. Laos, . . Lem-pur.
Siinwdr, Bld.
Gurung, Myd. Ho (Kol), Sar.
Murmi, Mvd. Kol (Singhbhum), Sdrh.
Magar, Mvd. Santdli, . Sdr, jhampd.
Thdksya, Tume. Bhdmij, . Sdrh.
Pdkhya, Kddha. Urdon, Chdr.
Newdr, Bd'ld. Mundala, . Sddr.
|. Limbu, Tang. Rdjmahali, Chdr.
Gondi, Tir, jiyatur.
Kirdnti, Me. Gayeti, Tir.
Rodong, Bhe. -5 Rutluk, . Caret.
Rungchenbung, Bhye, bhe, ubhe. Naikude, . Ttr.
Chhingtdngya, Pliesuk, phesm-k. Kolami, . Murre.
Ndchhereng, Bel Mddi, . . Kddi, Mni.
Waling, . Be, bhe. Mddia, Kddi.
Ydkha, . Pisik',pishih'. Kuri, . . Tir.
Chourdsya, Bh. Keikddi, . Tirkamtd.
Kulungya, Bet, be-i. Khond, . Pinju.
Thulungya, Ne pie. Sdvara, Am.
Bdhingya, . Bld. Gadaba, . Sonai.
Lohorong, Phe, thuk-ld, nobe. Yerukala, . Yikke.
Lambichhong, Thuk-la, phet, pheh'. [ Chentsu, . Kondu, kdnd.
Bdldli, . . Thuk-ld. [ Tamil, anc, Kanei.
Sdng-pdng, Sebi. Tamil, mod., Ambu.
Dumi, . . Numu-u, tw-mo-wo. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Selmo. Malaydjma, mod. Amba.
[ Dungmdli, Pe. Telugu, . . Bdnamu, ambu.
Darhi, . . Kdnr. Karndtaka, anc, Saralu.
Denwar, . Kdtir. Karndtaka, mod., Ambu.
Pahri, . . Bd'-rd. Tujiiva, . Biru.
Chepang, . Ld. Kurgi, . . Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Pd-rd. Toduva,) Caret.
Vdyu, . . Sdr, bio. Toda, | Abu,
Kuswar, . Sdr. K6ta, . . Ambe.
Kusunda, . Muyu. Badaga, . Ambu.
[ Thdru, . . Khdndha. Kurumba, Ambu.
Irula, . . Ambu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Chong. Malabar, . Ambu, kanri, at-thiram,
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Dd. Sinhalese, . Sara, igaha. [pasam.
CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.] OISEAU—VOGEL— BI RD—PTITSA—AVIS.

Types. fBodo, .... Dou-ehen.


•| (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . . . Jihd.
Vi (vedic), vayas, pakshin. Kocch, . . . Pokhi.
1 Arabic, . Tdyir. Garo, .... Tou-ehap.
f Bask, . . Chori, egazti, pizti. Kdchdri, . . . Dao tao sen.
Finnic, . Lintu. [ Munipuri, . . U'ehek.
Magvar, . Madar. Mfthdn Ndgd, . o.
Turkish, . Kush. Tablung Ndgd, . Ou-hd.
Circassian, Bzu. Khdri Ndgd, . . Ozah.
Georgian, Tsilo, prinweli. Angdmi Ndgd, . Pard.
Mongolian, Sibglwn. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . Vo.
Mantshu, Gaskha. Nowgong Ndgd, Uzz.
Javanese, Ngoko, Manut. Tengsa Ndgd, . Uso.
Javanese, Krama, Petsi. Abor Miri, . . Pettang.
[Malav, . . • Biirung. 1 Sibsdgar Miri, . Pdtdng.
[ Chinese, Nankin, Nidou. Deoria Chutia, . Dud.
Chinese, Pekin, Nidou. [Singpho, . . . Wu.
Chinese, Canton, N'iu. Burman (written), Nghak.
Chinese, Shanghai Tiau-tiiau. Burman (spoken), . Nghet, hnget.
Amov, Colloquial, Chidit. Khyeng v. Shou, Hau.
Japanese, Tori. Kdmi, .... Ka-vd, ta-vd.
5: Kumi, .... Ta-wu.
Brahuf, Chuk. Mni v. Toung, . Ta-wd.
f Gydmi, . Sphui-ehher. Sdk JVd-s't.
Gydrung, . Pve-pye. Talain v. Mon, . Kha-tcn.
Tdkpa, . Pvd. Sgau-karen, . . To, hto, hthu.
Mdnyak, . Hd. Pwo-karen, . . Tit, htoh.
Thochii, . Marwo. Toungh-thu, . . A-wa.
Sokpa, . . Thd-kol. Shdn, .... Hnot.
Horpa, Gyo. Annamitic, . . Shim.
Tibetan (written) Bvu. Siamese, . • • IPtiot, nok.
Tibetan (spoken), Chyd. s Ahom, .... Nuktu.
3 Khdmti, . . • Nok.
Serpa, . . Jhd. Laos, .... Nok.
Sunwar, . Chivd, ehi-vd.
Gurung, . Nemyd. Ho (Kol), . • Oe.
Murmi, Ndmyd. Kol (Singhbhum), Oe.
Magar, Gwdjd. Santdli, . . • Chene.
Thdksya, . Nom'ya. Bhumij, . • • Chene (ehene ?).
Pdkhya, . Chdda. Urdon, . • • Orak.
Newdr, Jhango, jhd-tigo. Mundala, . . • Ure.
[ Limbu, Bii. Rdjmahali, . • Puj.
Gondi Itte, pitte.
[ Kirdnti, . Chongwd. Gayeti, PUte.
Rodong, . Wdsa. Rutluk, . . . Pithe.
Rungchenbung, Chhongwa. Naikude, . . . PUtd.
Chhingtdngya, Wdsa. Kolami, . . ■ Sidemugi.
Ndchhereng, Chho wa. a Mddi, .... PUtd, paritta.
Wdling, . Chhong wd. Mddia, . . • Pidhe.
Ydkha, . Nua, nuawaehi. Kuri, .... Tilit.
Chourdsya, Chak bwa. Keikddi, . . . Piskd, kunju.
Kulungya, Chhowa. Khond, . . . Propd-manneru.
Thulungya, Chakpu. Sdvara, . . • Onti.
Bdhingya, Chik-ba. Gadaba, . . ■ Piti.
Lohorong, Song-wd. Yerukala, . . . Kokku, sogide, kunju.
Lambichhong, Nowa. [ Chentsu, . . . Chodai.
Bdldli, . . Chhong-wa. \ Tamil, anc, . . Pul.
Sdng-pdng, Ch/ion-wd. Tamil, mod., . . Paravei, kuruvi.
Dumi, . . Sal-pu. Malaydjma, anc, Parva.
Khdling, . Sal-po. Malaydjma, mod., Pakshi, parava.
|. Dungmdli, Chhong-wd. Telugu, . . • Pitta.
Ddrhi, . . C/idri. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwar, . Chdrdi. Karndtaka, mod., Hakki.
Pahri, . . Bu-khineha, bu-khin-eha. Tujuva, . . • Pakki.
Chepdng, . Wd, mo-d, mo-wd. Kurgi, .... Pakki.
Bhrdmu, . Jyd-ling. Toduva,) . • Pull.
Vdyu, . . Chin-ehi. Toda, | . • Bilti.
4 K6ta Peke (pakhi ?).
Kuswar, . Chdri.
Kusunda, . Kotau. Badaga, . . • Hakibu.
Thdru, . . Chirai. Kurumba, . . Hakibu.
Irula, .... Pdkhi.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Pho. Malabar, . . . Kuruvi, pullu.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Bhyd. [ Sinhalese, . . . KuruUd.
io8 SANG—BLUT—BLOOD—KROV—SANGUIS. [CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.

Types. Bodo, Thoi.


(Sanskrit, Asrij, rudhira, lohita, Dhimdl, Hiki, hitti.
(Arabic, . Kocch, Lohu.
Dumm. [sonita. Garo, Chi.
s
Bask, Odd. Kdchdri, Thai.
Finnic, Wen. Munipuri, . . /'.
Magvar, Ver. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . A'ji.
Turkish, Kan. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Ih.
Circassian, .... KUh. Khdri Ndgd, . . . . Ai.
Georgian, .... Siskhli. V. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Unhi.
Mongolian, .... Tehison. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . He.
Mantshu, .... Senggi. Nowgong Ndgd, . . Azii.
Javanese, Ngoko, . . Getih. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Ai.
Javanese, Krama, . . Erah. Abor Miri, . . Yilpi-ui.
[ Malav, Ddrah. Sibsdgar Miri, . Iye.
Chinese, Nankin, . . Hiiuh. Deoria Chutia, . . . Chui.
Chinese, Pekin, . . Hsieh. Sing[)ho, . . . . . Sai.
Chinese, Canton, . . Hut. Burman (written), . . Srve.
Chinese, Shanghai, . Hiiih. Burman (spoken), . . . Thwe.
Amov, Colloquial, . . Huih. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Ka-thi.
[ Japanese, .... Chi, tshi. Kdmi, A-thi.
Kiimi, A-thi.
Brahuf, Ditar. Mni v. Toung, . . . Wi.
Gydmi, Sye. Sdk The.
Gydrung, Td-shi. Talain v. Mon, H'tsein.
Tdkpa, Khrd. Sgau-karen, . Athui, thwi.
Manyak, Shdh. Pwo-karen, . Thwi.
Thochii, Sdh. Toungh-thu, . Thway.
Sokpa, Khoro-give. Shdn, . . . Lit.
I Annamitic,
Horpa, Sye, sen. Man.
Tibetan (written), . . Khrdng, khrag. h Siamese, ..... Lit (le-et ?), leuat.
6 Tibetan (spoken), . . . Thak. 5 Ahom, Let.
Khdmti, Liit.
Serpa, T)idk. Laos Lent.
Sunwdr, Vsi.
Gurung, Koh. Ho (Kol), .... Myiim.
Murmi, Kd. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Myun.
Magar, Hvu. Santdli, Mdydm(j>dehate= to bleed).
Thdksya, Kd. Bhiimij, Myun.
Pdkhya, Ragat. Urdon, Khens.
Newdr, Hi. Mundala, Mvun.
Limbu, Makhi. Rdjmahali, .... Kesu.
Gondi, Nattur, natur.
f Kirdnti Hau. Gayeti, Natur.
Rodong, Hi, hda. Rutluk, Natur.
Riingchenbung, . . . Hd, hen. Naikude, Netur.
Chhingtdngya, . . . Hd-li. Kolami, Natur.
Ndchhereng, .... Hi. Mddi Netur.
Wdling, Hi, hd. Mddia, Kanhdntue.
Ydkha, He-l'la, he-l'wa. Kuri, Paehna.
Chourdsya, .... Usu. Keikddi, Natho.
I Kulungya, .... Hi. Khond, Rakko.
Thulungya, .... Sisi. Sdvara, Miyamo.
l Bdhingya, .... Hiisi. Gadaba, Yignam.
Lohorong, .... Hdri. Yerukala, Regam, vudaram.
Lambichhong, . . . Hdlt. Chentsu, Lahu.
Bdldli, Hellu-wa, helwa. \ Tamil, anc Sennir.
Sdng-pdng, .... Hi. Tamii, mod., . ... Udiram, irattam.
Diimi, Hi. Malaydlma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, Hi. Malaydjma, mod., . . Chora.
Dungmdli, .... Hi. Telugu, Netturu.
{ Ddrhi, Jtdgdt. Karndtaka, anc, . . Kenniru.
Denwdr, Rdktdi. Karndtaka, mod., . . Nettutu.
Pahri, Hi. Tujuva, Nettar.
Chepdng, We-i, vA. Kurgi, Chore.
Bhramu, CM-wi. Toduva,) .... Caret.
Vdyu, Vi. Toda, ) .... Bdeh.
Kuswar Rakti. Kdta, Netra.
Kusunda, Uyii. Badaga, Netru.
[ Thdru, Lohu. Kurumba, .... Netaru.
Irula, Latta.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . . VI. Malabar, Irat-tham, kuruthi.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, . . Thyak. [ Sinhalese, Li.
CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.] BATEAU—BOOT—BOAT—LODKA—NAVIS. IO9

Types. Bodo, . . Nau,jhdk, sorongo.


■c (Sanskrit, Dhimdl, . Ndwdr.
Udupa, plava, tuiu, kola, Kocch, Nau, ghornau, soronga.
>8 {Arabic, . Merkab. [b/iela. Garo, . . Rung.
Bask, . . Barka, barko, bote. Kdchdri, . Nao.
Finnic, . Wenhet. Munipuri, Hi.
Magvar, . Csajka, ladik. Mfthdn Ndgd, Klioa.
Turkish, . Sandal, kaik. Tablung Ndgd, Tseng.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . Arong.
Georgian, Navi. Angdmi Ndgd, Ru.
Mongolian, Onghoteha, omo. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Khuon-kho.
Mantshu, Yakhoda, weikku. Nowgong Ndgd, Su-rung.
Javanese, Ngoko, Prdu. Tengsa Ndgd, Lung.
Javanese, Krama, Bahita. Abor Miri, . El-long.
Malav, . . . Sampan, prdu. 5 Sibsagar Miri, Ol-lungd.
Deoria Chutia, Nu.
I Chinese, Nankin, Sidou eh'uen. Li.
Chinese, Pekin, [Singpho, . .
Hsidou eh'uen.
Chinese, Canton, Shun-tsai. f Burman (written), Lhe.
Chinese, Shanghai Siau-zen. Burman (spoken), Liu, hld.
Amov, Colloquial, Chun. Khyeng v. Shou Loung.
Japanese, Fune, kobune. Kami, . . M'loung.
Kumi, . . P'loung.
Brahuf, Bedi. Mni v. Toung, Loung.
[ Gyami, Sdk, . . Hau.
SUM.
Gydrung, . Bru. f Talain v. Mon, IPlo.
Sgau-karen, Kli, hkali.
h Tdkpa, . Gru.
Pwo-karen, Kli.
Mdnyak, . Gu.
Thochii, . Phyd. Toungh-thu, Phray.
Sokpa, Sdkersu. Shdn, . . Ho.
Horpa, Grd. Annamitic, G/u.
Tibetan (written), Gru. Siamese, . Ro, ram.
2 Tibetan (spoken), Kod, syen. .3 Ahom, . . Ru.
Khdmti, . Hit.
Serpa, . . Tfiu. Laos, . . Heu.
Sunwar, . Dungd. Dhanga, dunga.
Gdrung, . Plava. Ho (Kol),
Murmi, Kol (Singhbhum Dungd.
Dungd. Dhangd.
Magar, Dungd. Santdli,
Thdksya, . Bhumij, . Dungd.
I'sola. Dongd.
Pdkhya, . Diiga. Urdon,
Mundala, . Dongd.
I Newar, Donga.
Rdjmahali, Ndve.
[ Limbu, Khombe. Dongo.
Gondi,
Kirdnti, . Ndva. Gayeti, Caret.
Rodong, . Ndwa. Rutluk, . Caret.
■5 Caret.
Rungchenbung, Ndwa. Naikude, .
Chhingtdngya, Dong'ga. Kolami, . Caret.
Ndchhereng, Dung'ga. Mddi, . . Caret.
Wdling, Dung'ga. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Dunefga. Kuri, . . Caret.
Chourdsya, Ghdg. Keikddi, . Caret.
Kulungya, Bo-Mo. Khond, Tekkinga.
Thulungya, Dung'ga. Sdvara, Vo4d.
I Bdhingya, Dunga. Gadaba, . Dona.
Lohorong, Dungga. Yerukala, . Padava.
Lambichhong, Dunggd. Chentsu, . Ld.
BdMli, . . Dunggd. [ Tamil, anc, Pakada.
Sang-pdng, Bakhon. Tamil, mod., Odam, padagu.
Diimi, . . Bdkhopu. Malaydjma, anc Caret.
Khdling, . Pokham. Malaydjma, mod. Vanji, valtam.
Dungmdli, Dunga. Telugu, . . Padava.
Ddrhi, . . Dungo, dun-go. Karndtaka, anc, Pdru.
Denwdr, . Dunga, dun-ga. Karndtaka, mod. Dbni.
Pahri, . . Don-ga. Tujuva, Oda.
5 Kurgi, . . Caret.
Chepdng, . Dun-ga.
Bhrdmu, . Dun-gd. Toduva,) Caret.
Vdyu, . . Dun-ga. 4 Toda, j Caret.
Kuswar, . Dun-ga. Kdta, . . Caret.
Kusunda, . Wai, wou. Badaga, . Caret.
Thdru, . . Kurumba, Caret.
Ndu. Caret.
Irula, . .
Lepcha (Sikk im), Navar. Malabar, . Thoni, odam, morak-kalam.
T\1^ -tL t v. TLhopa,
1 Dru, tu. Sinhalese, . Orua.
I IO OS—BEIN—BONE—KOST—OS. [CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.

Types. Bodo, . . . Begen**.


Asthi, kikasa, hulya. Dhimdl, . . Hara,hdr (hdd?).
(Sanskrit, . . . | Kocch, . . Harwd (hadwd ?).
f, '[Arabic, .... Aazm. Garo, . . Kereng.
s
[ Bask, Ezur, azur. [ Kdchdri, . . Caret.
Finnic Luu. f Munipuri, Surru.
Magvar, .... Ksontok. Mfthdn Ndgd, Rha.
Turkish, . . . Kemik. Tablung Ndgd, Wan.
Circassian, . . . Psha, kutsha. Khdri Ndgd, . Caret.
Georgian, . . . Dswali. Angdmi Ndgd, Uru.
Mongolian, . . . Yason. Ndmsdng Ndgd, A'rdh.
Mantshu, . . . Gizenggi. Nowgong Ndgd. Terap.
Javanese, Ngoko, . Balling. Tengsa Ndgd, Telet.
Javanese, Krama, . Balling. Abor Miri, . A'long.
[ Malav, .... Tulang. Sibsdgar Miri, A'long.
f Chinese, Nankin, . Kuh. Deoria Chutia, Piehotig.
Chinese, Pekin, . Ku. [Singpho, . . Nrdng.
Chinese, Canton, . Kwat. Burman (written), Aro.
Chinese, Shanghai, Kweh-den. Burman (spoken), Ayo.
I Amov, Colloquial, . Kut. Khyeng v. Shou. Ka-yok.
[Japanese, . . . Hone. Kdmi, . . . Ahu.
Kiimi, . . . Ahu.
Brahuf, Caret. Mni v. Toung, Ahot.
[ Gydmi, . • ■ Ki'ttho. Sdk, . . . Amza.
Gydrung, . . ■ Sydrhii. [ Talain v. Mon, H'tsot.
Tdkpa, . ■ • Rospd. Sgau-karen, . Khi, akhhui.
Mdnyak, . . • Ritkhu. Pwo-karen, . Khwi.
Thochd, . . • Ripat. Toungh-thu, . Htsot.
Sokpa, . • ■ Yd so. Shdn, . . . Sot.
Horpa, . . • Rerd. Annamitic, . Xu'o'ng.
Tibetan (written), Ruspa. Siamese, . . Katot, kaduk.
[ Tibetan (spoken), ■ Ruko. s Ahom, . . Tau.
Khdmti, . . Nuk.
[ Serpa, . . • • Rt'tbd. Laos, . . . Duk.
Siinwdr, . . • Rushe.
Gdrung, • • • Ni't^ri. Ho (Kol), . Ja»g-
Miirmi, . • • Ndkhu. Kol (Singhbhum Jang.
Magar, . • • Misyd ros. Santdli, . .
Thdksya, . . • Nati. Bhiimij, . . /ang.
Pdkhya, . • • Hdd. Urdon, . . Khoelial.
Newdr, . • • Kwe. Mundala, . . Jang.
Limbu, . • • Sayet. Rdjmahali, Koehal.
Gondi, . . Hada, padeka.
f Kirdnti, Saiba. Gayeti, . . Padekd.
Rodong, Sar'wa, sdriiwa. Rutluk, . . Hada, padekd.
Rungchenbung, Sdyuba, yiiwd. Naikude, . . Bokkdl.
Chhingtdngya, . Sdruk-wa. Kolami, . . Bokka.
•5- Ndchhereng, . . Diprit, tupru. Mddi, . . . Bokairo, padekd.
Wdling, . . • Sar'wa, saiwa. Mddia, . . Atkd.
Ydkha, . . . Seng-khok'wa, seng-khog'we. Kuri, . . . Hadi.
Chourasya, . . Rusit. Keikddi, . . Zamkd.
Kulungya, . . Tapr't, tapri. Khond, . . Pdsu.
Thulungya, . . Sasar. Sdvara, . . Ajdgna.
Bdhingya, . • Rise, ri-sye. Gadaba, . . Vondrdm-goyi.
Lohorong, . . Sydkowa. Yerukala, . . Yamaka.
g Lambichhong, . Ruk-tva. Chentsu, . . Had.
Bdldli, .... Sdtuprd. Tamil, anc, . Enpu.
Sdng-pdng, . • Titm-bu-rup, sd-iumburu. Tamil, mod., . Elumbu.
Diimi, .... Salii, solo. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . . . • Solo. Malaydjma, mod. Ella.
[ Dungmdli, . . Sur-wd, sd-ru-wd. Telugu, . . Emuka, bokka.
f Ddrhi, . . . ■ Had. Karndtaka, anc, Elume.
Had. ■5 Karndtaka, mod., Eluvu.
Denwdr, . . ■
Pahri, . . • • Ku-sd. Tuluva, . . Elu.
Chepdng, . • ■ Rhu-s. Kurgi, . . . Caret.
Bhrdmu, . • • Wot. Toduva,) Caret.
Vdyu Ru. Toda, } . Elf.
Kuswar, . . • Hadlt. Kdta, . . . Yelave.
Kusunda, . . ■ Gou. Badaga, . . Yellu, illu.
Thdru, . • • Hdd. Kurumba, Zellu.
Irula, . . . Zellatnbu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . Arhet. Malabar, . . Elumbu, at-thi.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, . Rutok. Sinhalese, . . Ate.
CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.] BUFFLE—BUFFEL— BUFFALO—BUIVOL—BOS. 111

Types. fBodo, . Mai-sho.


■« (Sanskrit, Mahisha, kdsara, sairibha, Dhimdl, Did.
^ (Arabic, . famous. [luldya. Kocch, Bhainsa, rdngd, sdral, Menu.
Garo, . Maishi.
Bask, . . Llt, zezen. [ Kdchdri, Maisho.
Finnic, . Mdsaharka. [ Munipuri, Iroi.
Magvar, . Bival. Mfthdn Ndgd, Loi.
Turkish, . Matula. Tablung Ndgd, Tek.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . Apang.
Georgian, Kanbiehi. Angdmi Ndgd, Rali.
5 Mongolian, Khainokh. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Le.
e Mantshu, Ikhan. Nowgong Ndgd, Chang.
Javanese, Ngoko, Kebo. Tengsa Ndgd, Tyang (iyangf).
Javanese, Krama, Mahesa. Abor Miri, . Menjek.
Malav, . Karbatt. Sibsdgar Miri, Men/eg.
r Chinese, Nankin, Shwui-niu. Deoria Chutia, Me.
Chinese, Pekin, Shtti-niu. [Singpho, . . Ngd.
•§ J Chinese, Canton, Shui-ngau. ': Burman (written), Kwye.
Chinese, Shanghai S'-nieu. £J: Burman (spoken), Kyue, kuwai.
Amov, Colloquial, Sui-gu (water-cow). Khyeng v. Shou Natt.
[ Japanese, Sat, sui-gui. Kdmi, . Ma-na.
Kumi, . Pan-tw.
Brahuf, Caret. Mni v. Toung, Na.
Gydmi, Swi-nyu. [ Sdk, . Kro.
Gydrung, Caret. f Talain v. Mon, Paren.
h Tdkpa, Caret. Sgau-karen, P"nah, pand, pennd.
Mdnyak, Dingmi. Pwo-karen, Ptiah, pdnd.
Thochu, Caret. Toungh-thu, Paynay.
Sokpa, Caret. Shdn, . . Kwihn.
Horpa, Caret. Annamitic, TrAu.
Tibetan (written) Mdhi. Siamese, . Khwa, khwdi.
2 [ Tibetan (spoken), Mdhe. ."35 Ahom, . . Khrai.
3 Khdmti, . Kkwai.
Serpa, . Meshi. Laos, . . Khwdi.
Sunwdr, Mesye.
Giirung, Mai. ' Ho (Kol), Karra (hada ?).
Miirmi, Mahi. Kol (Singhbhum Kedd.
Magar, Bhainsa. Santdli, Kddd, bdydr, bit-kil, sail
Thdksya, Afai. Bhumij, . Keda. [(wild).
Pdkhya, Bhainsa. Urdon, Mdnkhd.
Newdr, Me. Mundala, . Bhitkil.
[ Limbu, Sdwet. Rdjmahali, Mange.
Gondi, Hdliyd, boda (m. ) ; yedmi (f. ).
Kirdnti, Sdnwd. Gayeti, Boda (m.); zedmi ({.).
Rodong, Bdhira, maisi. Boda/ (m.); ddami (f.).
Sdngwa. 3 Rutluk, .
Rungchenbun Naikude, . Helvd (m.); ehir ((.).
Chhingtdngya, Sdngwa. Kolami, . Sir (I).
Ndchhereng, Meisd, meis. Mddi, . . Zeltgdl (m.); zermi (f.).
Wdling, . Sdng wa. Mddia, Adami.
Ydkha, . Sdn wa. Kuri, . . Butkil.
Chourdsya, Be-t-so. Keikddi, . Hate (m.); Baremddu ([.).
Kulungya, Mesi. Khond, . Kodu.
Thulungya, Mesi. Sdvara, Bogndtel.
I Bdhingya, . Mese. Gadaba, . Vontsani.
Lohorong, Sdn-wa. Yerukala, . Barre.
Lambichhong, Sdng-wa. Chentsu, . Mohis.
Bdldli, . . Sdng-wa'. Tamil, anc, Kdddn.
Sdng-pdng, Mesi. Tamil, mod., Erumei.
Ddmi, . . Mes. Malaydlma, anc Caret.
Khdling, . Mes. Malaydlma, mod Eruma.
Dungmdli, Sang-wd. Telugu,' . . Enumu, barre, gide.
f Ddrhi, . . Bhainsa. Karndtaka, anc, Caret.
Denwar, . Bhainsi. Karndtaka, mod., Emme, kotia.
Pahri, . . Me-sd. Tuluva, . Erme.
Chepdng, . Mi-syd, mi-slia. Kurgi, . . Pori.
Bhrdmu, . Bhai-sa. Toduva,\ Ir.
Vdyu, . . Meehho. Toda, j Caret.
Kuswar, . Bhainsa. Kdta, . . Caret.
Kusunda, . Mahi. Badaga, . Caret.
(.Thdru,. . . . . Bhaisa. Kurumba, Caret.
Iruja, . . Caret.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Mahi. Malabar, . Erumei.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Mahi. [ Sinhalese, . Miharakd.
112 CHAT—KATZE—CAT—KOT—FELIS. [CHAP. IV.—nouns.

Types. ' Bodo, Mouji.


(Sanskrit, Dhimdl, .... Menkhou.
Otu, mdrjdra, viddla. - Kocch, .... . Bilai.
^ (Arabic, . Kitt. Garo, Myou.
Bask, . . Katu. Kdchdri, .... . Bilai.
Finnic, . Kissa. " Munipuri, Houilong.
Magvar, . Makska. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . Midlt.
Turkish, . Kali. Tablung Ndga, . . Ami.
Circassian, Kettu. Khdri Ndgd, . . . Moehi.
Georgian, Pati. Angdmi Ndgd, . . Nunno.
Mongolian, Mighoi. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . . . Miang.
Mantshu, Kesike. Nowgong Ndgd, . Tanu.
Javanese, Ngoko, Knelling. Tengsa Ndgd, . . Meyau.
Javanese, Krama, Kuehing. Abor Miri, . . . Mendari.
Malav, . . . Kue/iing. Sibsdgar Miri, . . Menkttri.
Chinese, Nankin, Mdou. Deoria Chutia, . . . Midige.
Chinese, Pekin, Mdou. Singpho Ningyau.
Chinese, Canton, Mdou. ' Burman (written). Krong.
Chinese, Shanghai Mom. Burman (spoken), . . Kyaung.
Amov, Colloquial, Niaurt. Khyeng v. Shou, Min.
[ Japanese, Nekko. • Kdmi, Mim-bo-i.
Kiimi, . Min-eho.
Brahuf, PisM. Mni v. Toung, . . Ta-myin.
[ Gydmi, Mau, myau. Sdk, . Heing.
Gydrung, . Tarhu. ' Talain v. Mon, . . . Pakway.
Tdkpa, Syimbu. Sgau-karen, . . . Thah-menyan), mengaw.
Mdnyak, . Maeheu. Pwo-karen, . . . Maing-yaw.
Thochu, . Loehi. Toungh-thu, . . . . Nyen.
Sokpa, . . Sinn. Shdn, . Myoung.
Horpa, Chiilah. Annamitic, . . . . Meo.
Tibetan (written) Byila'. Siamese, .... . May, meau.
Tibetan (s/ofcn), Simi. Ahom, . Men.
Khdmti Miau.
[ Serpa, . . Bermo. Laos, Meau.
Sunwdr, . Berrno.
Giirung, . Nawdr. Ho (Kol), . . . Pi'isi, billye.
Miirmi, Tdwar. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Bilai.
Magar, Suthu. Santdli, .... . Pusi, totoh (wild).
Thdksya, . Nobar. Bhumij, .... Bilai.
Pdkhya, . Billo. Urdon . Birkha, kudurdm (wild).
Newir, Bhon. Mundala, .... . Pusi.
[ Limbu, Mvong. Rdjmahali, . . . . Berge.
Gondi, . Bildl.
Kirdnti, . Myong. Gayeti, .... . Bildl.
Rodong, . Bera. Rutluk, .... . Bildl.
Rungchenbung, Surma, minima. • Naikude, .... . Pilli.
Chhingtdngya, Pi'tsu. Kolami, .... . Pilli.
Ndchhereng, Manimd. Mddi, . Bildli, pusdl.
Wdling, . Munimd. Mddia . Bildi.
Ydkha, Pusuma. Kuri, Minnu.
Chourdsya, Bir'mo. Keikddi, .... . Pund.
Kulungya, Birdli. Khond, .... Miyo.
Thulungya, Bir'md, ubirma. Sdvara, .... Rdmegnd.
Bdhingya, Bir'ma. Gadaba, .... Girem.
Lohorong, Myouma. Yerukala, .... . Puna.
Lambichhong. Munumd. Chentsu, .... . Billeyi.
Bdldli, . . Minimd. Tamil, ane Pi'sei.
Sdng-pdng, Mdnimd. Tamil, mod Piinei.
Dumi, . . Birmd, muni. Malaydjma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, . Birme. Malaydlma, mod., . Pueluiia.
Dungmdli, Mdnimd. Telugu, .... . Pilli.
f Ddrhi, . . Birdlo. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwdr, . Mai-ni. Karndtaka, mod., . . Bekku.
Pahri, . . Bhi. Tuluva, .... . Puehe/ie.
Chepdng, . Birdl. Kurgi, . Caret.
5 Bhrdmu, . Manzy. Toduva,) . . . Caret.
Vdyu, . . Dana. Toda, } . . . . Koti.
Kuswar, . Birdlo. Kdta, Pise.
Kusunda, . Birdlo. Badaga, .... . Koti.
[ Thdru, . . Birdla. Kurumba, . . . . Koti.
Irula, Pune.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Aleu. Malabar, .... Punei.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Pilli. Sinhalese, .... . Balald.
CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.] VACHE—KUH—COW—KOROVA—VACCA (BOS).

Types. Bodo, . Musho.


Dhimdl, Pid.
< Sanskrit, Go, usrd. Gai, goru, dndhia, bdehru.
>§, (Arabic, . Bakrat. : 1 Kocch,
Garo, . Mashu.
Bask, . . Bei. Kdchdri, Moshu.
Finnic, . Lehma. f Munipuri, Sitl.
Magvar, . Tehen. Mfthdn Ndgd, Mdhu.
Turkish, . Inek. Tablung Ndgd, Mdhu.
K3 | Circassian, Shkah. Khdri Ndgd, . Masu.
' Georgian, Puri, zrok/ia. v. Angdmi Ndgd, Mithu.
Mongolian, Uniyan, unnewon. § Ndmsdng Ndgd. Mdn.
Mantshu, Jban khekhe, uttin. Nowgong Ndgd Nasi.
Javanese, Ngoko, Sdpi. Tengsa Ndgd, Mdsi.
Javanese, Krama, Lembu. Abor Miri, . Gurushameh.
[ Malav, . . . Lambu. I Sibsdgar Miri, Goru.
Chinese, Nankin, 3 Deoria Chutia, Mosu.
Niu. [Singpho, . . Kansii.
Chinese, Pekin, Niu.
Chinese, Canton, Ngau. f Burman (written), Nwd.
Chinese, Shanghai Nieu. Burman (spoken), Nurf, nwau.
Amov, Colloquial, Gu. Khyeng v. Shou Sharh.
Japanese, Ushi, meusi. •a Kdmi, . . Kha-bo-i.
Kumi, . Si-rd.
Brahuf, Dagi. Mni v. Toung. Tsi-yd.
Gyami, Nat, nyeu. Sdk, . . * Tha-muk.
Gydrung, . Nye-nye. Talain v. Mon, Karau.
Tdkpa, . Bdh. Sgau-karen, Ghaw'pi, klau, gaupemo.
Mdnyak, . Womi ; gtidzi (bull). Pwo-karen, Tsernung-mu.
Thochu, . Gwah; zyalt (bull). Toungh-thu, Phou.
Sd-lo. Shdn, . . Wo.
I Sokpa, Annamitic, Bb-kdi.
Horpa, Gnaumeh.
Tibetan (written) Bd. Siamese, . Ngwau, woa, ngoa.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Phd-ehuk. Ahom, . . Hu.
Khdmti, . Ngo.
Serpa, . Chu-ma. Laos, . . Ngoa.
Sunwdr, Bi.
Giirung, Myau. Ho (Kol), Gou.
Murmi, Mhe. Kol (Singhbh Gundi.
Magar, Nhet. Santdli, . Gai, gundi, gat — herd.
Thdksya, Hmemama. Bhiimij, . Gai.
Pdkhya, Gdi. Urdon, Udu.
Newdr, Sd. Mundala, . Vdi.
[ Limbu, Bit. Rdjmahali, Oi.
Condi, Dhoriyal, tali, muda,
f Kirdnti, Bit. Gayeti, Mudd.
Rodong, Piu pa, pi. Rutluk, . Muda.
Rungchenbung, Pit, pih\ Naikude, . Ku-te.
Chhingtdngya, Pit. Kolami, . Ku-te.
Ndchhereng, Pi. Mddi, . . Mudi, muda.
Wdling, . Gdi. Mddia, Caret.
Ydkha, . Fmaehha pUt. Kuri, . . Gai.
Chourdsya, Bia, btya, dmo-bia. Keikddi, . Potamadu.
Kulungya, Pi-imma, ummapi. Khond, Khdyi.
Thulungya, Gai. Sdvara, Tangli.
Bdhingya, A'mo-bing. Gadaba, . Bandi.
Lohorong, Pik,pi umma, ummruma-pr. Yerukala, . Alamddu, ptttamddu.
Lambichhong, Pih', imma-o-pih'. Chentsu, . Gdyi.
Bdldli, . . Pih\ oma-pih\ f Tamij, anc, A', pettam.
Sdng-pdng, U'mma-pi. Tamil, moel- Pasu, pasu-mddu.
Ddmi, . . Gyai, bi. Malaydjma, Caret.
Khdling, . Gai. Malaydjma, mod PaJu.
Dungmdli, Vmmd-pif. Telugu, . . A'vu, dtt.
Ddrhi, . . Gai. Karndtaka, anc, A'vu.
Denwdr, . Gai. Karndtaka, mod. Hasuvu, dkalu.
Pahri, . . Mo-sd. Tuluva, Petta.
Chepdng, . Mo-syd, mo-shyd. Kurgi, . . Payyu.
Bhrdmu, . Syd. "5 Toduva,) Tanma.
Vdyu, . . Gai. Toda, ) Ddndm.
Kuswar, . Gai. Kdta, . . A've.
Kusunda, . Nokmwa gimi. Badaga, . Dana, hastt.
Thdru, . . . . Gdye. Kurumba, Dana.
Irula, . . Mddu.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Bik. Malabar, . Pasii, au.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, Gho. [ Sinhalese, . Eladena.
CORBEAU—KRAHE—CROW—VORONA—CORNIX. [CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.

Types. Bodo, Doukhd.


(Sanskrit, Dhimdl, Kawd.
Kdka, vdyasa, karata, dhvdn- Kocch, Kdg, kowd, kawd.
(Arabic, . Yjaak. [ksha. Garo, Koura.
Bask, . . Behttrda. [ Kdchdri, Daoku.
Finnic, . Wares. Munipuri, Kwdk.
Magvar, . Varju. Mfthdn Ndgd, . Okhd.
Turkish, Kargha. Tablung Ndgd, . Ausapa.
Circassian, Caret. Khdri Ndgd, . . Waru.
Georgian, Qvavi. > Angdmi Ndgd, . Chejd.
I I Mongolian, Khong geriia, kerisa. Ndmsdng Ndgd, Vakhd.
Mantshu, Kara gaskha. Nowgong Ndgd, Waru.
Javanese, Ngoko, Gdgak. Tengsa Ndgd, Walo.
Javanese, Krama, Gdgak. Abor Miri, . . Pidk.
Malav, . . . Gdgak. Sibsdgar Miri, . Pua%.
Chinese, Nankin, 1 Deoria Chutia, Dukd.
Ldou-yd. Singpho, Kokhd.
Chinese, Pekin, Ldou-yd.
Chinese, Canton, Lb-d. Burman (written), . . Kyi.
Chinese, Shanghai Lau-o. Burman (spokeu), . . Ky't, kyi-gan.
Amov, Colloquial, A'. Khyeng v. Shou, . . A'ng-au.
[ Japanese, Karastt. Kdmi, Wa-d.
Kumi, O-d.
Brahuf, Khakho. Mru v. Toung, . . . Wa-d.
C Gydmi, Ldwa. Sdk, ....... Wuk-kd.
Gydrung, . Ta-brok. Talain v. Mon, . . K/iatat.
Tdkpa, . A'kpo. Sgau-karen, . . . Sowah-khah, tsoa-khah.
Manyak, . Kali. Pwo-karen, . . . Kla/t.
Thochd, . Nydgwo. Toungh-thu, . . . Zank-ay.
Sokpa, K/iere. Shdn, Ka.
Horpa, Kale. S Annamitic, . . . Shirn-khdsh.
Tibetan (written Klidta. Siamese, .... Ka.
5 [ Tibetan (spoken), Ablak. Ahom, .... Ka.
Khdmti, Ka.
[ Serpa, . . Kd lak. [ Laos, Ka.
Siinwar, . Khad.
Gurung, . Mlotigyd. { Ho (Kol), .... Kd.
Murmi, Kdwd. Kol (Singhbhum), . . Ka.
Magar, Kdg. Santdli, Kahtt, kahung.
Thdksya, . Ghdbrdiig. Bhiimij, Kovd.
Pdkhya, . Kdg. Urdon, Khdkhd.
Newdr, Ko. Mundala, ..... Kovd.
Limbu, A'hwd. Rdjmahali, .... Kdki.
Gondi, Kdwd, kawal.
Kirdnti, . Kdhwd. Gayeti, Kawal.
Rodong, . Otnvd. -5 Rutluk, Caret.
Riingchenbung. Kdga, kah' u>d, gah' wd. Naikude, Kawala.
Chhingtdngya, Ghdk-wa. Kolami, Kdka.
Ndchhereng, Gogok-pd. Mddi, Kdkadi, kdkari.
Wdling, . Gnvd. Mddia, Kabal.
Ydkha, . A'h'-gwd, ag-wa. Kuri, Caret.
Chourdsya, Gdg-bo. Keikddi, Koi.
Kulungya, Gdgdh'-po. Khond, Kdka.
Thulungya, Gdpwa, gd-po. Sdvara, Kdkd.
J Bdhingya, Gd-gdkba. Gadaba, Guggd.
Lohorong, A'rd-wd. Yerukala, Seldn, kdka.
Lambichhong, Gdh'-wd, gak-wa. Chentsu, Kovvd.
Bdldli, . . A'rd-wd. Tamil, ane Karumpillei.
Sdng-pdng, Ar'-wd. Tamil, mod Kdkkei.
Diimi, . . Gdpo, gagak. Malaydjma, anc, . . Caret.
Khdling, . Gdgakpo. Malaydlma, mod., . . Kdkka.
[ Dungmdli, Gah'-wd. Telugu, Kdki.
f Ddrhi, . . Kdwd. Karndtaka, anc, . . Caret.
Denwdr, . Konya. Karndtaka, mod., . . Kdgi, kdki.
Pahri, . . Ko-ko. Tuluva, Khdkke.
Chepdng, . Kdg, ka, kuwd. Kurgi, Caret.
Bhrdmu, . Kdng-katig. Toduva,) .... Kak.
Vdyu, . . Gd-g'm. Toda, | . . . . Kdk.
Kuswar, . Kdg-le. Kdta, Kdke.
Kusunda, . Kauwa. Badaga, Kdke.
Thdru, . Kauwa. Kurumba, .... Kake.
Irula, Kdke.
Lepcha (Sikkim), Alok. Malabar, Kdkam, kakkei.
Bhutdni v. Lhopa, ald. { Sinhalese, Kapuld, kakkd.
CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.] JOUR—TAG— DAY—DEN—DIES.

Types. Bodo, Shydn, shdn.


If. Dhimdl, .... Nvi-tima, nhitima.
5 (Sanskrit, Ahan, vdsara, ghasra,
<«, |Arabic, Youm. [divasa, dina. Kocch, .... . Din.
Garo, Rasdn, sdn.
Bask, . Egun. Kdchdri, .... Chdn-dung.
Finnic, Pairva. ' Munipuri, . . . Numit.
Magvar, Nap. Mfthdn Ndgd, . . . Anyi.
Turkish, Gun. Tablung Ndgd, . . . Tim.
Circassian, Mahpey, akini* 4 Khdri Ndgd, . . . Asonga.
Georgian, Dghe, bigula* v. Angdmi Ndgd, . . . Tiso.
Mongolian Edor. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . Rangyi.
Mantshu, Inenggi. Nowgong Ndgd, Caret.
Javanese, Ngoko, Dina. Tengsa Ndgd, . . . Tiingld.
Javanese, Krama, Dinten. Abor Miri, . . . Longeh.
Malav, . . . A'ri. Sibsdgar Miri, . . Longko.
Chinese, Nankin, Jih. Deoria Chutia, . . Sdnjd.
Chinese, Pekin, Jih. Singpho, .... Ningthoi.
Chinese, Canton, Yat.. g ' Burman (written). . Ne.
Chinese, Shanghai Nieh-tsz'. - Burman (spoken), . . Ne, na.
Amov, Colloquial, Jit Khyeng v. Shou, . Ko-nup.
[ Japanese, Hi, nielu,Ji. Kdmi Ma-ni.
Kumi, Ka-ni twun.
Brahuf, Caret.
g Mru v. Toung, . . . Ni.
Gydmi, Peth-yan. ~: . Sdk, . Yat-ta.
Gydrung, Pish-ne, nye. Talain v. Mon, . . Ta-ngway.
Tdkpa, Nyenti. g Sgau-karen, . . . . ■ Ni,
Ni. mu-klini.
Mdnyak, Nashehdh. Pwo-karen, . . .
Thochii, Stydklo. Toungh-thu, . . . Mo-yay.
Sokpa, Wundur. Shdn, Kawon.
Horpa, Nye-le. Annamitic, . . . ■ Ngdy.
Tibetan (written), Nyin-mo. Siamese, .... . Wan.
[ Tibetan (spoken), Nvi-mo. ■S Ahom, . Bdn.
<o Khdmti, .... . Wan.
[ Serpa, . Nimo. Laos, . Wan.
Sunwdr, Ndthi.
Gurung, Dim. Ho (Kol), . . . . Md.
Murmi, Dini. Kol (Singhbhum), . Sugi, ma.
Magar, Na-msin. Santdli . Sing, mdhd (ma ?).
Thdksya, Sar. Bhrimij, .... Din.
Bdkhya, Diiiso. Urdon, .... . Ullah.
Newdr, Nhi. Mundala, .... . Sing.
[ Limbu, Lendik. Rdjmahali, . . . Dine.
Gondi, .... Patti, din.
[ Kirdnti, Len. .tS Gayeti, .... Din.
Rodong, Khole. Rutluk, .... . Piydl.
Riingchenbung, Ukholen, Naikude, .... . Pod.
Chhingtdngya, Nam. S Kolami, .... . Pdte.
Ndchhereng, Mlepa. 3 Mddi, . Peydl.
Wdling, . Wo-khole, nam-diya. Mddia, .... Biydr.
Ydkha, . Leh'ni. Kuri, . Din.
Chourdsya, Duk' so. Keikddi, .... Pugdu, poddu.
Kulungya, Lepd. Khond ■ Vujjydgu.
Thulungya, Nemphu. Sdvara, .... Tambd.
Bdhingya, Ndnl ti. Gadaba, .... Simmyd.
Lohorong, Lentd, len. Yerukala, . . . . Pammdru, pangdmdru.
Lambichhong, Ilemba. Chentsu, .... . Din.
Bdldli, . Letta. Tamil, ane-> • • . El.
Sdng-pdng. Lepa, umllpa. Tamil, mod Pagal, dinam, ndl.
Dumi, . U'nyol, nulu. Malaydlma, anc, Caret.
Khdling, U'nyol. Malaydlma, mod., . . Pakal.
Dungmdli, Lento, laitok, umlentok, Telugu, .... Pagalu, dinamu.
Ddrhi, . . [umlento. Karndtaka, anc, Pagalu.
Denwdr, Di-ni. Karndtaka, mod., . Hagalu.
Bahri, . NM-na-ko. Tuluva, .... . Pagil.
Chepdng, Nyl, ng>, P>i. E ' Kurgi, . Pogal.
Bhrdmu, Di-nd. 1 Toduva,') . . . . Pokhal.
Vdyu, . Nu-ma, no-mo. Toda, j ... . Ndl.
Kuswar, Di-ni. Kdta, . Ndle.
Kusunda, Dina. Badaga, .... Dina, jina.
[Thdru, . Dina. Kurumba, . . . Dina.
Iruja, . Nalu.
Lepeha (Sikkim), Sakni. Malabar, .... Naul, thenam.
Bhiitdni v. Lhopa, Nyim. ^ Sinhalese, .... . Dawasa, dina.
n6 CHIEN—HUN D—DOG— SOBAKA—CANIS. [CHAP. IV.—nouns.

Types. 'siBodo, . . . Choima, eMku.


Dhimdl, . . KMd.
««? (Sanskrit, S'van, bhasMika, kukkura. I
Kocch, . . Kukur, foihok.
<| (Arabic, . Kelb. Garo, . Kai.
[Bask, Chakur, zakur, potzo, ora. Kdchdri, . . Shoima, shima.
Finnic, ... Koira. Munipuri, . . Hwi.
Magvar, . . . Kutva. Mfthdn Ndgd, Hi.
Turkish, . . . Keupek. Tablung Ndgd, Kui.
Circassian, . . Khah, sehy* koy* Khdri Ndgd, . Ai.
Georgian, . . TsagMi. Angami Ndgd, Tasii.
Mongolian, . . Nokhai, noeMii, kalziakan, Ndmsdng Ndgd, Hii.
Mantshu, . . Indakhon. [tollokm. Nowgong Ndga, Azz.
Javanese, Ngoko, A'su. Tengsa Ndgd, Arh.
Javanese, Krama, Segdwon. Abor Miri, . Eki.
Malav, . . . Atying. Sibsdgar Miri, Iki.
Deoria Chutia, Shi.
' Chinese, Nankin, . Kau. Singpho, . . Gui.
Chinese, Pekin, . Kau.
Chinese, Canton, . Kau. Burman (written), YJiwe.
Chinese, Shanghai, K'eu. Burman (spoken), KMve, khwd.
Amov, Colloquial, . Kau. Khyeng v. Shou. U-i.
Japanese, . . . Inu. Kdmi, . . . U-i.
Kiimi, . . . U-i.
Brahuf Kuehak. Mni v. Toung, Ta-kivi.
Sdk, . . . Ku.
Gydmi, Kou.
Gydrung, KM. Talain v. Mon, Kald.
Tdkpa, Khi. Sgau-karen, 'Twi, Mm.
Manyak, Kshah. Pwo-karen, Jwi.
Thochu, Khwah. Toungh-thu, Htwe.
Sokpa, Nokhwe. Shdn, . . Ma.
Horpa, Katdh. Annamitic, Sho.
Tibetan (written), Khyi. Siamese, . Ma.
Tibetan (spoken), . . Uyo. Ahom, . . Md.
Khdmti, . Md.
Serpa, KM. Laos, . . Md.
Siinwdr, Kuehung. Ho (Kol), Seta.
Gdrung, Nagyu. Kol (Singhbhum) Setd.
Miirmi, Ndngi. Santdli, Seta.
Magar, Chhyu. Bhdmij, . Setd.
Thdksya, Ndga, nak'yie. Urdon, Alla.
Pdkhya, Kyatdi. Mundala, . Setd.
Newdr, KM-e/id. Rdjmahali, Allay.
Limbu, Khid. Gondi, Nai, tiei.
Kirdnti, Koehu. Gayeti, ATai.
Rodong, KM't. Rutluk, Mi.
I Naikude, . A'tte.
Rungchenbung, . . . Koehuwd.
Chhingtdngya, . . . Koehuwd. I1 Kolami, . A'tte.
Ndchhereng, .... Haga. : Mddi, . . Neiyu, nei-o.
Wdling, Kotima, koeMtwd. Mddia, Net.
Ydkha, Koehuma. Kuri, . . Chita, seta.
Chourdsya, .... Chdli. Keikddi, . Nai.
Kulungya, .... Kheb. Khond, Nahudi.
Thulungya, .... KMebd. Sdvara, Ketieho.
Bdhingya, Khlieha. Gadaba, . Guso.
Lohorong, .... ffu1 wd. Yerukala, . Ndyi.
Lambichhong, . . . KoeM. Chentsu, . KukMir.
Bdldli, Koehumd. Tamil, anc, Caret.
Sdng-pang, .... Hd-dga, /toga. Tamil, mod. Ndyi, muditval.
Dumi, KMeb, k/ilibu. Malaydlma, anc Caret.
Khdling, KMeb. Malaydlma, mod Ndya, patti.
Dungmdli, .... Kuti-md. Telugu, Kukka.
Ddrhi, Kukur. Karnataka, ane Caret.
Denwdr, Ku-kiir. Karndtaka, mod Ndyi.
Pahri, Ku-ju, ku. 4 Tuluva, Ndyi.
Chepdng Kwi, Mi. Kurgi, . . Ndyi.
Bhrdmu, A-kyd. Toduva,) Ndyi.
Vdyu, Uri. Toda, j Not.
Kuswar, Ku-kol. Kdta, . . Nai.
Kusunda, Agai. Badaga, . Nai.
Thdru, Kiitta. Kurumba, Nai.
Iruja, . . Nai.
Lepcha (Sikkim), . . Kazett. Malabar, . Nay, suv-anam.
BMtdni v. Lhopa, . . KM. Sinhalese, . Balld.
CHAP. IV.—NOUNS.] OREILLE—OHR—EAR—UKHO—AURIS. 117

Types.
■| (Sanskrit, Karna. B
■E. Kdn.
^ (Arabic, . . Uzn.
I Bask, . . . Belarri, bearri. Kdchdri, Khoma.
Finnic, . . Korwa. f Munipuri, Na.
Magvar, . . Fid. Mfthdn Ndgd, . Nd.
Turkish, . . Kulak. Tablung Ndgd, . Nd.
Circassian, . Takhum. Khdri Ndgd, . . Tenluiun.
Georgian, . Kuri. Angdmi Ndgd, . Anye.
Mongolian, . Chikin, tsighin; bueha. Ndmsdng Ndgd, . Nd.
Mantshu, Shan ; udak* Nowgong Ndgd, Tenaung.
Javanese, Ngoko, Ki'tping. Tengsa Ndgd, . Teldnnu.
Javanese, Krama, Tali ngan. Abor Miri, . . Norong.
Malav, . . . Talinga. Sibsdgar Miri, . Yerung.
Chinese, Nankin, Urh. Deoria Chutia, Ydku.
Chinese, Pekin, Urh. [ Singpho, Nd.
Chinese, Canton, Urh. \ Burman (written), . . N<f.
Chinese, Shanghai Ni-tu. Burman (spoken), . . . Nrf, nau.
Amov, Colloquial, Hi. Khyeng v. Shou, . . Ka-nhau.
Japanese, Mimi. Kdmi, A-ga-nd.
Kumi, Ka-no.
Brahuf, Khaff. I Mni v. Toung, . . .