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MECH 466 Microelectromechanical Systems University of Victoria Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Lecture 12: Piezoelectric

MECH 466 Microelectromechanical Systems

University of Victoria Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Lecture 12:

Piezoelectric Sensors & Actuators

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Overview

Examples of piezoelectric sensors and actuators making use of cantilever beamsOverview Example of piezoelectric sensors and actuators making use of a thin plate Case Studies: •

Example of piezoelectric sensors and actuators making use of a thin platesensors and actuators making use of cantilever beams Case Studies: • Membrane Accelerometer • Hard

Case Studies:sensors and actuators making use of a thin plate • Membrane Accelerometer • Hard Drive Scanning

Membrane Accelerometer

Hard Drive Scanning Head Correction

Future Applications of Piezoelectric Sensors:Accelerometer • Hard Drive Scanning Head Correction • The Daintiest Dynamos © N. Dechev, University of

The Daintiest Dynamos

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator

Given the following actuator:

Given the following actuator:

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electrode layers Piezoelectric layer V t (piezo) t b 2 Silicon beam w 1 L
electrode layers
Piezoelectric layer
V
t
(piezo)
t
b
2
Silicon beam
w
1
L
L
A
B
L
Q: Find the vertical displacement (direction 3) at the end of the beam, when voltage

Q: Find the vertical displacement (direction 3) at the end of the beam, when voltage V is applied across the piezoelectric material, via the electrodes.

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator

Note: Only the portion of the beam ‘ L A ’ will be bent due

Note: Only the portion of the beam ‘ L A’ will be bent due to the piezoelectric strip.

This is a case of the ‘inverse effect’, therefore: 

 
 
 

Since there are no applied forces, this reduces to: 

 
 
 

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator

Under the applied voltage, V:

Under the applied voltage, V:

#3: Piezoelectric Actuator Under the applied voltage, V: Note: this equation can be re-written indicating the
Note: this equation can be re-written indicating the directions as:

Note: this equation can be re-written indicating the directions as:

equation can be re-written indicating the directions as: (In other words, the electric field along direction
(In other words, the electric field along direction 3, will cause strain along direction 1.)

(In other words, the electric field along direction 3, will cause strain along direction 1.)

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator

The equation for the strain due to the ‘inverse effect’ can be written in matrix

The equation for the strain due to the ‘inverse effect’ can be written in matrix format as:

the ‘inverse effect’ can be written in matrix format as: In the case of this example,
In the case of this example, we know that:

In the case of this example, we know that:

 

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator

Additionally, we know that for typical piezoelectric materials, many values of the peizoelectric coefficient matrix are zero. For example, for ZnO, the matrix is:Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator Therefore, given the applied electric fields, and assuming the use of ZnO,

matrix are zero. For example, for ZnO, the matrix is: Therefore, given the applied electric fields,

Therefore, given the applied electric fields, and assuming the use of ZnO, the equation for strain due to the ‘inverse effect’ is:matrix are zero. For example, for ZnO, the matrix is: © N. Dechev, University of Victoria

the equation for strain due to the ‘inverse effect’ is: © N. Dechev, University of Victoria

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator

Due to the applied voltage V , the piezoelectric element will expand (strain) in direction 1. Since it is firmly V, the piezoelectric element will expand (strain) in direction 1. Since it is firmly attached to the beam, this expansion (strain) will cause segment L A to be curved into an arc with a radius r , as defined by:

to be curved into an arc with a radius r , as defined by: where s

where s (long) is the longitudinal strain = s 1 in this example s (long) is the longitudinal strain = s 1 in this example

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator Therefore, since only segment L A of the beam will be
Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator
Therefore, since only segment L A of the beam will be bent, we can
define the displacement (along direction 3) at the end of
segment L A as:
3
δ
( x=LA)
1
where:
r
φ
Therefore:
© N. Dechev, University of Victoria
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Example #3: Piezoelectric Actuator
Since the rest of the beam does not bend, the tip deflection of the
entire beam can be defined as:
3
δ
( x=LA)
1
δ
φ
r
Straight Portion of beam
© N. Dechev, University of Victoria
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Example #4: Piezoelectric Actuator

Given the same actuator as in Example #3: 

 

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V t (piezo) t b 2 Silicon beam L L 1 w A B L
V
t
(piezo)
t
b
2
Silicon beam
L
L
1
w
A
B
L

Q: Find the tip deflection given the following values:V t (piezo) t b 2 Silicon beam L L 1 w A B L Piezo

Piezo

= ZnO (see table 7.2 for properties)

Beam

= polysilicon (see past notes for properties)

V applied = 100 V

t piezo

= 10 um = 5 um = 100 um

 

tbeam

L A

L

= 400 um = w piezo = 30 um

w beam

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Example #4: Piezoelectric Actuator

See Class Notes

© N. Dechev, University of Victoria

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Case Study 7.2: Membrane Piezoelectric Accelerometer A membrane based accelerometer is made using the piezoelectric
Case Study 7.2: Membrane Piezoelectric
Accelerometer
A membrane based accelerometer is made using the piezoelectric
effect, using the following design:
Top Electrodes
Bottom Electrode
Cross-Section
A-A’
Figure 7.6. Piezoelectric Accelerometer [Chang Liu]
© N. Dechev, University of Victoria
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Case Study: Hard Drive R/W Head Correction
Disc drives store information on the surface of a ‘hard platter’
using magnetic ‘read/write heads’ to create magnetic ‘bits’ of info.
As the density (# of bits/unit area on the surface) of hard drives
increased over the past two decades, mechanical factors such as
ball bearings, manufacturing errors and inertial effects have created
bottlenecks on the possible read/write speeds and data density.
Inside of a typical hard drive, with platter,
voice coil, and scan arm visible.
[How Stuff Works.com]
Multi-platters and Multi-scan heads visible.
[How Stuff Works.com]
© N. Dechev, University of Victoria
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Case Study: Hard Drive R/W Head Correction To overcome these problems, recent hard drives incorporate
Case Study: Hard Drive R/W Head Correction
To overcome these problems, recent hard drives incorporate a ‘self-
correction system, using piezoelectric (or other) microactuators, to
keep the read/write head centered on the ‘data track’.
Illustration of hard drive internals.
[IBM-Almaden-Research-Center]
Movie of hard drive operation,
without and with ‘error correction’ from a microactuator
[IBM-Almaden-Research-Center]
© N. Dechev, University of Victoria
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Case Study: Hard Drive R/W Head Correction
SEM (scanning electron
microscope) image of a
typical hard drive head,
with microactuator.
SEM image of hard drive head (upside down)
[IBM-Almaden-Research-Center]
© N. Dechev, University of Victoria
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Case Study: The Daintiest Dynamos A proposal for creating small sized generators for energy storage.
Case Study: The Daintiest Dynamos
A proposal for
creating small sized
generators for
energy storage.
Piezoelectric plate
Silicon cantilever
Copper sheet
Seeks to take
advantage of high
energy densities
available in some
radioisotopes.
High-energy
electrons
Radioactive source
1
Beta particles (high-energy electrons) fly spontaneously
from the radioactive source and hit the copper sheet,
where they accumulate.
2
Electrostatic attraction between the copper sheet and
the radioactive source bends the silicon cantilever
and the piezoelectric plate on top of it.
ENERGY CONTENT
ENERGY DENSITY
TECHNOLOGY
(MILLIWATT-HOUR/MILLIGRAM)
Lithium-ion in a chemical battery
0.3
Methanol ina fuel cell*
3
Tritium in a nuclear battery**
850
Polonium-210 in a nuclear battery**
57 000
*Assuming 50 percent e ciency
**Assuming 8 percent e ciency and 4 years of operation
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When the cantilever bends to the point where the copper
sheet touches the radioactive source, the electrons
flow back to it, and the attractive force ceases.
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The cantilever then oscillates, and the mechanical stress in
the piezoelectric plate creates an imbalance in its
charge distribution, resulting in an electric current.
Operation of Piezoelectric Beam Generator [IEEE Spectrum, Sept 2004]
© N. Dechev, University of Victoria
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Case Study: The Daintiest Dynamos
Issue for discussion:
How can you use new “MEMS technology” to extract power
from materials with high energy density?
Proposed Solution:
MEMS based power generator, based on extracting energy
from radio isotopes.
Benefits:
Problems:
© N. Dechev, University of Victoria
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