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MATERIAL PROPERTIES

&
TESTING

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering-Dehradun
Importance of Material Properties

Aircraft, such as the one shown here, makes use of aluminum alloys
and carbon-fiber-reinforced composites.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Importance of Material Properties

 Figure 6.2 The materials used in sports equipment must be


lightweight, stiff, tough, and impact resistant

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Why are metals tested ?

 Ensure quality
 Test properties
 Prevent failure in use
 Make informed choices in using materials

Factor of Safety is the ratio comparing the actual


stress on a material and the safe useable stress.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Terminology for Mechanical Properties
 Stress - Force or load per unit area of cross-section over which
the force or load is acting.
 Strain - Elongation change in dimension per unit length.
 Young’s modulus (E) - The slope of the linear part of the stress-strain
curve in the elastic region .
 Shear modulus (G) - The slope of the linear part of the shear stress-
shear strain curve.
 Load (P)- The force applied to a material during testing.
 Poison’s Ratio : Ratio of Transverse strain to Longitudinal Strain
 Bulk Modulus (K): Ratio of volumetric stress to volumetric strain
 Strain gage or Extensometer - A device used for measuring change
in length and hence strain.

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Two forms of testing

 Mechanical tests – the material may be physically


tested to destruction. Will normally specify a value
for properties such as strength, hardness, toughness,
etc.

 Non-destructive tests (NDT) – samples or


finished articles are tested before being used.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Tensile Testing

 Uses an extensometer or UTM to apply measured


force to an test specimen. The amount of extension
can be measured and graphed.

 Variables such as strain, stress, elasticity, tensile


strength, ductility and shear strength can be
gauged.

 Test specimens can be round or flat.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Extensometer

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
A

l
L= 5.65 √A for Circular Specimen
L= 4 √A for Rectangular Specomen

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Tensile test specimens

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Test results

Cup and cone fracture A shear fracture would


signifies a ductile material indicate a brittle material
Producing graphs

Two basic graphs:

 Load / extension graph.


 Stress / strain graph.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Load - extension graph for low carbon steel

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Stress Strain diagram
If stress maintained specimen will break

Fracture
Strength

“Necking”

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Youngs Modulus (E)

E = Stress
Strain
 Stress = Load
Cross section area

 Strain = Extension
Original length

 Poisons Ratio (ν) = Lateral Strain


Longitudinal Strain

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
9
=
3 +

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Stress Strain (Ferrous & Non Ferrous)

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Brittle Material

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 6.14 Comparison


of the elastic behavior of
steel and aluminum. For
a given stress, aluminum
deforms elastically three
times as much as does
steel

21
Figure 6.15 Range of elastic moduli for different engineered materials. (

22
Material Properties - Definitions

 Brittleness: It may be defined as the property of a


metal by virtue of which it will fracture without any
appreciable deformation. This property is just
opposite to the ductility of a metal.
 Toughness: It may be defined as the property of a
metal by virtue of which it can absorb maximum
energy before fracture takes place. It is the
measurement of ultimate energy strength of material
and is expressed as work units/unit volume, i.e. kg
fm/m3. Toughness is also calculated in terms of area
under stress-strain curve
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Toughness
• Energy to break a unit volume of material
• Approximate by the area under the stress-strain
curve.
Engineering small toughness (ceramics)
tensile
large toughness (metals)
stress, s
Adapted from Fig. 6.13, very small toughness
Callister 7e.
(unreinforced polymers)

Engineering tensile strain, e

Brittle fracture: elastic energy


Ductile fracture: elastic + plastic energy
Material Properties - Definitions

 Stiffness: This may be defined as the property of a


metal by virtue of which it resists deformation.
Modulus of rigidity is the measure of stiffness. The
term flexibility is quite opposite of stiffness. The
materials which suffer less deformation under load
have high degree of stiffness. We may note that the
greater the stress required to produce a given strain,
the stiffer is the material.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Material Properties - Definitions

 Resilience: This may be defined as the property of


a metal by virtue of which it stores energy and
resists shocks or impacts. It is measured by the
amount of energy absorbed per unit volume, in
stressing a material upto elastic limit. This property
is of great importance in the selection of a material
used for various types of springs.
 The maximum energy which can be stored in a body
upto elastic limit is termed as proof resilience.
Proof resilience per unit volume is termed as
modulus of resilience.
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
 Endurance: This is defined as the property of a
metal by virtue of which it can withstand varying
stresses (same or opposite nature). The maximum
value of stress, which can be applied for an indefinite
times without causing its failure, is termed as its
endurance limit. For ordinarily steel, the endurance
limits about half the tensile strength.
 This property of a metal is of great importance in the
design and production of parts in a reciprocating
 Machines and components subjected to vibrations. It
is always desirable to keep the working stress of a
material well within the elastic limit.
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Tensile Testing - Procedure
Tensile tests are used to determine the tensile properties of a material, including
the tensile strength. The tensile strength of a material is the maximum tensile stress
that can be developed in the material.

In order to conduct a tensile test, the proper specimen must be obtained. This
specimen should conform to ASTM standards for size and features. Prior to the test,
the cross-sectional area may be calculated and a pre-determined gage length
marked.

The specimen is then loaded into a machine set up for tensile loads and placed in
the proper grippers. Once loaded, the machine can then be used to apply a steady,
continuous tensile load.

Data is collected at pre-determined points or increments during the test.


Depending on the material and specimen being tested, data points may be more or
less frequent. Data include the applied load and change in gage length. The load is
generally read from the machine panel in pounds or kilograms

Once data have been collected, the tensile stress developed and the resultant
strain can be calculated. Stress is calculated based on the applied load and cross-
28 divided by the original length.
sectional area. Strain is the change in length
Compression Testing – Procedure
The uniaxial Compression test is done on Universal testing Machine
(UTM) to calculate the compressive strength of material

During a typical compression test, data are collected regarding the applied
load, resultant deformation or deflection, and condition of the specimen.

For brittle materials, the compressive strength is relatively easy to obtain,


showing marked failure. However, for ductile materials, the compressive
strength is generally based on an arbitrary deformation value. Ductile
materials do not exhibit the sudden fractures that brittle materials present.
They tend to buldge and "barrel out".
The Bend Test or Flexure Test
 Bend test - Application of a force to the center of a bar that is
supported on each end to determine the resistance of the material
to a static or slowly applied load.
 Flexural strength or modulus of rupture -The stress required to
fracture a specimen in a bend test.
 Flexural modulus - The modulus of elasticity calculated from the
results of a bend test, giving the slope of the stress-deflection
curve.

30
(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 6.19 (a) The bend test often used for measuring the strength
of brittle materials, and (b) the deflection δ obtained by bending

31
(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 6.21 (a) Three point and (b) four-point bend test setup

32
Figure 6.20
Stress-deflection
curve for Mg0
obtained from a
bend test

33
Stress Strain Diagram For Pure bending

For Brittle material the above diagram is not symmetrical showing higher compressive
Compared to tensile load

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
HARDNESS TESTING

Hardness is the ability to withstand indentation or


scratches
• Large hardness means:
--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking
--better wear resistance properties.

Hardness tests involve measuring the amount of force


required to implant a specified indentation in the surface of
a specimen OR the size of the indentation produced from
applying a specified load. The indenter used varies with the
test selected, but is generally hardened steel or diamond.
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
• Common hardness tests include
• Brinell Hardness Test
• Rockwell Test
• Vickers Test
• Mohs Test
• Knoop Hardness
• Surface abrasion testing,

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Brinell Hardness testing machine

 The indenter is
pressed into the
metal for 30 Sec
 Softer materials
leave a deeper
indentation

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Hardness testing machine

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Brinell hardness test

 Uses ball shaped indentor.

 Cannot be used for thin


materials.

 Ball may deform on very


hard materials beyond 500
BHN

 Surface area of indentation


is measured.
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
• Brinell Hardness Test

apply known force measure size


e.g., of indentation after
Hardened 10 removing load
mm sphere
Smaller indents
D d mean larger
hardness.

most brasses easy to machine cutting nitrided


plastics Al alloys steels file hard tools steels diamond

increasing hardness
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Standard Diameter of balls are 2.5mm, 5mm, & 10mm
Usually diameter of indentation is 0.2D to 0.7D
Thickness of specimen should not be less than 10 mm
BHN is the unit for hardness expressed in Kgf/mm2
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Vickers hardness test

 Uses square shaped


pyramid indentor.

 Accurate results.

 Measures length of
diagonal on indentation.

 Usually used on very hard


materials

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Vickers hardness test

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Rockwell hardness tests
 Gives direct reading.

 13 scales for testing different


material namely A,B,C,D,E,F,M,R

 Rockwell B (ball) used for soft


materials.

 Rockwell C (cone) uses diamond


cone for hard materials.

 Hardness from B Scale is HRB & C


Scale is HRC

 Flexible, quick and easy to use.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
(t)
HRA /

(t)

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Application of Rockwell Test

 Hardness testing of wires, blades, inside and


outside cylindrical surface such as IC engine &
Piston

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Impact Tests

 Toughness of metals is the ability to withstand


impact.
 Test is done to assess the shock absorbing capacity of
material expressed in
 Rupture Energy
 Modulus of Rupture
 Notch Impact Testing

Applications
 Tests are done for locomotive wheel
 Coins
 Connecting rod
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Figure 6.26 The impact test: (a) The Charpy and Izod tests, and (b)
dimensions of typical specimens

49
Izod test
 Strikes at 167 Joules.

 Test specimen is held


vertically.

 Notch faces striker.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Equations
U

Notch Impact Strength

I = U/Ae

Modulus of Rupture

Ur= U/Ve
Charpy impact test
 Strikes form higher
position with 300 Joules.

 Test specimen is held


horizontally.

 Notch faces away from


striker.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Tensile Strength

Tensile strength = Maximum Load


Cross section area

Maximum load is the highest point on the graph.

Often called Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS)

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Fatigue

 Fatigue is due to the repeated loading and unloading.

 When a material is subjected to a force acting in different directions at

different times it can cause cracking. In time this causes the material
to fail at a load that is much less than its tensile strength, this
is fatigue failure. Vibration for example is a serious cause of fatigue
failure.

 Fatigue can be prevented with good design practice.

1. A smooth surface finish reduces the chance of surface cracking.

2. Sharp corners should be avoided.

3. Corrosion should be avoided as this can cause fatigue cracks.


Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Failure Analysis of a Crankshaft
Question:

A crankshaft in a diesel engine fails. Examination of the crankshaft reveals


no plastic deformation. The fracture surface is smooth. In addition, several
other cracks appear at other locations in the crankshaft. What type of
failure mechanism would you expect?

SOLUTION

Since the crankshaft is a rotating part, the surface experiences cyclical


loading. We should immediately suspect fatigue. The absence of plastic
deformation supports our suspicion. Furthermore, the presence of other
cracks is consistent with fatigue; the other cracks didn’t have time to grow
to the size that produced catastrophic failure. Examination of the fracture
surface will probably reveal beach marks or fatigue striations.
56
(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

Geometry for the rotating cantilever beam specimen setup

57
(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

The stress-number of cycles to failure (S-N) curves for a tool steel and
an aluminum alloy

58
Results of the Fatigue Test
 Endurance limit - An older concept that defined a stress
below which a material will not fail in a fatigue test.
 Fatigue life - The number of cycles permitted at a
particular stress before a material fails by fatigue.
 Fatigue strength - The stress required to cause failure
by fatigue in a given number of cycles, such as 500
million cycles.
 Notch sensitivity - Measures the effect of a notch,
scratch, or other imperfection on a material’s properties,
such as toughness or fatigue life.

59
Creep

When a weight is hung from a piece of


lead and left for a number of days the lead
will stretch. This is said to be creep.
Problems with creep increase when the
materials are subject to high temperature
or the materials themselves have low
melting points such as lead. Creep can
cause materials to fail at a stress well
below there tensile strength.
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Non-destructive testing (NDT)

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering-Dehradun
Why use NDT?

 Components are not destroyed


 Can test for internal flaws
 Useful for valuable components
 Can test components that are in use

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Various NDT Methods

 Visual Inspection
 with Naked eye
 With Optical Aid

 Liquid Penetrant test


 Magnetic Particle Testing
 Eddy current testing
 Ultrasonic Testing
 Radiography

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Visual Inspection

 Simplest & Cheapest Method


 Widely used method among all NDTs
 Equipments with optical aid & Magnification canbe
used such as:
 OpticalMicroscope
 Borescope
 Endoscope
 Telescope
 Holography
 Closed Circuit Television
 Image Processing & Pattern Recognition Technique

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Application Of Visual Inspection

 Field Of Application
 Leakage in Components

 Misalignment of parts

 Cracks & Factures

 Corrugation & Erosion

 Minute Discontinuities

 Defects in weld

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Metallurgical Microscope

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Metallurgical Microscope Line Diagram

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Penetrant testing
 Used for surface flaws.
 The oil and chalk test is a traditional version of this
type of testing. Coloured dyes are now used.
 Test Procedure
 Cleaning of surface by removing oil, dust, scales, paint, dirt
 Application of Penetrant liquid by spray brushing or dipping
 Removal of excess Penetrant
 After formation of thin coating scanning under UV or
Visible light

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Application Of Liquid Penetrant test

 Field Of Application
 Pressure vessels in chemical, nuclear plants

 Thin and thick pipes of power plants

 Penstock of hydro power plant

 Testing of welded joints

 Testing of casted valves

 Fatigue crack deduction

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Magnetic particle testing

• Used for ferrous metals e.g. iron, nickel, cobalt, etc


• Detects flaws close to the surface of the material.
• The component to be tested must first be magnetized.
• Magnetic particles which can be dry or in solution are
sprinkled onto the test piece.
 if there is a flaw in the magnetic material through which
a magnetic field is allowed to pass, the lines of magnetic
force or flux will be distorted near the flaw and lines of
magnetic flux will be uniform for magnetic materials
which are defect free..
• The component must be demagnetized after testing.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Eddy current testing

 Used for non-ferrous metals


 A.C. current is passed through the coil.
 The test piece is passed under the coil causing
secondary currents called eddy currents to flow
through the test piece. This causes a magnetic
field to flow in the test piece.
 The flaws are detected on an oscilloscope by
measuring a change in the magnetic field.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Application Of Eddy current testing

 Field Of Application
 Measure the conductivity of material which may vary with
material characteristics

 To determine the hardness and strength of material

 To determine the thickness of coating

 To detect discontinuities such as inclutions

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Ultrasonic testing
Ultrasonic Sound waves are bounced off the component
and back to a receiver. If there is a change in the time
taken for the wave to return this will show a flaw. This is
similar to the operation of a sonar on a ship.
Operation.
1. The ultrasonic probe sends the sound wave through the
piece.
2. The sound wave bounces off the piece and returns.
3. The results are then placed on the display screen in the
form of peaks.
4. Where the peaks fluctuate this will show a fault in the
piece.
Uses.
 This is generally used to find internal flaws in large
forgings, castings and in weld inspections.
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Radiography (X-ray) Testing

1. The x-ray are released by heating the cathode.


2. They are then accelerated by the D.C. current and
directed onto the piece by the tungsten anode.
3. The x-rays then pass through the test piece onto
an x-ray film which displays the results.
4. The x-rays cannot pass through the faults as
easily making them visible on the x-ray film.
Uses.
 This is a test generally used to find internal flaws
in materials. It is used to check the quality of
welds, for example, to find voids or cracks.

Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav


Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun
Faculty: Ayushman Srivastav
Shivalik College of Engineering Dehradun

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