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A.GPR.88.

®
SAES Smart Materials

we support your innovation

smart
materials
SAES®
Smart Materials

SAES® Smart Materials (SSM) is the leading supplier of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) mill
products and high purity alloys. Our mill products include bar, coil, gun drilled bars, sheet,
ribbon, wire and stranded wire. SSM’s experience
melting Shape Memory Alloys dates back to 1963
when we made ingots of NiTiNOL for the US Naval
Ordinance Lab.

SSM has been a key player in making these materials


available in the required quantities, prices, purity and
characteristics needed to support commercialization
of shape memory alloy devices. This process was
driven by SSM’s outstanding competencies in vacuum
metallurgy and alloys hot and cold processing.

SSM offers a wide range of Shape Memory Alloys


formulations including over 24 different alloys of Ni:Ti ternary, quaternary and quintinary
alloys. We sell a wide variety of shapes, surface finishes and heat treatments. This is the
result of over twenty years of passion and dedication to product development.
SSM is now continuing to innovate in the Shape Memory Alloys field always looking to
improve formulations and processing to yield state of the art materials capable of
matching the more and more demanding needs stemming from medical and industrial
applications.

SSM became a company of the SAES Getters Group at the beginning of 2008.
SSM is complementary to the existing SAES businesses in the Shape Memory Alloys
area and will continue to focus on manufacturing and sales of state of the art Shape
Memory Alloys mill products.

The acquisition will enable the development of the full potential of the SSM business.
SSM is already having a benefit from the financial, organizational and human resources
that SAES has made available.
A full range of
state-of-the-art
shape memory
mill products

SAES Smart Materials Shape Memory Alloys


Shape Memory Alloys are thermoelastic intermetallic alloys that show superelastic or
shape memory behavior at different temperatures. In their superelastic temperature
range the polycryatalline alloys will undergo up to 8% deformation and recover their initial
shape upon removal of the applied load. In the shape memory temperature range the
alloys will recover up to 8% strain when heated through the recovery temperature range.
SAES Smart Materials offers over 24 different alloy formulations spanning from binary to
quintinary alloys.

Ni:Ti formulations exhibit As from -50 °C up to +95 °C and can be spilt in four main
families:

Shape Memory Ni:Ti Alloys


Alloys having lower Ni:Ti ratio so that they are martensitic after cold drawing and heat
treating for shape setting. After deformation in the martensite phase (ASTM F2005) they
will recover shape upon heating through transformation temperature to the austenite
phase (ASTM F2005).

Body Temperature Ni:Ti Alloys


Alloys formulated to be fully transformed and superelastic at 37°C.

Superelastic Ni:Ti Alloys


Alloys having a Ni:Ti ratio so that they are superelastic at room temperature when they
are cold drawn and tempered.

High Strength Superelastic Ni:Ti


Alloys having higher Ni:Ti ratio so that they are superelastic at room temperature with
higher superelastic plateau stresses.

SSM also offers ternary, quaternary and quintinary formulations. The most commonly
used are listed below.

Ni:TiCr: Superelastic alloys containing up to 1% chromium to improve strength.


Ni:Ti-6.0% Cu: Shape Memory Alloys containing copper to reduce the transformation
temperature range and mechanical hysteresis.
Ni:Ti-1.6% Fe: Superelastic Ni:Ti with Fe to improve cold workability and stabilize R-phase
transformation.
Ni:Ti-3.4% Fe: Superelastic Ni:Ti with Fe to reduce transformation temperature to the
cryogenic temperature range; alloy also has higher cold workability.
for any industrial supporting mass
and medical production and
application development
activities

Shape Memory Alloys are outstanding materials offering a wide range of superelastic
and shape memory properties depending on the alloy formulation, thermomechanical
history and the operating temperature. SSM assists customers in the creative
application of the material by offering a wide range of alloys and product forms.
SAES Smart Materials offers a complete portfolio of mill product shapes and surface
finishes.

Wire products
Wire, cold drawn and shape set in continuous lengths from 0.076 mm to 6.5 mm
(0.003" to 0.25" diameter).
Straight superelastic wires in continuous lengths from 0.177 mm to 2.3 mm (0.007"
to 0.0906") diameter.
Stranded wire from 1 x 7 x 0.076 mm (0.003") to 1 x 7 x 0.2 mm (0.016”) diameter,
as drawn or straight superelastic.
Shaped wire including squares, rectangle, ovals and half rounds.

Wire surface finishes


Hard black oxide is the oxide produced during the typical wire drawing process
during interpass annealing. It is about 800 angstroms or thicker, very smooth and
adherent. It does not leave any visible residue when wiped with a clean white cloth.
Cleanable black oxide is a thicker oxide produced during the wire drawing process
during interpass annealing. It is easier to remove with subsequent processing.
Light oxide (also known as amber or amber brown) is less than 100 angstroms thick.
This surface is often chosen for medical device applications because it is very clean
and can be easily removed via etching or electropolishing.
Pickled (also known as etched, acid cleaned) surfaces provides an oxide free finish.
It is produced by exposing the surface to an acid solution to remove the visible oxide.
Mechanically polished is produced by an abrasive process which polishes the
surface to a bright reflective finish.

SEM 100x


Amber wire

NiTiNOL wires

More than just wires
Bars are made by hot rolling and/or cold working and heat treating to be superelastic
or shape memory. Straight superelastic bar has been made in diameters from 8 mm
to 65 mm(0.315" to 2.5").
Bar are offered after centerless grinding or after centerless grinding and gun drilling.
Ribbon on spools: from 0.038 mm x 0.25 mm (0.0015" x 0.010") to 0.25 mm x 7 mm
(0.010" x 0.275).
Sheet in random length from 0.127 mm x 50 mm x 1828 mm (0.005" x 2.0" x 72") to
3.2 mm x 305 mm x 1828 mm (0.125" x 12" x 72"). Wire, cold drawn and shape set in
continuous lengths from 0.076 mm to 4.4 mm (0.003" to 0.175") diameter.


NiTiNOL

Mill products


Alloys and process development


SAES Smart Materials has over 40,000sq ft of floor space available. While most of the
resources are dedicated to alloys melting and semi-finished shapes processing,
research and development activities are a continuous part of our business strategy.
Embracing the management vision of the SAES Getters Group, SSM is dedicating
knowledgeable resources and state of the art assets to R&D.
Low inclusion materials surpassing the challenging medical ASTM specifications and
new alloy formulations enhancing shape memory and super-elastic behavior are only
two examples of our project portfolio.
SSM always strives to maintain a leadership position in a challenging environment:
technologies, compositions, processes are continuously monitored and explored to
offer our customers best in class materials.

Leveraging on very strong special metallurgy core competencies, SSM can also offer
materials for advanced industrial applications wherever high purity alloys in heats as
large as 3.000lb are required.
SAES Smart Materials, an industry leader
Melting Shape Memory Alloys is an art requiring scientific knowledge, close attention
to details and long experience. The manufacturing process consists of three macro
stages: melting, thermo-mechanical processing and finishing.

Alloy melting
It is the most challenging and critical process step. 16" - 2000 kg ingot
SSM built an extraordinary know how and
knowledge in melting Shape Memory and Advanced
Materials over the last twenty years. This combines
with the availability of different melting technologies
(besides the commonly used VIM and VAR) and ingot
sizes ranging from 1Kg to over 2500Kg.
As a consequence SSM prides itself in being the
reference company whenever large quantities and
high purity alloys are required as well as whenever
improved alloys or new formulations need to be
developed.

Thermo-mechanical processing
Several technologies are used to convert the starting
ingot into mill product shapes and sizes convenient
for the manufacture of Shape Memory Alloy
components by our customers.
Drawing, extrusion, forging and rolling are used
alone or in combination to make mill products. These
process steps are critical to maintain the material
properties and key to enable economy of scale.

Finishing
The final processing stage in making finished shapes involves cold working, thermal
treatment and surface treatment. Being the last processing steps, the utmost care is
required to achieve surface finishes, aspect ratios, physical properties and mechanical
properties dictated for shape memory or superelastic performance by the customer.
Shape
Memory
Alloys

NiTiNOL is a family of Ni:Ti alloys in which transformation temperatures vary with the Ni:Ti ratio.
We designate alloys by the As (austenite start) determined by thermal analysis after a full anneal.
 See ASTM Standard F2004 for a description of the thermal analysis test.
 See ASTM Standard F2005 for definitions of As and other terms for Shape Memory Alloys.
 See ASTM Standard F2063 for a specification of Ni:Ti alloy mill products.

Shape Memory Ni:Ti Alloys: alloys having lower Ni:Ti ratio so that they are martensitic at room temperature after cold
drawing and heat treating for shape setting. After deformation, will recover shape upon heating through transformation
temperature.

Shape Memory Alloys Shape Memory DSC

1.00
As = +95 °C Mp = 72.96°C

0.75
Mf = 65.30°C

0.50 Ms = 84.68°C
As = +70 °C 47.41J/g

0.25
Heat Flow (W/g)

0.00
As = +60 °C
0.25

As = +55 °C 0.50

As = 96.54°C Af = 113.39°C
0.75 45.34J/g

Ap = 108.59°C
As = +45 °C 1.00
55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125
Temperature (°C)

SAES Getters Group


smart
www.shape-memory-alloys.com materials
ssm@saes-group.com we support your innovation
Body Temperature Ni:Ti Alloy: alloys formulated to be fully transformed and Shape
superelastic at 37 °C.
Memory
Body Temperature
Alloys
Body Temperature DSC Alloys
1.0

As = +40 °C Mp = 23.79°C

0.5 Ms = 30.38°C
24.82J/g
As = +30 °C Mf = 17.33°C

Heat Flow (W/g)


The SAES Getters Group
0.0
As = +15 °C manufacturing companies are
ISO9001 certified, the Asian
Af = 50.36°C
As = +10 °C 0.5
and Italian companies are
As = 35.64°C
24.69J/g
Ap = 45.79°C
also ISO14001 certified.
As = +0 °C 1.0 Full information about our
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70
Temperature (°C) certifications for each
company of the Group is
available on our website at:
Superelastic Ni:Ti Alloys: alloys having a Ni:Ti ratio so that they are superelastic at
www.saesgetters.com
room temperature when they are cold drawn and tempered.

A.GPR.89.0

Superelastic Alloys Superelastic DSC

0.75

As = -5 °C Mp = -26.75°C

0.50

Mf = -34.15°C
0.25 Ms = -25.45°C
14.75J/g
As = -10 °C
Heat Flow (W/g)

0.00

As = -12 °C 0.25
Af = -4.71°C
As = -13.04°C
16.59J/g
0.50

Ap = -7.13°C
As = -15 °C 0.75
50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20
Temperature (°C)

High Strength Superelastic Ni:Ti: alloys having higher Ni:Ti ratio so that they are
superelastic at room temperature with higher superelastic plateau stresses.

High Strength
High Strength DSC
Superelastic Alloys
0.75
As = -25 °C
Mp = -40.09°C
0.50

Mf = -51.21°C
As = -35 °C Ms = -38.11°C
0.25 14.63J/g
Heat Flow (W/g)

0.00
As = -45 °C
0.25 Af = -14.53°C
As = -25.45°C
16.07J/g
As = -50 °C
0.50
Ap = -17.59°C

As = -60 °C 0.75
70 65 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0
Temperature (°C)

smart
© 2008 SAES Getters. Printed in Italy. All rights reserved. SAES ® is a registered materials
trademark of SAES Getters S.p.A., its subsidiaries and affiliates.
SAES Getters reserves the right to change or modify product specifications at any time without notice.
Alloys &
Properties

Superelastic Ni:Ti Alloy

Chemistry, %/wt. Typical tensile properties of cold-drawn and tempered


Ni 55.8±0.5 O 0.05 max. material

Ti Remainder Fe 0.05 max. Upper superelastic plateau stress, 55 ksi (379 MPa)

C 0.05 max. Lower superelastic plateau stress, 20 ksi (138 MPa)


Permanent set after 6% strain, 0.1%
Density Melting Point
Yield strength of the martensite after transition, 118 ksi (814
0.235 lb/in3 (6.5 g/cm3) 1300 °C (2372 °F) MPa)

As (austenite start temperature), fully annealed, Ultimate tensile strength 155ksi (1068 MPa)
measured by DSC= -10 °C ± 8 °C (3 ). Elongation to failure, 17.5%
Af (austenite finish temperature), fully annealed, Maximum strain recovery, 8%
measured by DSC= +5 °C ± 16 °C (3 ).

500

450

400

350
Stress (MPa)

300

250

200

150

100

50

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Strain (%)

SAES Getters Group


smart
www.shape-memory-alloys.com materials
ssm@saes-group.com we support your innovation
High-Strength Superelastic Ni:Ti Alloy Alloys &
Properties
Chemistry, %/wt. Typical tensile properties of cold-
drawn and tempered material
Ni 55.8±0.5 O 0.05 max.
Upper superelastic plateau
Ti Remainder Fe 0.05 max.
stress,70 ksi (482 MPa)
C 0.05 max.
Lower superelastic plateau stress,
Density Melting Point 30 ksi (207 MPa)
The SAES Getters Group
Permanent set after 6% strain, manufacturing companies are
0.235 lb/in3 (6.5 g/cm3 ) 1300 °C (2372 °F)
0.1%
ISO9001 certified, the Asian
Yield strength of the martensite and Italian companies are
As (austenite start temperature), fully annealed,
after transition, 185 ksi (1275 MPa) also ISO14001 certified.
measured by DSC= -25 °C ± 12 °C (3 ).
Full information about our
Af (austenite finish temperature), fully annealed, Ultimate tensile strength 210 ksi certifications for each
measured by DSC= -8 °C ± 16 °C (3 ). (1448 MPa) company of the Group is
Elongation to failure, 12.5% available on our website at:
www.saesgetters.com
Maximum strain recovery, 8%

A.GPR.90.0

1300

1200

1100

1000

900
Stress (MPa)

800

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Strain (%)

© 2008 SAES Getters. Printed in Italy. All rights reserved. SAES ® is a registered smart
trademark of SAES Getters S.p.A., its subsidiaries and affiliates. materials
SAES Getters reserves the right to change or modify product specifications at any time without notice.
Alloys &
Properties

Body-Temperature Ni:Ti Alloy

Chemistry, %/wt.
Ni 55.5±0.5 O 0.05 max. Typical tensile properties of cold-drawn and tempered
material at 37°C ± 1°C
Ti Remainder Fe 0.05 max.
Upper superelastic plateau stress, 50 ksi (344 MPa) min.
C 0.05 max. Other
trace < 0.01 Lower superelastic plateau stress, 2 ksi (14 MPa) min.
H 0.005 max. elements
Permanent set after 6% strain, 0.5%
Density Melting Point
Ultimate tensile strength, 180 ksi (1237 MPa) min.
0.235 lb/in3 (6.5 g/cm3) 1300 °C (2372 °F)
Elongation to failure, 12% min.
As (austenite start temperature), fully annealed, Maximum strain recovery, 8%
measured by DSC= 15 °C ± 8 °C (3 ).
Af (austenite finish temperature), fully annealed,
measured by DSC= 35 °C ± 12 °C (3 ).

High-Temperature Shape Memory Ni:Ti Alloy Ribbon

Chemistry, %/wt.

Ni 55.8±0.5 O 0.05 max. Typical tensile properties of cold-rolled, 20% in. cold-
Ti Remainder Fe 0.05 max. worked material

C 0.05 max. Other Ultimate tensile strength, 175ksi (1210 MPa) min.
trace < 0.01
H 0.005 max. elements
Elongation to failure, 5% min.
Density Melting Point

0.235 lb/in3 (6.5 g/cm3) 1300 °C (2372 °F)

As (austenite start temperature), fully annealed, measured by DSC= 60 to 70 °C ± 5 °C (3 ).

Af (austenite finish temperature), fully annealed,measured by DSC= 80 to 90 °C ± 8 °C (3 ).

SAES Getters Group


smart
www.shape-memory-alloys.com materials
ssm@saes-group.com we support your innovation
High-Strength Superelastic Ni:Ti-Fe Alloy Alloys &
Chemistry, %/wt.
Properties
Ni 53.5±0.5 H 0.005 max. Typical tensile properties of cold-
drawn and tempered material
1.0-2.0
Ti Remainder Fe
max.
Upper superelastic plateau stress, 80
C 0.05 max. Other ksi (550 MPa) min.
trace < 0.01
O 0.05 max. elements Lower superelastic plateau stress, 35
Density Melting Point ksi (240 MPa) min. The SAES Getters Group
0.235 lb/in3 (6.5 g/cm3) 1300 °C (2372 °F) manufacturing companies are
Permanent set after 6% strain, 0.1%
ISO9001 certified, the Asian
As (austenite start temperature), fully Ultimate tensile strength, 225 ksi and Italian companies are
annealed, measured by DSC= -30 °C ± 12 °C (1547 MPa) min. also ISO14001 certified.
(3 ).
Elongation to failure, 10% min. Full information about our
Af (austenite finish temperature), fully certifications for each
Maximum strain recovery, 8%
annealed, measured by DSC= -10 °C ± 16 °C company of the Group is
(3 ). available on our website at:
www.saesgetters.com

A.GPR.91.0

© 2008 SAES Getters. Printed in Italy. All rights reserved. SAES ® is a registered smart
trademark of SAES Getters S.p.A., its subsidiaries and affiliates. materials
SAES Getters reserves the right to change or modify product specifications at any time without notice.
Alloys &
Properties

High-Temperature Shape Memory Ni:Ti Alloy

Chemistry, %/wt.
Typical tensile properties of cold-drawn and tempered
Ni 55.5±0.5 O 0.05 max. material

Ti Remainder Fe 0.05 max. Ultimate tensile strength, 180 ksi (1237 MPa) min.
C 0.05 max. Other
trace < 0.01 Elongation to failure, 12% min.
H 0.005 max. elements
Maximum strain recovery, 8%
Density Melting Point

0.235 lb/in3 (6.5 g/cm3) 1300 °C (2372 °F)

As (austenite start temperature), fully annealed, measured by DSC= 95 °C ± 5 °C (3 ).

Af (austenite finish temperature), fully annealed, measured by DSC= 115 °C ± 5 °C (3 ).

1300

1200

1100

1000

900

800
Stress [MPa]

700

600

500

400

300

200

100

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Strain [%]

SAES Getters Group


smart
www.shape-memory-alloys.com materials
ssm@saes-group.com we support your innovation
Chrome-Doped Superelastic Ni:Ti Alloy Alloys &
Chemistry, %/wt.
Properties
Ni 55.8±0.5 H 0.005 max. Typical tensile properties of cold-
Ti Remainder Fe 0.05 max. drawn and tempered material
Cr 0.2-0.3
Other Upper superelastic plateau stress, 80
C 0.05 max. trace < 0.01 ksi (550 MPa) min.
elements
O 0.05 max. Lower superelastic plateau stress, 35
The SAES Getters Group
ksi (240 MPa) min.
Density Melting Point manufacturing companies are
0.235 lb/in3 (6.5 g/cm3) 1300 °C (2372 °F) Permanent set after 6% strain, 0.1% ISO9001 certified, the Asian
Ultimate tensile strength, 225 ksi and Italian companies are
As (austenite start temperature), fully annealed, (1547 MPa) min. also ISO14001 certified.
measured by DSC= -30 °C ± 5 °C (3 ). Full information about our
Elongation to failure, 10% min.
Af (austenite finish temperature), fully certifications for each
annealed, measured by DSC= -10 °C ± 5 °C Maximum strain recovery, 8% company of the Group is
(3 ). available on our website at:
www.saesgetters.com

A.GPR.92.0

© 2008 SAES Getters. Printed in Italy. All rights reserved. SAES ® is a registered smart
trademark of SAES Getters S.p.A., its subsidiaries and affiliates. materials
SAES Getters reserves the right to change or modify product specifications at any time without notice.
Lainate, Italy - Avezzano, Italy - Tortolì, Italy - Cologne, Germany - Weil am Rhein, Germany - Moscow, Russia - Daventry, UK -
Nanjing, P.R. of China - Shanghai, P.R. of China - Tokyo, Japan - Seoul, Korea - Jincheon-kun, Korea - Jhubei City, Taiwan -
Singapore - Cleveland OH, USA - Colorado Springs CO, USA - San Luis Obispo CA, USA - New Hartford NY,
U SA - Watsonville CA, USA

The SAES Getters Group manufacturing companies are ISO9001 certified, the Asian and Italian companies are also
ISO14001 certified. Full information about certifications for each company of the Group is available on the corporate
website at: www.saesgetters.com
© 2008 SAES Getters. Printed in Italy. All rights reserved. SAES® is a registered trademark of SAES Getters S.p.A., its subsidiaries and affiliates.
SAES Getters reserves the right to change or modify product specifications at any time without notice.

SAES Getters Group


smart
materials www.shape-memory-alloys.com
ssm@saes-group.com