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MAMTECH SERVICES LIMITED

Specification 20.11

20.11 – INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

07/07/15 1

14/06/12 0 ISSUED FOR


APPROVAL

DATE REV. DESCRIPTION PREPARED BY CHECKED BY APPROVED BY


F.OLUWASEGUN M. DUGBOR A. ADEBISI
MAMTECH SERVICES LIMITED
Specification 20.11

INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

1.0 SCOPE

2.0 CODES, STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES

3.0 PIPELINE ROUTING

4.0 PIPELINE DESIGN

4.1 Pipeline Pressure and Stability Design


4.2 Installation Stress Analysis
4.3 Minimum Free Stress Radius
4.4 Waterway and Pipeline Crossings

5.0 MATERIALS

5.1 Company-Furnished Materials


5.2 Contractor-Furnished Materials
5.3 Material Minimum Standards
5.4 Material Handling
5.5 Material Security

6.0 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL

6.1 Safety
6.2 Environmental

7.0 WELDING QUALIFICATION AND INSPECTION

7.1 Codes and Standards


7.2 Qualification of Welding Procedures
7.3 Qualification of Welders
7.4 Welding Quality Control
7.5 Ultrasonic or Dye Penetrant Examination

8.0 WELDING

8.1 Welding Procedure


8.2 Cleaning Pipe Interior
8.3 Weld Joint Preparation and Fit Up
8.4 Root Bead, Hot, and Fill Passes
8.5 Back Welding
8.6 Weld Repairs

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MAMTECH SERVICES LIMITED
Specification 20.11

INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

9.0 CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS

9.1 Installation Manual


9.2 Surveying
9.3 Pipeline Installation
9.4 Field Joint Coating
9.5 Mastic Application
9.6 Anode Installation
9.7 Pipeline Abandonment and Recovery
9.8 Pipeline Crossings
9.9 Waterway Crossings
9.10 Pipeline Burial
9.11 Riser Installation

10.0 FIELD REPAIRS

10.1 General
10.2 Corrosion Coating and Shrinkable Sleeves
10.3 Concrete Weight Coating
10.4 Damage to Both Concrete Weight and Corrosion Coatings
10.5 Pipe Damage
10.6 Weight Coating Damage Detected After Installation

11.0 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TESTING

11.1 General
11.2 Materials and Equipment
11.3 Filling the Pipeline
11.4 Cleaning and Gauging
11.5 Inspection
11.6 Hydrostatic Pressure Test
11.7 Defect Repair
11.8 Acceptance and Dewatering
11.9 Test Report

12.0 PRECOMMISSIONING, START-UP AND COMMISSIONING

13.0 DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS

13.1 Daily Field Reports


13.2 “As-Built” Survey

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MAMTECH SERVICES LIMITED
Specification 20.11

INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

APPENDIX

I STANDARDS AND CODES

II SHALLOW HAZARDS ANALYSIS

III WATERWAY CROSSINGS

IV PIPELINE CROSSING SIGNS

V MINIMUM PIPELINE BEND RADIUS

VI PIPELINE CROSSINGS

VII TYPICAL ANODE BRACELET / ANODE SPACING

VIII PIPELINE LAYING DATA SHEET

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MAMTECH SERVICES LIMITED
Specification 20.11

INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

1.0 SCOPE

1.1 This specification covers the minimum technical requirements for the (installation)
design, loadout, transportation, installation and testing of swamp and marsh
pipelines and flowlines in Nigeria. It should only be used for the installation of
pipelines in shallow water or flooded trenches. For installation of offshore
pipelines, refer to CNL General Specification 20.02 “Pipeline Installation and
Testing”.

1.2 Contractor shall design, furnish materials, fabricate components, transport, install,
inspect, test and commission the pipelines and flowlines in accordance with
industry practice and the technical requirements.

1.3 This specification applies to both pipelines and flowlines. All references to
“pipelines” in this text also refer to “flowlines” unless otherwise noted.

1.4 Any exceptions to the requirements of this specification shall be submitted in


writing for resolution by Company.

2.0 CODES, STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES

2.1 Contractor shall consider the most recent codes, standards and recommended
practices issued by the associations and approved bodies listed in Appendix I as
part of this specification.

2.2 Any conflicts between these documents shall be submitted to Company for
resolution.

3.0 PIPELINE ROUTING

3.1 The general pipeline route will be provided by Company in the form of general
route maps and survey Right of Way (ROW) drawings. Unless otherwise
specified in the technical requirements, the detailed route selection within the
pipeline ROW shall be determined by Contractor, and submitted for Company
approval.

3.2 Company will survey and peg one edge of the pipeline ROW. Contractor’s
installation crews and equipment shall remain within the pipeline ROW as pegged
and as shown on the survey drawings.

3.3 Contractor’s detailed route selection shall consider:

a. The pipeline minimum pipeline bend radius. When laying the pipeline around
a curve the pipe shall be laid in a straight route for a minimum on-bottom
distance equal to the design radius of curvature prior to starting the curved
pipelay.

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Specification 20.11

INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

b. Avoidance of existing obstacles such as communities, waterways, existing


pipelines, or other facilities. If minor route deviations within the ROW will
avoid such obstacles, Contractor shall consult with Company and vary the
route accordingly.

c. Utilization of ROW. Whenever possible, the pipeline should be routed near


one edge of the ROW to facilitate future usage of the remainder of the ROW.

3.4 Contractor shall submit drawings with its Proposal showing the location and
arrangement of all equipment set up areas. These drawings shall note any
proposed additions to the ROW required for equipment set up or for equipment
access.

3.5 If Contractor must dredge an area for equipment set up, Contractor shall provide
details of spoil disposal in Contractor’s Proposal.

3.6 All land required for pipeline route access, equipment set-up, or spoil disposal in
addition to the ROW provided by Company shall be fully described in Contractor’s
proposal. Unless otherwise noted in the Project Specification, acquisition of this
land, or permission for access across land not included in the ROW, shall be
obtained by Contractor.

3.7 Unless otherwise stated in the Technical Requirements, the minimum spacing
between pipelines shall be 6”. Two or more pipelines laid in parallel shall not
cross each other.

4.0 PIPELINE DESIGN

4.1 Pipeline Pressure and Stability Design

4.1.1 Unless otherwise stated in the technical requirements, Company will provide the
pipeline design for internal pressure and bottom stability.

4.2 Installation Stress Analysis

4.2.1 Contractor shall compute stresses to be expected during installation. Nowhere


shall the maximum total combined stress exceed 80 percent of the specified
minimum yield strength (SMYS) during laying operations.

4.2.2 Contractor shall design a pipeline installation method which ensures that the
pipeline stresses will be less than 80% of SMYS. Contractor shall provide
installation design calculations for Company’s review in the Installation Manual. If
installation aids such as ramps, winches, or other equipment are required,
Contractor shall also provide the design details of these aids.

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Specification 20.11

INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

4.2.3 Contractor shall submit details of the installation procedure with its Proposal:

a. Description of installation methods and equipment used


b. Launch ramp drawings, if used
c. Cable/winch system and anchoring system drawings, if used
d. Floatation design
e. Other measures to avoid pipe overstress, buckling, denting or excessive out-
of roundness caused by installation
f. Additional measures to prevent damage to corrosion coatings and anodes

4.3 Minimum Free Stress Radius

4.3.1 Contractor shall calculate a minimum route radius (“free stress radius”) for all
curved pipelines using the methods in Appendix V, Minimum Pipeline Bend
Radius.

4.3.2 Contractor shall analyze the pipeline route to determine the number and location
of fabricated bends required to supplement free stress radius curves to meet the
desired pipeline route. Unless otherwise noted in the Technical Requirements,
Contractor shall supply these bends in accordance with the material requirements
detailed in Section 5.0 “Materials”.

4.4 Pipeline and Waterway Crossings

4.4.1 Contractor shall design pipeline installation methods for waterway crossings and
for pipeline crossings which ensures that the pipeline stresses will be less than
80% of SMYS. Contractor shall provide design calculations for crossings for
Company’s review in the Installation Manual.

4.4.2 Company’s minimum design for waterway crossings is provided in Appendix III.

4.4.3 Company’s minimum design for pipeline crossings is provided in Appendix VI.

4.4.4 Deviation from these requirements shall be requested from Company in writing

5.0 MATERIALS

5.1 Company-Furnished Materials

5.1.1 Unless otherwise noted in the Project Specification, Company will furnish line pipe
in double random length joints, fully coated with coal tar epoxy or fusion bonded
enamel. Contractor shall examine all pipe upon receipt, and shall review with the
Company Representative any damaged pipe or coating.

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INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

5.1.2 If concrete coating is required for pipeline stability or mechanical protection,


Company will supply the pipe fully coated with concrete coating and anodes pre-
installed. Minimum concrete density will be 140 pcf.

5.1.3 If concrete coating is not required, Company will furnish “T-bar” Zinc bracelet
anodes to be field-installed by Contractor.

5.2 Contractor-Furnished Materials

5.2.1 Contractor shall furnish all materials not listed as provided by Company.

5.2.2 Contractor shall furnish all materials required for installation and testing of the
pipeline, including but not limited to temporary and permanent installation or
testing aids and consumables.

5.3 Material Minimum Standards

5.3.1 Minimum requirements for Contractor-furnished materials are provided in this


section, unless otherwise noted in the technical requirements.

5.3.2 Minimum Standard for Pipe:

 API 5L Seamless, ERW, or SAW (Grade “B” minimum)


 ASTM A106 Seamless, ERW, or SAW (Grade “B” minimum)

5.3.3 Contractor shall only use Company-approved manufacturers for ERW and SAW
pipe. A list of these manufacturers will be furnished by Company upon request.

5.3.4 Minimum Standard for Flanges:

 ASME/ANSI B16.5
 ASTM A105-71
 API Spec 6A

5.3.5 All flanges ANSI 300# and below shall be Raised Face (RF). All flanges ANSI
600# and above shall be Ring Type Joint (RTJ).

5.3.6 Minimum Standard for Gaskets:

 API 601 304SS spiral wound with chlorite mineral paper filler, Flexitallic style
 ANSI B16.20 octagonal iron ring, cadmium plated
 API Spec 6A iron ring, cadmium-plated

5.3.7 Insulating flanges shall be installed at the riser to platform piping connection.
Insulating flanges shall be designed to break electrical current flow by using

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MAMTECH SERVICES LIMITED
Specification 20.11

INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

nonmetallic, nonconducting gaskets, sleeves, and washers. Insulating flanges


shall be suitable for oil and gas service at the pipeline design pressure and
temperature, and the hydrostatic test pressure. Flanges shall be installed on
pipelines near or at the platform cellar deck level as approved by Company.
Insulating flange kits shall be manufactured by Central Plastics Co. or F. H.
Maloney Co., or Company-approved equal.

5.3.8 Minimum Standard for nuts and bolts:

 ASTM A193-B7 cadmium-plated stud bolts


 ASTM A354-BC cadmium-plated stud bolts
 ASTM A194-2H cadmium-plated nuts

5.3.9 Minimum Standard for Butt Weld Fittings:

 ASTM A234 Grade WPB


 ANSI B16.9

5.3.10 Minimum Standard for Socket Weld and Threaded Fittings:

 ASTM A105-71
 ANSI B16.11

5.3.11 Unless otherwise specified by Company, all ells 8” and greater in diameter shall
be a minimum of 8D. All ells 6” and smaller in diameter shall be a minimum of 3D.
Specialty bends shall be fabricated in accordance with CNL Specification 20.07
“Induction Bending”.

5.3.12 Minimum Standard for Plugs:

 ASTM A276 Type 410

5.3.13 Heat shrink sleeves for pipeline joints shall be Raychem, Canusa, or Company-
approved equal, applied in accordance with manufacturer’s requirements.

5.3.14 Each riser spool shall be a minimum 20’ joint. The joint shall be fully coated (20’)
with 14 mils thin film epoxy. Centered on the joint shall be a 10’ length of 1/2”
minimum thickness layer of Mark Tool Company Splashtron applied over the thin
film epoxy.

5.3.15 Unless otherwise required in the technical requirements, all risers shall be flanged
at both ends.

5.3.16 Minimum Standard for Pipe Support and Riser Clamp Steel:

 ASTM A36
 API 5L, Grade “B” (minimum)

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INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

5.3.17 All riser clamps shall include a 1/2” thick neoprene or vulancized rubber liner
installed between the clamp and the pipeline riser. If the riser is coated with
Splashtron at the clamp point, the liner may be omitted.

5.3.18 Riser clamps shall be studded with double nuts and washers on each end.

5.4 Material Handling

5.4.1 All pipe, coated or uncoated, shall be lifted using special lifting hooks designed to
protect coatings and pipe, and to provide stability during pipe lifting. Lifting hook
design shall be approved by Company, and hooks shall be equipped with a plate
curved to fit the curvature of the inside of the pipe. All such equipment shall be
kept in proper working order so as to prevent injury to the pipe and coating. The
use of tongs; bar pinchbars; chain or rope slings without canvas covers; slings
with protruding rivets; pipe hooks without proper padding; or any other handling
equipment found to be injurious to the coating shall not be permitted.

5.4.2 All joints and sections of coated and wrapped pipe shall be picked up clear of the
ground and not dragged over the ground. In the handling of coated pipe, impact
shall be minimized, and all skids supporting coated pipe shall be padded. During
the loading of pipe on trucks, rail cars, barges, etc., each length shall be lowered
to position without dropping, and each succeeding length shall rest evenly with
other lengths. For pipe loaded on trucks, suitable chains with padding shall be
used to secure the load to each bolster.

5.4.3 Bolsters on all trucks, rail cars or barges used for coated pipe transportation shall
have a bearing surface of not less than 12 inches to give necessary support to
the padding which protects the coating. Sacks partly filled with sand or sawdust
should be placed on the bolsters and between the outside bottom pipes and
bolster stakes. In general, maximum piling height on trucks, rail cars or barges
shall be limited to the maximum height recommended by the coating
manufacturer, and all chains, cable, or other equipment used for fastening the
load must be carefully padded.

5.4.5 Flanges, fittings, valves, insulating flanges and other materials shall be handled
and stored in a manner to preserve their condition, prevent loss and protect
against any damage and theft. Flanges, fittings, valves, insulating flanges and
other materials with finished surfaces shall be elevated to prevent contact with the
ground or other corrosive surfaces. Valves shall be stored with temporary
closures over the ends.

5.5 Material Security

5.5.1 Contractor is responsible for the security of all materials received by Contractor,
and at his sole cost shall replace any items that are stolen, lost, or damaged.

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Replacement items needed urgently shall be sent via “hot shot” or air freight at no
cost to Company.

6.0 SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL

6.1 Safety

6.1.1 Hot work on existing platforms shall be minimized. Contractor shall maximize
yard and off-site prefabrication to minimize welding in the area of petroleum
facilities.

6.1.2 Before hot work is authorized and started on any platform, there shall be thorough
communication between Company and Contractor. The nature of work to be
performed and all possible hazards shall be discussed in detail. Authorization for
hot work shall be evaluated on a daily basis.

6.1.3 No cutting, welding, or sandblasting shall be performed on platforms unless


authorized in writing, using a "Hot-Work Permit" form, by Company's Production
Supervisor. This authorization shall be secured by Company Representative in
charge.

6.1.4 All persons shall become familiar with the functions and locations of each
platform's emergency shut-ins and fire stations.

6.1.5 Calibrated gas sniffers shall be used to thoroughly test air quality prior to hot work
near existing petroleum facilities. Flame shall not be used to detect gas leaks.

6.1.6 There shall be a Contractor-furnished fire watch established on platforms before


the start of work. The fire watchman's only duty shall be that of the fire watch.
The fire watchman's orders shall be to know how to operate the fire extinguisher
properly and to have an extinguisher on the site near the work at all times.

6.1.7 Welding leads shall be completely insulated and in good condition. Hoses shall
be free of leaks and equipped with proper fittings, gauges, and regulators.

6.1.8 All welding machines utilized on any (operating or shut in) platform shall be
equipped with a spark arresting muffler. If the structure is not shut in
(“simultaneous operations”), all welding machines shall be tied into the platform
emergency shutdown system prior to commencement of welding operations. All
welding machines shall be checked to ensure that shutdown devices are
operating properly.

6.1.9 Contractor agrees that it will notify all employees and related subcontract
personnel, in writing, of Company's policy prohibiting illegal drugs, pyrotechnics,
firearms, dangerous weapons, and other contraband on premises and/or work
locations controlled by Company.

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6.1.10 Prior to arrival on-site, Contractor shall inspect all marine vessels and pipelaying
equipment for safety and provide Company with a report, including a plan to
correct any violations. Contractor shall plan installation work on a schedule
acceptable to Company from a safety viewpoint. In general, work shall be
allowed on a 12-hours a day basis (daylight hours only). Movement into, out of,
or around existing fields at night is prohibited.

6.1.11 All Contractor cranes shall be operated by qualified, authorized, experienced


crane operators thoroughly familiar with Contractor's safe operating procedures
and API RP-2D.

6.1.12 Contractor shall employ safety procedures during NDT, including but not limited to
shielding for both pipeline and riser construction.

6.1.13 Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to prevent pipeline damage from
Contractor’s spreads and equipment. Prior to dropping an anchor or spud, the
vessel Captain shall obtain approval of his location from the Contractor's
authorized representative.

6.2 Environmental

6.2.1 Contractor shall, as a minimum, comply with the environmental regulations of


Nigeria concerning air, water, and land quality. (For fabrication in countries other
than Nigeria, the environmental standards of that country shall, as a minimum, be
met.)

6.2.2 Contractor shall provide and utilize sewage treatment facilities on all spreads
(including lay barges and dredges).

6.2.3 Contractor shall dispose of trash and waste materials in proper disposal areas as
directed by the Agreement. Trash shall not be left on site or discharged into the
ground, air or water.

6.2.4 Contractor shall revegetate the pipeline route after completion of the pipeline.
Contractor shall plant local grasses and small plants along the disturbed area of
the ROW in a method similar to local growth patterns. Contractor shall submit the
revegetation plan to Company for review and approval.

7.0 WELDING QUALIFICATION AND INSPECTION

7.1 Codes and Standards

7.1.1 Welding shall conform to the latest edition of API STD 1104, Standard for Welding
Pipelines and Related Facilities, with the exceptions and additions noted herein.

7.2 Qualification of Welding Procedures

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INSTALLATION OF SWAMP PIPELINES

7.2.1 A minimum of sixty (60) days before production welding begins, Contractor shall
qualify the welding procedures to be used as prescribed by Section 2.0 of API
STD 1104, Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities. The
procedures shall be qualified no more than 6 years prior to the date proposed for
mobilization for pipeline welding. If the Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS)
and Procedure Qualification Records (PQR) are acceptable to Company,
qualification of new procedures may be waived.

7.2.2 If new WPS’s or PQR’s are required, Contractor shall bear all costs. PQR’s shall
be performed by an independent testing laboratory suitable to Company.
Company shall, at its option, witness the PQR’s.

7.2.3 Hardness and impact strength tests shall be run as part of the welding procedure
qualification on base, weld, and heat affected zone (HAZ) metal. Maximum
hardness shall not exceed Vickers 250 using a load not exceeding 10 kg. Charpy
impact testing procedures shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A370, Tests,
Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products, using
longitudinal V-notch specimens. Three specimens shall be tested in the weld and
HAZ metal for each test location. For all downhill fixed position (5G or 6G) weld
procedure tests shall be made at the top (12 o'clock) and side (3 or 9 o'clock)
locations. One side location (3 or 9 o'clock) shall be tested for uphill fixed position
(5G or 6G) weld procedures. Notch toughness values shall exceed 20 ft-lbs
average and 15 ft-lbs minimum at 32°F.

7.3 Qualification of Welders

7.3.1 Each welder shall pass a qualifying test as prescribed by Section 3.0 of API STD
1104, Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities. The quality of the
qualifying welds shall be determined by destructive tests. Qualification of welders
by radiography pursuant to Section 3.5 of API STD 1104 is not acceptable.

7.3.2 Testing of prospective welders shall be at Contractor's expense. Contractor shall


furnish welding materials and equipment, test equipment, and prepare the pipe
nipples.

7.3.3 All welder qualifications shall be witnessed and approved by Company.


Contractor shall notify Company a minimum of two weeks prior to the tests to
allow Company to arrange to send a Representative to the tests.

7.3.4 All welder qualifications shall be completed, and the certificates shall be submitted
to Company for review and Company approval, prior to crew mobilization.

7.3.5 Welders shall have their qualification certificates with picture I.D. with them at all
times while working.

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7.4 Welding Quality Control

7.4.1 Contractor shall submit a quality assurance control (QA/QC) program sixty (60)
days prior to the start of welding for approval by Company. This program shall
detail the following as a minimum:

a. Radiographic procedure. (Internal radiation versus external radiation)


b. Organization of the inspection and quality control program.
c. Third party inspection qualifications.
d. Reporting procedures.
e. Corrective action.

7.4.2 All pipeline welds shall be subjected to 100 percent radiographic inspection in
accordance with Sections 5.0, 6.0, and 8.0 of API STD 1104, Standard for
Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities. Any weld which lacks proper
workmanship or fails to meet the API STD 1104 criteria shall be rejected, repaired,
and retested at Contractor's expense.

7.4.3 Radiographic inspection shall be performed by a qualified third-party


subcontractor; self-examination by Contractor is not permitted. Technicians shall
be qualified to American Society of Nondestructive Testing (ASNT)
Recommended Practice No. SNT-TC-1A. Inspectors responsible for grading and
interpretation of radiographs shall be Technical Level II or III certified by ASNT
SNT-TC-1A, and helpers shall be SNT-TC-1A Level 1 minimum.

7.4.4 All radiographic film shall be identified with a weld number traceable to the weld
location in the pipeline. Company will not accept any radiographs without proper
identification.

7.4.5 Radiographic technique shall produce maximum contrast and good definition of
penetrameter holes and shall obtain a film density of 1.7 to 3.5 in the weld image.
Fluorescent intensifying screens shall not be used.

7.4.6 The inspection results shall be approved by Company. Company reserves the
right to require alteration of a radiographic procedure if the procedure is producing
unacceptable radiographs.

7.5 Ultrasonic or Dye Penetrant Examination

7.5.1 Where radiographic inspection does not clearly show compliance of the weld to
the technical requirements, Contractor shall inspect welds by ultrasonic or dye
penetrant techniques to assist in defect evaluation.

7.5.2 Equipment calibration, operator qualifications, and definitions of acceptability for


ultrasonic or dye penetrant examination shall conform to ASME Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Code, Section V, Nondestructive Examination.

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8.0 WELDING

8.1 Welding Procedure

8.1.1 All production welding shall be performed by qualified welders using approved
procedures.

8.1.2 All pipeline welding shall be performed using the shielded metal arc welding
(SMAW) process. Weld direction shall be downhill except for repairs.

8.1.3 Low hydrogen electrodes shall be protected from moisture and used within 2
hours of breaking the seal on their original (hermetically sealed) containers. If the
box has been open for more than 2 hours, but less than 8 hours, the rods shall be
placed in a heating box with the temperature at 225F (107C) for 8 hours
minimum; rods shall be used within 2 hours of removal from the hot box.
Electrodes exposed longer than 8 hours shall be reconditioned by storing in an
oven heated to 650-750F (340-400C) and heated for 1 hour.

8.1.4 Preheat and post-heat requirements shall be minimized and shall follow the
appropriate ANSI Code.

8.1.5 The welding procedure approved by Company shall be strictly adhered to at all
times with regard to welding parameters and environmental conditions. Welding
may not be performed when, in the judgment of Company, the quality of the
completed weld would be impaired by the prevailing weather conditions. These
conditions include, but are not limited to, airborne moisture and dirt particles, and
high winds. Windshields and enclosed welding stations may be used when
practical.

8.2 Cleaning Pipe Interior

8.2.1 Each joint of pipe shall be swabbed along its full length, immediately prior to
alignment with the pipeline. The swab shall incorporate a steel disc, minimum
1/4-inch thick, with a diameter 1/8-inch less than the nominal inside pipeline
diameter (ID). Swabbing shall remove all dirt, mill scale, and other foreign
substances inside the pipe.

8.2.2 In the event that the steel disc will not pass through a joint with the plane of the
disc at right angles to the pipe wall, that joint shall not be installed in the pipeline.
Each rejected joint of pipe shall be clearly marked as a reject, and removed from
the job site.

8.3 Weld Joint Preparation and Fit Up

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8.3.1 The line pipe may have a longitudinal seam. The longitudinal seams in adjoining
pipe lengths shall be staggered by not less than 20 degrees. In all bends, the
longitudinal seam shall be in the plane at right angles to the bend.

8.3.2 The surfaces to be welded shall be smooth, uniform, free from laminations, scale,
slag, grease, paint, and other foreign material which might adversely affect the
welding. Surface preparation shall utilize a motor-driven buffer, or other means
accepted by Company.

8.3.3 The butting ends of each pipe joint shall be accurately aligned to minimize the
offset between surfaces.

8.3.4 If the offset between butt-weld joints is greater than 1/16”, transition in accordance
with ANSI/ASME B31.4 Section 434.8.6 shall be made, except that the maximum
offset (tw-t) shall be equal to 1/16” rather than 3/32”.

8.3.5 If component ends must be trimmed to correct internal misalignment in


accordance with ANSI/ASME B31.4, the trimming shall not reduce the finished
wall thickness below the required wall thickness (tn as defined by ANSI/ASME
B31.4 Section 404) for the pipe. The required wall thickness (tn) is the design wall
thickness including mechanical, corrosion, and erosion allowances.

8.3.6 If the required misalignment taper in accordance with ANSI/ASME B31.4 would
result in a trimmed wall thickness less than the required wall thickness (tn),
Contractor shall fabricate a transition spool. This spool shall be fabricated from
material equal in grade to the highest grade material to be welded, and shall have
a wall thickness equal to the thicker pipe or fitting to be welded. The transition
piece length shall be no less than 1.5 pipe diameter in length (and at least 12” in
length). For pipe sizes greater than 24”, the transition spool length may be 1.0 X
pipe diameter. The transition spool shall be internally tapered at one end to match
the thickness of the thinner walled pipe or fitting, and beveled for welding. The
taper angle shall be approximately 4:1; tapers less than 14 or greater than 30
will not be accepted by Company. Contractor shall stencil all transition spools with
the pipe size, grade, and wall thickness and mark the location of the transition on
all “As Built” drawings.

8.4 Root Bead, Hot, and Fill Passes

8.4.1 Details of all alignment clamps shall be submitted to Company for approval.
Alignment clamps shall only be internal type and shall not be removed until
completion of the root bead. External alignment clamps shall only be used in
specific instances when approved in writing by Company. When external
alignment clamps are allowed, the root bead shall be in equal increments and
uniformly spaced around the circumference of the pipe. A cumulative weld length
of not less than 50 percent of the pipe circumference shall be completed before
removal of the clamps.

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8.4.2 After the root bead has been completed, the second bead (or hot pass) shall be
immediately applied in the same station as the root bead.

8.4.3 Succeeding beads may be applied in other welding stations. Before applying the
next bead, all scale, slag, and coatings shall be completely removed from each
pass with the use of a powered steel brush, except for the root pass where
grinding shall be acceptable.

8.4.4 Arc strikes or burns shall not be permitted.

8.4.5 The completed weld shall be thoroughly brushed and cleaned.

8.5 Back Welding

8.5.1 Back welding may be allowed only in fitting-to-fitting or pipe-to-fitting welds,


where, in Company's opinion, misalignment is actually encountered and has
caused or may cause rejection of the weld by radiographic inspection; and where,
in the Company's opinion, back welding would result in acceptance by
subsequent radiographic inspection.

8.5.2 Contractor shall develop and qualify a back welding procedure as described in
this specification.

8.5.3 Back welding shall not be performed at any point located more than five (5) pipe
diameters from an open end of the pipe or fitting.

8.5.4 Back welding shall be permitted only upon written approval by Company and
when no other reasonable alternative is feasible.

8.5.5 The following items shall be incorporated into Contractor's back-welding


procedure:

a. Before back welding, all foreign material shall be removed from the inside
surface by buffing or wire brushing.

b. All back welds shall be a full circumference.

c. The completed back weld shall be cleaned and sharp notches or grooves
carefully ground smooth.

d. Scale, coating, slag, and other foreign material shall be removed from the
inside of the pipeline after welding.

e. No internal arc burns shall be allowed. The welders electrode holder shall be
disconnected whenever the welder leaves the immediate weld location. The
electrode shall only be made hot at the weld location.

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8.6 Weld Repairs

8.6.1 The repairability of defects shall be determined in accordance with Section 7.0 of
API STD 1104, Standard for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities, and any
repairs to root and filler beads must receive prior approval of Company.

8.6.2 Only one repair attempt shall be allowed on a pipe weld. Multiple attempts shall
not be accepted.

8.6.3 If more than one defect in a pipe weld requires repair, the entire weld shall be
removed. Unrepairable defects, including arc burns outside the weld area, shall
be removed at Contractor's expense by cutting out a cylinder of pipe a minimum
of one diameter in length, centered around the defect, and joining the remaining
sections per the approved welding procedure. Alternately, Contractor shall cut out
a cylinder of pipe, a minimum of one diameter in length, centered around the
defect, and replace the removed section with new pipe at least one diameter in
length.

8.6.4 Circumferential welds shall be separated by a distance equal to or greater than


one pipe diameter.

8.6.5 Repaired areas shall be re-examined by radiography at Contractor’s sole


expense.

9.0 CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS

9.1 Installation Manual

9.1.1 Contractor shall issue an installation manual in preliminary form at least sixty (60)
days prior to mobilization for installation. At least thirty (30) days prior to
mobilization for pipelaying, a preinstallation meeting shall be held with Company
to discuss in detail the installation plan. Contractor shall not mobilize for
installation until Company has reviewed and approved, in writing, the installation
plan. The plan shall cover the items included in this section.

9.1.2 Schedule.

* Procurement, fabrication, and installation schedule, updated from bid


schedule, with critical path activities highlighted. This schedule shall include
Company responsibilities such as land acquisition or materials provision in
addition to Contractor responsibilities.

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9.1.3 Staffing.

 Contractor shall provide organization charts for the installation crew and
project management which indicate site managers and reporting relationships
for the project. For the installation portion of the work, staffing charts with the
proposed number of workers and their origins shall be provided.

9.1.4 Company responsibilities.

 A list of all items perceived by Contractor to be Company responsibilities as


outlined in the technical requirements.

9.1.5 Contractor-furnished materials.

 Specification and description of materials and equipment furnished by


Contractor.
 Procurement schedule for materials.
 Transport and importation schedule for special installation equipment such as
jet pumps, hydrotest pumps, winches, etc.

9.1.6 Design and procedure for installation, abandonment, and recovery of the pipeline.

 Design calculations demonstrating Contractor’s compliance with the


requirements in Section 4.0.
 A description of the construction methods proposed for pipeline trenching,
installation, and burial. The installation procedures required in Section 4.0
shall be updated if necessary and included, with trenching and burial
procedures.

9.1.7 Design and procedure for installation waterway crossings, pipeline crossings, and
tie-ins.

* Design calculations demonstrating Contractor’s compliance with the


requirements in Section 4.0.
* Procedure for installing crossings of existing pipelines.
* Procedure and drawings for constructing waterway crossings.

9.1.8 Quantity and description of the equipment to be employed during installation.

 Lay Barges
 Dredges: size, type (bucket/suction)
 Marsh buggies
 Support vessels such as tugs, cargo barges, accommodations barges, etc.

9.1.9 QA/QC plan.

 Procedure Specifications and Records (WPS & PQR).

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 Welder qualifications (WPQ).


 Radiographic plan, including technician qualifications.
 Visual inspection plan and staffing.
 Field joint coating procedure, including repairs to damaged yard coating,
inspection, and repair.
 Procedure to repair damage to the pipeline.
 Procedure for gauging and hydrostatically testing the pipeline.

9.1.10 Dewatering plan.

 Procedure for cleaning and de-watering the pipelines, and properly disposing
of test water.

9.1.11 Safety plan.

 Contractor’s generic plan, adapted to the scope of Project work such as Hot
Work or other special safety issues.

9.1.12 Environmental protection plan.

 Plans for pollution prevention and control, including air, water, and land quality.
Site remediation measures, if any, shall also be described.

9.1.13 Community relations plan.

 Plan for hiring and utilization of local workforce and description of other
community relations activities.

9.1.14 Contractor-furnished accommodations and communication equipment.

 Accommodations and communication equipment planned for site and


available for use by Company.
 As a minimum, Contractor shall provide accommodations for 4 Company
inspectors (minimum 1 private room with private bath).

9.1.15 Installation drawings.

 Pipeline route maps, including the minimum horizontal plane bend radius to
be used in laying the pipe
 Spoil disposal drawings
 Equipment set-up drawings
 Waterway and Pipeline Crossing drawings

9.2 Surveying

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9.2.1 Prior to construction, Contractor shall mark the route of the pipeline at locations
considered critical to operations. Contractor shall furnish all equipment necessary
to install markers along the route of the pipeline, including pipeline crossings,
curved routes, terminations, etc. Contractor shall maintain a check on markers
after they have been placed, and replace them as necessary.

9.2.2 Company facility maps indicate approximate location of pipelines, existing and
proposed. Unless otherwise specified, Company will not mark existing pipelines
or other hazards within the installation area. Prior to moving heavy machinery to
the work site, Contractor shall locate and mark all existing pipelines, facilities and
other potential hazards hidden below water or land.

9.2.3 Contractor shall furnish the equipment, surveyors, and services necessary to
survey, mark, and maintain proper pipeline alignment before, during and after
laying operations until final acceptance of the lines by Company. Only surveyors
acceptable to Company shall be employed.

9.2.4 Contractor shall provide the pipeline “As-Built”. Further details regarding the “As-
Built” requirements are located in Section 13.2 of this Specification.

9.3 Pipeline Installation

9.3.1 Laying techniques shall, at a minimum, be equal to industry practice. The pipeline
shall be welded, placed in its final position, buried, and tested without damaging
or distorting the pipe or coatings. Contractor is responsible for verifying that the
chosen installation method will not introduce combined stresses in the pipe in
excess of 80 percent of the SMYS.

9.3.2 Contractor shall provide all material, equipment, and labor for installation and
testing of the pipeline that is not specifically designated as Company-provided.

9.3.3 In no instance shall a pipeline bend be made that exceeds the free stress radius
of the pipe.

9.3.4 Contractor shall provide a buckle detector for pipes 20 inches and larger, and
shall prepare a buckle detection procedure for approval by Company. This
procedure shall be included in the Pipeline Installation Manual.

9.4 Field Joint Coating

9.4.1 After the field welds have been radiographed, visually examined, and accepted by
Company, the uncoated portion of pipe at the field joints shall be thoroughly
cleaned using approved scrapers and steel wire brushes to remove oxides and
other loose material.

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9.4.2 Contractor shall remove any coating not firmly bonded to the pipe. The pipe
surface shall be free of grease, moisture, dirt, rust, weld spatter, and other foreign
material that may impair the proper bonding of the coating. The exposed portion
of the yard applied corrosion coating shall be cleaned with a wire brush to remove
all foreign material.

9.4.3 All field joints shall receive a heat shrinkable sleeve acceptable for the service
temperature of the line and for the hottest exposure temperature during mastic
application. The heat shrinkable sleeving shall be applied according to the
manufacturer's specifications.

9.4.4 When hot mastic is used on the field joints, Contractor shall perform a test in
which hot mastic is applied and after cooling, removed to inspect the shrinkable
sleeve. If the shrinkable sleeve is acceptable in the opinion of Company, the
mastic temperature used in this test shall become the maximum application
temperature allowed.

9.4.5 The coated field joint with heat shrinkable sleeve applied shall be inspected
before mastic application with a full circle electric holiday detector.

9.4.6 Contractor shall provide instrumentation for the purpose of checking and adjusting
the calibration of the holiday detector. The holiday detector shall be checked on
the initial setting and every six hours thereafter while in use.

9.4.7 The holiday test shall be made by Contractor, at his expense, to the satisfaction of
Company. The holiday test shall be performed at the lesser of the following
voltages:

 The voltage recommended by the shrinkable sleeve manufacturer.


 The voltage setting for the adjacent corrosion coating.

9.4.8 If the field joint coating is unacceptable at any stage, the entire coating shall be
removed, and the joint shall be cleaned, recoated, and reinspected.

9.5 Mastic Application

9.5.1 If a pipeline has a concrete weight coating, the field joints shall be coated with
either Bredero Price, "Special Mastic Mix," or Joint System's Coumite. Mastic
shall be applied after inspection and acceptance of the heat shrinkable sleeve.
The hot mastic shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations.

9.5.2 The mastic coating shall be applied over the shrinkable sleeve to a thickness flush
with the outside diameter of the concrete weight coating.

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9.5.3 The mastic coating shall be continuous and completely bonded to the shrinkable
sleeve, to the exposed adjoining corrosion coating and to the concrete weight
coating at both ends of the field joint.

9.5.4 Preparation and application of the mastic shall comply with the following:

a. Contractor shall heat the mastic materials in a remelt kettle equipped with a
stirrer, to the temperature recommended by the manufacturer. After the
mastic material fluidizes, it shall be stirred to ensure suspension of the
aggregate in the mix. Accurate portable thermometers shall be used for
checking the mastic temperature. Any material which is overheated shall be
disposed of and replaced with a new mix.

b. If it should become necessary to hold the mastic material in the kettle for an
extended period, the lid shall be closed, the fire decreased, and a small
amount of asphalt shall be added to replace the asphalt driven off by the
continued application of heat. The asphalt content of the mix shall not exceed
20 percent by weight.

c. An expendable, pre-cut, 26 to 28 gauge sheet metal form shall be wrapped


over the entire field joint area and extended back on both sides of the plant
applied weight coating. This form shall be securely banded at each end over
the weight coating. During filling, Contractor shall agitate or vibrate the mastic
and sheet metal form to ensure complete filling and elimination of voids or
honeycombing. After filling, the opening shall be closed and banded shut.
Then, the entire area shall be spray-cooled until water submersion. The metal
form shall remain on the field joint, and shall not be allowed to come in
contact with an anode.

9.5.5 Contractor may install a concrete coated pipeline without filling in the joint area, if
Contractor's equipment can do so without damaging the coating, and if prior
written approval has been granted by Company. If Company determines during
laying operations that mastic should be applied to protect the coating, then
Contractor shall provide and install mastic per Company’s requirements.

9.6 Anode Installation

9.6.1 For concrete-coated pipe, Company will provide the pipe with coating and anodes
pre-installed.

9.6.2 For pipe not coated with concrete, Company will provide Zinc alloy anode
bracelets for field installation by Contractor. Anode spacing shall be in
accordance with Appendix VII and the technical requirements. The first anode on
the pipeline shall be placed no closer than 100 feet nor farther than 250 feet from
the risers.

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9.6.3 Field-installed anodes shall be installed nominally at the center of the individual
40-foot pipe joints. Anodes shall not contact any protective metal banding. A
typical anode attachment to the pipeline is indicated in Appendix VIII.

9.6.4 Contractor shall remove the corrosion coating from the pipe such that clean bare
pipe metal is exposed for welding the T-shaped plates. The steel surfaces on the
anode to be welded shall also be cleaned to bare metal.

9.6.5 The anode shall be placed on the pipe and carefully aligned so that the bonding
plates are in contact with the prepared bare metal surfaces. After checking the
alignment of the two bracelet halves, they shall be welded together. The molded
cylindrical type anode bracelets shall be connected to the pipeline by
circumferentially welding T-shaped plates in four evenly spaced places for each
bracelet.

9.6.6 The final anode assembly shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's
recommendations.

9.6.7 After the anode has been installed, the weld area shall be thoroughly cleaned
with a wire brush. The corrosion coat on all steel surfaces shall be repaired,
including the pipe bonding plates which have been exposed for welding purposes.
Care shall be exercised to prevent the coating from touching the outer face of the
anode.

9.6.8 During installation of the anodes, all aspects of the installation process shall be
available for inspection by Company. Any anode assembly not meeting the
technical requirements, including this specification, manufacturer's
recommendations, or referenced documents, shall be rejected. Rejected
assemblies shall be dismantled and reassembled in compliance with the technical
requirements.

9.7 Pipeline Abandonment and Recovery

9.7.1 Should weather, seas, or malfunction of laying endanger the pipeline,


abandonment operations shall be executed. Pipeline recovery shall be initiated
with the return of favorable environmental and/or operating conditions. Pipe
stresses for both abandonment and recovery shall not exceed 80 percent of
SMYS in accordance with Section 4.0.

9.7.2 In abandonment, Contractor shall securely seal the pipe end with a welded pipe
cap and mark the abandoned line before leaving the site. This process shall also
be followed for “pre-installed” pipelines and flowlines, when risers and tie-ins to
facilities will be completed at a later date by others.

9.7.3 Company shall be consulted prior to suspension or resumption of the laying


operation.

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9.8 Pipeline Crossings

9.8.1 A minimum 0.50 meter clearance shall be maintained between pipelines at


crossing points by using sand/cement bags, grout-filled bags or pillow-type
separators in accordance with Appendix VI.

9.8.2 The minimum crossing angle should be 45 degrees unless otherwise approved by
Company.

9.8.3 Crossings shall be avoided near platforms.

9.9 Waterway Crossings

9.9.1 If the pipeline will be pulled across the waterway, Contractor shall have a
calibrated tension indicator to monitor the tension on the pipe during the pull to
ensure that maximum stress levels are not exceeded.

9.9.2 Contractor shall reinstate banks of navigable waterways to prevent bank erosion
of all navigable waterways. Contractor shall submit drawings detailing the
proposed method of reinstatement (such as sand/cement bags, geotechnical
material, etc.). The design shall ensure that the pipelines are not damaged by
bank reinstatement materials. Local vegetation, if any, shall be planted in the
disturbed area to further discourage erosion.

9.9.3 All waterways shall be crossed at a 90 degree angle unless otherwise approved
by Company.

9.9.4 Contractor shall fabricate and install “Pipeline Crossing” signs to be placed at
crossings of navigable waterways. The pipeline sign posts shall be installed
parallel to the waterway bank, with the posts straddling the pipeline.
Requirements for Pipeline Crossing signs are provided in Appendix III.

9.10 Pipeline Burial

9.10.1 Pipelines and flowlines shall be buried with the top of the pipe a minimum of 1
meter below the sea bottom for the entire length of the pipeline or flowline. At
navigable waterway crossings, the pipeline or flowline shall be buried a minimum
of 3 meters below the mudline, or 6 meters below mean low water (MLW),
whichever is greatest.

9.10.2 The maximum allowable unsupported pipeline span shall be limited to 20 feet for
all pipelines. Contractor shall propose for Company approval, a remedial action
plan for supporting spans over 20 feet.

9.10.3 Liquid traps or low spots on the final pipeline configuration shall be minimized.

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9.11 Riser Installation

9.11.1 Contractor shall fabricate and install bolted clamps to attach the riser to the fixed
platform structure. The clamp on the pipeline riser shall also be bolted.

9.11.2 Each riser shall be fabricated with an extension of 1 meter at the riser bend (to
account for 1 meter pipeline burial).

9.11.3 The coated riser joint shall be installed in the riser equidistant above and below
the mean water level (MWL).

9.11.4 Pipe cleaning and coating repair of "Splashtron" coating shall be performed as
per this specification and the manufacturer's recommendations. If coating
damage is too great to be repaired with the neoprene material in one split sleeve
the joint shall be rejected. For small holidays or damaged areas, a patch may be
cut from the sleeve to fit the cleaned area rather than removing a strip around the
entire circumference of the pipe. All repairs must be covered completely with a
shrink sleeve. Adequate time shall be allowed for epoxy bond material to cure to
a degree suitable for handling before passing the repair over barge rollers.
Additional heating of the shrink sleeve may be employed to accelerate curing.
However, temperatures shall be maintained within the manufacturer's
recommended limits for all components.

10.0 FIELD REPAIRS

10.1 General

10.1.1 Contractor shall repair any pipe or coating damage which in Company opinion
affects the useful life or mechanical integrity of the pipeline.

10.2 Corrosion Coating and Shrinkable Sleeves

10.2.1 Field repairs to corrosion coatings shall be completed with materials and methods
compatible with the parent coating. For fusion bonded epoxy coatings this shall
be a two-part epoxy patch coating system recommended by the corrosion coating
manufacturer, or a shrinkable sleeve approved by Company.

10.2.2 Repairs of shrinkable sleeves shall be made by removal of the damaged sleeve
and application of another sleeve.

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10.3 Concrete Weight Coating

10.3.1 Prior to loading each joint of pipe onto the lay barge, Contractor shall inspect for
damage to the weight coating. Should damage be discovered prior to loading,
Contractor shall make all repairs that are necessary. Any repairs to concrete
coating shall be made a minimum of thirty-six (36) hours prior to further handling.

10.3.2 The following criteria shall be used for repairing hardened concrete weight coating
which has spalled due to compression or shearing caused by impact against other
objects. Spalling is defined as damage which causes a loss in concrete of more
than 25 percent of the total thickness of the coating at the point of damage.

a. Damage due to spalling of an area of less than one square foot where the
remaining concrete is sound may be accepted without repairs.

b. Damage due to spalling of an area of 1 to 3 square feet shall have the


remaining concrete in the damaged area removed as necessary to expose
the reinforcing steel throughout the damaged area. Edges of the spalled area
shall be undercut so as to provide a keylock for the repair material. A stiff
mixture of cement, water, and aggregate shall be troweled into and through
the reinforcement and built up until the surface is level with the coating around
the repair. The coating shall be moist-cured a minimum of 36 hours prior to
further handling of the pipe. The pipe shall then be carefully laid with the
repaired area topmost.

c. Damage due to spalling of an area of more than three square feet shall have
the coating removed around the entire periphery of the pipe throughout the
entire damaged area. A repair shall be made by restoring the reinforcing with
a metal form and pouring a complete replacement of concrete. The mixture
shall be one part cement to three parts of aggregate and the necessary water
to produce a slump not to exceed four inches. The resulting coating shall be
equal in weight, density, uniformity, thickness, strength, and characteristics to
the originally applied coating. The pipe shall then be carefully laid in a
position where it shall be allowed to remain a minimum of 36 hours prior to
further handling.

10.3.3 If the concrete weight coating is damaged to an extent that it is loose from the
pipe and subject to spalling, it shall be repaired by removing all loose material and
replacing it with Bredero Price, "Special Mastic Mix." Company's decision
concerning the determination of what is "loose" weight coating and subject to
spalling shall be final.

10.3.4 Cracks in the concrete weight coating due to excessive deflection of pipe in
handling or storage shall be acceptable unless they cause spalling.

10.4 Damage to Both Concrete Weight and Corrosion Coatings

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10.4.1 Contractor shall remove all coating material within three inches in all directions of
a defect affecting both concrete weight and corrosion coatings.

10.4.2 The area shall be tapered to the outside on a slope of approximately two parts
vertical, to one part horizontal.

10.4.3 Contractor then shall remove all intermediate (if any) and corrosion coatings
within two inches of the defect.

10.4.4 Contractor shall then wire brush the defect area, taking care to feather into the
undamaged corrosion coating surrounding the defect.

10.4.5 Immediately following, Contractor shall patch the corrosion coating using a
two part epoxy coating system recommended by the corrosion coating
manufacturer.

10.4.6 The remainder of the patch shall be filled with Bredero Price, "Special Mastic Mix"
as specified in Section 10.3 above.

10.4.7 Contractor shall place a permanent metal protective form covering over all
repaired areas on the pipeline.

10.4.8 Prior to submersion and burial of the pipe, Contractor shall subject all field repairs
to coatings to a continuous electric holiday detector test or "jeep" test to check for
holidays, pinholes, and discontinuities. This test shall be conducted to the
satisfaction of Company. The detector shall be an approved circular ring with
indicator. The test voltage shall be between 100 and 150 VDC per nominal mil of
coating. Defects shall be repaired and retested.

10.5 Pipe Damage

10.5.1 Dents and buckles shall be removed from the pipe by removing the damaged
length from the line. The cutout shall be the length of the damaged area plus at
least one pipe diameter on each side. The pipe shall then be rejoined by a girth
weld in compliance with this specification. Field joint coating shall also be applied
as described in this specification.

10.5.2 Damage detected prior to passage of the damaged area into the water shall be
immediately repaired.

10.6 Weight Coating Damage Detected After Installation

10.6.1 Acceptance criteria for weight coating after installing the pipeline shall be as
follows:

a. Cracking shall not be cause for rejection.

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b. Loose or spalled concrete up to ten percent of the surface area of individual


joints shall be allowed with no requirement to restore nominal design negative
buoyancy.

c. Spalling in excess of ten percent of the surface area of a joint or areas of


spalling on adjacent joints shall be reviewed on a case-by-case basis to
determine the need to restore nominal design negative buoyancy.

10.6.2 Repairs to damaged coating shall be as follows:

a. Procedures to repair any damage shall be approved by Company prior to start


of any repair activity.

b. Loose or partially spalled concrete shall be removed if necessary to ensure


concrete wire reinforcement does not touch the pipe and to allow visual
inspection of corrosion coating.

c. If required to restore negative buoyancy, grout bags or sand bags shall be


placed over the pipeline.

11.0 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE TESTING

11.1 General

11.1.1 Pipelines and risers shall be hydrostatically pressure tested in accordance with
the applicable codes and the Technical Requirements. API RP 1110,
Recommended Practice for the Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipelines,
shall be the minimum performance standard.

11.1.2 Contractor shall perform the work necessary to accomplish a successful test, and
shall provide all materials, equipment, and test apparatus necessary.

11.1.3 Contractor shall submit the procedure for pressure testing and dewatering all
pipelines and risers for Company approval in the Pipeline Installation Manual.
This plan shall be reviewed at the Preinstallation Meeting and must be approved
in writing by Company prior to Contractor mobilization for installation.
Calculations shall be provided for the volumes of all required liquids.

11.1.4 Contractor shall provide notification to Company of the date of the hydrotest at
least two weeks in advance of the hydrotest. Company and government officials
(Department of Petroleum Resources) shall witness all pressure tests. A
successful test shall not be achieved until Company approves the test in writing.

11.2 Materials and Equipment

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11.2.1 All materials and equipment, including, but not limited to, test instruments, shall be
approved by Company.

11.2.2 Contractor shall furnish all materials including temporary pig launchers and
receivers, cleaning and gauging pigs, chemicals, inhibitors, test instruments, test
headers, water strainers and filters, pumps to fill and pressure the line, meters, air
compressors, scrapers, extra scraper brushes and cups, plus all piping incidental
to the testing program. Contractor shall furnish portable radio equipment for use
by both Contractor and Company. The radio shall permit clear communications
along the working portion of the pipeline spread.

11.2.3 Contractor shall calibrate and certify the accuracy of the test instruments before
and after the test using certified equipment approved by Company. Certificates
including with serial numbers and certification dates shall be provided by
Contractor for Company records. Instruments used for calibration of test
instruments shall have been calibrated within the 6 months prior to the test.

11.2.4 Contractor shall furnish a weatherproof enclosure for pressure recorders,


calibration equipment, and test personnel at the data collection site of each test
section during the testing operations.

11.2.5 Contractor shall furnish sufficient lighting in the compressor, pump, and test
enclosure and test header areas during periods of darkness, when testing
operations are in process.

11.3 Filling the Pipeline

11.3.1 The line shall be filled with clean filtered water. Suspended material in the water
shall be removed by a filter capable of removing 99 percent of all particles 92
microns in diameter and larger (equivalent to using a 100 x 100 wire-mesh
screen). If suspended material is pumped into the line because of faulty
equipment or careless workmanship, Contractor shall flush the line with clean
water to the satisfaction of the Company.

11.3.2 A meter of sufficient size and accuracy shall be used to measure the quantity of
water injected into each test section of the pipeline.

11.3.3 Unless otherwise specified by Company, biocide and corrosion inhibiting


chemicals are not required for the hydrotest water.

11.3.4 If the technical requirements specify that biocide and corrosion inhibitor are
required, Contractor shall furnish and inject Treatolite XC102 biocide into the test
water at a concentration of 500 ppm. Contractor shall furnish and inject Treatolite
KW32 corrosion inhibitor, in addition to the biocide, at a concentration of 100 ppm.
Contractor shall confirm that the biocide and corrosion inhibitor are compatible

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with the test water at the above concentrations before injecting the test water into
the pipeline.

11.4 Cleaning and Gauging

11.4.1 While filling the pipeline, a minimum of two wire-brush type cleaning pigs
(approximately 200 feet apart) shall be passed through the pipeline at a minimum
velocity of two miles per hour. The cleaning pigs shall be manufactured by T. D.
Williamson. The bypass ports on the cleaning pigs shall be open to keep debris
suspended in front of the pigs during the cleaning run.

11.4.2 After cleaning, the internal diameter of the pipeline shall be examined for dents
and buckles by running a gauging pig. The gauging pig shall be a T. D.
Williamson rubber-cupped pig with a 1/4-inch thick steel or 3/8-inch thick
aluminum gauging plate that is the smallest inside pipeline diameter minus 1/2
inch, or 93 percent of the smallest inside pipeline diameter, whichever is larger.

11.4.3 Any pig which becomes stuck in the pipeline during cleaning and gauging
operations shall be removed by Contractor.

11.5 Inspection

11.5.1 After running the gauging pig, Contractor shall remove the pig from the pipeline in
the presence of Company and examine the gauging plate to determine if internal
obstructions exist within the pipeline.

11.5.2 If an internal obstruction is detected, Contractor shall locate and remove the
obstruction.

11.5.3 The gauging pig shall then be run again to verify that the repairs were properly
performed and that the line is free of obstructions.

11.5.4 As an alternate to running the gauging pig, Contractor may recommend running a
caliper log. Prior approval by Company shall be required for this method.

11.6 Hydrostatic Pressure Test

11.6.1 Contractor shall hydrostatically pressure test each section of the pipeline, risers,
and related facilities after approval to proceed is given by Company. All work on
the pipeline, including burial and crossings, shall be completed prior to final
hydrotest.

11.6.2 The test pressure shall be the lesser of either 90 percent SMYS of the pipe, or
150 percent of the maximum allowable working pressure of the lowest rated valve
or fitting in the section under test.

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11.6.3 All mainline block valves included within the test section shall be locked in the
open position. Test pressure shall not be applied against closed mainline block
valves. All testing shall be against blinds, test heads, or test valves which shall be
removed after completion of the test.

11.6.4 At least one 24-hour pressure recorder and one 24-hour temperature recorder
shall be provided. The recording gauge shall be connected to the test section
with a manifold for connecting to the recording gauge, indicating gauge and dead
weight tester. The manifold shall be valved to permit the isolation of individual
instruments from the section of pipe under test.

11.6.5 After the line is filled with water and all air is purged, the pressure shall be raised
to a point 2 percent above the specified test pressure and held for one hour.
Sufficient water shall be released to lower the pressure at the control point to the
specified test pressure. This test pressure shall be held for a minimum of eight
continuous hours.

11.6.6 Contractor shall periodically record dead weight tester readings. Company may
require, and witness, calibration tests of the dead weight tester. The pressure
charts and log of the dead weight tester readings shall be signed by both
Company and Contractor.

11.7 Defect Repair

11.7.1 If leaks develop during the testing of a section of the pipeline, Contractor shall
determine the location of the leaks and shall make repairs and retest the section
of the pipeline in accordance with the above testing procedure until the specified
pressure has been maintained for the minimum test period. The repair procedure
shall be approved by Company before the repairs begin. After a leak is repaired
and prior to retesting the line, Contractor shall remove the air from the section of
pipeline. The method of air removal shall be approved by Company.

11.8 Acceptance & Dewatering

11.8.1 After acceptance of the hydrostatic pressure test, the pressure shall be released
until atmospheric pressure has been reached at the control point. Reduction of
pressure shall be conducted in such a manner as to prevent vibration, shock, or
damage to the pipeline facilities.

11.8.2 Contractor shall purge the pipeline of all test water by running a series of scrapers
through the pipeline until no free water is removed from the last scraper run.
These scrapers may be driven by air. Contractor shall obtain prior written
approval from Company prior to purging the line.

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11.8.3 Contractor shall abide by all local laws and regulations with regard to the disposal
of the test water.

11.9 Test Report

11.9.1 Contractor shall prepare and submit to Company five (5) sets of the complete test
report, which shall include the following minimum requirements:

a. Detailed description of test equipment and a diagram of the test setup, the
location of blind flanges and skillets.
b. Test temperature recording charts.
c. Test pressure recording charts.
d. Table of dead weight tester readings.
e. Pressure and temperature recorder charts.

11.9.2 Each pressure and temperature recorder chart shall show:

a. The name of the Company Representative witnessing the test.


b. The name and address of the testing company providing the recorders.
c. The date, starting time, and duration of the test.
d. The minimum test pressure.
e. The test medium.
f. A description of the facility being tested including the section location and
pipeline station number.
g. An explanation of any pressure discontinuities that appear on any chart.

11.9.3 The official testing report records, including certification records,


pressure/temperature charts and explanatory statements, shall be adequately
bound in complete sets, certified by a registered engineer, and delivered to
Company.

12.0 PRECOMMISSIONING AND START-UP

12.1 The pipeline shall be considered "ready for commissioning" when it has been
completed in accordance with the technical requirements, and the
precommissioning activities have been completed, witnessed and approved by
Company.

12.2 Contractor shall remove all temporary supports and bracing installed on risers,
piping assemblies, or other equipment.

12.3 Contractor shall perform all operational tightness testing, and check all pipe
supports, riser clamps, and guides for the proper setting and thickness.

12.4 Contractor shall remove excess materials, including pipe.

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12.5 Contractor shall prepare a completion certificate as each phase of the pipeline is
completed and shall submit the completion certificate to Company for approval.
The completion certificate shall be used to determine when the pipeline is "ready
for commissioning."

13.0 DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS

13.1 Daily Field Reports

13.1.1 During pipeline installation, Contractor shall prepare a daily activities report by 8
p.m. each evening to submit to Company for approval. The daily report shall
include, as a minimum, the following:

a. A daily forecast of all work to be performed the next day, and present/future
known vessel locations and movements.
b. Status of all operations.
c. Time log around the clock for all the activities directly or indirectly affecting the
pipe laying operation.
d. Pipe tally showing joint numbers, pipe section lengths, and weights of pipe
installed daily. A pipe tally report shall be submitted upon completion of each
pipeline, and shall be in both metric and English units.
e. Daily radiography reports detailing all welds and repairs to welds.
f. Field joint coating inspection and repair reports.
g. Pipe joints removed from the pipeline due to damage and/or in accordance
with this specification.
h. Hourly recording on Company Pipeline Laying Data Sheet. (See Appendix
VIII)
i. Diving reports shall be submitted upon completion of each dive.
j. Accident reports shall be submitted within 24 hours for any person receiving
treatment from Contractor's Medical personnel for an injury.

13.2 As-Built Survey

13.2.1 Contractor shall provide, within 30 calendar days after acceptance, reproducible
"As-Built" drawings which shall define the final route alignments for pipelines
based on an accurate survey made by Contractor's surveyors.

13.2.2 “As-Built” drawings shall indicate the following as a minimum:

a. As-laid pipeline route


b. Elevation profile of pipeline
c. Anode spacing, and location of end anodes
d. Burial details
e. Coating limits
f. Riser and riser clamp details
g. Crossing details

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h. Unsupported span lengths


i. Results of post-installation survey

13.2.3 The As-Built pipeline profile shall provide pipeline elevations at a minimum of
every 100 meters. The pipeline plan shall provide pipeline coordinates every 100
meters, at all changes in pipeline direction (PI’s), and at all tie-in valves or other
pipeline appurtenances. Pipeline size, pipe grade and schedule, anode size and
anode spacing shall also be included on the As-Built drawings.

13.2.4 If, in the opinion of Company, the survey results submitted by Contractor do not
indicate that the installation specifications have been met, Contractor shall return
to the area of non-compliance and re-complete the work to comply with the
Contract requirements.

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APPENDIX I
STANDARDS AND CODES

1. INDUSTRY STANDARDS

1.1 American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

1.1.1 B16.5 Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings

1.1.2 B31.4 Liquid Petroleum Transportation Systems

1.1.3 B31.8 Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping System (1990 Issue)

1.2 American Petroleum Institute (API)

1.2.1 6D Specification for Pipeline Valves, End Closures, Connectors and Swivels

1.2.2 1104 Standards for Welding Pipelines and Related Facilities

1.2.3 RP-2D Recommended Practice for Operation and Maintenance of Offshore


Cranes

1.2.4 RP-5L1 Recommended Practice for Railroad Transportation of Line Pipe

1.2.5 RP-5L5 Recommended Practice for Marine Transportation of Line Pipe

1.2.6 RP-5L6 Recommended Practice for Transportation of Line Pipe on Inland


Waterways

1.2.7 RP-5L8 Recommended Practice for Field Inspection of New Line Pipe

1.2.8 RP-1110 Recommended Practice for Pressure Testing of Liquid Petroleum


Pipelines

1.2.9 RP-1111 Recommended Practice for Design, Construction, Operation and


Maintenance of Offshore Hydro-Carbon Pipelines (1991 Issue)

1.3 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

1.3.1 Sect. V Nondestructive Examination, Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code

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APPENDIX I - Continued

1.3 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

1.3.1 A-370 Tests, Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products

1.4 National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)

1.4.1 RP-06-75 Recommended Practice: Corrosion Control on Offshore Steel


Pipelines

1.5 Nigerian Ministry of Petroleum Resources

1.5.1 Guidelines and Procedures for the Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of
Oil and Gas Pipelines and Their Ancillary Facilities

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APPENDIX II
SHALLOW HAZARDS ANALYSIS

1.0 GENERAL

1.1 Detailed shallow hazards analyses of all pipeline routes is required.

1.2 Contractor shall survey and assess the subsurface geologic hazards along the
pipeline route, including but not limited to:

 Rocks, large roots, and other potential natural hazards to trenching and
pipeline installation

 Man-made hazards such as pipelines, wellheads, shipwrecks, ordnance,


communication cables, and debris from previous oil and gas activities.

2.0 DATA ACQUISITION INSTRUMENTATION

2.1 The instruments discussed in this section shall be utilized in conducting shallow
hazards surveys unless Company informs Contractor in writing prior to conducting
the survey that certain instrumentation is unnecessary. In such case, Contractor
shall deduct the cost of this work from the total contract amount.

2.2 A magnetometer shall be used to determine the presence of pipelines and other
ferromagnetic objects. The sensor of the magnetometer shall be towed as near
as possible to the mudline. Magnetometer sensitivity shall be one gamma or
better, and the background noise level shall not exceed three gammas.

2.3 Dual channel side-scan sonar systems shall be used to record continuous
planimetric images of waterways along the pipeline route. The system shall be
operated in a manner that provides 100 percent coverage of the seafloor in the
survey area. Data obtained shall be of such quality so as to permit detection and
evaluation of seafloor objects and features within the survey area.

2.4 The vertical sound beam width of the side-scan sonar shall be appropriate to the
water depth, and the horizontal sound beam width shall provide optimum
resolution. The instrument shall be tuned to enhance echo returns from small
nearby objects and features without sacrificing the quality of echo returns from
more distant objects and features.

2.5 Continuous water depth measurements shall be made using a high-frequency


narrow-beam depth sounder. Bathymetric data shall be recorded with a recording
sweep appropriate to topography and water depth.

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3.0 SURVEY PARAMETERS

3.1 Before operations involving pipeline lay barge, and trenching equipment begin,
Contractor shall conduct an obstruction survey in order to locate existing pipelines
and other potential hazards.

3.2 The pattern for pipeline preinstallation surveys shall include a line along the
proposed pipeline route with an offset parallel line on either side spaced to
coincide with the area that will be disturbed by Contractor’s equipment.

4.0 SHALLOW HAZARDS REPORTS

4.1 Shallow hazards reports shall include the following information:

a. A description of the area surveyed including lease name, area coordinates,


and water depth.

b A listing of the individuals involved in survey implementation and report


preparation.

c. A discussion of the shallow hazards survey including

 A brief description of the instruments used.


 Sea state and weather conditions.
 A copy of the daily survey operations log.
 A description of survey procedures including a statement of survey and
record quality.

d. A map or separate maps at a scale of 1:12,000, oriented to true north,


showing:

 lease block lines


 latitude-longitude reference coordinates
 survey lines and directions, and survey shotpoints
 bathymetry
 all anomalies

e. A summary of conclusions and recommendations supported by the survey


data and analyses including a discussion of known or potential shallow
hazards and areas to be avoided or that may require further investigations.

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APPENDIX III
WATERWAY CROSSINGS

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APPENDIX IV
PIPELINE CROSSING SIGNS

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APPENDIX V
MINIMUM PIPELINE BEND RADIUS

Case 1 - The minimum radius that the pipeline can follow without sliding:

R1 = Tb
u x Ws

Where, Tb = bottom pipe tension (based on nominal tension)

u = lateral friction coefficient

Ws = submerged pipeline weight

Contractor shall also include the effects of pipe stiffness on the minimum radius.

Case 2 - The minimum radius due to stress limitation (ANSI B31.4, see Section 402.3, or
ANSI B31.8, see Section 833 or latest version of ANSI B31.4 or ANSI B31.8):

R2 = E x D
2 x SMYS x 0.54

Where, E = modulus of elasticity

D = outer diameter

SMYS = specified minimum yield strength

Note: The case with the larger radius shall govern the minimum route radius.

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APPENDIX VI
PIPELINE CROSSINGS

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APPENDIX VI
PIPELINE CROSSINGS
Shell Production and Development Company (SPDC)
Pipelines ONLY

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APPENDIX VII
TYPICAL ANODE BRACELET

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APPENDIX VII
ANODE WEIGHT AND SPACING REQUIREMENTS

PIPE NOMINAL 20-YEAR SYSTEM 30-YEAR SYSTEM


SIZE (Weight, lb. @ Spacing, ft) (Weight, lb. @ Spacing, ft)

2 1/2 24 lb @ 530 24 lb @ 350


3 36 lb @ 650 36 lb @ 435
4 36 lb @ 505 36 lb @ 335
4 48 lb @ 675 48 lb @ 450
6 60 lb @ 575 60 lb @ 380
6 72 lb @ 690 72 lb @ 460
6 84 lb @ 805 84 lb @ 535
8 72 lb @ 530 72 lb @ 350
8 96 lb @ 705 96 lb @ 470
8 108 lb @ 795 108 lb @ 530
10 84 lb @ 495 84 lb @ 330
10 120 lb @ 710 120 lb @ 470
10 132 lb @ 780 132 lb @ 520
12 108 lb @ 535 156 lb @ 355
12 144 lb @ 715 144 lb @ 475
12 108 lb @ 775 156 lb @ 515
14 120 lb @ 545 120 lb @ 360
14 168 lb @ 760 168 lb @ 505

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APPENDIX VIII
PIPELINE LAYING DATA SHEET

Project Name: Area: OML:

Pipe Wt. in Air: Pipe Wt. in Water, including floatation:

Pipe Diameter/Schedule/Grade: Water Depth:

Contractor: Barge: Date:

Time Location Tension on Anode Weld Joint Comments


Pipe Number
00:00 hr
01:00
02:00
03:00
04:00
05:00
06:00
07:00
08:00
09:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
13:00
14:00
15:00
16:00
17:00
18:00
19:00
20:00
21:00
22:00
23:00

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