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Critical Values for Duncan's New Multiple Range Test

Author(s): H. Leon Harter


Source: Biometrics, Vol. 16, No. 4, (Dec., 1960), pp. 671-685
Published by: International Biometric Society
Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2527770
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CRITICAL VALUES FOR DUNCAN'S NEW
MULTIPLE RANGE TEST

H. LEON HARTER

AeronauticalResearchLaboratories
Air ForceBase, Ohio, U. S. A.
Wright-Patterson

SUMMARY

David B. Duncan [2] has formulated a new multiple range test


making use of special protection levels based upon degrees of freedom.
Duncan [Tables II and III] has also tabulated the critical values (sig-
nificant studentized ranges) for 5 percent and 1 percent level new
multiple range tests, based upon tables by Pearson and Hartley [8]
and by Beyer [1]. Unfortunately, there are sizable errors in some of the
published critical values. This fact was discovered and reported by
the author [4], who instigated the computation at Wright-Patterson Air
Force Base of more accurate tables of the probability integrals of
the range and of the studentized range than those published by Pearson
and Hartley [7, 8]. This extensive computing project, of which one of
the primary objectives was the determination of more accurate critical
values for Duncan's test, has now been completed. The purpose of
this paper is to report critical values (to four significant figures) which
have been found by inverse interpolation in the new table of the prob-
ability integral of the studentized range. Included are corrected tables
for significance levels a = 0.05, 0.01 and new tables for significance levels
a= 0.10, 0.005, 0.001-all with sample sizes n = 2(1)20(2)40(10)100
and degrees of freedom v = 1(1)20, 24, 30, 40, 60, 120, o.

INTRODUCTION
Multiple range tests are used for testing the significance of the range
of p successive values out of an ordered arrangement of m means of
samples of size N, where p = 2, ***, m. First one tests the significance
of the range of all m means by comparing it with the critical range for
the desired level of significance. If the range of all m means is found
to be significant, one next tests the significance of the range of (m - 1)
successive means, omitting first the largest and then the smallest (or
vice versa-order is unimportant) if either of these tests on (m - 1)
671
672 BIOMETRICS, DECEMBER 1960

means shows significance, one then proceeds with tests on (m - 2)


successive means, and so on until no further groups are found to have
significant ranges. Whenever the range of any group is found to be
non-significant, one concludes that the entire group has come from a
homogeneous source, and no test is made on the range of any subgroup
of that group. Multiple range tests differ from fixed range tests in
that the critical range of p means usually decreases as p decreases,
rather than remaining constant.
The new multiple range test proposed by Duncan [2] makes use of
special protection levels based upon degrees of freedom. Let -y2,e =
1 - a be the protection level for testing the significance of a difference
between two means; that is, the probability that a significant difference
between sample means will not be found if the population means are
equal. Duncan reasons that one has (p - 1) degrees of freedom for
testing p means, and hence one may make (p - 1) independent tests,
each with protection level y2,af . Hence the joint protection level is

'Yv,a = (2, = (1 - ()

that is, the probability that one finds no significant differences in making
(p - 1) independent tests, each at protection level 72,a is 'y2P , under
the hypothesis that all p population means are equal.

CRITICAL VALUES FOR DUNCAN'S TEST


On the basis of protection levels 'yp,,e given by (1) for tests on p
means, Duncan [2, Tables II and III] has tabulated the factor Q(p, v, a)
by which the standard error of the mean must be multiplied in order
to obtain the critical range for Duncan's new multiple range test, for
a = 0.05, 0.01. In the sequel, this factor Q(p, v, a) will be called the
critical value or the significant studentized range for Duncan's test.
As mentioned earlier, Duncan's tables of significant studentized
ranges are based upon tables by Pearson and Hartley [8] and by Beyer
[1]. The tabular values for 2 < p < 20 and 10 < v < co were obtained
by inverse interpolation in the Pearson-Hartley tables of the probability
integral of the studentized range, while the remainder of the values
were computed by Beyer, using new methods. The Pearson-Hartley
tables of the probability integral pP,(Q) of the studentized range, with
v degrees of freedom for the independent estimate S2 of population
variance, are based upon their earlier tables of the probability integral
Pn(Q) of the range of n observations from a normal population. To
correct for finite degrees of freedom, they use the relation
,Pn(Q) Pn(Q)+ vFan(Q) + -2nbn(Q) (2)
MULTIPLE RANGE TEST 673

The tables give values (to four, two and one decimal places, respectively)
of P.(Q), an(Q) and b.(Q) for Q = 0.00(0.25)6.50 and n = 3(1)20, with
the observation that the results are somewhat inaccurate for small
values of v(<10) and large values of Q(> 6). Actually, the tables are
inaccurate not only for v < 10, but also for values of v up to about 20,
and the inaccuracy for high values of Q is much greater than was
anticipated. The inaccuracies in the Pearson-Hartley tables, which
were due to the limitations of formula (2), in turn caused errors in the
published critical values for Duncan's test. Beyer was aware of the
difficulty for v < 10, and attempted to correct it by adding a term of
the form v-3cn(Q) to the right-hand side of (2). This alleviated the
difficulty to some extent, but did not remove it, and nothing at all was
done to correct the inaccuracies for v > 10. Having first become
aware of this situation during the course of an investigation of the
relation between error rates and sample sizes of multiple comparisons
tests based on the range (see reference [3]), the author [4] reported it
in a paper, presented to the American Statistical Association, which
included an outline of plans for the computation of more accurate
tables.

COMPUTATION OF THE TABLE

The computation of more accurate critical values for Duncan's


test required the computation of a more accurate table of the prob-
ability integral of the studentized range, and this in turn required the
computation of a more accurate table of the probability integral of
the range. Dr. Gertrude Blanch gave invaluable assistance in the
numerical analysis. Donald S. Clemm programmed the computation
of the probability integrals of the range and of the studentized range
for the Univac Scientific (ERA 1103) computer. Eugene H. Guthrie
programmed for the ERA 1103A the inverse interpolation necessary
to obtain the critical values for Duncan's test.
The methods of computation of the probability integrals of the range
and of the studentized range, together with voluminous tables, have
been reported by Harter and Clemm [5] and by Harter, Clemm and
Guthrie [6], and will not be repeated here. The method of inverse
interpolation employed, an iterative one suggested by Major John V.
Armitage, involves the following steps:
1. In the table of the probability integral of the studentized range for
n = p and the desired value of v, find the two successive probabilities,
yo and Yi , between which the requiredprotectionlevel P = ay, =
(1 - a)-' lies. Call the two corresponding arguments (studentized
674 BIOMETRICS, DECEMBER 1960

ranges) x0 and x, , respectively. The required studentized range


Q = J(p, v, y,a) will lie between x0 and xl .
2. Compute the tolerance T for P corresponding to a tolerance 5 X 1Ou-5
for Q by means of the equation T = (AP/AQ) X 5 X 10"-, where
AP = y- Yo, AQ = X1-xo and u is the numberof digits before
the decimal point in numbers between xo and xl .
3. Perform linear inverse interpolation to find an approximation x to
the required R(p, v, 'Y,,) using the relation
X = [(Xi - x0)(P - Yo)/(Y- Yo)] + Xo .
4. Perform direct interpolation, using Aitken's method with a tolerance
of 5 X 10-7 and with provision for up to 16-point interpolation if
the tolerance is not met for fewer points, to find the probability y
corresponding to the value x of the studentized range.
5. Compare the result y of step (4) with the required probability P,
using the tolerance T computed in step (2):
a. If Iy- P I < T, stop and set R(p, v, Yp.a)=X.
b. If (y - P) > T, replace Yi by y and xl by x, then repeat the
process, starting with step (3).
c. If (y - P) < - T, replace yo by y and xo by x, then repeat the
process, starting with step (3).
Once R(p, v, 'yr.a) has been found, the critical value Q(p, v, a) for
Duncan's test is determined as follows: Q(p, v, a) = R(p, v, z a,) for
p = 2 and Q(p, v, a) = max [R(p, v, 'y,,,a), Q(p - 1, v, a)] for p > 2.
The results are given in Table 1.
Values for v = co, obtained by inverse initerpolation in the table of
the probability integral of the range, are included for convenience in
interpolation (linear harmonic v-wise interpolation is recommended).
ACCURACY OF THE TABLE
The table of the probability integral of the studentized range, on
which the table of critical values for Duncan's test is based, is accurate
to within a unit in the sixth decimal place (except for values of the
probability greater than 0.999995, which are giyen as 1.00000), and
the interval is small enough to make interpolation possible. The
tolerancefor the direct interpolationwas set at 5 X 10-7 So that the
interpolation error would not add appreciably to the error already
present, and hence the interpolated values are substantially as accurate
as the values in the input table. Inverse interpolation is, of course,
not as accurate as direct interpolation, the error being AQ/LAP times
as great for inverse interpolation as for direct interpolation. Thus the
tolerance for P was found by multiplying the tolerance for Q(5 X 10u5)
MULTIPLE RANGE TEST 675

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C!
M
O to
b
to
00
"
M
X
"
C) 00
" m
t- O
m m
to
m
M
m m N N N N
h p H C~~~~~~~~~O
de de mm mc M M m CX
m XM CO co CO
X M m CO CO CO

; O b b O e O 00 O O e e de de de de 4 eo eo eo eo eo eo eo~~~~C~
c c'! CS
! S

;~~~~~~~~~~~t b LO O m 0 00 C) 0 t- 0 00 0) cq 00 LO H O CI to

V Af ~~~~~~~~~t-
ksD e t- 0) 00 X
kl O cli m ) 00 0 ko cli Cl M kl t
P; O~~o
b O m00deO) O5 t- r00LO
" O 00 eO m u:
de O cr I Ct "DCr
ro
:
~~~~~~~~~~~~cra
oO
e

?O
t-
-< -O d Cb
. oO CS
eo

??
" co Cf m e de
cra
co
ci
co
c cra oo
co c
c

o co c co co
i
co
-!
co
-N c
-1
co co
! (: C! o
co co co

t- u: CO C t t- Cd (0 u: O cO C Oko oo0 u: CS 0 t-) t- tO ks to


CO t-Y0
?00 - O " 0 t- a, m a, to C O o
t- >X> O ot
o o
H O+tCt COOC tC ~ CCtC O
COCt CO
C t Ct CCt Ct CliCt
ti Oc
dt- k t- -4 ) co Cj L
o oo t o0 oot-4 t- (D U0 00 ( t CA
Cdo) 00 0 cl oO cra COLa -4 o b
M (m 00 t- H o cr) c o o bt

CD
C+ C+
M. co co coc o o c CtC CO C' Ct CO Ct Ct CO Cli Ct cl Ct CS Cli Cl

Al o
N m
C tCO+C
t- 00 Cd
(M
cra
0
i:
Ct
-4 C
N
oo
ri
CO
"
Ct t4 cri
00
O t,
oo ts
M
cO
"c
r
i oo m "
c
0C)O
O tl
8
CS * oe cra Odq C CS H H O OO O cr cr) ca cr) r) Cr)oo oo o oo
678 BIOMETRICS, DECEMBER 1960

t- " t- -4 V
8 . o X m 3 o > b S X 3 3 m m t t t to

to mm mm c co co co co
o co co co co
Oob sK t- c s t
o -4 t-
C>0 _ |t- e Cs t- qo Cs ,) 0r ca o0 sO gt" s t- oO O Q CSl

o)C oo m
ct 0)
crcs t- cl cra
0) (r o oO t- t- t- t- oO O CtO

m X DbO 0) 0 ko 00 Co .q .q . t- Co d t- O O
_ cD oo O<C Sbd S HC) C 00 00 t- o1 o1 t- 00 0 eo O Cr

cn
X ~ ~~~~~ b e
O L
O X
0X
X
00
b
o
O
LO
o b
LO
O
LO
O
k
c t;
. .
O
. .
- Wo
. .
.Dm
. .
sm
.
t-
.
tC
.
"
LO
t-
L O
tC
~o
C0

tosdqd CO CO CO CO CO CO CO OC OC OC OC O C OC CO COC

O~~~~t b 4
LO o C t- to ) t o o?) 0 Lo -4 00 ~od 4o q t- 00
! R b 4O + 0 O bO m OO O4 00 00 t- t- 00 m

0R O m 0X - O> c t- cl -4 00 00 t-b t- b O m O O

> e <; CD~ 00 to to to to.q to.Q 10 .D .D oo


. 00 . . . ???
. 1 1 C

;> o) 00 C O 0 CIt- 4
Cl 4 t 0t o 0 t- t t- t- t- 0 0 cot

O~~~~~~~~~~~~~~c co co co co co co co co m m O

U ux *^ O b o 4 o oo O O 4 4 4 4 t t 00t- t- t- t- 0 O m to
0,

Effl~~~~~~0
V 0r
z _ t
cr oo H
bO 4
oHc
O m O O 4
s 4 4
s 4
Hcr
t t t
oo
t
t- t
t t
t- t-
t t
t 00 0 Cli to b
to to to t

O R m b O 4 O m O O 4 S 4 4 t t t0 0 t- t- t- t- t- t t4

c t- 00 m 1
;~~~~~0 CYO
oo
00 O 44 00 4 t- t- t- 4..

;~~~~~t 0M
10 0b
00 b
00 to
t- wOO4
t-
.
t-
tt>o
.
t-
.
t-
t-
t-
to
00
t-
0t 0
cl
...
t
..
00

X~~~~~t
r~~~~~~o c
t
0) 00
t
- "C
o t-bObo
to
s i
0
t-
ot-
d"
to
"i Cs C) 00
0
t-
to
t- t-
.
t-
.
t-
.
t- 00
c
0) O C
>

to " " m m m m m co co co co co co m m m
o c o o
CO dq CQ w
t- to m t- t- to to -4 00 to . . . t- 1- to cl 0
CO to 0Q - w tO
o l 00 00 t-
0S O 0) O w U) U) U) dq dq dq dq 0q 0q dqd q d I"!
qd q
-ICH:d! ICOICOICOCOC O C O OC OC O OC O C C OC OC

toD dq CO CO C mOC coOC co coO co CO CO C CO' CO' CO' CO' CO COC

to CO
m O 0OO4 to 1 00 to "
d" q -CO H t- to to
00 m
CO 0) cl r- cl O w w b t- t- <d> bCb

P~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~'
cl co t- 00 0 0 cl
C:+no CY) to to r- 00 0)
<r
CY)~~~c
C-
cso
0? cli
MULTIPLE RANGE TEST 679

m 'Ili 1-4 O m t- to -.14 t- c eo


, I
1.4 1.114 1-4
N
0
00
1-4
co
O (M
'.14 t-
00
-4
CD "
ko c
" ko 0 1-4 0 " ko ko 0
o) 00 00 00 t- t- t- O ko ko 1.144 CID
m t- 0 t- "t m cli 0) 00
1-4
08D co LOLOLOio LO LO -.14
-4 11t, 44 "t -.14 44444
co "IV 0cl
1-4 co
LO
Ilqi CID cli
t-0t-
t-
-I0"
to 04 1.14 00
ko (M
00-144
ko 1-4 t-
c
1-4
C14 1-4
(M t-
-4
U-i
0(O
(M cli
to
co
`V
C)
cli (M
t-
(O 00 t- t. t- c to ko to m
.Mt- 0t-"MCl -I Oo) 0) 0) 00
1-4 "14 06 . . . . . . .
0) -4 O O ul ll' to to 10

m O -.t m t- to0 0m I* ko t-m1-1 -4 00 ul m 0eom


ko t-o - 0N to (m 14 0CD M 000 O -.14 t- -q U-) (m cl CD
t- 00 t- t- t- O to ll' m
t- o t- -t ce) cl -4 0(M 4z) a) 00 00

(m -4 000co io io Lo, Lo,

m..i4-CO '.14mcl t- ko t- to to t- t- 10 t- C14 (n (M to t- -II0ko


C'l 'O t-ot- -4 c) -4 00m(M to C'l (M t- .I' C'l c0mt- -4 .14
M t- -14MN-4 a) (M 00 00 00 t- t- t- t- 10 C.0 u-i .14 "dim
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O 06 .
to io 10 ll`

m'.14-O '.14 co cl t-mcl (M 00 00 tomLO 0) to O -4 to 1-4 O cli t-


cl 10 t-0t- co t-N00 1114 -4 00 ll'm-4 to 00 cli II-) 0) cli
Mt-o (M 00 00 00 t- t- I- t- to to ll`"mm

(m oo to to ko L LO LO LO LO

di CD cl -O (m <0 0) t- 01 0 10 cl -I (Mm00 cli t-


C! C'lpt-or- m0 mto -4 t-m0t-""0 to0mt-0
mt-ot- 0(M a)w00wt- t- t- t- ec ll' to mco
O1114 . .
(M 00 O
.c
ll`
Co -4 tO MCII M00 1-4 00 00c to (M ul .114 -O0mt- 1-4 ko
o "ko 0t- m Nko ko"WkoN0w 14 ko 00 1-4 ko 0(

. mt-ot-"m-
. . . . . . . . 0(Mmwwt-
. . . . . t- t- t- O O ko "Ili "IVmcli

00 to LO 10 LO ll' LO 10"I-iq lq"41.114'4.4 .4 4"V.44-44


M"14 Mcl (m 10 00 C)"0)MCO 00 00 -4 to CIO 00 1-4"t- 1-4
N10 t-0t-0ww 0'.14 00 -140C.0M-4 oo eo (M cli (M C14 CIO
Mt-ot- 1,14 COD -4 C) 0(m oo 0c) oo t- t- t- to to ko to mCeD cli
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
E-4 (M 1-4 00 to co to ko ko to LO ko

M"14 -4 to d4 CO0cl "14 IV t- cl CO 00 t- (m to Cl CYD to 00 1-4 ko

mmC14

(M 1-4 CPO O D LO U-i 10

c 14M"14 -q000 10 t-0ClO M14 (m t- eo t- 00 cli ko


eo 0 eo 10 t- -4
t-0t- -40 (M (m oo t- t- -O eo eo eo mcli cli

00 -O O ko ll' U-)

co 1-4 co"-4 ol co tomO C) t- CD ko c t- 0 ci


o001 LO t-0ko t- CID LO OC) cj t-m(m OM-4 00 -4 t-0mt-
(M mt-ot- -40 (mWwt- t- eo c c to U, ll' mmcli r-4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
:) 00 co eD to 10 ko U-i 10 . . . . . .1.14W"lt4 -.14 . . 1.14
P 11

-4 04 M -4 <0 '.14"C) to 000 "Nm M0M0-4 U' ko


cl 00 (M0cli
R cl ko t- (MMU-D -4 --4 cl to (m90Om0t- ko 000mt-0m
00 t-010"cli --4 (M 00 t- t- -O -O O III) ko mcli cli

> (Om 06 to, ll'' 111), 1 1 1 -t44-I,

Mn4 -4 CO"0O t- to Lo t- ko U "14OOl (M0 t- c D co 00


z cq 'O 1- oo -4 c') oo t- 00 '. .0 C) toN00 to co -4 mco 0 cl 'o 0,
(R C!
14 c t (:: '-q!
ciR 0 0 t r, t t- t t 't! c ci cI R
wec O ko ul) U 10 ,14 14 . . . . . . . .

-4 D ko ul)M(mM t- -O 0N(M (Mmm 10 . . .t-


Nto O U-)ww" O0 -t-m0wto w-4"t-0
mmcli 1-40
ci u c c 'I c! 0 t t
w c 10 'O ul) III) 'O -.,v 4 -.14 14 -14

m -4
Cl
to0-v
to .I'-mmoo t-
C)
000 (M"0t-
t- (M 10 LO
-4
ul cli0
"I' t-
00
c! c cr Ntow
10 Mt-oOm mw t- t- 10 kO 10"'114 -14 Co mcli 1-4 1-4 C) 0)

oo ec CO4
t4 t4
" t4
4 14 t4 4 4 4
4"'4
1-4 C) (M0t- tO C) t- CII000 CID -4 CII III)N (M 00 00 -4 10
C Cj --14 1-d4 -O U-) (=I (M (M CII tO0CO CII (M OM. m-O 0m10
,14 t- 0 ko"00) t- to tO ll' 10 -14 14 CY)MMCD cli 1-400m(M
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
k
-4 000 V ko ko 1.14 -d4 ,II "4 14" -,14 14. t4- c CO'

co 1-4 t-m(M to 0) 0)" -4 c C) t- c cli 00 CO

co
(R cl
M10W
t- C)m"moo
-4 (M t-
-4
t-
C.0
t-0
10 10
0)
-I'MMMN
140t- -Ji (M
-4
cli 10
(M
cli
(M
10
00
(M
t-

0) -4 00 t LO' 1 '14, 1114 11144.44 ,, "' c c c CO'


m 1-4
to
ci
1-
cl
0
mm
1114 1114 " (M
"
00
clia0C)
(M -O -4
00
co co
(M
(m
-4
t-
-O
-.14
10 (M III) cli clim
C! io oo"Oo'.14
cli Cl ko t- Cj o) t- ko 14 co co cli ci 0C) C) t- t-
00 00 to

(M -4 00 to 0ld4 1.14 -iq ce). CVD' CVD' c COD' M'

-4 " m " ko 10 t- w m 0 N M 14 kO D t-
4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 1-4 -4 N cli 0 10 cli
1-4
680 BIOMETRICS, DECEMBER 1960

1-4 -4 " 0 'Ili " 'Ili w ul) m cli t- 'Ili to 0 -o


t- ul) '.14 m 0 t- -o -o t- t-
00 t- t- t- t- t-

0 00 -o V 104

co - -o .I' m Cl t- -o .I' cli cli "Ili 00 co Cl t- ,I' 0 -o


C', U-) t- 0 t- - o " t- ul)
t,7 C t17 ll C Ci C! : C C
ul)

1-4 w cli t- "Ili to to "Ili


cli 10 M C) t-
00 00 00 00 00

CO Cj t- CO cli 0 cli 00 co t- 10 t- t-
-4 0 cli t- 0- t- to 14 m t- 1.114 cli 0
m cl 00 00 00 00 00 oo t- t- t- t- t-

m 14 M ci t- to q -4 0 cli 00 ul) m cli t-


O cli t- t- cli .Iq 0- U-) .Iq m 0 t- m 0 t-
C Cl! . . . . . . . . . .
0 0- oo oo oo oo 00
. . . . . .
t- t- t- 10

00 to U-) -I' 14 .I' 14 .I' -,I' -,I' .Iq .114 .114 'It 'It 'It 'It

CO -1 cli t- -o Cl 0 .I' cl 00 ul) m cl cj 0 t- M 10


C'l p o 0 cl t- -I' 0- it ul) 114 m C t- 1.14 0 t- m
C
t, Cl 00 00 00 00 00 00 t- t- t- 'O 'O
C
00

M -t m N t- "D "It 0 14 N .t oo w) m .t w) CO 0 14
0 cli C'l 10 t- .t 0- t- U-5 14 m o) -I t- M 00
C C Ci-! o 0
. 0 oo oo oo oo oo t- t- t- -o 10 to

00

CO o 14 CO cj t- to "It -4 cli 0 cli 00 cli 00 10 0 CII


o 0 cli C'l 1-0 - t- 14 0- t- U-5 .t m 0 10 - t-
oo
m 0 0 0 0 0 oo oo oo oo oo t- t- t- 10 10 to
C ci
0 00 10 10

CID "'ll -4 to 14 CO Cl t- -o "It 1-4 1-4 cli 0 't cli t- co (2) 00 0) 0)


0 cli -4 0 C'l 10 - -t 0- t- w) .t m 00 lll 0 lll
co co cli oo oo -o to

00 to to o ul)

to co 00 cli lll
0- t- w) 00 co

0-4 m "'ll -4 to -I' M t- to 14 -4 1-4 CII 0 14 CII Cj 14 00 M cli co m 0


E-4 cli C!
CII 0 cli 10 - t- 14 t- m co 00 co 00 m
m -14 C Cl -! R R 0 C 0 0 t'
to 14 14 -14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 4 14 14 14

CO "t 1-4 10 m cli t- -4 -4 00 -4 -I 0 00 14


z C! CII t- -4 14 -4 0. 10 ko M -4 t- Cl t- Cl -o -4
4 o co CO 14 co Cj -4 oo oo oo oo oo lll

00 OD' ,14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 4

M '1114 -4 10 14 CO Cj t- o 14 cl 0 Cl t- w) -o oo m Cj 0- t- C'l t-
0 CII 10 t- -4 t- 14 -4 00 -O 14 N -4 -4 ul) 0 ll, 0-
4 C t' 14 M 0. 0. 0. 00 00 00 00 00 t- 10 10 It) .14
cli . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-4 00 to to 1-t1-t1-t114
114
m "It 0 m t- -o N 00 (Z) m 111) cli 0 to 1-4 ll, 00
R o to 0 -I 0 t- m 0 00 0 ul) (Z)
't 0- m t-
cli . . . .
0-. 00. 00. 00. 00. w. t- -o -o it) it) 14

-4 00 to ul) I'll I'll I'll I'll I'll .114 .114 -14 1-t 1-t I-t' 114

CO '14 -4 M N t- eo -14 -4 -4 0 U-,) t- m cli cli -4 to -o t-


o 0 N 1-4 0 N 1-4 t- m 8 00000000t-
t- ll, M -4 14 00
t- -o -o o -,o -44 -4 ul)
cli C; C 00
C!
M "II --4 0 -,II M t- o -14 1-4 0 0 0) t- 0 cli t- co
o 0 cli to t- 1-4 0 N -4 N 0 14 N 0 W cli
Cl
cli C;'IliC t- -o
-I!C ci -!
ul)
R C0 0 0 t, v
ul) ul) ul) to -14 -,II

14 M N t- o -14 0- -o --4 0- 00
N ll, 0 00 -4 0- -o 0
1-4 0 0 0 00 00 00
cli 14 . . . . . . - . . . . . . .
1-4 00 -o -o to ul) to to U-) U-) 14 14 14 14 14 114 114
114

cli co .114 It) 0 tl. 00 0- 0 1-4


-4
Cl
-4
m
-4 -4 -4
to
-4
t-
-4
00
-4
0)
-4
0 140 0 0 0
N cli co .114 -o cli
MULTIPLE RANGE TEST 681

--4 m m 00 00 C4 ko mU-.) -o N10 "di m 0 -114 m t- ko o ul ko ko ko ko o


0 C; mNoo -'14 -.0N Nmto 0 krj0 'o Na, o t- 00m 0 -4 C'l
NNoM moo t- o U-) kxll -114 n4m mcq cl C) C C 00 t-
. . . .
oo C) C)
4-4 -4 00 t- CD to <0 LO to to LO LO kf

-4MM00 00 CII 10 0) N-4 CD C) O 14 M Cj toM14 cli (Z) C) O


00 .(: CMCII 00 14 -4 10N _4 Cj io (M (M ko _4 00 U-j o t- oo (m 00 -4
C) Cl COM-4 MW t- to 10 m m mcli cli -4 00 t-
4 . . . . .
coomO. ko k k
-4 -4 -4 00 t-0to o U-.) ko 10 10 ko ui ko ko U-i LO ko -14 -14 .114 lq4

mmwwNkow m-o 0-o M m-4 0 M0-I 00 10 kOg J4 -,di


(: C.MNW14 --4 -14 -4 N--14 W W 1-14 (=> t- "14 ko 10 00 00 (M
O cli. cli I* co. moo m m Mc'j -OC . t- co
oo (m o . . . . . . . . . .
'-4 -I 00 t- c 'o to U-.) LO 10 Lo --d4 "4 ""

mmOC) (O cli LO co -.114 (M C) 10 c oo t. C) o ro m(Z) 00 t- CD to


(: <MCII oo 14 --4 "0 -4M t- _4 to N W10N m"I" ko co t-
""CDm --( mw CD U-i -.J4 M M Cq o(M (O t- CD
-4 . . . . . .
ooM0.
-4 -4 -4 00 t- tO CO CO U-J 10 k 1

-4mmoo (O io co 00 C) CO 00 CII -4 140 to cl0 (O t- t-


.(: mN -I, -4 m (M" kO kt-J -4 t- -4 -4"M M ,II kO
-4 Ncq CD ce)- (M 00 CD U-) ko ce) ce) C'l C'I 0(M (O t- CD
'IO
-4
C,Oto
-4 -4 06tl: 1 ll ko
1 ko
1 1 ko ul)

E-4
00 ko W N w ko o N m t- m O 00 o to
t-w0 " oom ko cra (M0-4 -4 Nm
C.0m (M t- CD00 (O t- to
(4 to, to, to, k to to 10ko -114

mm00 00 cli co 0t- CO0cl ko oo 0) to t-m o --q (O CD


z m w o Nt- -o t-M "O m t- 00 oo (m
co m N 0(M 00 t- t- to
oo (7)0 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
-4 ul) ul) 'O Lo ko to ko ko to io 10 14 14 14

P. mm00 00 ol (m 01 t- ol to C'l LO 00 00 " 10 -4 m00


mo co"oo com 0'o t- 0 m ko -4w ko to t- t- 00
fA C'l Cq co CYDC> Mt- CO ko -14 oi oi -4 (O t- LO
E-4 w
Q
-4 00 t- O CO tO LO U'

mmoo oo C'l t- t- cli cli


0 mko w Nt- N mto mm
-4 C 0 m m -4 -4
-4 ""com . . to ko" 0(M 00 t"- to U-i
oo (7)0 . . . . .
-4 -4 -4 oo t- -o o ul) 0

com00 00 (M C) -4 CII CO 10 ko t- U- -4 C'l t- io t- -4 to co cl


co C4 t- cli o0 ko 0- C0O -4 CO
(::
00 (MC)cli
C> cli
06 .C
-om o . . 00. t- . ko C C . . coo. t- . . U'.
-4 -4 1-4 t- co C.0 U" ko 10 ko ko ul LO LO . . . . . .

mm00 (O cli Co ko 14 10M 00 (7)M-4 mt- cli (M 00 (M


(m (7) o co"t-o t- t- (M cq c -4 ec cq (M eo eo o t- t- 00 0)
0 CII CII 10 CO kO Co M CII CII -4 -400 (7) 00 t- to to
o,, 10'U
PA 4-4"I0-4 06t 1 1 Co' to,

! '! CY)moo oo 00-" U CII -o co to C) M C) C) -4


kO 00 -4 -4 CO 0 W Nt- M (M N cli clim 0CO
E--4 00 (=, (: C.MCII
Pk wcloCi Ci1 CiC O 1 C Cl!Ci-! -! R R ( 0 t,: '"!
00 t- co co co U-) ko to 10 to to to 10 10 00ko . . . . . .

mm00NLo C> oo "o C> CD co C'I -4 (7) " m00 o t- -4 t- 10 10 t-


t- t- C'l Ma) -4 oo C'l 00 ot- t- 00 00 C (=) -q
Z c; (0, t- - 00, 00 t- 'o 'o 'o
o 00 C
-4
C) 1 -
kO ui U:)
-4 00 t- CO O ko. . . .

mmoo"C) t-o to CII -4 Co to 10M t- N0 CII CO CII -4 CII kO


(: C9mo0om N "o w t- N wko" cqNm " oco
o to NNco C'l (m t- mcli 0 C) (M (M (M 00 t- CO to m

P-4 00 to ko

1-4 CY)m00 t- t- to 00 N0o CD kom w m CY) 00 CO eD 00 ce)


( (: C. ce) 10 CD kil) C) t- t-W ko0 0 W0 ko ko CO t- 000
-I -! oo co C")N (8 C> (7) 0.) 00 00 t- ko mm
oo 0, (=>
00 t- to CO

mmC)-40CO
C)
CO t-m LO 10 000 CII) N t- WM NN w0
0CO k.0 t- D0 wt- (M cl o -4 CO "(M to CD t- 00 (M C) cli
' ,CII -4 C> t- - 10 cli C> (D. (M. (M. oo 00 t- . t- o . to" m mcli
oo (M C) - I - . . . . . .
-4 -4 00 t- CO CD 10
1 U
to U-. . . 4 1.14. 4"'
CD Ml 'OO"C'l 00 0M (M 00 CD t- 00 t- U- -4- t- 10 (M" -4 -4
(: C4 oo CY)C'lm m "'O 0) C'D00 0t- "to co 00 ocq
m 40 CO (:T) O C) o) 00 00 t- t- t- CO m cli cli
oo ('
-4 06CD,
mui 'o -4 u-i (M0 wui 0(M0 t- C t- -4w0 -4 U-NN 00
oko-000N 1-4 c ""t- "(M ko cli 00 o t- ori C) C-1"t-
cli 0 (M t- -4 C" NC) o) 00 t- t- CD UD 0 0 mcli cli O(M
,4 -4 -4 ul),U C

- clim ko to 1- 00 0) C) cli m
--I 1-4 -4
U' o
-4 -4
t-
-4
00 0)
-4 -4
0
N
0
cli m
o
"
C) c)
co cq
682 BIOMETRICS, DECEMBER 1960

-4 M M 00 00 N to 0 I- -o 11-14 0 -4 m m 0 -4 -o m 00 -4 m cli -o
,=; (: t m N 00 '.14 -4 -O m '.14 1- -4 'o cq 00 'o m '.14 0 'o cq 00 m
cq cq -o m -4 0) 00 I- -o -o to to M cl N N
-4 -4 00 1- 10'

m m 00 00 cl -O 0 I- -o '-I' 0 - m m 0 -4 -o 10 I- M 00 I- m -o
0 to M N 00 '.14 -4 10 M 1.14 1- -4 -o cq 00 -o m -4 0) '.14 0) 10 -4
. - cli cli -o m 14 0 00 I- -o -o to to 104 COD COD N N N
00
I', -4 C t c C. C.

M 00 00 N 10 0 t- 10 ".14 0 M M 0 10 t- t- 0 0) co 00
m N 00 .I' -4 -O m '-I' t- -o N 00 -o m -4 0) 0 '.14 0 '.14 00
o
cq cq -o m 0 00 t- -o -o to to 11-14 1-14 .14 m M N N
oo
-4 -4 00 t- 10' 10' 10' to 10'

m m oo 00 N -O 0 t- 'o '-I' 0 -4 m m 0 '-q -o 10 t- m N 00 m 0


m N 00 .I, -4 -O m g t- -4 'o N 00 'o m -4 0 '-I' 0 m 00 N 'o
o 00 -o -o to to m M N N

06t-, c c c 10' -O
M 00 00 cq 10 0 t- 10 t- 0 -4 -4
m cq oo '.14 -4 to m -o cq 00 -o m 0 00 N to 0
c; cq cq co m -4 0 00 -o -o to to m M N N

4 06t-' -O' -O to, O' 101010to to


-4 M m 00 00 N to 0 t- -o 1.14 0 -4 m m 0 -o 1.14 0 ,I' t- 00 co
z m C'l 00 1.14 -4 to m '.14 t- -4 -o cq 00 -o M 0 N -o 0 N to 00
(: c
c; cq cq -o m -4 0 oo t- -o -o ko LO ".14 ".14 '.14 '.14 M m cli
oo ol
-4
(=>
-4 06t c c c

o
M M COD 00

c'l
CII
N
00 cli

o
to
'.14
M
0
-4
-4
t-
10
0
-o
M
00
t-
-o
-4
m
-o
m
N
00
00
-o
10
00
N
m
0
0
00
00
0
to
M
0
-o
t- -o

00
"I-4 -4 06t 1 1 1
m 00 00 cq to 0 t- -o m cq to M 10 0 -o cq t- -4
c M N 00 '.14 -4 10 M t- -4 -o cq 00 10 cq 0 t- 0 N 10 t-
oo -o m -4 0 00 -o -o to 10 -.14 .04 COD COD COD N -4
cq cq '.jq
IZ2 m
0-04 1-114 (-=4> 06r c c c 10'
-Q
-4 m m 00 00 cq 10 0 t- -o -4 m 0 m 0 0 to 0 10 00 -4 c'j C'l 0
z
M N oo -.14 -4 10 COD .04 t- -4 -o cq oo 10 cq 0 t- 0 -4 ".14 oo 0
(: C.
t- -o 10 10 10 M M) N N -4
En co
N N -o m -4 0 oo '.14 '.14 0) 00
oo 4 "I
-4 (=>
-4 06t C.61 1 10'10'
-z
-4 m M 00 00 cq 10 0 t- -o '.14 0 -4 -4 00 0 10 10 00 ".14 t- 0 0 0 00 to
-o M cq oo '.14 -4 10 M '.14 t- -4 -o -4 t- -4 00 -o 00 0 m to -o oo
:$
- C'l C'l co m -4 0 00 t- -o -o to to '.14 m m N N -4 0) 00
co
-4 -4 06r -O'16C.6 10' 10'
-4 m M 00 00 N 10 0 t- -o 0 to 0 0 cq t- 00 00 oo -o m
M cq oo '.14 -4 10 M '.14 t- -4 10 -4 00 to t- 0 -4 m to
cli
cli cli -o m -4 0 00 t- co -o to to .14 m m N -4 - 0 oo
00 "I (=>
4 14 -4 06t C6C6C6 0

-4 m m 00 00 cq to 0 t- co 0 00 to 0 0 m cq 00 t- -o '.14 -4 t- C'l
. m cl 00 .I' - -O m .I' t- 0 -O 0 -o M 0 t- ".14 -o 00 0 cq m to
(: t
z o cq cq -o m -4 0 00 t- -o -o to to m m N - - 0) oo
o "I
00 (=> 0

-4 m M 00 00 N 10 0 t- -o '.1400 10 0 M N 10 M 00 10 N 0 10
m N 00 1.14 -4 to m 1.14 -o 0 0
to 0 -o cq m 10 t- 00 0 c'l m
oo
o cq cl -o COD -4 0 00 t- -o -o to m m cli -4 0 00
cli
-4 -4 '-q 00 t- C.6-O'-O' 10' 10'10'10''.14,
'.14,
-4 M M 00 00 N 10 0 t- -o M 10 0 10 M -o M M -o N t- N t- -4 m
m N oo '-I' -4 -O m '-I' 'o 0 -O -4 00 -O cl '.14 10 t- 00 O -4
cq cq -o M -4 o) 00 t- co 1.14 m m m CIA -4 0 0 0 00
cli '
oo 4 "I
-4 (=>
-4 00 t C.6 -O' -O' 10'

m m 00 00 cl -O 0 t- 'o 0 0 m to 10 cq 0 0 m -o 0 t- 0 c'j
m cl oo '-I' -4 -O m .I' 'o 0 m 00 0 t- '.14 -4 cq '.14 to -o oo ai
cq cq -o m -4 o) 00 t- -o to to m m m cli -4 0 00 t-
cli
4 -4 -4 00 t- C.6Co'C. 10'
m m oo 00 N -O 0 t- '-I' -O m m -O '-I' 0 0 -O -0 'o g 0 cl 'o t-
(: C. m cl oo .I, -4 -O m m -O 00 cl t- cl 0 -O cl 0 0 cl m .I' -O 'o
cli N N co m -4 (M oo -o to to m m cq cli -4 0 0 00 t-
cli
oo 4 "I
-4 (=>
-4

m m 00 00N
m N 00
-O 0
.I, -4
'o 0
-O N
t-
N
N
t- -4
0 m
-O -
m
t-
00 -o
m 0
t-
t-
t-
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0 0
0
-4
0
m
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N cq -o M -4 0 00 t- to to m m m cli -4 0 0 00 t-
cli
oo "I
4 -4

-4 N M '.14 10 -o t- 00 0 0 N M '.14 10 -o t- 00 cr) 0 g' 0 0 0 0


;k -4 -4 r4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 " N cli m v -o 04
MULTIPLE RANGE TEST 683

0010 0 0 -om-o -o 00 0 I- I- I- d4 0 to -o 0 I- 0
14 N14 00 -o n
t- 10 N-4 0 00 I- -o to d4m C'I000 t- M
'ION(=>
0 r-I -4 -4 0) 00 00 t, t

m0 to to 0 0 1114 t- t-0 0cq 0)M 000 cq oo 00 cq0cq 00


1-14 t- 1.14 cq cqmt-0 000 cq cqmto 00 1-1 10 oo -4 10 0Mt-
oo
r-i
06C (=; -! t-: ci -! (: 0 t "! '-l! -! C 0 C
r-I -4 -4 0 00 00 t- t- t- t- -o -o -o co -o -o -o -o -o -o to to to to

o) to -O 0) 0) -4 0) co t- -o -o t- cq -o '.14mcqo'.14 00'.14 cq -0 -4
C
t- cq cq cq -o oo -o 00m -4m-oO1114 t-8mt- -4 10
t- 14 -4 oo -o 10M
co 10 '.14M
cli -o to -o -o -o to to to
-4 0 00 00 t- t- t- t- -o -o -o -o

to 0 -o 0mN 0001.14 t- to 1.14 01.14 8 011-14 m -om


t- N-4 -4 10 t- to -oN0 oo 0 -4 00 cli 00 -4 to 0 1.14
C m10 -4 t- cli t- co to to m 0 00 -o m

cl 0 o
to
"14
to
t-
0
.Iq
0
cq0
0 oo 0
mto
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mto0t-
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co
.Iq CODcq 0
t- 0 cli to0
COD 0)
cli
00mcli
to 0mt-
-o
cli
O t- .04 No0 t- -o to '.14 .,vmm t- -o m
,06
0606t t, t t
M0010 0 000 t- 0 00N 0 -o 0 10 10
Nt- to t- aimt- 0M

000 cli C'!(:R0 t' 't! C'!


1-1 -4 -4 0 00 00 t- t- t- t- -o -o -o -o -o -o -o -o -o 10 10 10 10

to to 0 to 0 00 cq to 00 to 11-14t- to 1.14 COD01 00to ec4


'114 t- 14 cq oo t- (=> -4 000LO cq cq '.14 t- --4 10 t- -4 '.14 00m00
t- o00 t- -o to mcli t- C'I

:114' 0-04 N-4 (-=4> 0, oo,oo,t t t t


ti
P.
.4
FA cli
M0 10
-4
14
t-
0 cq
-o
00
t-
-o
cq
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0 0 0
-o
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to
.Iq
-4
00N
to -4
10
cli
oo-
00 to
0
m- -4 0 00 -o to 14 '.14mNN 000 t- to cli
P. oo C'I 0
E-4

C 0 to 0 0 to t- t- 00 .Iqm 00
.Iq tomto -o m1.14 0 10 to -o 00 -4 to 0 N10 00mt-
0 t- 10 to mmN 000 -o tomcli
(M 00 00 t- t t
0 10 10 0 "14014 0) 00 t- '.14 00 t- 00 -o 0)
C

cli t- to mNN 00 -o m

5> "'I'll 11-04 N-4 (-=>4 (m, 0 06t t t -O'C6C6C6C6C C6C C6


z

m0) to to 0N000Nt- -o0000-4 00 t- -o"t- 10 00 -4 -4 o


t- 1.14 t-o-o 00 00 LO t- -4 0) 00 000Mt- -4 ".14 t- -o -4 o
cli 0 to cli 00 t- mmcli -4 -4 -4
z C

00

E-4
00
! '-I''o C'lmcl
-40.I' -O0
oC'l t-
00 C'l0C'lm000
m.14-o 00C'l0t- t-
0mt-
0
t- cli
00t- to clicli
".14

-4
140

00 o-114 00 cli C, ci ci ci -! -! .
0 1.14 0 00 t- t- t- t- -o co co co -o -o -o

m0 to to -o 00 0 0 00N 0to cli t- cli t- cli In


co '.14 t- t- 00 10 -o 00 t- 000Mt- 00 cli t- cli 00
o - 06C 't! C'!C'!-!Rc! 0 ci
-4 0 00 t- t- t- co co -o -o -o -o -o -o co co to to to to to0

t- 00 00 t- cli 14 CII -O n4
C 0 10 10 CII 0N 0tom
0 00 03 -4M-o010 00N-o
t- -o m
t-M
C)
oo -o '.14MCl 000

'ION(=> oo,t-, t t
M10 10N00 -o t-Nto to -o 00 t-m 00 0 -o 0 0 d4
M0
o t-M10 10o-4 C'I 0 tomcqmto 00Nt- 01.14 0 1.140t-
t-M0 t- '.14mC'I -400 0 00 t- 10MC'I -4 O'
o0CII . . . . .
o 00 cli0 . . . . . . . .
-4 -4 0 00 t- t- t- co co co co co co

0 t- cli t- 1.14 toN co 1.14 co co 0)0 cli t- 00 -o 0 00


00 t- 0 '.14N-4m-O 00Nt- -4
C clmNoo -O0'oN5
ooN 0 -4 to -4 0 10 1.14mcq 1400 00 00 t- CO '.14M

-4 -4 C 06t t C 1 1.6C6C6C6C6
00 co0-O -O .I, 00m00 0 '.14 -O -O 00
C 0 -ON-Ommt-
R'.14 '.140 m -4 '.14 0 t- t- 00 -4 '.14 8 00m0 -ONp
C.9 .I! M o0 00 00 t- -o
t-

8444 _,I _I 06t t t-6 -O, t6 d4-

'o0oo 00 -4
0 (7) oo 00
cl -1
.I' t-
N 000Nt-
m'o 00 t-0t- 'o
-O'o t-0 -oN
0 0 -ON0 t- '.14

cli
oo cq 't! -! t- 't! ci -! (: 0 t-7 ci -!R0 t
-4 0 00 t- t- -o -o -o -o to to to to to to to to to to to .14 .14 .14

cli t- 00 C 0 -4
1-1 -4
N M
-I -4
14 10
-4
-o
-4
t-
-4
00
-4
(7)
-q N
0
""OOOO 8
684 BIOMETRICS, DECEMBER 1960

ci (7) to to 0 4m t- 14 N 00 8 -4 N 11-14-4 -4 -4 0 m -4 t- N "14 "14 00 t-


co m 00 to m m LO 00 cli t- cli 00 t- M 00 M
Cl -1 (=! (7 O O t" t" Cl!
'-4 '-4 00 00 t- t- t- t- t- t- -o -o -o to -o

C (7) to to 0 t- 14 cli oo o 1-4 (711 11-14 -4 -4 -4 00 0 t- m Lo


r C'l cl co C'D 00 0 LO m m LO 00 C'l 'o t- m 0 to 1-4 to -4

oo C'l -! 0 L "! ci -! (:R (: 0 0 t t-: ci -! C 0


'4 -4 0 00 00 t- t- t- t- t- t- co co to co co 10 -o to LO to

0 to 0 t- -4 N oo 0 -4 N ".14 -4 0 00 CII M 00 to '-4 to 00 00 M


to t- cli cli -o m 00 0 LO m m LO 00 -4 -o -4 -o N 00 M 00 M 00
oo C'! C! O ll' t': t- 10 to m cli 0 0 t-
'6 '4C
'4 00 00 t- t- t- t- t- t- -o -o -o -o -o

M o) to to t. -4 N 00 0 -4 cli 11-14 0 LO m cli to t-


(=; t 'I! t' C'l C'l 'o m 00 0 LO m m '-I' t- LO (=> LO 0
t- m -o 1-4 oo to ".14 N -4 0 0 00 00 t- t- -o m cli 0 0
O . . . . . . . . . . .
oo C'l 0
00 00 t- t- t- t- t- t- co co co C cl cl 10'

M C to to C N 00 N 0 N LO 00 00 LO t- 00 "Ili 00
N -o m 00 0 to m m 'Ili o Cr) m 00 m 00 m t- cli -o
-4 t-
E-q 00 N O N -1 0 a,
00 t- t- o 'o

Co'
0

Co'
00

-4 -4 -4 0 oo 00 t- t- t- t- t- t- o o -o o o -o
O

0 to to C C t- - N 00 0 -4 o Cr) t- 00 t- LO 0 0 t- O cli m
z O cli cli o CODoo C'l -q C'l t- o 0 M 00 N -o
0 00 'o
00 N 0 ci -! (:R
ti -4 -4 -4 0 00 t- t- t-
00 t- t- t- o o o -o o o

m 0 to to 0 0) N oo t- 0 00 -o 0 -o m 0 -4 0 m cli cli m
.
-o .14 t- C'I N -o M oo 0 m O 0 O - 11-14 t- cli 10 1 00 N co O
O cli O 0 t- -o
06 C O 0 C'!-! C C 0 t-7 'o
0 00 00 t- t- t- t- t- 'o 'o 'o 'o 'o
0 to to 0 0 cq oo to N 0) N 00 11-14 0 00 0 0 0 O
00 -o N N co m 00 0 m O 00 0 O m -o to m -o o

ooC'lo . . . . . . . . . . .
O M -4
O
(7)
-o 00 to m cq - 0 00 00 t- -o -o to m cli O 0) t-

-4 -4 -4 0 00 00 t- t- t-

C to to C C N m 0 00 0 t- -4
o 14 t- '.14 N N -o m 00 0 m 0 oo oo 0 cl Lo o 00
m co - oo Lo m cq O 0 00 t- t- to to m cli 0 00 t- to
O . . . . . . . . . . .
oo C'l o
0 0 00 00 t- t- t- 161 16
0 to to -o m 00 m 00 m t- t- 00 m O 00 00 O
-o N -o m oo 00 N 00 t- t- 00 - 1.14 00 m 10 O 1.14 t- -4 -o
co co -4 00 to m N 0 (M 00 t- t- -o to to m C'l 00 t- to
4 - - - - - . . . . . .
(M
O '.14 oo C'l o
(m0000t- t- t- r- r- co co co C.6C Co'Co'
(m 10 10 0) 0) t- -4 N N C) Co 0) C'l M -o -4 M "44 C) co cli cli co
C '"! t-7 -'4! C'l C'l 'O m oo
m -o -4 00
00 - t- 'O 'O t-
m cli C) a) 00 t-
co
co
r- N
10 10 co
00 N co C) '-I'
-4 C) 00 t- 10
m O . . . . . .
(M -I -4 -4 (m0000t- t-
oo C'l C)
t- t- t- co co 'o C C6Co'
M (m (m (m t- - -4 t- co t- 00 0 co co 0) 0) 10 10 a) LO m m 10
.II N N co co t- r- 0 -o 10 10 -o 00 -4 10 C) m -o C) 00 N
z
C) -
0 co
C) C'iC) C -1 0 C c'! (:RC t-: "R
a) a) 00 00 t- t- t- t- t- co co co co co -o -o 10 -o -o 10 10

CO 0) 10 10 0) 0) t- -4 oo C) -o t- -o 00 C) N N r- 00 -4 co co I co
10 n4 t- -II Cl CII 10 Cl t- -o 0) 10 co co t- 00 -4 00 N 0
o oo m
cli C -! C -! (:R(:: C .,i, (M 00 co -O
0 C
El P'
a) (m0000t- t- t- t- t- co co co co -o -o -o C6
m a) 10 10 a) a) C) m 1144m 00 00 C) cli cli 10
co C 1 r '"! N N -o N -o -O 00 'g N - m -O 00 N -o (M m -o 0 g 00
m -o -4 00 10 m -4 C) 0) 00 t- co 10 10 a) 00 -o
C) oo cli 1 1 - - I . . . . . . . .
a) -4 -4
0
-4 a) 00 00 t- t- t- t- t- -o co co co co 16Co' 10'
co o) LO 10 a) a) t- C) t- cli C) 00 10 1144 0 N co -4 r- 10
t-
co -4
C) I'll t-
00 a)
-4
cli
t- -'t! C'l -o
C'l co
-4
-O "
m
co
-4
N
0
0
a)
0
00 t-
co
-o
-o 0
10 10
.I'
cli -4 a) t- -o
-o
m oo
(m -4 -4 -4 0; 00'00' -o -o 10
m a) If) 10 a) a)N t-N -o-O 00o 00
m N
0
-'o 0
10 m 00 00 a) a) t- N
00 t- 00 0 m t- N
C) -4 LO
-'o 00 -- -'o (M m
cli m t-
C -'t! t- -o -4 10 C'l C) (M t- 10 .II
m oo m --I 0 00 t- -o -o 10 I'll 1.14
C) "'il oo C'l C) . . . . . . . . . .
0) I'll-4 -4 -4 a) 0000t- t- t- t- t- -o -o -o -o -o -o -o 10'
m a) If) 10 o) a)N t-N a).I' (M
1.14 N
N
1.14 00 N 00 m -4 N N 0
0
1.14
N 00 -O -O -o 00 -4 -O (M
ir) m
N -'o 00 N
10 (M
'O 0
t-:
M -o -4 t- 10 m -4 a) 00 t- -o 10 10 "Ili m C'l C) 00 t- 10 .II
C) ,II oo C'l C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
a) a) 0000t- t- t- t- co co co co co co co -o C6-O-10'lo'10'

1-4 cl m 10 -o t- 000) 0 -4 clico 10co t- 000) 0N '-I'c'


N
0 c' c'
CYD114 o cli 8
4
MULTIPLE RANGE TEST 685

by 1/(,AQ/AP) = AP/AQ. Since u is defined as the number of digits


before the decimal point in the studentized range interval under con-
sideration, this would guarantee that the error in Q would not exceed
5 units in the fifth significant digit if the ratio of the change in P to
the change in Q were constant throughout the interval under considera-
tion. This condition (P piecewise linear in Q) is obviously not satisfied
in practice, but as long as the weaker condition
, AP,/AQ,] < 2 AP/?\Q,
max [AP0/AQ0Q
where AP i y - yi and AQi = Ix - I (i = 0, 1) is satisfied, the
error in Q will not exceed a unit in the fourth significant digit. This
weaker condition is in fact satisfied, and hence it can be stated that
the error in the critical values for Duncan's test, which are given in
Table 1, does not exceed a unit in the fourth and last significant digit.

REFERENCES
[1] Beyer, William H. [19531. Certain PercentagePoints of the Distribution of the
StudentizedRange of Large Samples. Virginia Polytechnic Institute Technical
Report No. 4.
[2] Duncan, David B. [1955]. Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics
li, 1-42.
[3] Harter, H. Leon. [1957]. Error rates and sample sizes for range tests in multiple
comparisons. Biometrics13, 511-36.
[4] Harter, H. Leon. [1957]. Critical values for Duncan's new multiple range test
(abstract), Jour. Amer. Stat. Assoc. 52, 372.
[5] Harter, H. Leon and Clemm, Donald S. [1959]. The ProbabilityIntegrals of the
Range and of the StudentizedRange-Probability Integral, PercentagePoints, and
Moments of the Range. Wright Air Development Center Technical Report
58-484, Vol. I.
[6] Harter, H. Leon, Clemm, Donald S., and Guthrie, Eugene H. [1959). The
ProbabilityIntegralsof the Range and of the StudentizedRange-Probability Inte-
gral and PercentagePoints of the StudentizedRange; Critical Values for Duncan's
New Multiple Range Test. Wright Air Development Center, Technical Report
58-484, Vol. II
[7] Pearson, E. S. and Hartley, H. 0. [1942]. The probability integral of the range
in samples of n observations from a normal population. Biometrika32, 301-10.
[8] Pearson, E. S. and Hartley, H. 0. [1943]. Tables of the probability integral of
the 'studentised' range. Biometrika 33,89-99.