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Problem 1 Sheet 1 Unsolved Problems 4d-20-32

𝐿𝑒𝑡 𝑒𝑎𝑐ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝐴⃑ = 5 𝑎 − 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 , 𝐵⃑ = −2 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶⃑ = 3 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 , 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑

𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝑡𝑜 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝐴, 𝐵, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶, 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑦. 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑

𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐴 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑: 𝑎) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑔𝑖𝑛 (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑎 ); 𝑏) 𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐵 (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑎 )

𝑐) 𝑎 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐵 & 𝐶 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝐵𝐶 𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑎 ; 𝑑) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 Δ𝐴𝐵𝐶

Solution – Correct

𝑨𝒏𝒔.: (𝑎) − 0.845 𝑎 + 0.169 𝑎 − 0.507 𝑎 ; (𝑏) − 0.911 𝑎 + 0.391 𝑎 + 0.1302 𝑎 ; (𝑐) − 0.793 𝑎 + 0.463 𝑎 − 0.396 𝑎 ; (𝑑) 25.5

∵ −𝐴⃑ = −5 𝑎 + 𝑎 − 3 𝑎

1 1
∴𝑎 = −5 𝑎 + 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 = −5 𝑎 + 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 = −𝟎. 𝟖𝟒𝟓 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟔𝟗 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟓𝟎𝟕 𝒂𝒛
√5 + 1 + 3 √35

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐵⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = −2 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 5𝑎 − 𝑎 +3𝑎 = −7 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 𝑎

1 𝟏
∴𝑎 ⃑= −7 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 𝑎 = −𝟕 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟑 𝒂𝒚 + 𝒂𝒛 = −𝟎. 𝟗𝟏 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟑𝟗 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟑 𝒂𝒛
√7 + 3 + 1 √𝟓𝟗

−2 + 0 2 + 3 4 − 4
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑋 @ , , = (−1, 2.5, 0 )
2 2 2

∴ 𝑟 ⃑ = −𝑎 + 2.5 𝑎

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑟 ⃑ − 𝑟⃑ = −𝑎 + 2.5 𝑎 − 5𝑎 − 𝑎 +3𝑎 = −6 𝑎 + 3.5 𝑎 − 3 𝑎

1 1
∴𝑎 ⃑= −6 𝑎 + 3.5 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 = −6 𝑎 + 3.5 𝑎 − 3 𝑎
√6 + 3.5 + 3 √57.25
= −𝟎. 𝟕𝟗𝟑 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟒𝟔𝟑 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟑𝟗𝟔 𝒂𝒛

Perimeter of the triangle ABC


∵ 𝑟 ⃑ = 𝐵⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = −2 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 5𝑎 − 𝑎 +3𝑎 = −7 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 𝑎
𝐴𝐵⃑ = 7 + 3 + 1 = √59
∵ 𝑟 ⃑ = 𝐶⃑ − 𝐵⃑ = 3 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − −2 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 =2𝑎 +𝑎 −8𝑎
𝐵𝐶⃑ = 2 + 1 + 8 = √69
∵ 𝑟 ⃑ = 𝐴⃑ − 𝐶⃑ = 5 𝑎 − 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 − 3𝑎 −4𝑎 =5𝑎 −4𝑎 +7𝑎
𝐶𝐴⃑ = 5 + 4 + 7 = √90
∴ 𝑃𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 Δ 𝐴𝐵𝐶 = 𝐴𝐵⃑ + 𝐵𝐶⃑ + 𝐶𝐴⃑ = √59 + √69 + √90 = 𝟐𝟓. 𝟒𝟕
Problem 2 Sheet 1

𝐼𝑓 𝐴⃑ = 2 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 , 𝐵⃑ = −3 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 , 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑

(𝑎) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐴 − 𝐵;

(𝑏) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑖𝑑𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐴 + 𝐵;

𝐴 + 3𝐵
(𝑐) 𝐵
|𝐴 + 3𝐵|

Solution

(a)
𝐴 − 𝐵 = 2 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 − −3 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 = 5 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 + 2 𝑎
𝐴−𝐵 5 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 5 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 + 2 𝑎
𝑎 = = =
|𝐴 − 𝐵| √25 + 100 + 4 √129
𝒂𝑨 𝑩 = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟒 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟖𝟖 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟕𝟔 𝒂𝒛

(b)
𝐴 + 𝐵 = 2 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 + −3 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 =−𝑎 +2𝑎 −8𝑎
|𝐴 + 𝐵| = √1 + 4 + 64
|𝐴 + 𝐵| = √𝟔𝟗

(c)
𝐴 + 3𝐵 = 2 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 + 3 −3 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 = −7 𝑎 − 6 𝑎 − 12 𝑎
|𝐴 + 3𝐵| = √49 + 36 + 144 = √229
𝐴 + 3𝐵 −7 6 12
= 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 𝑎
|𝐴 + 3𝐵| √229 √229 √229
𝐴 + 3𝐵 49 36 144 229
= + + = =1
|𝐴 + 3𝐵| 229 229 229 229
𝐴 + 3𝐵
𝐵=𝐵
|𝐴 + 3𝐵|
𝑨 + 𝟑𝑩
∴ 𝑩 = −𝟑 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟓 𝒂𝒛
|𝑨 + 𝟑𝑩|
Problem 3 Sheet 1

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐴 (1, 2, 3) 𝑡𝑜 𝐵. 𝐼𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑖𝑠 10 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑖𝑠 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛

𝑏𝑦 𝑎⃑ = 0.6 𝑎 + 0.64 𝑎 + 0.38 𝑎 , 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐵.

Solution - Correct

𝑨𝒏𝒔. : 7, 8.4, 7.8

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑎⃑ = 10 𝑎⃑

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 10 0.6 𝑎 + 0.64 𝑎 + 0.38 𝑎 = 6 𝑎 + 6.4 𝑎 + 3.8 𝑎

𝒃𝒖𝒕 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐵⃑ − 𝐴⃑
∴ 6 𝑎 + 6.4 𝑎 + 3.8 𝑎 = (𝐵 − 1) 𝑎 + 𝐵 − 2 𝑎 + (𝐵 − 3) 𝑎
𝑤𝑒 𝑔𝑒𝑡

𝐵 −1=6 𝐵 =7

𝐵 − 2 = 6.4 𝐵 = 8.4

𝐵 − 3 = 3.8 𝐵 = 7.8

∴ 𝑩(𝟕, 𝟖. 𝟒, 𝟕. 𝟖)
Problem 4 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡𝑤𝑜 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑀(2, 5, −3) 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑁(−3, 1, 4), 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑

𝑎) 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑠 (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑀𝑁⃑)

𝑏) 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑀𝑁;

𝑐) 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑈𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 .

𝑑) 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑀𝑁 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑋 = 0 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒.

Solution

∵ 𝑀𝑁⃑ = 𝑁⃑ − 𝑀⃑ = −3 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 2𝑎 +5𝑎 −3𝑎 = −5 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 + 7 𝑎


𝑀𝑁⃑ = 5 + 4 + 7 = √𝟗𝟎
(b)

−3 + 2 1 + 5 4 − 3
𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑀𝑁 𝑎𝑡 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑃 @ , , = (−0.5, 3, 0.5 )
2 2 2

∴ 𝑟 ⃑ = −0.5 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 0.5 𝑎 𝑃⃑ = 0.5 + 3 + 0.5 = √𝟗. 𝟓

(c)

𝑟 ⃑ 1 𝟏
∴𝑎 ⃑= = −5 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 + 7 𝑎 = −𝟓 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟒 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟕 𝒂𝒛
|𝑟 ⃑| √5 + 4 + 7 √𝟗𝟎

(d)
???
Problem 5 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝐺 = 2𝑥 𝑦 𝑎 − 2(𝑧 − 𝑥) 𝑎 + 3𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑎 , 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑:

𝑎) 𝐺 𝑎𝑡 𝑃(2, −3, 4)

𝑏) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑉𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐺 𝑎𝑡 𝑃

𝑐) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑛 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ |𝐺| = 100

𝑑) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑦 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑄(−3, 𝑦, 5) 𝑖𝑓 𝐺 = 100 & 𝑦 > 0

𝑒) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑃 & 𝑄.

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) − 24 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − 72 𝑎 ; (𝑏) − 0.316 𝑎 − 0.0526 𝑎 − 0.947 𝑎 ; (𝑐) 4𝑥 𝑦 + 4 (𝑧 − 𝑥) + 9 𝑥 𝑦 𝑧 = 10 ; (𝑑) 2.04 (𝑒)7.17

𝒂𝒕 𝑃(2, −3, 4) 𝐺 ⃑ = −𝟐𝟒 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟕𝟐 𝒂𝒛


(b)

𝐺⃑ 1 1
∴ 𝐺⃑ = = −24 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − 72 𝑎 = −24 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − 72 𝑎
𝐺⃑ √24 + 16 + 72 76

6 1 18
∴ 𝐺⃑ = − 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 𝑎 𝑮𝑷⃑ = −𝟎. 𝟑𝟏𝟔 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟎. 𝟎𝟓𝟐 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟗𝟒𝟕 𝒂𝒛
19 19 19

(c)

|𝐺| = 100 = (2𝑥 𝑦) + 2(𝑧 − 𝑥) + (3𝑥𝑦𝑧)

∴ 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎 = 𝟒𝒙𝟒 𝒚𝟐 + 𝟒 (𝒛 − 𝒙)𝟐 + 𝟗 𝒙𝟐 𝒚𝟐 𝒛𝟐 ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ ⋯ 𝒆𝒒𝒖(𝟏)

(d)
( )
@ 𝑄(−3, 𝑦, 5) 10000 = 324 𝑦 + 256 + 2025 𝑦 9744 = 2349 𝑦

9744
∴𝑦=± = ±𝟐. 𝟎𝟑𝟔𝟕
2349

(e)
∵ 𝑟 ⃑ = 𝑄⃑ − 𝑃⃑ = −3 𝑎 ± 2.0367 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 − 2𝑎 −3𝑎 +4𝑎 =
= −5 𝑎 + (3 ± 2.0367) 𝑎 + 𝑎
5 + 5.0367 + 1 𝟕. 𝟏𝟔𝟕
∴ 𝑟 ⃑ = 5 + (3 ± 2.0367) + 1 = =
5 + 0.9633 + 1 5.189
Problem 6 Sheet 1

𝐴 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑠 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑎𝑠 𝐺 = 2𝑥 𝑦 𝑎 − 2(𝑧 − 𝑥) 𝑎 + 3𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑎 , 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑠𝑘𝑒𝑡𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐺 , 𝐺 , 𝐺 , 𝑎𝑛𝑑

|𝐺|, 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑒𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑥 = 2, 𝑦 = −1; 0 ≤ 𝑧 ≤ 10

Solution

𝐺 (2, −1, 𝑧) = 2𝑥 𝑦 = 2(4)(−1) = −8

𝐺 (2, −1, 𝑧) = −2(𝑧 − 𝑥) = −2(𝑧 − 2) = −2 𝑧 + 4

𝐺 (2, −1, 𝑧) = 3𝑥𝑦𝑧 = 3(2)(−1)𝑧 = −6 𝑧

|𝐺| = 64 + (−2 𝑧 + 4) + (−6𝑧)

= 64 + 4 𝑧 − 16𝑧 + 16 + 36 𝑧

= 80 + 40 𝑧 − 16𝑧

= 4 2.5 𝑧 − 𝑧 + 5
Problem 7 Sheet 1
10
𝐴 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑠 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑠 𝐹 = 2(𝑥 + 𝑦) sin 𝜋𝑧 𝑎 − (𝑥 + 𝑦) 𝑎 + 𝑎 , 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑓𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓
𝑥 +𝑦

𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑎) 𝐹 = 0 𝑏) 𝐹 = 0 𝑐) |𝐹 | = 1

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 𝑦 = −𝑥 (𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒), 𝑧 = 0, ±1, ±2, … (𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑠); (𝑏) 𝑦 = −𝑥 (𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑐 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟); (𝑐) 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 10 (𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟)

𝑎𝑡 𝐹 = 0 2(𝑥 + 𝑦) sin 𝜋𝑧 = 0
∴ 2(𝑥 + 𝑦) = 0 𝑜𝑟 sin 𝜋𝑧 = 0
∴ 𝑃𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝒚 = −𝒙 , 𝒛 = 𝟎, ±𝟏, ±𝟐, ±𝟑 ⋯

𝑎𝑡 𝐹 = 0 (𝑥 + 𝑦) = 0
∴ 𝐿𝑜𝑐𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑏𝑜𝑙𝑖𝑐 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝒚 = −𝒙𝟐

10
𝑎𝑡 |𝐹 | = 1 =1
𝑥 +𝑦
∴ 𝑥 + 𝑦 = 10
𝟐
∴ 𝐿𝑜𝑐𝑢𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑖𝑟𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟 𝒙𝟐 + 𝒚𝟐 = √𝟏𝟎

Problem 8 Sheet 1
𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑𝑠 𝐺 = 5 (𝑥 + 𝑦) 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐺 = 5 𝑎 + 2𝑥𝑦 𝑎 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝑃(3,2,0)

𝑎) |𝐺 | 𝑏) |𝐺 | 𝑐) 𝑎 , 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐺

𝑑) 𝑎 , 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐺 𝑒) 𝑎 , 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐺 ⃑ + 𝐺 ⃑ .

Solution

𝑎𝑡 𝑃(3,2,0) 𝐺 = 25 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 , 𝐺 = 5 𝑎 + 12 𝑎
∴ |𝐺 | = 25 + 10 = √725 = 𝟐𝟔. 𝟗𝟐𝟔 𝑎𝑛𝑑 |𝐺 | = 5 + 12 = √169 = 𝟏𝟑

𝐺⃑ 1
∴ 𝑎⃑ = = 25 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟐𝟖𝟓 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟑𝟕𝟏𝟒 𝒂𝒚
𝐺⃑ √725

𝐺⃑ 1
∴ 𝑎⃑ = = 5 𝑎 + 12 𝑎 = 𝟎. 𝟑𝟖𝟓 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟗𝟐𝟑 𝒂𝒚
𝐺 ⃑ 13

𝐺 ⃑ + 𝐺 ⃑ = 25 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 + 12 𝑎 = 30 𝑎 + 22 𝑎

𝐺⃑ + 𝐺 ⃑ 1
∴ 𝑎 ⃑ = 𝒙𝒙 = 30 𝑎 + 22 𝑎 = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟎𝟔𝟒𝟎𝟓 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟓𝟗𝟏𝟑𝟔𝟒 𝒂𝒚
𝐺⃑ + 𝐺 ⃑ √30 + 22
Problem 9 Sheet 1
2𝑥
𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑, 𝐺⃑ = 𝑎 + (𝑦 + 𝑧 + 1) 𝑎 + (5𝑥 − 𝑧 ) 𝑎 , 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑:
1+𝑦

(𝑎) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐺 𝑎𝑡 𝑃(1, 2, −3);

(𝑏) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝐺 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑦 = 0 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑄(2, 0,4);

(𝑐) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝐺 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑎 𝑎𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑧 = 1.

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 0.0995 𝑎 − 0.995 𝑎 ; (𝑏) 34.7 ; (𝑐) 36

𝑎𝑡 𝑃(1, 2, −3) 𝐺 ⃑ = 0.4 𝑎 + 0 𝑎 − 4 𝑎

𝐺⃑ 1
∴𝑎 ⃑= = [0.4 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 ] = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟗𝟗𝟓 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟎. 𝟗𝟓𝟓 𝒂𝒛
𝐺⃑ (0.4) + 4

(b)

𝑎𝑡 𝑄(2, 0,4) 𝐺⃑ = 4𝑎 +5𝑎 −6𝑎

∵ 𝐺 ⃑. 𝑎 ⃑ = 𝐺 ⃑ cos 𝛼

∵5= 4 + 5 + 6 cos 𝛼

5
∴ cos 𝛼 = 𝛼 = 55.26 𝟗𝟎 − 𝜶 = 𝟑𝟒. 𝟕𝟑
√77

(c)

𝐺 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑎 = (5𝑥 − 𝑧 ) 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑎

𝑎𝑡 𝑧 = 1 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒

5𝑥
∴𝐼= (5𝑥 − 1) 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = −𝑥 (𝑦) = 𝟑𝟔
2
Problem 10 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑃(2, 5, −1), 𝑄(−1, −4,1), 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑇(5, 0,2), 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑

𝑎) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑟 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑏) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑐) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 ∆ 𝑃𝑄𝑇

𝑑) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑄 𝑒) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑜𝑛 𝑅 ⃑

𝑓) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑄 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟𝑦 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑝𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑒 𝑠𝑖𝑑𝑒

𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛.

Solution

(𝒂) 𝑟 ⃑ = 𝑄⃑ − 𝑃⃑ = − 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 + 𝑎 − 2𝑎 +5𝑎 − 𝑎 = −𝟑 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟗 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟐 𝒂𝒛

𝑟 ⃑ 1 𝟏
(𝒃) 𝑎 ⃑= = −3 𝑎 − 9 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 = −𝟑 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟗 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟐 𝒂𝒛
𝑟 ⃑ √3 + 9 + 2 √𝟗𝟒

∵ 𝑟 ⃑ = 𝑇⃑ − 𝑄⃑ = 5 𝑎 + 0 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 − − 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 + 𝑎 = 6 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 + 𝑎 𝑟 ⃑ = √53
∵ 𝑟 ⃑ = 𝑃⃑ − 𝑇⃑ = 2 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 + 0 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 = −3 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 − 3𝑎 |𝑟 ⃑ | = √43

(𝒄) 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 ∆ 𝑃𝑄𝑇 = 𝑟 ⃑ + 𝑟 ⃑ + |𝑟 ⃑ | = √94 + √53 + √43 = 𝟐𝟑. 𝟓𝟑𝟑

(d)

∴ 𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑅 ⃑ . 𝑅 ⃑ cos 𝛼

𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ 6𝑎 +4𝑎 +𝑎 . 3𝑎 +9𝑎 −2𝑎 (18 + 36 − 2) 52


∴ cos 𝛼 = = = =
𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ √53. √94 √4982 √4982

∴ 𝜶 = 𝟒𝟐. 𝟓𝟒𝟕𝒐

(e)

𝑟 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ − 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 + 𝑎 . 3 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 + 3𝑎
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑟 ⃑ 𝑜𝑛 𝑅 ⃑ = =
|𝑅 ⃑| √9 + 25 + 9

−3 + 20 + 3 20
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑟 ⃑ 𝑜𝑛 𝑅 ⃑ = =
√43 √43

(f)

𝑟 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑅 ⃑ 20 3 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 + 3𝑎 20
𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑉𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑟 ⃑ 𝑜𝑛 𝑅 ⃑ = = = 3 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 + 3𝑎
|𝑅 ⃑| |𝑅 ⃑| √43 √43 43
Problem 11 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝐸(2, 5, 1), 𝐹(−1, 4, −2), 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐺(3, −2,4), 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑

𝑎) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐸 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑠 𝐹; (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑎 ⃑)

𝑏) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑅 &𝑅 ;

𝑐) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝐸𝐹𝐺;

𝑑) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑜𝑛 𝑅 ⃑;

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) − 0.688 𝑎 − 0.229 𝑎 − 0.688 𝑎 ; (𝑏) 98.6 ; (𝑐) 21.4; (𝑑) − 0.651

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐹⃑ − 𝐸⃑ = − 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 − 2𝑎 +5𝑎 + 𝑎 = −3 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 3 𝑎

𝑅 ⃑ 1 𝟏
∴𝑎 ⃑= = −3 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 = −𝟑 𝒂𝒙 − 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟑 𝒂𝒛
𝑅 ⃑ √3 + 1 + 3 √𝟏𝟗

∴ 𝒂𝑹𝑬𝑭⃑ = −𝟎. 𝟔𝟖𝟖 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟎. 𝟐𝟐𝟗𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟔𝟖𝟖 𝒂𝒛

(b)

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐺⃑ − 𝐸⃑ = 3 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 2𝑎 +5𝑎 + 𝑎 = 𝑎 −7𝑎 +3𝑎 𝑅 ⃑ = √59

𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ −3 + 7 − 9 −5
∵ 𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑅 ⃑ . 𝑅 ⃑ cos 𝛼 cos 𝛼 = = =
𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ √19 √59 √1121

∴ 𝜶 = 𝟗𝟖. 𝟓𝟖𝟖𝟓𝒐

(𝒄)

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐹⃑ − 𝐺⃑ = − 𝑎 + 4𝑎 − 2𝑎 − 3 𝑎 − 2𝑎 + 4𝑎 = −4 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 − 6 𝑎 𝑅 ⃑ = √88

∴ 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 ∆ 𝐸𝐹𝐺 = 𝑅 ⃑ + 𝑅 ⃑ + 𝑅 ⃑ = √19 + √59 + √88 = 𝟐𝟏. 𝟒𝟐

(𝑑)

𝑅 ⃑
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑗𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑜𝑛 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑅 ⃑. 𝑎 ⃑ = 𝑅 ⃑. = 𝑅 ⃑ cos 𝛼
𝑅 ⃑

= √19 cos 98.5885 = −𝟎. 𝟔𝟓𝟎𝟗𝟓


Problem 12 Sheet 1

𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠:

(𝑎) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝐺 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑖𝑑 − 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑗𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐴(2, −3,5) 𝑡𝑜 𝐵(6, −5,5)

(𝑏) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝐷 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐶(−2,7,3) 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑖𝑑𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑗𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐴 𝑡𝑜 𝐵

(𝑐) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅

𝑑) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 ⃑.

Solution

(a)

2 + 6 −3 − 5 5 + 5
𝑀 = 𝑀𝑖𝑑𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 , , = (4, −4, 5 )
2 2 2

∴ 𝑮⃑ = 𝟒 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟒 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟓 𝒂𝒛

(b)

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑀⃑ − 𝐶⃑ = 4 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 − −2 𝑎 + 7 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 = 𝟔 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟏𝟏 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟐 𝒂𝒛

(c)

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐵⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = 6 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 = 4 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 + 0 𝑎
∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐶⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = −2 𝑎 + 7 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 = 0 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 − 2 𝑎

∴ 𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ = 4 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 + 0 𝑎 . 0 𝑎 + 10 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 = −𝟐𝟎

𝑅 ⃑ −20 −20
∴ 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑅 =𝑅 ⃑ = = = −𝟏. 𝟗𝟔
𝑅 ⃑ √0 + 10 + 2 √104

(d)

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐶⃑ − 𝐵⃑ = −2 𝑎 + 7 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 − 6𝑎 −5𝑎 +5𝑎 = −8 𝑎 + 12 𝑎 − 2 𝑎

𝑅 ⃑ 1 1
∴𝑎 ⃑= = −8 𝑎 + 12 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 = −8 𝑎 + 12 𝑎 − 2 𝑎
𝑅 ⃑ √8 + 12 + 2 2√53

𝟏
∴ 𝒂𝑹𝑩𝑪⃑ = −𝟒 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟔 𝒂𝒚 − 𝒂𝒛
√𝟓𝟑
Problem 13 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝐴 = −4 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵 = 3 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 𝑎 , 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑:

𝑎) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑚𝑎𝑔𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑢𝑑𝑒 𝑜𝑓 5 𝐴⃑ − 2 𝐵⃑, 𝑖. 𝑒. 5 𝐴⃑ − 2 𝐵⃑

5 𝐴⃑ − 2 𝐵⃑
𝑏) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 ;
𝐴⃑

𝑐) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝐴 𝑖𝑠 𝑝𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝐵 ; (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝐴 =? 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐴 ⃑ 𝐵⃑)

𝑒) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝐵 (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝐴 ⃑)

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 31.1; (𝑏) − 0.835 𝑎 + 0.0642 𝑎 + 0.546 𝑎 ; (𝑐) − 0.808 𝑎 − 1.077 𝑎 + 0.269 𝑎 ; (𝑑) − 3.19 𝑎 + 3.08 𝑎 + 2.73 𝑎 ;

5 𝐴⃑ − 2 𝐵⃑ = 5 −4 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 −2 3𝑎 +4𝑎 − 𝑎 = −26 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 17 𝑎
∴ 5 𝐴⃑ − 2 𝐵⃑ = 26 + 2 + 17 = √𝟗𝟔𝟗 = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟏
(b)

5 𝐴⃑ − 2 𝐵⃑ −26 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 17 𝑎 −26 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 17 𝑎
𝐸⃑ = = =
𝐴⃑ √4 + 2 + 3 √29

𝐸⃑ 1 −26 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 17 𝑎 𝟏
∴ 𝑎⃑ = = = −𝟐𝟔 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟐 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟏𝟕 𝒂𝒛
𝐸⃑ 26 + 2 + 17 √29 √𝟗𝟔𝟗
29

∴ 𝒂𝑬⃑ = −𝟎. 𝟖𝟑𝟓𝟐 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟎𝟔𝟒 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟎. 𝟓𝟒𝟔 𝒂𝒛

(c)

∵ 𝐴 ⃑ = 𝐴 ⃑ .𝑎 ⃑

∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 𝐴 cos 𝛼 . 𝑎 ⃑

𝐴⃑. 𝐵⃑ −12 + 8 − 3 3 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 𝑎 −𝟕
∴𝐴 ⃑= cos 𝛼 . 𝑎 ⃑ = . = 𝟑 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝒂𝒛
|𝐵| √9 + 16 + 1 √9 + 16 + 1 𝟐𝟔

∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = −𝟎. 𝟖𝟎𝟕 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟏. 𝟎𝟕𝟕 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟎. 𝟐𝟔𝟗𝟐 𝒂𝒛

(d)

∵ 𝐴⃑ = 𝐴 ⃑ + 𝐴 ⃑
7
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 𝐴⃑ − 𝐴 ⃑ = −4 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 3𝑎 +4𝑎 − 𝑎 = −𝟑. 𝟏𝟗 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟑. 𝟎𝟕𝟕𝒂𝒚 + 𝟐. 𝟕𝟑 𝒂𝒛
26
Problem 14 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝐴(2, −1, 2), 𝐵(−4, 1,4), 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶(4, 3, −1), 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑

𝑎) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑅 &𝑅

𝑏) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 (𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑎𝑟) 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ∆ 𝐴𝐵𝐶

𝑐) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑡𝑜 ∆ 𝐴𝐵𝐶

Solution

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐵⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = −4 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 2𝑎 − 𝑎 +2𝑎 = −6 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 + 2 𝑎
𝑅 ⃑ = 6 + 2 + 2 = √44
∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐶⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = 4 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 2𝑎 − 𝑎 +2𝑎 =2𝑎 +4𝑎 −3𝑎
𝑅 ⃑ = 2 + 4 + 3 = √29

𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ −12 + 8 − 6 −10
∴ 𝛼 = cos = cos = cos = 𝟏𝟎𝟔. 𝟐𝟓𝟕𝒐
𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ √44 √29 √1276

(b)

Area of the triangle ABC


𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
∵ 𝑅 ⃑ × 𝑅 ⃑ = −6 2 2 = (−6 − 8) 𝑎 − (18 − 4) 𝑎 + (−24 − 4) 𝑎 = −14 𝑎 − 14 𝑎 − 28 𝑎
2 4 −3
1
∴ 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = 𝑅 ⃑ × 𝑅 ⃑ = −7 𝑎 − 7 𝑎 − 14 𝑎 = 7 + 7 + 14 = √𝟐𝟗𝟒 = 𝟏𝟕. 𝟏𝟒𝟔 𝒔𝒒𝒖. 𝒖𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔
2

(c)

Normal to the triangle ABC

𝑅 ⃑×𝑅 ⃑ −14 𝑎 − 14 𝑎 − 28 𝑎 −𝟏𝟒 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟏𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟐𝟖 𝒂𝒛


∴𝑎⃑= = =
𝑅 ⃑×𝑅 ⃑ √14 + 14 + 28 √𝟏𝟏𝟕𝟔
Problem 15 Sheet 1

𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠:

𝑥 𝑦 𝑧
𝑎) 𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐸 𝑎𝑡 𝑃(2,3, −4) 𝑖𝑓 𝐸⃑ = (𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧 ) 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 𝑎 ;
𝑦 +𝑧 √𝑥 + 𝑧 𝑥 +𝑦

𝑏) 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑛𝑒 𝑝𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑜𝑢𝑔ℎ 𝑀(1, −5,5), 𝑁(−2,4,0), 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑄(2,3,4) & ℎ𝑎𝑣𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎 𝑝𝑜𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒

𝑥 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡; (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑎 ⃑ ⊥ 𝑀𝑁𝑄)

𝑐) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑏𝑒𝑡𝑤𝑒𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑅 ⃑ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑅 ⃑.

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 0.295 𝑎 + 0.494 𝑎 − 0.818 𝑎 ; (𝑏) 0.674 𝑎 − 0.1740 𝑎 − 0.718 𝑎 ; (𝑐) 31.9 ;

3 4
∵ 𝐸⃑ = 29 0.4 𝑎 + 𝑎 − 𝑎
√20 √13

𝐸⃑ 1 3 4 𝟑 𝟒
∴ 𝑎⃑ = = 0.4 𝑎 + 𝑎 − 𝑎 = 𝟎. 𝟕𝟑𝟕 𝟎. 𝟒 𝒂𝒙 + 𝒂𝒚 − 𝒂𝒛
𝐸⃑ 3 4 √20 √13 √𝟐𝟎 √𝟏𝟑
(0.4) + +
20 13

∴ 𝒂𝑬⃑ = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟗𝟒𝟖 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟒𝟗𝟒𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟖𝟏𝟖 𝒂𝒛

(b)

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑁⃑ − 𝑀⃑ = −2 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 + 0 𝑎 − 𝑎 −5𝑎 +5𝑎 = −3 𝑎 + 9 𝑎 − 5 𝑎

𝑅 ⃑ = 3 + 9 + 5 = √115
∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑄⃑ − 𝑀⃑ = 2 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 𝑎 −5𝑎 +5𝑎 =𝑎 +8𝑎 − 𝑎
𝑅 ⃑ = 1 + 8 + 1 = √66

Normal to the triangle MNQ


𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
⃑ ⃑
∵ 𝑅 × 𝑅 = −3 9 −5 = (−9 + 40) 𝑎 − (3 + 5) 𝑎 + (−24 − 9) 𝑎 = 31 𝑎 − 8 𝑎 − 33 𝑎
1 8 −1

𝑅 ⃑×𝑅 ⃑ 31 𝑎 − 8 𝑎 − 33 𝑎 𝟑𝟏 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟖 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟑𝟑 𝒂𝒛
∴𝑎⃑= = = = 𝟎. 𝟔𝟕𝟒 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟎. 𝟏𝟕𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟕𝟏𝟕𝟕 𝒂𝒛
𝑅 ⃑×𝑅 ⃑ √31 + 8 + 33 √𝟐𝟏𝟏𝟒

(c) Angle between MN & MQ


𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ −3 + 72 + 5 74
∴ 𝛼 = cos = cos = cos = 𝟑𝟏. 𝟖𝟓𝟑𝟖𝒐
𝑅 ⃑. 𝑅 ⃑ √115 √66 √7590
Problem 16 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑔𝑖𝑛 𝑟⃑ = 3 𝑎 + 8 𝑎 + 𝑎 , 𝑟 ⃑ = 𝑎 − 6 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑟 ⃑ = 7 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 , 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑:

𝑎) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑜𝑡ℎ 𝑟⃑ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑟 ⃑ (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑁𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑎𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑟⃑, 𝑟 ⃑)

𝑏) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑎𝑙𝑙 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑟⃑ − 𝑟 ⃑, 𝑟 ⃑ − 𝑟 ⃑, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑟 ⃑ − 𝑟⃑;

𝑐) 𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 𝑡ℎ𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠 𝑟⃑, 𝑟 ⃑, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑟 ⃑;

Solution
𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
∵ 𝑟⃑ × 𝑟 ⃑ = 3 8 1 = 46 𝑎 − 14 𝑎 − 26 𝑎
1 −6 5

𝑟⃑ × 𝑟 ⃑ 46 𝑎 − 14 𝑎 − 26 𝑎 𝟒𝟔 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟏𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟐𝟔 𝒂𝒛
∴𝑎⃑= = =
|𝑟⃑ × 𝑟 ⃑| √46 + 14 + 26 √𝟐𝟗𝟖𝟖

(b)

𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑟⃑ − 𝑟 ⃑ = 3 𝑎 + 8 𝑎 + 𝑎 − 𝑎 −6𝑎 +5𝑎 = 2 𝑎 + 14 𝑎 − 4 𝑎

𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑟 ⃑ − 𝑟⃑ = 𝑎 − 6 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 − 7𝑎 +0𝑎 −4𝑎 = −6 𝑎 − 6 𝑎 + 9 𝑎

𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑟 ⃑ − 𝑟⃑ = 7 𝑎 + 0 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 − 3𝑎 +8𝑎 + 𝑎 =4𝑎 −8𝑎 −5𝑎

𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
⃑ ⃑
∵ 𝑅 × 𝑅 = 2 14 −4 = 102 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 + 72 𝑎
−6 −6 9

𝑅 ⃑×𝑅 ⃑ 102 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 + 72 𝑎 102 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 + 72 𝑎


∴𝑎 ⃑= = = = 𝟎. 𝟖𝟏𝟔 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟎𝟒𝟖 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟎. 𝟓𝟕𝟔 𝒂𝒛
𝑅 ⃑×𝑅 ⃑ √102 + 6 + 72 √15624
𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
⃑ ⃑
𝑪𝒉𝒆𝒄𝒌: 𝑅 × 𝑅 = −6 −6 9 = 102 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 + 72 𝑎
4 −8 −5

(c)

Area of the triangle ABC


∵ 𝑅 ⃑ × 𝑅 ⃑ = 102 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 + 72 𝑎 (𝑎𝑠 𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑎𝑏𝑜𝑣𝑒)
1
∴ 𝒂𝒓𝒆𝒂 = 𝑅 ⃑ × 𝑅 ⃑ = 51 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 36 𝑎 = 51 + 3 + 36 = √𝟑𝟗𝟎𝟔 = 𝟔𝟐. 𝟓 𝒔𝒒𝒖. 𝒖𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔
2
Problem 17 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑟𝑒𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑀(6,2, −3), 𝑁(−2,3,0), 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃(−4,6,5), 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑:

𝑎) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑; (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 ∆𝑀𝑁𝑃)

𝑏) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑖𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑟 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑠 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒;

𝑐) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑏𝑖𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑎𝑡 𝑀.

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 20.3; (𝑏) ± 0.0983 𝑎 − 0.836 𝑎 + 0.541 𝑎 ; (𝑐) − 0.851 𝑎 + 0.211 𝑎 + 0.480 𝑎 ;

(a)

∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑁⃑ − 𝑀⃑ = −2 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 0 𝑎 − 6𝑎 +2𝑎 −3𝑎 = −8 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 3 𝑎

𝑅 ⃑ = 8 + 1 + 3 = √74
∵ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑃⃑ − 𝑀⃑ = −4 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 − 6𝑎 +2𝑎 −3𝑎 = −10 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 + 8 𝑎
10 + 4 + 8 = √180 𝑅 ⃑ =
𝑎 𝑎 𝑎
∵ 𝑅 ⃑ × 𝑅 ⃑ = −8 1 3 = −4 𝑎 + 34 𝑎 − 22 𝑎
−10 4 8
1
∴ 𝑨𝒓𝒆𝒂 = 𝑅 ⃑ × 𝑅 ⃑ = −2 𝑎 + 17 𝑎 − 11 𝑎 = 2 + 17 + 11 = √𝟒𝟏𝟒 = 𝟐𝟎. 𝟑𝟒𝟕 𝒔𝒒𝒖. 𝒖𝒏𝒊𝒕𝒔
2

(b) Unit vector normal to MNP


𝑅 ⃑×𝑅 ⃑ −4 𝑎 + 34 𝑎 − 22 𝑎 −𝟒 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟑𝟒 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟐𝟐 𝒂𝒛
∴𝑎⃑=± =± =±
𝑅 ⃑×𝑅 ⃑ √4 + 34 + 22 √𝟏𝟔𝟓𝟔

∴ 𝒂𝑵⃑ = ± −𝟎. 𝟎𝟗𝟖𝟑 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟖𝟑𝟓𝟓 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟓𝟒𝟎𝟔 𝒂𝒛

(c) Bisecting unit vector


𝑅 ⃑ 𝑅 ⃑ −8 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 −10 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 + 8 𝑎
∴ 𝑅⃑ = 𝑎 ⃑+𝑎 ⃑= + = +
𝑅 ⃑ 𝑅 ⃑ √74 √180

−8 10 1 4 3 8
= − 𝑎 + + 𝑎 + + 𝑎
√74 √180 √74 √180 √74 √180

𝑅⃑
∴ 𝑎⃑ = = −𝟎. 𝟖𝟓𝟏𝟒𝟓 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟐𝟏 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟎. 𝟒𝟖 𝒂𝒛
𝑅⃑
Problem 18 Sheet 1

(𝑎) 𝐸𝑥𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝐹 = 2𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑎 ± 5(𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧) 𝑎 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 (𝑣𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑠 & 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠).

(𝑏) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 |𝐹| 𝑎𝑡 𝑃(𝜌 = 2, 𝜑 = 60, 𝑧 = 3).

Solution

𝐹⃑ = 2𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑎 ± 5(𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧) 𝑎 = 𝐹 𝑎 + 𝐹 𝑎 + 𝐹 𝑎

𝐹 = 𝐹⃑ 𝑎 = 2𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑎 𝑎 ± 5(𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧) 𝑎 𝑎 = 2𝑥𝑦𝑧 cos 𝜑 = 2(𝜌 cos 𝜑)(𝜌 sin 𝜑)𝑧 cos 𝜑

𝐹 = 2 𝜌 𝑧 (cos 𝜑)(sin 𝜑)

𝐹 = 𝐹⃑ 𝑎 = 2𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑎 𝑎 ± 5(𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧) 𝑎 𝑎 = 2𝑥𝑦𝑧(− sin 𝜑) = −2(𝜌 cos 𝜑)(𝜌 sin 𝜑)𝑧 sin 𝜑

𝐹 = −2 𝜌 𝑧 (sin 𝜑)(cos 𝜑)

𝐹 = 𝐹⃑ 𝑎 = 2𝑥𝑦𝑧 𝑎 𝑎 ± 5(𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧) 𝑎 𝑎 = ±5(𝑥 + 𝑦 + 𝑧) = ±5(𝜌 cos 𝜑 + 𝜌 sin 𝜑 + 𝑧)

∴ 𝑭⃑ = 𝟐 𝝆𝟐 𝒛 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝟐 𝝋 (𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝋) 𝒂𝝆 − 𝟐 𝝆𝟐 𝒛 𝐬𝐢𝐧𝟐 𝝋 (𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝋) 𝒂𝝋 ± 𝟓(𝝆 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝋 + 𝝆 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝋 + 𝒛) 𝒂𝒛

(b)

𝑎𝑡 𝑃(𝜌 = 2, 𝜑 = 60, 𝑧 = 3)

1 √3 3 1 1 √3
𝐹⃑ = 2 (2 )(3) 𝑎 − 2(2 )(3) 𝑎 ±5 2 +2 +3 𝑎
4 2 4 2 2 2

𝐹⃑ = 3√3 𝑎 − 9 𝑎 ± 20 + 5√3 𝑎

𝐹⃑ = 3√3 + 9 + 4 + √3 = 27 + 81 + 4 + √3

𝑭⃑ = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟖𝟔𝟖𝟑
Problem 19 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑃(𝜌 = 5, 𝜑 = 60, 𝑧 = 2), 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑄(𝜌 = 2, 𝜑 = 110, 𝑧 = −1):

(𝑎) 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑅 ⃑

𝑏) 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑃 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑠 𝑄. (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑎 ⃑)

𝑐) 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑃 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑠 𝑄 (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑎 ⃑)

Solution

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 5.01; (𝑏) − 0.635 𝑎 − 0.489 𝑎 − 0.598 𝑎 ; (𝑐) − 0.714 𝑎 + 0.306 𝑎 − 0.598 𝑎 ;

(a)

𝐶𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐶𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑧𝑖𝑎𝑛

𝑥 = 𝜌 cos 𝜑
𝑦 = 𝜌 sin 𝜑
𝑧=𝑧
𝑃(𝜌 = 5, 𝜑 = 60, 𝑧 = 2) 𝑃 2.5, 2.5 √3, 2
𝑄(𝜌 = 2, 𝜑 = 110, 𝑧 = −1) 𝑄(2 cos 110 , 2 sin 110 , −1)
∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑄⃑ − 𝑃⃑ = 2 cos 110 𝑎 + 2 sin 110 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 2.5 𝑎 + 2.5 √3 𝑎 + 2 𝑎
∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = −3.184 𝑎 − 2.450742 𝑎 − 3 𝑎
𝑅 ⃑ = 3.184 + 2.450742 + 3 = 𝟓. 𝟎𝟏𝟒𝟑𝟕𝟗
(b)

𝑅 ⃑ −3.184 𝑎 − 2.450742 𝑎 − 3 𝑎
∴𝑎 ⃑= = = −𝟎. 𝟔𝟑𝟓 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟎. 𝟒𝟖𝟖𝟖 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟓𝟗𝟖𝟑 𝒂𝒛
𝑅 ⃑ 5.014379

(c)

𝜑 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 = 𝜑 = 60

𝐴 = 𝐴 cos 𝜑 + 𝐴 sin 𝜑 = −0.635 cos 60 − 0.4888 sin 60 = −0.7408


𝐴 = −𝐴 sin 𝜑 + 𝐴 cos 𝜑 = +0.635 sin 60 − 0.4888 cos 60 = 0.3055 𝑟𝑎𝑑
𝑧 = 𝑧 = −0.5983

∴ 𝒂𝑹𝑷𝑸⃑ = −𝟎. 𝟕𝟒𝟎𝟖 𝒂𝝆 + 𝟎. 𝟑𝟎𝟓𝟓 𝒂𝝋 − 𝟎. 𝟓𝟗𝟖𝟑 𝒂𝒛


Problem 20 Sheet 1

𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠: −

𝑎) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑃(𝜌 = 5, 𝜑 = 53.13, 𝑧 = −2), 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐹 = 𝜌𝑧 cos 𝜑 𝑎 − 𝜌𝑧 sin 𝜑 𝑎 + 𝜌𝑎 𝑎

𝑏) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑃 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑎

𝑐) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑄(𝜌 = 5, 𝜑 = −36.87, 𝑧 = −2) 𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑙 𝑡𝑜 𝑎

𝑑) 𝐺 = 2 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 𝑎𝑡 𝑃.

Solution
Problem 21 Sheet 1

(𝑎) 𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑃(𝜌 = 4, 𝜑 = 10 , 𝑧 = 1) 𝑡𝑜

𝑄(𝜌 = 7, 𝜑 = 75 , 𝑧 = 4).

(𝑏) 𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑀(𝑥 = 5, 𝑦 = 1, 𝑧 = 2) 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑡𝑜 𝑁(2,4,6).

(𝑐) 𝐻𝑜𝑤 𝑓𝑎𝑟 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑡 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐴(110, 60 , 1) 𝑡𝑜 𝐵(30, −125 , 10)? 𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑅 ⃑

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) − 2.13 𝑎 + 6.07 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 ; (𝑏) − 2.35 𝑎 + 3.53 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 ; (𝑐) 105.4;

(a)

𝑃(4, 10 , 1) = 𝑃(4 cos 10 , 4 sin 10 , 1)

𝑄(7, 75 , 4) = 𝑄(7 cos 75 , 7 sin 75 , 4)

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑄⃑ − 𝑃⃑ = 7 cos 75 𝑎 + 7 sin 75 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 4 cos 10 𝑎 + 4 sin 10 𝑎 + 𝑎


∴ 𝑹𝑷𝑸⃑ = −𝟐. 𝟏𝟐𝟕𝟓 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟔. 𝟎𝟔𝟔𝟖 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟑 𝒂𝒛
(b)
∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑁⃑ − 𝑀⃑ = 2 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 − 5𝑎 + 𝑎 +2𝑎 = −3 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 4 𝑎

Conversion

∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 𝑅 ⃑. 𝑎 = −3 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 . 𝑎 = −3 𝑎 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 𝑎 + 0
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = −3 cos 𝜑 + 3 sin 𝜑

𝑦 1
𝜑 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝑀 = 𝜑 = tan = tan = 11.31
𝑥 5
5 1 −12
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = −3 +3 = = −2.35
√26 √26 √26
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 𝑅 ⃑. 𝑎 = −3 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 . 𝑎 = −3 𝑎 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 𝑎 + 0
−1 5 18
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = −3 sin 𝜑 + 3 cos 𝜑 = −3 +3 =
√26 √26 √26
∴ 𝑹𝑴𝑵⃑ = −𝟐. 𝟑𝟓 𝒂𝝆 + 𝟑. 𝟓𝟑 𝒂𝝋 + 𝟒 𝒂𝒛
(c)

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐵⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = (30 cos 125 − 110 cos 60)𝟐 + (30 sin 125 − 110 sin 60)𝟐 + (10 + 20)𝟐
= 𝟏𝟎𝟓. 𝟒𝟎𝟕𝟒
Problem 22 Sheet 1
10
𝐿𝑒𝑡 𝐸 = + 8 sin 𝜑 𝑎 + 8 cos 𝜑 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 . 𝑆𝑘𝑒𝑡𝑐ℎ |𝐸|
𝜌

(𝑎) 𝑣𝑠. 𝜑 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝜌 = 2, 𝑧 = 3

(𝑏) 𝑣𝑠. 𝜌 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝜑 = 0, 𝑧 = 3 𝑐) 𝑣𝑠. 𝜌 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝜑 = 90, 𝑧 = 3 .

Solution

(𝒂) 𝑺𝒌𝒆𝒕𝒄𝒉 |𝑬| 𝒗𝒔. 𝝋 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝝆 = 𝟐, 𝒛 = 𝟑 𝑬 = (𝟓 + 𝟖 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝝋)𝒂𝝆 + 𝟖 𝐜𝐨𝐬 𝝋 𝒂𝝋 − 𝟓 𝒂𝒛

|𝐸| = (5 + 8 sin 𝜑) + (8 cos 𝜑) + (5) = (25 + 80 sin 𝜑 + (8 sin 𝜑) ) + (8 cos 𝜑) + (5)

|𝐸| = 114 + 80 sin 𝜑

𝟏𝟎
(𝒃) 𝑺𝒌𝒆𝒕𝒄𝒉 |𝑬| 𝒗𝒔. 𝝆 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝝋 = 𝟎, 𝒛 = 𝟑 𝑬= 𝒂𝝆 + 𝟖 𝒂𝝋 − 𝟓 𝒂𝒛
𝝆

10 100
|𝐸| = + (8) + (5) = + 89
𝜌 𝜌

𝟏𝟎
(𝒄) 𝑺𝒌𝒆𝒕𝒄𝒉 |𝑬| 𝒗𝒔. 𝝆 𝒇𝒐𝒓 𝝋 = 𝟗𝟎, 𝒛 = 𝟑 𝑬= + 𝟖 𝒂𝝆 + 𝟎 𝒂𝝋 − 𝟓 𝒂𝒛
𝝆

10 100 160 100 160


|𝐸| = +8 + (0) + (5) = + + 64 + 25 = + + 89
𝜌 𝜌 𝜌 𝜌 𝜌

(a) (b) (c)


Problem 23 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝐴(𝑥 = 2, 𝑦 = 3, 𝑧 = −1), 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐵(𝜌 = 4, 𝜑 = −50 , 𝑧 = 2), 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙

𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠: (𝑎) 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐵 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐴 (𝑏) 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐴 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐵.

Solution

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) − 0.738 𝑎 + 0.510 𝑎 + 0.442 𝑎 ; (𝑏) − 0.696 𝑎 − 0.565 𝑎 + 0.442 𝑎 ;

𝐵(𝜌 = 4, 𝜑 = −50 , 𝑧 = 2) ≡ (𝑥 = 4 cos −50 , 𝑦 = 4 sin −50 , 𝑧 = 2) ≡ (𝑥 = 2.57, 𝑦 = −3.064, 𝑧 = 2)

(a)

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐴⃑ − 𝐵⃑ = 2 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 2.57 𝑎 − 3.064 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 = −0.57 𝑎 + 6.064 𝑎 − 3 𝑎

𝐴 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜑 0 𝐴 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜑 0 −0.57


∵ 𝐴 = − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 𝐴 = − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 6.064
𝐴 0 0 1 𝐴 0 0 1 −3

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = (−0.57 cos 𝜑 + 6.064 sin 𝜑) 𝑎 + (0.57 sin 𝜑 + 6.064 cos 𝜑) 𝑎 − 3 𝑎

𝑦 −3.064
𝜑 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝐵 = 𝜑 = tan = tan = −50
𝑥 2.57

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = −5.01168 𝑎 + 3.46122 𝑎 − 3 𝑎

𝑅 ⃑ −5.01168 𝑎 + 3.46122 𝑎 − 3 𝑎
∴ = = −𝟎. 𝟕𝟑𝟖 𝒂𝝆 + 𝟎. 𝟓𝟏 𝒂𝝋 − 𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟏𝟖 𝒂𝒛
𝑅 ⃑ 6.7895

(b)

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐵⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = 2.57 𝑎 − 3.064 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 − 2𝑎 +3𝑎 − 𝑎 = +0.57 𝑎 − 6.064 𝑎 + 3 𝑎

𝐴 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜑 0 𝐴 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜑 0 +0.57


∵ 𝐴 = − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 𝐴 = − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 −6.064
𝐴 0 0 1 𝐴 0 0 1 3

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = (0.57 cos 𝜑 − 6.064 sin 𝜑) 𝑎 + (−0.57 sin 𝜑 − 6.064 cos 𝜑) 𝑎 + 3 𝑎

𝑦 3 cos 𝜑 = 2⁄√13
𝜑 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝐴 = 𝜑 = tan = tan = 56.3 →
𝑥 2 sin 𝜑 = 3⁄√13

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = −4.73 𝑎 − 3.838 𝑎 + 3 𝑎

𝑅 ⃑ −4.73 𝑎 − 3.838 𝑎 + 3 𝑎
∴ = = −𝟎. 𝟔𝟗𝟔𝟔 𝒂𝝆 − 𝟎. 𝟓𝟔𝟓 𝒂𝝋 + 𝟎. 𝟒𝟒𝟏𝟖 𝒂𝒛
𝑅 ⃑ 6.7895
Problem 24 Sheet 1

(𝑎) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑏𝑦 4 < 𝜌 < 6, 30 < 𝜑 < 60 , 2 < 𝑧 < 5

(𝑏) 𝑤ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑙𝑖𝑒𝑠 𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑙𝑦 𝑤𝑖𝑡ℎ𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒?

(𝑐) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒.

Solution

∵ 𝑑𝑣 = 𝜌 𝑑𝑟 (𝑑𝜑) (𝑑𝑧)

𝜌 𝜑 𝑧 6 −4 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
∴𝑣= 𝜌 𝑑𝜌 𝑑𝜑 𝑑𝑧 = = − [5 − 2] = [10] [3] = 𝟓𝝅
2 1 1 2 3 6 6

(b)

(𝜌 = 6, 𝜑 = 60 , 𝑧 = 5 ) ≡ (𝑥 = 6 cos 60 , 𝑦 = 6 sin 60 , 𝑧 = 5 ) ≡ 𝑥 = 3, 𝑦 = 3√3, 𝑧=5

(𝜌 = 4, 𝜑 = 30 , 𝑧 = 2 ) ≡ (𝑥 = 6 cos 60 , 𝑦 = 6 sin 60 , 𝑧 = 2 ) ≡ 𝑥 = 2, 𝑦 = 2√3, 𝑧=2

𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ = 3 𝑎 + 3√3 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 + 2√3 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 = 𝑎 + √3 𝑎 + 3 𝑎

𝑙𝑜𝑛𝑔𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ = √1 + 3 + 9 = √13 = 𝟑. 𝟔

(c)

∵ 𝑑𝑠 = ± 𝜌 𝑑𝜑 𝑑𝑧 𝑎 ± 𝑑𝜌 𝑑𝑧 𝑎 ± 𝜌 𝑑𝜌 𝑑𝜑 𝑎

∴𝑠=𝜌 𝑑𝜑 𝑑𝑧 𝑎 + 𝑑𝜌 𝑑𝑧 𝑎 + 𝜌 𝑑𝜌 𝑑𝜑 𝑎

𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 𝜌 𝜋 5𝜋
∴ 𝑠 = 𝜌(5 − 2) − 𝑎 + (5 − 2)(6 − 4) 𝑎 + − 𝑎 =𝜌 𝑎 +6𝑎 + 𝑎
3 6 3 6 2 2 3

𝜋 𝜋 5𝜋 10𝜋
∴𝑠 = 𝑠 (𝑎𝑡 𝜌 = 4) + 𝑠 (𝑎𝑡 𝜌 = 6) + 2 𝑠 + 2 𝑠 = 4 +6 + 2(6) + 2 = 2𝜋 + 3𝜋 + 12 +
2 2 3 3
𝟐𝟓𝝅
∴𝑠 = 𝟏𝟐 +
𝟑
Problem 25 Sheet 1

𝑈𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝑡𝑒𝑚 𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑑, 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑎𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝐴(2, −1, −3) 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑡𝑜 𝐵(1,3,4)

(𝑎) 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 (𝑏) 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 (𝑐) 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙.

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) − 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 + 7 𝑎 ; (𝑏) − 2.68 𝑎 + 3.13 𝑎 + 7 𝑎 ; (𝑐) − 7.22 𝑎 − 2.03 𝑎 + 3.13 𝑎 ;

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝐵⃑ − 𝐴⃑ = 1 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 − 2 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 3 𝑎 = − 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟒 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟕 𝒂𝒛 𝑹𝑨𝑩⃑ = 𝟖. 𝟏𝟐𝟒
(b)
𝐴 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜑 0 𝐴 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜑 0 −1
∵ 𝐴 = − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 𝐴 = − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 4
𝐴 0 0 1 𝐴 0 0 1 7

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = (− cos 𝜑 + 4 sin 𝜑) 𝑎 + (sin 𝜑 + 4 cos 𝜑) 𝑎 + 7 𝑎

𝑦 −1 cos 𝜑 = 2⁄√5
𝜑 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝐴 = 𝜑 = tan = tan = −26.565 →
𝑥 2 sin 𝜑 = −1⁄√5

−6 7
∴𝑅 ⃑= 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 7 𝑎 = −𝟐. 𝟔𝟖 𝒂𝝆 + 𝟑. 𝟏𝟑 𝒂𝝋 + 𝟕 𝒂𝒛 𝑹𝑨𝑩⃑ = 𝟖. 𝟏𝟐𝟐𝟕
√5 √5

(c)
𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 −1
∵ 𝐴 = cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − sin 𝜃 𝐴 = cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − sin 𝜃 4
𝐴 − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 𝐴 − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 7

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = (− sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 + 4 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 + 7 cos 𝜃) 𝑎 + (− cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 + 4 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − 7 sin 𝜃) 𝑎 + (sin 𝜑 + 4 cos 𝜑) 𝑎

𝜃 & 𝜑 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝐴

𝑥 +𝑦 √2 + 1 √5 cos 𝜃 = −3⁄√14
𝜃 = tan = tan = tan = 36.7
𝑧 −3 −3 sin 𝜃 = √5⁄√14

𝑦 −1 cos 𝜑 = 2⁄√5
𝜑 = tan = tan = −26.565
𝑥 2 sin 𝜑 = −1⁄√5

√5 2 √5 −1 −3 −3 2 −3 −1 √5 −1 2
∴𝑅 ⃑= − +4 +7 𝑎 + − +4 −7 𝑎 + +4 𝑎
√14 √5 √14 √5 √14 √14 √5 √14 √5 √14 √5 √5

−27 −6 12 √5 7 −27 −17 7


∴𝑅 ⃑= 𝑎 + + −7 𝑎 + 𝑎 = 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 𝑎
√14 √70 √70 √14 √5 √14 √70 √5

∴ 𝑹𝑨𝑩⃑ = −𝟕. 𝟐𝟏𝟔 𝒂𝒓 − 𝟐. 𝟎𝟑𝟐 𝒂𝜽 + 𝟑. 𝟏𝟑 𝒂𝝋 𝑹𝑨𝑩⃑ = 𝟖. 𝟏𝟐𝟑


Problem 26 Sheet 1
100 cos 𝜃 50 cos 𝜃
𝑎𝑛 𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑐 𝑓𝑖𝑒𝑙𝑑 𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑖𝑠 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑎𝑠 𝐸 = 𝑎 + 𝑎 . 𝐴𝑡 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑜𝑠𝑒 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙
𝑟 𝑟

𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑟 = 2, 𝜃 = 60, 𝜑 = 20, 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑 (𝑎) |𝐸|

(𝑏) 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 (𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠) 𝑖𝑛 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝐸.

Solution

100 cos 𝜃 50 cos 𝜃


|𝐸| = +
𝑟 𝑟

50 25
𝑎𝑡 𝑟 = 2, 𝜃 = 60, 𝜑 = 20 |𝐸| = + = 6.9877
2 2

(b)

100 cos 𝜃
𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 − sin 𝜑 𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 − sin 𝜑 ⎡ ⎤
⎢ 𝑟 ⎥
∵ 𝐴 = sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 𝐴 = sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 ⎢ 50 cos 𝜃 ⎥
𝐴 cos 𝜃 − sin 𝜃 0 𝐴 cos 𝜃 − sin 𝜃 0 ⎢ 𝑟 ⎥
⎣ 0 ⎦

100 cos 𝜃 50 cos 𝜃 100 cos 𝜃 50 cos 𝜃


∴ 𝐸⃑ = sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 + cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 𝑎 + sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 + cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 𝑎
𝑟3 𝑟3 𝑟3 𝑟3
100 cos 𝜃 50 cos 𝜃
+ cos 𝜃 − sin 𝜃 𝑎
𝑟3 𝑟3
50
∴ 𝐸⃑ = (sin 2𝜃 cos 𝜑 + cos2 𝜃 cos 𝜑)𝑎 + (sin 2𝜃 sin 𝜑 + cos2 𝜃 sin 𝜑) 𝑎 + (2 cos2 𝜃 − 0.5 sin 2𝜃) 𝑎
𝑟3
50
𝑎𝑡 𝑟 = 2, 𝜃 = 60, 𝜑 = 20 𝐸⃑ = 1.048 𝑎𝑥 + 0.3817 𝑎𝑦 + 0.067 𝑎𝑧
8

𝑬⃑ = 𝟔. 𝟓𝟓 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟐. 𝟑𝟖𝟓𝟔𝟐𝟓 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟎. 𝟒𝟏𝟖𝟕𝟓 𝒂𝒛

𝐸⃑ 6.55 𝑎 + 2.385625 𝑎 + 0.41875 𝑎


∴ 𝑎⃑ = =
𝐸⃑ √48.769

𝑬⃑
∴ 𝒂𝑬⃑ = = 𝟎. 𝟗𝟑𝟖 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟑𝟒𝟏𝟔 𝒂𝒚 + 𝟎. 𝟎𝟔 𝒂𝒛
𝑬⃑
Problem 27 Sheet 1

(𝑎) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑃(3, −4,5). (𝑏) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑃.

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 0.424 𝑎 + 0.424 𝑎 + 0.8 𝑎 ; (𝑏) 0.424 𝑎 − 0.566 𝑎 − 0.707 𝑎 ;

(a)

∴ 𝑟⃑ = 3 𝑎 − 4 𝑎 + 5 𝑎 𝑎⃑ = 3
𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 3
∵ 𝐴 = cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − sin 𝜃 𝐴 = cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − sin 𝜃 0
𝐴 − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 𝐴 − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 0

∴ 𝑎 ⃑ = (3 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑) 𝑎 + (3 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑) 𝑎 + (−3 sin 𝜑) 𝑎

𝜃 & 𝜑 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝐴

𝑥 +𝑦 √3 + 4 cos 𝜃 = 1⁄√2
𝜃 = tan = tan = tan 1 = 45
𝑧 5 sin 𝜃 = 1⁄√2

𝑦 −4 cos 𝜑 = 3⁄5
𝜑 = tan = tan = −53.13
𝑥 3 sin 𝜑 = −4⁄5

1 3 1 3 −4 9 9 12
∴ 𝑎⃑ = 3 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + −3 𝑎 = 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 𝑎
√2 5 √2 5 5 5√2 5√2 5

∴ 𝑎 ⃑ = 1.2728 𝑎 + 1.2728 𝑎 + 2.4 𝑎 |𝑎 ⃑| = 3

𝒂𝒙⃑
∴ = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟐𝟒𝟐 𝒂𝒓 + 𝟎. 𝟒𝟐𝟒𝟐 𝒂𝜽 + 𝟎. 𝟖 𝒂𝝋
|𝒂𝒙⃑|

(b)

0
𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 − sin 𝜑 𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 − sin 𝜑 3
∵ 𝐴 = sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 𝐴 = sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃
𝐴 cos 𝜃 − sin 𝜃 0 𝐴 cos 𝜃 − sin 𝜃 0 5√2
0
3 3 1 3 1 −4 1
∴ 𝑎⃑ = cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 𝑎 + cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 𝑎 − sin 𝜃 𝑎 = 𝑎 + 𝑎 − 𝑎
5√2 5√2 √2 5 √2 5 √2
3 3 4
∴ 𝑎⃑ = 𝑎 − 𝑎 − 𝑎 = 0.18 𝑎 − 0.24 𝑎 − 0.3 𝑎 |𝑎 ⃑| = √0.18
10 5 5

𝒂𝜽⃑
∴ = 𝟎. 𝟒𝟐𝟒 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟎. 𝟓𝟔𝟓 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟕𝟎𝟕 𝒂𝒛
|𝒂𝜽⃑|
Problem 28 Sheet 1

𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝑀(𝑟 = 5, 𝜃 = 20 , 𝜑 = 120 ), 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑁(𝑟 = 5, 𝜃 = 80 , 𝜑 = 30 ), 𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑑

𝑎) 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑀 𝑡𝑜 𝑁 (𝑖. 𝑒. 𝑀𝑁⃑)

𝑏) 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑀 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑁.

𝑐) 𝑔𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑎 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑀 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑖𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑟𝑑 𝑁.

Solution

𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦, 𝑧) = 𝑃(𝑟 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 , 𝑟 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 , 𝑟 cos 𝜃)

𝑀(5, 20 , 120 ) = 𝑀(−0.855, 1.481, 4.6985)

𝑁(5, 80 , 30 ) = 𝑁(1.7057, 0.9848, 0.3473)

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑁⃑ − 𝑀⃑ = 1.7057 𝑎 + 0.9848 𝑎 + 0.3473 𝑎 − −0.855 𝑎 + 1.481 𝑎 + 4.6985 𝑎


∴ 𝑹𝑴𝑵⃑ = 𝟐. 𝟓𝟎𝟕 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟎. 𝟒𝟗𝟔𝟐 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟒. 𝟑𝟓𝟏𝟐 𝒂𝒛
(b)

𝑅 ⃑
∴ 𝑎⃑ = = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟎𝟓 𝒂𝒙 − 𝟎. 𝟎𝟗𝟕𝟖𝟏 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟎. 𝟖𝟓𝟕𝟕 𝒂𝒛
𝑅 ⃑

(c)
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 𝐴⃑. 𝑎 = 𝐴 (𝑎 . 𝑎 ) + 𝐴 𝑎 . 𝑎 + 𝐴 (𝑎 . 𝑎 ) = 𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 + 𝐴 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 + 𝐴 cos 𝜑
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 𝐴⃑. 𝑎 = 𝐴 (𝑎 . 𝑎 ) + 𝐴 𝑎 . 𝑎 + 𝐴 (𝑎 . 𝑎 ) = 𝐴 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 + 𝐴 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − 𝐴 sin 𝜃
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 𝐴⃑. 𝑎 = 𝐴 𝑎 . 𝑎 + 𝐴 𝑎 . 𝑎 + 𝐴 𝑎 . 𝑎 = 𝐴 cos 𝜑 + 𝐴 sin 𝜑

Using the angles of the starting point “M”

∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 0.505 sin 20 cos 120 − 0.09781 sin 20 sin 120 − 0.8577 cos 120 = −0.9213
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 0.505 cos 20 cos 120 − 0.09781 cos 20 sin 120 + 0.8577 sin 20 = −0.02352
∴ 𝐴 ⃑ = 0.505 cos 120 − 0.09781 sin 120 = −0.3372

∴ 𝑎⃑ = −0.9213 𝑎 − 0.02352 𝑎 − 0.3372 𝑎

.
Problem 29 Sheet 1

𝐴 𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑖𝑠 𝑑𝑒𝑓𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑏𝑦 3 < 𝑟 < 5, 0.1𝜋 < 𝜃 < 0.3𝜋, 1.2𝜋 < 𝜑 < 1.6𝜋

𝑎) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑢𝑚𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑒𝑑

𝑏) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑃 (𝑟 = 3, 𝜃 = 0.1𝜋, 𝜑 = 1.2𝜋) 𝑡𝑜 𝑃 (𝑟 = 5, 𝜃 = 0.3𝜋, 𝜑 = 1.6𝜋).

𝑐) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎.

Solution – Correct 𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 14.91; (𝑏) 3.86; (𝑐) 36.8

∵ 𝑑𝑣 = 𝑑𝑟 (𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜑) (𝑟 𝑑𝜃) 𝑑𝑣 = 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝜑

. .
𝑟 . .
5 −3
∴𝑣= 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝑟 𝑑𝜃 𝑑𝜑 = [− cos 𝜃] . [𝜑] . = [cos 0.1𝜋 − cos 0.3𝜋][0.4𝜋]
. . 3 3

98
∴𝑣= [0.3633][0.4𝜋] = 𝟏𝟒. 𝟗𝟏𝟐𝟑 𝒄𝒖𝒃𝒊𝒄 𝒖𝒏𝒊𝒕
3

(b)

∵𝑑= 𝑟 + 𝑟 − 2𝑟 𝑟 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜃 − 2𝑟 𝑟 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜃 cos(𝜑 − 𝜑 )

∴𝑑= 5 + 3 − 2(5)(3) cos 54 cos 18 − 2(5)(3) sin 54 sin 18 cos(72) = √14.91 = 𝟑. 𝟖𝟔 𝒖𝒏𝒊𝒕 𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉

(𝒄) ∵ 𝑑𝑠 = 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜑 𝑎 + 𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜑 𝑎 + 𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜃 𝑎

. . . .
∴𝑠=𝑟 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝜃𝑑𝜑 𝑎 + sin 𝜃 𝑟𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜑 𝑎 + 𝑟 𝑑𝑟𝑑𝜃 𝑎
. . . .

. .
𝑟 .
𝑟 .
∴ 𝑠 = 𝑟 [− cos 𝜃] . [𝜑] . 𝑎 + sin 𝜃 [𝜑] . 𝑎 + [𝜃] . 𝑎
2 2

5 −3 5 −3
∴ 𝑠 = 𝑟 [cos 18 − cos 54][0.4𝜋] 𝑎 + sin 𝜃 [0.4𝜋] 𝑎 + [0.2𝜋]𝑎
2 2
∴ 𝑠 = 0.4565 𝑟 𝑎 + 3.2𝜋 sin 𝜃 𝑎 + 1.6𝜋 𝑎

𝑠 +𝑠 = 0.4565(5 ) + 0.4565(3 ) = 15.521

𝑠 . +𝑠 . = 3.2𝜋 sin 54 + 3.2𝜋 sin 18 = 11.2397

𝑠 . +𝑠 . = 1.6𝜋 + 1.6𝜋 = 3.2𝜋 = 10.053

∴𝑠 = 15.521 + 11.2397 + 10.053 = 𝟑𝟔. 𝟖𝟏


Problem 30 Sheet 1

𝑎) 𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑡𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑎𝑛 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝑃(𝑟 = 4, 𝜃 = 20, 𝜑 = 10) 𝑡𝑜

𝑄(𝑟 = 7, 𝜃 = 120, 𝜑 = 75).

𝑏) 𝐺𝑖𝑣𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑣𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑜𝑟𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑠 𝑎𝑡 𝑀(𝑥 = 5, 𝑦 = 1, 𝑧 = 2) 𝑡ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑑𝑠 𝑡𝑜 𝑁(2,4,6).

𝑐) 𝐻𝑜𝑤 𝑓𝑎𝑟 𝑖𝑠 𝑖𝑡 𝑓𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐴(𝑟 = 110, 𝜃 = 30, 𝜑 = 60) 𝑡𝑜 𝐵(𝑟 = 30, 𝜃 = 75, 𝜑 = 125).

Solution

𝑃(𝑟, 𝜃, 𝜑) = 𝑃(𝑥 = 𝑟 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 , 𝑦 = 𝑟 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 , 𝑧 = 𝑟 cos 𝜃)

𝑃(4, 20 , 10 ) = 𝑃(1.3473, 0.2375, 3.7588)

𝑄(7, 120 , 75 ) = 𝑄(1.569, 5.8856, −3.5)

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑄⃑ − 𝑃⃑ = 1.569 𝑎 + 5.8856 𝑎 − 3.5 𝑎 − 1.3473 𝑎 + 0.2375 𝑎 + 3.7588 𝑎


∴ 𝑹𝑷𝑸⃑ = 𝟎. 𝟐𝟐𝟏𝟕 𝒂𝒙 + 𝟓. 𝟔𝟒𝟖𝟏 𝒂𝒚 − 𝟕. 𝟐𝟓𝟖𝟖 𝒂𝒛

(b)

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = 𝑁⃑ − 𝑀⃑ = 2 𝑎 + 4 𝑎 + 6 𝑎 − 5 𝑎 + 𝑎 + 2 𝑎 = −3 𝑎 + 3 𝑎 + 4 𝑎
𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 𝐴 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 cos 𝜃 −3
∵ 𝐴 = cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − sin 𝜃 𝐴 = cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − sin 𝜃 3
𝐴 − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 𝐴 − sin 𝜑 cos 𝜑 0 4

∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = (−3 sin 𝜃 cos 𝜑 + 3 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜑 + 4 cos 𝜃) 𝑎 + (−3 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜑 + 3 cos 𝜃 sin 𝜑 − 4 sin 𝜃) 𝑎
+ (3 sin 𝜑 + 3 cos 𝜑) 𝑎

𝜃 & 𝜑 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡 𝑤ℎ𝑖𝑐ℎ 𝑖𝑠 𝑀

𝑥 +𝑦 √5 + 1 √26 cos 𝜃 = 2⁄√30


𝜃 = tan = tan = tan = 68.58
𝑧 2 2 sin 𝜃 = √26⁄√30

𝑦 1 cos 𝜑 = 5⁄√26
𝜑 = tan = tan = 11.31
𝑥 5 sin 𝜑 = 1⁄√26

√26 5 √26 1 2 2 5 2 1 √26


∴ 𝑅 ⃑ = −3 +3 +4 𝑎 + −3 +3 −4 𝑎
√30 √26 √30 √26 √30 √30 √26 √30 √26 √30
1 5
+ 3 +3 𝑎
√26 √26

−𝟒 𝟏𝟐𝟖 𝟏𝟖
∴ 𝑹𝑴𝑵⃑ = 𝒂𝒓 − 𝒂𝜽 + 𝒂𝝋
√𝟑𝟎 √𝟕𝟖𝟎 √𝟐𝟔
(c)

𝐹𝑟𝑜𝑚 𝐴(𝑟 = 110, 𝜃 = 30, 𝜑 = 60) 𝑡𝑜 𝐵(𝑟 = 30, 𝜃 = 75, 𝜑 = 125)

∵𝑑= 𝑟 + 𝑟 − 2𝑟 𝑟 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜃 − 2𝑟 𝑟 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜃 cos(𝜑 − 𝜑 )

∴𝑑= 110 + 30 − 2(110)(30) cos(30) cos(75) − 2(110)(30) sin(30) sin(75) cos(125 − 60)

∴ 𝑑 = √10173.53 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎. 𝟖𝟔𝟒

Problem 31 Sheet 1

𝑃𝑜𝑖𝑛𝑡𝑠 𝐴(𝑟 = 100, 𝜃 = 90, 𝜑 = 0) & 𝐵(𝑟 = 100, 𝜃 = 90, 𝜑 = 5) 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 100𝑚 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑢𝑠.

𝑎) 𝑊ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎 𝑝𝑎𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒?

𝑏) 𝑊ℎ𝑎𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑖𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑝𝑎𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛, 𝑢𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑎 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡 − 𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑒 𝑝𝑎𝑡ℎ?

Solution - Correct

𝐴𝑛𝑠.: (𝑎) 8.72665; (𝑏) 8.72388.

𝜋
∵ 𝑎𝑟𝑐 𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑔𝑡ℎ = 𝑟 𝜑 = 100 × 5 × = 𝟖. 𝟕𝟐𝟔𝟔𝟒𝟔
180

(b)

∵𝑑= 𝑟 + 𝑟 − 2𝑟 𝑟 cos 𝜃 cos 𝜃 − 2𝑟 𝑟 sin 𝜃 sin 𝜃 cos(𝜑 − 𝜑 ) = 𝑟 + 𝑟 − 2𝑟 𝑟 cos(𝜑 − 𝜑 )

∴𝑑= 100 + 100 − 2(100)(100) cos(5) = 100 1 + 1 − 2 cos(5) = 𝟖. 𝟕𝟐𝟑𝟖𝟖

Another solution for (b)

𝐴(𝑟 = 100, 𝜃 = 90, 𝜑 = 0) ≡ (𝑥 = 100, 𝑦 = 0, 𝑧 = 0)

𝐵(𝑟 = 100, 𝜃 = 90, 𝜑 = 5) ≡ (𝑥 = 100 cos 5 , 𝑦 = 100 sin 5 , 𝑧 = 0)

∴𝑑= (100 − 100 cos 5) + (0 − 100 sin 5) + (0) = 100 (1 − cos 5) + (sin 5) = 𝟖. 𝟕𝟐𝟑𝟖𝟖

Problem 32 Sheet 1

(𝑎) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 & 𝑣𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑠. (𝑏) 𝐹𝑖𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑖𝑛 𝑐𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑠 & 𝑣𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒𝑠.

Solution