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8/3/18

STAGE 1: RELATIONSHIP
BUILDING
PROCESSES IN • This is the heart of the counseling process because it provides the force
and foundation for counseling to succeed.

COUNSELING • This stage involves :

- establishing rapport,

- promote acceptance of the client as a person with worth,

- establishing genuine interaction

- promote direct mutual communication

- helping client understand themselves

- helping client focus

STAGE 2: ASSESMENT AND STAGE 3: FORMULATION


DIAGNOSIS OF COUNSELING GOALS
• Goals are important as it sets the direction of the
• This serves as the window for the counselor ro
counseling process. It shall serve as the
have a thorough appreciation of the client’s
parameter of work and the client- counselor
condition.
relationship.
• it entails analysis of the root causes of the
• It institutes the circumstances needed to make
problem
counseling work progress, which include
promoting a good relationship.
• Data gathered in the diagnosis will be utilized in
the formulation of goals.
• They must agree on the counseling goals

STAGE 4: INTERVENTION GUIDELINES which will


AND PROBLEM SOLVING motivate client participation
• the counselor has to provide a mapping of the
different approaches offered
• after setting goals , the strategies for intervention
may now be outlined.
• describe the role of the counselor and client for
each procedure
• Interventions comprise of individual, group,
couples and family counseling. (client will
• identify possible risks and benefits that may come
choose)
• estimate the time and cost of each procedure

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STAGE 5: TERMINATION STAGE 6: RESEARCH AND


AND FOLLOW UP EVALUATION
• The essential goal in counseling to witness a client progress on
his/her own without the assistance of the counselor.
• this stage can be undertaken at any point of the
• 4 components of termination:
counseling stage.
- Discussion of the end of counseling
• research are important ; results of the research
- review of the course of counseling
provide a scientific appreciation of the counseling
- closure of the counselor-client relationship situation.

- discussion of the client’s future and post-counseling plan

METHODS IN
• QUESTIONS? COUNSELING

theoretical orientations of FREUD’S PSYCHONALITIC THEORY


counselors and their approaches (PSYCHOANALYSIS)
A. CLASSICAL THEORIES

1. FREUD’S PSYCHONALITIC THEORY (PSYCHOANALYSIS)


• a method for treating mental illness and also a
2. ADLER’S INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGY theory which explains human behavior.
3. JUNG’S ANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGY

B. EXPERIENTIAL THEORIES • words that libido, denial, repression, cathartic,


4. ROGER’s PERSON CENTERED COUNSELING Freudian slip, and neurotic.
5. PERLS GESTALT THERAPY
• analysis of the mind
C. COGNITIVE-BEHAVIORAL THEORIES

6. RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THEORY • Psychoanalysis is often known as the talking cure.
7. BECK’S COGNITIVE THERAPY

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• when we explain our own


behaviour to ourselves or others
• It focuses on personal adjustment through (conscious mental activity) we
reorganization of internal forces within a person to help rarely give a true account of our
him become aware of the unconscious (repressed motivation. This is not because
memories) aspects of his/her personality we are deliberately lying. Whilst
human beings are great
• 3 goals :
deceivers of others, they are
• to help clients gain insights about themselves even more adept at self-
deception. Our rationalizations
• to help clients work unstuck issues, through a of our conduct are therefore
developmental stage, not settled in the past disguising the real reasons.

• to help clients cope with stresses of the society

PSYCHONALYSIS

• UNCONCIOUS
MOTIVATIONS
INFLUENCE
PERSONALITY
DEVELOPMENT

3 COMPONENTS OF THE 5 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF MAN


MIND
• ORAL STAGE

• ANAL STAGE
• ID

• EGO • PHALLIC STAGE

• SUPEREGO
• LATENCY STAGE

• GENITAL STAGE

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5 STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF MAN PSYCHOANALYTIC


METHODS
• ORAL STAGE • FREE ASSOCIATION- a method to encourage the patient to
discuss whatever comes to his mind in order to release
suppressed emotions.
• ANAL STAGE CAN BECOME FIX
• DREAM ANALYSIS- a method to explore unconscious
ATED ON ANY OF processes using dreams
THE STAGE
• PHALLIC STAGE
• CONFRONTATION AND CLARIFICATION- a form of feedback
procedure for patients to become aware of what is happening to
• LATENCY STAGE him/her and to determine areas for further analysis.
WHEN OUR DRIVES AND DESIRES GET OU
T OF CONTROL WE MAY USE DEFENSIVE
• INTERPRETATION- a process of giving insights to the patients
MECHANISMS TO PROTECT OURSELVES
about their inner conflicts which can be reflected in resistance,
• GENITAL STAGE
transference, and other processess.

ADLER’S INDIVIDUAL
4 goals of Adlerian counseling
PSYCHOLOGY
• establishment and maintenance of an egalitarian
relationship
• focuses on the role of cognition in psychological
functioning. • analysis of client’s lifestyle

• its objective is to gain understanding of the clients • interpretation of clients lifestyle in a way that
and assess why clients behave and think in certain promotes insights
ways.
• reorientation and reeducation of the client wit
accompanying behavior change

JUNG’S ANALYTIC
PSYCHOLOGY
JUNGIAN APPROACH
• treatment must be flexible and has to be
• PSYCHOTHERAPY
established by the character and persona of the
client
• highlights the task of the unconscious processes in
psychological functioning.
• it applies a more practical approach that is
appropriate to make the counseling process
• this approach applies dreams and other
succeed
procedures to determine the unconscious
processes to utilize the result to boost the
• it also utilize dreams (more than 1 dream) it should
functioning of personality and to enhance mental
be a series of dreams recorded over a period of
health and wellness
time.

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CARL ROGER’S PERSON-


CENTERED COUNSELING
EXPERIENTIAL
THEORIES • DESCRIBED AS “IF-THEN” APPROACH BECAUSE
AFFECTIVE THEORIES WHICH ARE CONCERNED ABOUT GENERATING THIS APPROACH CONSIDERS THAT IF CERTAIN
IMPACT ON THE EMOTIONS OF CLIENTS TO EFFECT CHANGE.
CONDITIONS EXIST IN COUNSELING
RELATIONSHIP, THEN THE CLIENT WILL MOVE
TOWARD SELF-ACTUALIZATION.

• BEFORE: HOW CAN I TREAT, OR CURE OR


CHANGE THIS PERSON? • HE BELIEVED THERAPIST SHOULD DISPLAY A
SET OF VALUES AND ATTITUDES TOWARD
• NOW: HOW CAN I PROVIDE A RELATIONSHIP THE CLIENT WHICH WOULD SUPPORT THEIR
WHICH THIS PERSON MAY USE FOR HIS OWN INNATE ABILITY TO HEAL THEMSELVES
PERSONAL GROWTH?

CONDITIONS
• EMPHATIC UNDERSTANDING- IMPLIES THAT THE
COUNSELORS MUST ATTEMPT TO UNDERSTAND THE
• COUNSELOR’S CONGRUENCE- COUNSELOR CLIENT FROM THE CLIENT’S PERSPECTIVE OR FRAME
MUST BE CONGRUENT WITH WHAT THEY OF REFERENCE
EXPERIENCE AND WHAT THEY COMMUNICATE .
• UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD- THIS IMPLIES
THAT IT IS VITAL FOR THE COUNSELORS TO A SENSE
• EXAMPLE: IF YOU FEEL THREATENED BY THE OF ACCEPTANCE AND RESPECT TO THE CLIENT. IT
CLIENT YOU CAN NOT SAY YOU ENJOY THEIR DOES NOT MEAN ACCEPTING AND TOLERATING
COMPANY. IT WILL CREATE CONFUSION ANYTHING ABOUT THE CLIENT’S ACTIONS OR
WORDS BUT TO SEE AND CONSIDER THE CLIENT AS
A PERSON

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PERLS GESTALT THERAPY GESTALT’S TECHNIQUES


• THIS APPROACH FOCUSES ON THE HERE AND • ASSUMING RESPONSIBILITY- The method requires the client to
rephrase a statement to assume a responsibility. Ask the client to
NOW . end all the statement with- “and i take responsibility for it”

• IT REFERS TO A DIALOGUE BETWEEN THE • Example: I will report to the principal what David did to Diana and
THERAPIST AND THE CLIENT WHEREIN THE I will take responsibility for it.
CLIENT EXPERIENCES FROM THE INSIDE WHAT • USING PERSONAL PRONOUNS- The method encourages the
THE THERAPIST OBSERVES FROM THE OUTSIDE. clients to take personal responsibility by saying, “I or me”
instead of stating in general terms such as “we or us”
• THE GOAL OF THIS APPROACH IS AWARENESS
• Example: Instead of saying, we got scared of the angry people
ON THE ENVIRONMENT ,OF RESPONSIBILITY FOR
who mobbed our car, say; I got scared of the angry people who
CHOICES, OF SELF AND SELF-ACCEPTANCE. mobbed our car.

GESTALT’S
TECHNIQUES
• NOW I AM AWARE- THE METHOD IS A MEANS TO ASSIST THE
CLIENTS IN GETTING IN TOUCH WITH HER/HIMSELF. THE
COUNSELOR MAY ASK THE CLIENTS TO CLOSE THEIR EYES TO
COGNITIVE-
GET IN TOUCH WITH INNER WORLD AND SAY.. “NOW I AM
AWARE..” BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
HIGHLIGHTS THE TASK OF COGNITION IN PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING. COGNITIONS
• THE EMPTY CHAIR TECHNIQUE- THE METHOD CAN HELP ARE THOUGHTS, BELIEFS AND INTERNAL IMAGES ABOUT EVENTS IN THEIR LIVES.
CLIENTS TO WORK THROUGH CONFLICTING PARTS OF IT UNDERSCORES MENTAL PROCESSES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON MENTAL HEALTH.
PERSONALITY. THE EMPTY CHAIR TECHNIQUE IS DONE BY
PUTTING AN EMPTY CHAIR IN FRONT OF THE CLIENT. THE
EMPTY CHAIR IS THE CHAIR OF THE PERSONALITY THAT
AVOIDS TO DO WHAT THE CLIENT WANTS TO DO

• EXAMPLE: A CLIENT WANTS TO GIVE A FEEDBACK TO THE


TEACHER BUT IS AFRAID OF NEGATIVE REACTIONS.

ALBERT ELLIS RATIONAL YOU FEEL THE WAY YOU


EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY THINK
• IT HIGHLIGHTS THE ROLE OF THE COGNITIONS • IT IS NOT THE EVENTS TAKING PLACE IN OUR
ON EMOTIONS WITH THE ASSERTION THAT LIVES THAT UPSET US.
PERSONS CAN BE BEST APPRECIATED IN TERMS
OF INTERNAL COGNITIVE DIALOGUE OR SELF- • IT IS THE BELIEFS THAT WE HOLD THAT CAUSE
TALK. US TO BECOME DEPRESSED, ANXIOUS,
ENRAGED ETC.
• EMOTIONAL DISORDER IS ASSOCIATED WITH
COGNITIVE PROCESSES THAT ARE NOT • “MEN ARE DISTURBED NOT BY EVENTS, BUT
RATIONAL BY THE VIEWS WHICH THEY TAKE OF THEM”

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BECK’S COGNITIVE
REBT TECHNIQUES THERAPY
• HIGHLIGHTS THE VITALITY OF COGNITIVE THINKING
• COGNITIVE- FOCUSES ON HELPING CLIENTS CONQUER
PARTICULARLY DYSFUNCTIONAL THOUGHTS.
“DEFEATING COGNITIONS.” THE METHOD IT INVOLVES
REFORMING IDEAS THAT ARE UNREASONABLE AND
IRRATIONAL. • THIS APPROACH IS APPROPRIATE FOR PEOPLE
SUFFERING FROM DEPRESSIONS AND ANXIETIES
• EMOTIVE TECHNIQUES- FOCUSES ON THE CLIENTS
“AFFECTIVE OR EMOTIONAL DOMAIN.” THIS HELPS IN • CLIENTS ARE LED TO BE MORE PRACTICAL IN THEIR
ASSISTING CLIENTS LEARN TO ACKNOWLEDGE THEMSELVES. UNDERSTANDING AND EXPLANATION OF EVENTS BY
“PROJECTING LESS (ANXIETY) AND GENERALIZING
• BEHAVIORAL TECHNIQUES- FOCUSES ON THE FULL ARRAY LESS (DEPRESSION).
OF BEHAVIORAL METHODS SUCH AS ASSERTIVENESS
TRAINING, SELF-MONITORING, AND HOOME WORK
• HE/SHE LET HIS/HER CLIENTS INVESTIGATE BELIEFS
ASSIGNMENTS
FUNCTIONALITY

BECK’S TECHNIQUES
• DECATASTROPHIZING- THIS METHOD IS REFERRED
TO AS “WHAT IF” AND INCLUDES PRIMING CLIENTS
FOR RESULTS THAT MAY STRONGLY AFFECT THE • DECENTERING- COMPRISE OF INSTRUCTING
CLIENT THE CLIENTS TO OBSERVE AND GET A
PRACTICAL APPRECIATION OF OTHER PEOPLE’S
• REDEFINING- THIS METHOD ASSISTS CLIENTS TO
DRUM UP CLIENTS WHO HAVE A LOST SENSE
RESPONSE. THIS WILL HEL CLIENTS APPREHEND
CONTROL ON AN OBSTACLE BY REARTICULATIONG THAT THEY ARE NOT THE “CENTER OF
AN OBSTACLE TO SOMETHING THAT MAY BE USEFUL ATTENTION”

• EXAMPLE: I AM UGLY TO I AM BEAUTIFUL

BERNE’S TRANSACTIONAL
ANALYSIS
TA TECHNIQUES
• REFERS TO EXAMINING AND DISSECTING • STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS- ASSIST CLIENTS BE CONSCIOUS OF
TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN PEOPLE. IT INCLUDES THEIR 3 EGO
EVALUATING THE 3 EGO STATE OF PARENT ADULT • TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS- ASSIST CLIENTS TO LEARN TO
AND CHILD OF EACH PERSON. COMMUNICATE WITH COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTINS.
EXAMPLE: ADULTS TO ADULTS
• THIS IS TO DETECT IF THE TRANSACTIONS ARE
BALANCED AND HARMONIZED. • SCRIPT ANALYSIS- A METHOD THAT LOOKS INTO THE “TYPE
OF LIFE SCRIPT THE CLIENTS HAS DEVELOPED AND HOW IT
• ITS GOAL IS TO ASSIST CLIENTS TO REACH A STAGE CAN BE RE-WRITTEN”
OF BEING “AUTONOMOUS, SELF-AWARE, • ANALYSIS OF GAMES- DETERMINING “WHAT GAMES THE
SPONTANEOUS AND HAVE THE CAPACITY FOR CLIENTS PLAY AND HOW THE GAMES INTERFERE WITH
INTIMACY” INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONING”