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EXPERIMENT 5: EVAPORATION

Introduction

Most of the times, unit operations are believed present only on big industries, but
they are present in daily operations like cooking. The differences between both
scenarios are two: the purpose and the scale of operation. Concentration of solutions
(goes from the preparation of a soup to the concentration of large amounts of sodium
hydroxide) is very important liquid-phase separation process present on several
chemical and food industries around the world. This process is represented on the
Evaporation operation.

In this exercise, a process variable identification and relationship will be done along
with an equipment recognition and operation.

Objectives

Analyze and identify which variables influence on the process of evaporation.

Observe what components are part of an evaporation equipment

Theoretical background

Evaporation

Types of evaporators

Single effect evaporator

Multiple effect evaporator

Boiling point rising of solutions

Dühring’s rule (Charts)

Vaccum System

Pre lab 5

When Dühring’s rule is not a factor on the evaporation process? Explain with an
example.

Considering the concepts above, why the term “distilled water” is a wrong
expression? How would be the correct expression for “distilled water”?
Draw a scheme of a rice pan, annotate all the inputs and outputs and solve a mass
balance for 200 g of rice (consider that the rice/water ratio is 1:2).

Materials

Rising Film Evaporator UOP20-X-PHW

Procedure

Equipment Start-up

CHECK THAT ALL WATER AND ELECTRIC CONECTIONS BEFORE PROCEDING.

Turn on the laboratory pump and open the evaporator’s water valve inlet.

Go to the Evaporator’s console and turn on breakers C3 (Main Power) and C4 (Control
Board).

Turn on breakers C7 (1st effect) and C8 (1st effect pump).

Turn on switch C17 to turn on the hot water circulator system. Check that there are
no leaks.

Turn on breaker C6 (Pre-heater). Set the temperature controller to 75 OC.

Open the copper sulfate tank feed valve, and turn on Pump 1. Set the pump for 4
mL/min.

Open V17 (refrigerating water inlet) and set the flux to 3 L/min.

Turn on breaker C31 (Manual 1st effect pump). Set the temperature controller to 125
O
C.

Turn on breaker C5 (Vacuum pump)

Let the system stabilize for 15 min.

Reading procedure.

Take temperatures T4(Feed prior the evaporator), T6(Vapor generated), T2


(Concentrated Product), T11 (Heating Steam)

Take conductivity readings (C1 and C2).

Annotate the vacuum pressure.

Turn off breaker C5. Measure how much concentrated product and vapor condensate
the evaporator produced.
Data Collection

Table 1. Experimental data

Variable Reading

Vacuum Pressure, mbar

Temperature 2 (T2) [OC]

Temperature 4 (T4) [OC]

Temperature 6 (T6) [OC]

Temperature 11 (T11) [OC]

Conductivity 1 (C1) [mS]

Conductivity 2 (C2) [Ms]

Feed, (F) [mL/min]

Concentrated Product, (L)[mL/min]

Condensate Steam (V), [mL/min]

If additional data is required, please list it as a different table with the title “Additional
data”.

Observations
Calculations and Data Analysis

Calculations

Concentration

1
𝐶𝑇 −0.44113 0.67231
𝐶(%𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑡) =[ ]
1.24064

Heating Steam Requirement

𝑉𝐻𝑉 + 𝐿ℎ𝐿 − 𝐹ℎ𝐹


𝑆=
