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Abstract

Farming can be done using various new technologies to yield higher growth of the crops and their
more production. The objectives of this paper is to avoid wastage of water and increase irrigation
efficiency by using PLC based irrigation system with the help of soil moisture sensor. The project
presented here will water plants regularly in accordance with the state of soil moisture.
The circuit comprises sensor parts which are water mark moisture sensor is inserted in the soil to
sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The PLC program monitors the sensors and when moisture
sensor senses the dry condition then the circuit will switch on the motor at which the pressure
sensor on normal conditions and it will switch off the motor when the moisture sensor senses the
dryness of the soil at which one or two of the factors are in abnormal conditions. The PLC does
the above job when it receives the signal from the sensors.
It also improves the traditional irrigation system in Ethiopia enabling the irrigation system to have
high efficiency and low water usage. The existing irrigation system is tedious, time consuming
and very wasteful in water usage.
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Introduction
In developing countries like Ethiopia automatic irrigation system is not much familiar rather
than using labor system and it is not much effective and all the system is controlled by humans
and if it is dry or moisture content the person cannot exactly detect or identify It .Appropriate
soil water level is a necessary pre-requisite for optimum plant growth. Water is a basic
component of all known life on Earth .Water can both sustain life in correct quantities and
threaten life when it is not available. Water as a result is a very precious natural resource that
must not be wasted .Now a day’s economical usage of water resource is becoming a critical
issue due to its limitation & climate change. Water is the main input of agricultural activities,
construction, industries etc. thus, it should be managed by technology.

Using Automatic irrigation system helps to avoid wastage of water. If too much water is
applied the problems arise consisting of runoff, erosion, waste of water and deceased plant life.
If too little water is applied different problems arise such as grass burnout. The key in irrigation
is striking to correct balance for optimal plant life with optimal use of water. An irrigation
controller is a device to operate automatic irrigation systems. Soil moisture sensor is a sensor
connected to an irrigation system controller that measure soil moisture content in the active
root zone. The PLC is used to control the whole system by monitoring the sensors and when
sensors sense the dry condition then the PLC will send command to relay the contacts of which
are used to switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor, when adequate moisture is
detected in the soil. The PLC does the above job as it receives the signal from the moisture
sensors and these signals operate under the control of software which is stored in the PLC.
Besides, the automatic pumping also pumping irrigation system reduces the involvement level
human labor in the irrigational activities. Water being an essential element for life sustenance,
there is the necessity to avoid its undue usage. Irrigation is a dominant consumer of water. This
calls for the need to regulate water supply for irrigation purposes. Fields should neither be
over-irrigated nor under-irrigated. Over time, systems have been implemented towards
realizing this objective of which automated processes are the most popular as they allow
information to be collected at high frequency with less labor requirements. Soil moisture

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sensors are sophisticated devices like sensors measure some physical property that is related
with soil moisture. Some portable sensing tools are pushed into the soil directly or into an
access tube planted in the soil. Other systems rely on buried sensors that are wired to a fixed
meter. Being an automated process, this provides accurate results and is highly efficient.
Ethiopia has been following traditional agricultural method. Currently the agriculture is on
transformation. That means, modern technological finding are going to be involved. The
government is motivating irrigational agriculture. So there will be a great deal atomization of
the agriculture sector. The water pumps used by the farmer are fuel consuming. Automatic
pumping system is also helps to minimize wastage of water whereas the traditional method has
high pumping of water beyond the crop requirement. By using automatic pumping system, the
available water can be used to cultivate more lands than the recent. Generally there is
technological gap that the country would get benefit from.

1.2 Statement of the problem


Irrigation of plants usually a very time consuming activity; to be done in reasonable short time a
lots of human labor should be involved. In a big farm or in a nursery, usually need many worker
involve? Hence, if farmers are still using traditional irrigation system, there will obtain human
work force. Therefore, need to spend money to pay the worker's salary which can be high and
expensive. Otherwise, it is difficult to verify the effect moisturizing in the soil .Using technologies
the number of worker or the time required to water is reduced. Water has been used excessively
for irrigation, traditionally. The plant/crop is watered beyond its needs, which result massive
wastage of the limited water resource. It also limits the farm to be cultivated using the available
water resource. An affordable, convenient and flexible system is much needed because different
soil has different needs and level of moisture. Controlling by PLC is used to assist the
understanding on how that system can control the balance of moisture properly.

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1.3 Objective of the Study
1.3.1 General Objective
The main objective of this project is to design and constructing small-scale automatic irrigation
system using soil moisture sensor controlled by PLC.
1.3.1 Specific objectives:
 To monitor and regulate the moisture level of a soil sample mainly aimed to provide to
the needs of technologically ignorant rural farmers.
 Minimize human intervention in agricultural irrigation industry.
 To develop a cost effective
 To increase irrigation water utilization efficiency.
 To enhance the transfer of irrigation technologies and management alternatives
emphasizing economic and environmental benefits.
1.4 Scope of the study
This project will commence with an over view of the problem encountered with an automatic
irrigation system using soil moisture sensing. The primary goal of an automatic irrigation system
is to control the fluctuation of moisture sensor by PLC and give information to controller and the
programmable logic controller is ON and OFF the water motor pump based on the moisture level
sensor. PLC is the main issue and effect used to develop a program for automatically controlling
watering pump process.
1.5 limitation
Fields should neither be over-irrigated nor under-irrigated. Over time, systems have been
implemented towards realizing this objective of which automated processes are the most popular
as they allow information to be collected at high frequency with less labor requirements.
The principle can be extended to a higher or large scale farms and small scale Ethiopian farmers
land irrigation for farmers specially who live in a place where water is very scares and water can
be stored in well and/or there is another water body like lake, river and etc. Soil moisture sensor
have limited life after installation due to the effect of the plastic components in hot, arid climate
when exposed to ultraviolet.
.

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CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
In developing countries like Ethiopia automatic irrigation system using sensor is not much familiar
rather than using labor system and it is not much effective and all the system is controlled by
humans and if it is dry or moisture content the person cannot exactly detect or identify it [2]. In
our project we are trying to see so many papers deals about automatic irrigation system using
sensors [3]. It is very expensive for rural areas and for irrigation purpose compared with its profit.
The other paper what we have seen is that it uses a micro controller to control the whole system
bases on the program that the users enter according to the moisture content [2].
The problem of previous project is, that not suitable for illiterate people and it requires a high
maintenance and also high cost. After we observe this problems we are interested to design cheap,
simple and it requires minimum maintenance and we use a gypsum block instead of using
expensive moisture sensor and we are using PLC in order to control the whole system rather than
micro controller [5].
This section summarizes the literature background of our work connected with automatic irrigation
system using soil moisture sensor and the benefits of automatic controller. We cover several papers
to serve the purpose and related work in the literature and theory’s.
Irrigation is a vital part of agricultural system. Particularly in our country, potentially twice as
productive as rain fed agriculture it contributes significantly to global food production [10].
Irrigated agriculture in Ethiopia has faced many challenges over the past decade, including severe
and prolonged drought, reduced water availability, fluctuations in commodity prices and ongoing
reform of government water policies [8]. As a result, managing uncertainty in water availability
has been a key challenge for irrigators. Global population growth will influence further increase
food production; at the same time, global climate change is likely to increase uncertainty about the
security of water supply for irrigation. Growing competition for scarce water resources is likely to
see the cost of water increase. As a result, irrigated agriculture is under considerable pressure to
adopt useful practice methods, to increase water use efficiency (WUE) and productivity.
Conventional irrigation practices are generally characterized by low water use efficiency (WUEs)
creating the potential for significant water savings. Widespread adoption of more efficient
technology or management practices would result in significant water savings, which could help

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convert more land to irrigation. Alternatively, reduced on farm water use would result in increased
water availability for alternative use (e.g. environmental flows to maintain ecosystem).

2.2 Automatic farm irrigation review


An automated irrigation system refers to the operation of the system with no or just a minimum
manual intervention apart from field surveillance which requires human critical thinking. Almost
every system (drip, sprinkler, surface) can be automated with the help of electronic timers, sensors,
controllers, and some electro-mechanical devices [4]. It makes the irrigation process more efficient
and workers can concentrate on other important farming tasks. On the other hand, such a system
can be expensive and very complex in its design and may needs experts to plan and implement it.
There are two classes of automatic irrigation systems [5]. They are high technology automatic
irrigation system and low technology automatic irrigation system.
2.3 Irrigation Controller
Irrigation controllers have additional features such as multiple programs to allow different
watering frequencies for different types of plants, rain delay settings, input terminals for sensors
such as rain and freeze sensors, soil moisture sensors, weather data, remote operation etc. PLCs
are “Programmable Logic Controllers” that are digital computers used for automation of
electromechanical processes [8]. They have a processor, some form of keyboard and screen; have
analog /digital input ports and the capacity to command a number of electric devices through
relays. Originally it was expensive and limited in capacity. The dramatic development of
Programmable Logic Controllers, PLCs, and their affordable price has made it possible to use them
as stand-alone irrigation controllers [11].

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CHAPTER THREE
SYSTE OF BLOCK DIAGRAM
3.3 BLOCK DIAGRAM AND DESCRBTION OF BLOCKDIAGRAM

Figure 3.1 block diagram of project


The block diagram described on the above section depicts the PLC control circuit necessary for
the automatic irrigation system to function in accordance to some important parameters. The
controller is programmable logic controller and the controlled variable in this system is electrically
controlled. The final elements are the motor pumping and the indicator give voice or bell. State of
the Relay is controlled and determined by status of the three PLC inputs.
1. The moisture sensor is installed at a predetermined depth under the plant root. When the system
starts the Irrigation the shallow moisture sensor senses dry first and irrigation continued until the
wet moisture sensor senses. At this point the controller takes an action and the main relay will be
closed.
2. The second input is a pressure sensor in water pump. This water pump pressure sensor senses
the level of the water in the pump pipe is high or low in the predetermined specification through
PLC circuit. That means the low pressure sensor senses, the motor pump will start pumping water
to the field for plant if soil moisture sensor sensing no water in the soil. When the high level sensor
senses the motor will stop pumping to the field.
3. The third inputs are start and stop which send command according to programmed parameters.
These input parameters to the controller sets high whenever the user want to start and stop the
irrigation system irrespective of the status of the level pressure sensor in the water pumping pipe
and status of moisture sensor in the root zone of the plant.

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3.2 MATERIAL REQUIRED AND DESCRIPTION OF BLOCK DIAGRAM
The materials we have used in our paper are different books, journals, and thesis and ongoing
projects in automatic irrigation system. From this we are going to select appropriate principle
operation of PLC programming, soil moisture sensor, dc relay, pressure sensor and water pump
based on their application in automatic irrigation system using soil moisture sensor.
The other material we have been using for our simulation is Siemen PLC/ logo software.
3.3 DESCRIBTION OF EACH COMPONENTS
3.3.1 SENSOR
A sensor is a device that converts a physical condition into an electrical signal for use by the PLC.
Sensors are connected to the input of a PLC. A pushbutton is one example of a sensor that is
connected to the PLC input. An electrical signal is sent from the pushbutton to the PLC indicating
the condition (open/closed) of the pushbutton contacts. Sensor is referred to in terms of controlling
the operation of something.
A sensor’s main function is to measure a controlled variable in an accurate and continuous manner.
In the manufacture industry, we are typically measuring and controlling temperature, pressure, and
humidity. The information measured by the sensor must be gathered and processed, so that
appropriate actions can be taken on the controlled variable.
A limit switch is a sensor. The switch senses when its actuator is being pressed and sends an
electrical signal to the PLC input. The limit switch provides the PLC with a crude sense of touch.
However, in many cases, the PLC needs to sense something more sophisticated than a switch
actuation. For these applications, sensors are available that can sense nearly any parameter that
may occur in a machine environment. Fundamentally, sensor outputs are classified into two
categories discrete (Sometimes called digital, logic, or bang-bang) and proportional (sometimes
called analog). Discrete sensors provide a single logical output (a zero or one). For example a
thermostat that operates the heating and air conditioning in a home is a discrete sensor.so many
sensor are extended according to it needs for specific project with its purpose .for this project the
main advantage are soil moisture sensor and pressure sensor .for each of description as follow.
3.3.1.1 Soil Moisture Sensor
Soil moisture sensors measure the water content in soil. Measuring soil moisture is important in
agriculture to help farmers manage their irrigation systems more efficiently. Not only are farmers

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able to generally use less water to grow a crop, they are able to increase yields and the quality of
the crop by better management of soil moisture during critical plant growth stages.
3.3.1.1.1 Types of soil moisture sensors
A. Electrical resistance blocks Sensors
These sensors are made up of two electrodes made from a porous substance like sand ceramic
mixture or gypsum. The two electrodes are embedded in the soil during installation. Moisture is
allowed to move freely in and out of the sensors electrodes as the soil becomes moist or dries up.
The resistance of the electrodes to the flow current is correlated with moisture content. To measure
this resistance the electrodes are biased (energized) with a dc voltage and the current flowing
through them measured. Applying Ohm’s law;
R=V/I
Where: R is resistance (Unknown) (Ω)
V is biasing voltage (3.3V to 5.0V)
I is the current flowing through the electrodes (Amps)

Figure 3.2.Homemade soil moisture sensor

When the moisture content in the soil is high more current will be allowed to flow thus indicating
low resistance. On the other hand for dry soils the sensor will indicate higher resistance represented
by the low current reading.
This type of sensor is cheap and readily available. Electrical resistance blocks Sensors can also be
readily assembled from home using two metal plates or steel nails.
Electrical resistance blocks Sensors are mostly used in small projects and gardens due to the
following disadvantages;
 They are badly affected by soil PH and salinity thus requiring regular maintenance
 They have low sensitivity.

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The electrodes; especially which provides a constant source of ions; do not dry at the same rate as
the soil surrounding it.
B. Electrical conductivity probe sensors
Electrical conductivity probes employ the same principle as the Electrical resistance blocks
Sensors. The one major difference between the two types of sensors is that Electrical conductivity
probes sensors have their electrodes/probes in direct contact with the soil. By definition electricity
is the flow of charges and water in its pure form cannot conduct electricity. The amount of
impurities in water and mineral salts make it polar thus able to conduct electricity. A large volume
of water will mean more ions and thus better electric conduction. Electrical conductivity probes
sensors takes advantage of this phenomenon. The amount of current passing between the probes
is directly proportional to the soil moisture content. Moist soil allow more current to flow between
the probes while drier soils only allow a little current to flow between the probes. Better
conductivity indicates a lower electrical resistance.
Most of the soil moisture sensors currently in the market especially for small projects are Electrical
conductivity probes sensors. They have the following advantages.
 They are cheap
 They are readily available
 Easy to calibrate and install

C. Dielectric sensors
Dielectric sensors measure the soil water content in the soil by measuring the dielectric permittivity
of the soil. A dielectric material is substance that does not conductor electricity, but supports
electrostatic fields efficiently. At some cases dielectric substance are referred to as insulators. The
volume of water in the soil influences the dielectric permittivity of soil. The dielectric of water
which is 80.4 is greater than other soil constituents. Therefore change in the amount of water in
the soil will directly lead to change in the soil dielectric permittivity. Dielectric sensors are very
complex to build thus making them very expensive. These sensors are mostly used in scientific
research owing to their high accuracy and cost.
Dielectric sensors are classified into two types namely: Capacitance sensors and Time Domain
Reflectometry (TDR) sensors. These sensors do not measure electrical conductivity while
measuring soil moisture. Capacitance sensors use frequency domain Reflectometry

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(FDR).Frequency domain Reflectometry is the measure of signal reflections through a medium
across frequency. Capacitance sensors contain two electrodes which are separated by a dielectric
material.
Disadvantage
 It don’t sense electrical signal
 It depends on the values of frequency through medium
3.3.1.2 Pressure Sensor
Pressure sensors are based on the principle of bending a membrane caused by the pressure in a
liquid or gas. On the membrane is a very thin conductive screened layer that that follows the
bending of the membrane. This bending can be measured in two different ways:
First one can measure the distance between the conductive layer on the Membrane and a reference
layer in the housing of the sensor. The two layers form a capacity and the change in the distance
show a change in the capacitive value can be measured
Secondly, the resistance of the conductive layers is changed when the membrane is blended. A
smart mechanical layout of four resistive structures can form a stable Wheatstone bridge,
comparable with the classical strain gauge sensors. The bending of the membrane is very small
(<< 1 cm), but is still large enough to measure the changes in the resistive values. The resistive
structures on the surfaces can be compressed or stretched depending what direction the membrane
is blended. When the layer is compressed the resistance value will decrease and when stretched
this value will increase. Most of the time this function used for protection and level of pressure to
sensing as force and area of object. In practice this means that the Wheatstone bridge is imbalanced
in a positive and in a negative way respectively.
In general the screened resistors are also sensitive to temperature which means a compensation for
temperature effects is required.
3.3.1.2.1 Types of pressure sensors
The membrane will be bended if there is a difference in pressure on both sides of the membrane.
There are three types of pressure sensors: the gauge type, the absolute type and the differential
type; each type with their specific field of application. In short: gauge sensor measuring the
difference of the medium and the atmospheric pressure, therefore one side of the membrane is
always atmospheric pressure. Absolute type is referenced to vacuum, so one side of the membrane

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is vacuum. Differential sensor is referenced to another pressure and can measure the difference
between the two pressures, so both sides can be anything.
1. The gauge pressure sensor.
One side of the membrane is pressurized liquid or gas type medium that has to be measured and the other
side of the membrane is open to the atmosphere. This means the pressure measured is referenced to the
atmospheric pressure. This connection to the atmosphere is generally called the ventilation hole. This
implies that the only interface between the “outside world” and the pressurized side is the membrane.
Should this membrane be damaged (e.g. due to a pressure shock) the pressurized side is directly connected
to the ventilation hole which means gasses or liquids flaring out can cause a dangerous situation. For
measuring pressure of hazardous gases this type of sensor is not used.
2. Absolute pressure sensors.
The absolute version of the pressure sensor has no ventilation hole and that side of the membrane is vacuum.
There for it measures against vacuum and hence the name: Absolute sensor.
It is very hard to create such a “chamber” with an absolute vacuum (it does not exist actually).
However the pressure in the vacuum reference chamber of the smart sensors is very low (25.10-3 Torr or
5.10-4 PSI).As is well-known, the vacuum must be high to prevent disturbing effects by differences in
temperatures in the “almost” vacuum chamber. By warming up of the residue the pressure in the vacuum
chamber will increase.
A special kind of Absolute sensor is the Barometric sensor. This sensor may be considered as an absolute
sensor with a limited range. In principle this range is between about 1000 mBar and 0 mBar. But for more
resolution Barometric sensors are designed for a range of 1000 – 800 mBar and are generally used to
measure the atmospheric pressure.
3 Differential pressure sensor.
The differential sensor has inputs to each side of the membrane, one for the positive input and the
other one for the negative pressure input. The bending of the membrane is related to the difference
of the pressure on each side. Now days we measure pressure electrically using pressure traducers
and switch as pressure range and permitting of value. Differential pressure sensor is more
sophisticated than the others. Because
 Limited value with respect to controller based on OFF or ON the process
 It accurate
 Used as protection of indicator
Disadvantage

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 At analog step we cannot identify the value point it affect or effect
3.3.2 Power supply
Electrical supply is used in bringing electrical energy to central processing unit. Most PLC
controllers work either at 24 VDC or 220 VAC. On some PLC controllers you'll find electrical
supply as a separate module. Those are usually bigger PLC controllers, while small and medium
series already contain the supply module. User has to determine how much current to take from
I/O module to ensure that electrical supply provides appropriate amount of current. Different types
of modules use different amounts of electrical current in order device or instrument needs .24 v dc
batter can able to get from AC power supply or from batteries . In stand-alone systems, the power
generated by the solar panels is usually used to charge a lead acid battery. Other types of battery
such as nickel-cadmium batteries may be used, but the advantages of the lead-acid battery ensure
that it is still the most popular choice. A battery is composed of individual cells; each cell in a lead-
acid battery produces a voltage of about 2 Volts DC, so a 12 Volt battery needs 6 cells. The capacity
of a battery is measured in Ampere-hours or Amp-hours (Ah).
3.3.3 Relay 5DC
This is an electromagnetic switch which is activated when a current is applied to it. A relay uses
small currents to switch huge currents. Most relays use principle of electromagnetism to operate
but still other operating principles like solid state are also used. A contactor is a type of relay which
can handle a high power required to control an electric motor or other loads directly. Solid state
relays have no moving parts and they use semiconductor devices to perform switching.

Figure 3.3 VDC Coil Relay


Relays are switches and thus terminologies applied to switches are also applied to relays.
A relay switches one or more poles, each of whose contacts can be thrown by energizing
the coil in one of three ways.
• NO contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is disconnected
when the relay is inactive.

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• NC contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated; the circuit is connected
when the relay is inactive.
• CO or double-throw (DT), contacts control two circuits: one normally-open contact and
one normally-closed contact with a common terminal.
A contact relay switches one or more poles each of whose contacts can be thrown by
energizing the coil in three ways namely; normally open(NO), normally closed(NC) or
change over(CO).
Just like manual switches the relay switch part is available in various configurations. Double pole,
double throw (DPDT) configuration is most common configuration. DPDT means that the relay
separately controls two switches that work together. Both switches have a normally NO and NC
contacts. Other commonly used configurations are:
• SPST – Single Pole Single Throw. This relay configuring has four terminals. Two of the
terminals are coil terminals.
• SPDT – Single Pole Double Throw. This configuring has five terminals. One of the
terminals is a common terminal which connects to either of the two others.

Figure 3.5 Inside a SPST relay

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3.3.4 Water Pump
Different types of applications require different types of pumps. Pumps are selected based on
system requirements, discharge pressure required, flow capacity required, and availability of
space. The types of pumps most often found in water distribution systems are:
 Centrifugal pumps,
 Vertical turbine pumps and
 Submersible pumps.
Centrifugal pumps are the most common type used in water distribution. Centrifugal pumps have
a circular “fan/turbine shaped” structure called an impeller that is mounted on a centrally supported
structure call the shaft. The motor rotates the shaft and can be powered by electricity or diesel fuel.
Water enters at an opening in the center called the suction. The rotating impeller imparts a high
velocity to the water, and it is circulated and thrown outward.
Advantages:

 Wide range of capacities


 Uniform flow at constant speed and head
 Low to moderate initial cost
 Simple construction
 Ability to adapt to several drive types
E.g Motor, engine, or turbine

 Moderate to high efficiency at optimal operation


 No need for internal lubrication
Disadvantages:
 Efficiency is limited to a narrow range of discharge flows and heads
 Low capacity that is greatly depended on discharge pressure
 Generally no self-priming ability
 Potential for impeller to be damaged by abrasive matter in water
Vertical turbine pumps are most often used at raw water intakes and at booster stations in the
distribution system. In vertical turbine pumps, the water flows vertically through a channel or
uniform cross-sectional area. The impeller is positioned in the center along the axis and the blades
of the impeller are shaped so that the water flows in a radial direction.

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Advantages:
Uniform flow at constant speed and head
 Simple construction
 Low noise level
 Small footprint
 Ability to adapt to several drive types
E.g motor, engine, or turbine
 Moderate to high efficiency at optimal operation
Disadvantages:
 High initial cost
 High repair costs
 Efficiency is limited to a narrow range of discharge flows and heads
 Inability to pump water containing any suspended matter
Submersible pumps are placed below the water level and are used mostly for pumping groundwater
from wells. The pump is basically a multi-stage centrifugal pump and the impellers of the pump
are mounted on a vertical shaft. The pump is driven by an electric motor placed adjacent to the
pump and is constructed for submerged operation.
Pumps help businesses and individuals move liquids and gases through the use of mechanical
action. From this three major groups of pumps submersible pump is more important than the
others.
Advantage
 Low initial cost
 Low repair costs
 High Efficiency and
 range head is no limited it is adjusted by user
Dis advantage

 Without sensor of pressure or flow sensor cannot test


 It need drive of ac or dc supply
A submersible pump (being represented by permanent magnet DC motor) was a device used to
move or pulls water out of a well or a pond .It is most considered as the heart of irrigation system.

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Before selecting an irrigation pump, a careful and complete inventory of the conditions under
which the pump will operated was considered.
This water pumping motor is an electric motor driven by a direct current (DC) ,from this
permanent magnetic DC motor has the main and issue for our project or used for driving of
pump water from reservoir. I.e. tanker, Lake, sea and etc.
The ideal hydraulic power to drive a pump depends on
 the mass flow rate the
 liquid density
 the differential height
Either it is the static lift from one height to another or the total head loss component of the
system - and can be calculated like
Pw (kW) = q ρ g h / (3.6 106) (1)
Where
Pw (kW) = waterpower (kW)
q = flow capacity (m3/h)
ρ = density of fluid (kg/m3)
g = gravity (9.81 m/s2)
h = differential head (m)
The water Horse Power can be calculated as:
Shaft Pump Power
The shaft power - the power required transferred from the motor to the shaft of the pump -
depends on the efficiency of the pump and can be calculated as
P=3HPor
Kw=500watt
Pw (hp) = 0.746kW (2)
Where
Pw (hp) = water horsepower (hp
Ps (kW) = Pw (kW) / η (3)
Where
Ps (kW) = shaft power (kW)
η = pump efficiency

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Permanent magnet DC motor

For this project we have used PMDC (Permanent magnet DC motor) with rated voltage of 24.A
magnetic field in DC motor is created in the stator by either of the following two means.

• permanent magnet
• Electromagnetic winding
If the field is created by permanent magnet the motor is called permanent DC motor (PMDC)
and if it is created by electromagnetic windings, the motor is called wound DC motor. Today,
due to cost effectiveness and reliability, the PMDC motor is the motor of choice for
applications up to 3HP.

The torque production is due to the interactions of the axial current carrying armature and the
magnetic flux produced by permanent magnet of the stator.

As flux per pole in PMDC motor cannot be controlled these are not used as dc generators. It
is speed and torques is controlled by through the adjustment of armature voltage applied to
the motor terminals. The circuit model or equivalent circuit of a PMDC motor is shown figure
below

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Motor specifications are:
 Rated voltage = 12vDC
 Rated current = 5A
 Rated speed = 2500RPM
 Rated power input = 1000W

Figure 3.8: Circuit model of PMDC motor

As field flux in PMDC motor is provided by permanent magnets the field winding is not shown in the
circuit model of this motor

In DC motors; the generated or counter electromagnetic force is given by


Ea=Ka∅𝜔m (2.1)
And electromagnetic torque is given by equation
Te=Ka Ia (2.2)
In a PMDC motor; flux ( ) is constant and as a result; above equations can be reduced to
Ea=Km m (2.3)
Where Km=Ka is known as speed-voltage constant or torque constant.
Its value depends up on the number of field poles armature conductors etc.
From the equivalent circuit shown in the above gives
Vt=Ea+Iara=Km m+Iara (2.4)
Vt-Iara=Km m

Or m= (Vt-Iara)/Km (2.5)
Since the flux is constant so speed of the PMDC cannot be controlled above base speed. The only way
to control the speed of PMDC motor is by varying the terminal voltage, using rheostats or power
electronics converter.

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Working principle

These motors are usually designed to run on 6v, 12v, or 24v dc supply obtained either from
batteries or regulated dc sources.

In such motors torque is produced by the interaction between the axial current carrying rotor
conductors and the magnetic flux produced by the permanent magnets.

Speed control

Since flux remains constant, speed of a PMDC motor cannot be controlled by using flux
control method. The only way to control its speed is to vary the armature voltage with the help
of an armature rheostat or electrically by using choppers. Consequently such motors are found
in systems where speed control below base speed is required.

Advantage of PMDC motor

1. In very small ratings, use of permanent magnet excitation results in lower manufacturing
cost.

2. In many cases of a PMDC motor is smaller in size than a wound-field dc motor of equal
power rating.
3. Since field excitation current is not required, the efficiency of these motor is generally higher
than that of the wound-field motors.

4. Low voltage PMDC motors produce less air noise.


5. When designed for low voltage (12v or less), these motors produce very

Disadvantage of PMDC motor

A motor serious disadvantage is that the permanent magnets can be demagnetized by armature
reaction MMF causing the motor to become inoperative.

Demagnetization can result from;


• Improper design
• Excessive armature current
• Improper brush shift
• Temperature effect

19
3.3.5 Programmable logic controllers (PLC)
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), also referred to as programmable controllers, are in the
computer family. They are used in commercial and industrial applications. A PLC monitors inputs,
makes decisions based on its program, and controls outputs to automate a process or machine.
PLCs consist of input modules or points, a Central Processing Unit (CPU), and output modules or
points. An input accepts a variety of digital or analog signals from various field devices (sensors)
and converts them into a logic signal that can be used by the CPU. The CPU makes decisions and
executes control instructions based on program instructions in memory. Output modules convert
control instructions from the CPU into a digital or analog signal that can be used to control various
field devices (actuators). A programming device is used to input the desired instructions. These
instructions determine what the PLC will do for a specific input. An operator interface device
allows process information to be displayed and new control parameters to be entered.

Figure 3. 10 logo picture

20
Figure 3.11: PLC operation block diagram

Advantages of PLCs
The same, as well as more complex tasks can be done with a PLC. Wiring between devices and
relay contacts is done in the PLC program. Hard-wiring, though still required to connect field
devices, is less intensive. Modifying the application and correcting errors are easier to handle. It
is easier to create and change a program in a PLC than it is to wire and rewire a circuit.
Following are just a few of the advantages of PLCs:
• Smaller physical size than hard-wire solutions.
• Easier and faster to make changes.
• PLCs have integrated diagnostics and override functions.
• Diagnostics are centrally available.
• Applications can be immediately documented.
• Applications can be duplicated faster and less expensively.
The language of PLCs consists of a commonly used set of terms; many of which are unique to
PLCs. In order to understand the ideas and concepts of PLCs, an understanding of these terms is
necessary.
Sensor
A sensor is a device that converts a physical condition into an electrical signal for use by the PLC.
Sensors are connected to the input of a PLC. A pushbutton is one example of a sensor that is

21
connected to the PLC input. An electrical signal is sent from the pushbutton to the PLC indicating
the condition (open/ closed) of the pushbutton contacts.
Actuators
Actuators convert an electrical signal from the PLC into a physical condition. Actuators are
connected to the PLC output. A motor starter is one example of an actuator that is connected to
the PLC output. Depending on the output PLC signal the motor starter will either start or stop the
motor.
Discrete Input
A discrete input also referred to as a digital input, is an input that is either in an ON or OFF
condition. Pushbuttons, toggle switches, limit switches, proximity switches, and contact closures
are examples of discrete sensors which are connected to the PLCs discrete or digital inputs. In the
ON condition a discrete input may be referred to as logic 1 or logic high. In the OFF condition a
discrete input may be referred to as logic 0 or a logic low.

Figure 3.12 discrete inputs


A Normally Open (NO) pushbutton is used in the following example. One side of the pushbutton
is connected to the first PLC input. The other side of the pushbutton is connected to an internal 24
VDC power supply. Many PLCs require a separate power supply to power the inputs. In the open
state, no voltage is present at the PLC input. This is the OFF condition. When the pushbutton is
depressed, 24 VDC is applied to the PLC input. This is the ON condition.

22
Figure 1.13 logic ON/OFF
Analog Inputs
An analog input is an input signal that has a continuous signal. Typical analog inputs may vary
from 0 to 20 milliamps, 4 to 20 milliamps, or 0 to 10 volts.
Discrete Outputs
A discrete output is an output that is either in an ON or OFF condition. Solenoids, contactor coils,
and lamps are examples of actuator devices connected to discrete outputs. Discrete outputs may
also be referred to as digital outputs. In the following example, a lamp can be turned on or off by
the PLC output it is connected to.
Analog Outputs
An analog output is an output signal that has a continuous signal. The output may be as simple as
a 0-10 VDC level that drives an analog meter.
CPU
The central processor unit (CPU) is a microprocessor system that contains the system memory and
is the PLC decision making unit. The CPU monitors the inputs and makes decisions based on
instructions held in the program memory. The CPU performs relay, counting, timing, data
comparison, and sequential operations.

23
Figure 3.14: microcontroller CPU of PLC
Programming
A program consists of one or more instructions that accomplish a task. Programming a PLC is
simply constructing a set of instructions. There are several ways to look at a program such as ladder
logic, statement lists, or function block diagrams.
 Ladder Logic
Ladder logic (LAD) is one programming language used with PLCs. Ladder logic uses components
that resemble elements used in a line diagram format to describe hard-wired control.
 Ladder Logic Diagram
The left vertical line of a ladder logic diagram represents the power or energized conductor. The
output element or instruction represents the neutral or return path of the circuit. The right vertical
line, which represents the return path on a hard-wired control line diagram, is omitted. Ladder
logic diagrams are read from left-to-right, top-to-bottom. Rungs are sometimes referred to as
networks. A network may have several control elements, but only one output coil.

Figure 3.15: ladder diagram

24
In the example program shown example I0.0, I0.1 and Q0.0 represent the first instruction
combination. If inputs I0.0 and I0.1 are energized, output relay Q0.0 energizes. The inputs could
be switches, pushbuttons, or contact closures. I0.4, I0.5, and Q1.1 represent the second instruction
combination. If either input I0.4 or I0.5 is energized, output relay Q0.1 energizes.
 Statement list
A statement list (STL) provides another view of a set of instructions. The operation, what is to be
done, is shown on the left. The operand, the item to be operated on by the operation, is shown on
the right. A comparison between the statement list shown below, and the ladder logic shown on
the previous page, reveals a similar structure. The set of instructions in this statement list perform
the same task as the ladder diagram.
 Function Block Diagrams
Function Block Diagrams (FBD) provides another view of a set of instructions. Each function has
a name to designate its specific task. Functions are indicated by a rectangle. Inputs are shown on
the left-hand side of the rectangle and outputs are shown on the right-hand side. The function block
diagram shown below performs the same function as shown by the ladder diagram and statement
list.
3.6 Software implementation
Computer software or simply software is any set of machine-readable instructions that directs
a computer's processor to perform specific operations. Hardware is like a musical instrument
and software is like the notes played on that instrument. Computer software includes computer
programs, libraries and their associated documentation. The word software is also sometimes used
in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. At the lowest level, executable code
consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual processor typically a central
processing unit (CPU). A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying
processor instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state.
The Logo software is implemented to design the control of the system. Here the moisture level
cab selected in accordance to the purpose of the automatic pumping system. It can range 0-100%
resistance of soil with rate range of current. But, for sample; 0-26% resistance of soil with rate
range of current the lower moisture level where the system require pumping water for irrigation,
and above 26% up to 100% % resistance of soil with rate range of current the lower moisture no
need of watering of the irrigation i.e. the pump should be hold in OFF position.

25
Realization of the software
The software is realized with the support of:
• We have started by assuming a power is always there.
• The program is developed based on the input signal.
• When there is a dry soil the motor is ON for a certain time and when the soil is moisture the motor
is OFF after a certain delay time.
3.2.1 Flow chart

Figure 3.6: algorithm flow chart

26
CHAPTER FOUR
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM AND DESCRBTION
4.1 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

Figure 4.1: circuit diagram of the project

The circuit diagram described on the above section depicts the PLC control circuit necessary for
the automatic irrigation system to function in accordance to some important parameters. The
controller is programmable logic controller and the controlled variable in this system is electrically
controlled. The final elements are the motor pumping and the indicator give voice or bell. State of
the Relay is controlled and determined by status of the three PLC inputs.
1. The moisture sensor is need an external power at a predetermined depth under the plant root.
When the system starts the Irrigation the shallow moisture sensor senses dry first and irrigation

27
continued until the wet moisture sensor senses as soon as PLC can able to determining digital 1or
0 values . At this point the controller takes an action and the main relay will be closed.
2. The second input is a pressure sensor in water pump. This water pump pressure sensor senses
the level of the water in the pump pipe is high or low in the predetermined specification through
PLC circuit. That means the low pressure sensor senses, the motor pump will start pumping water
to the field for plant if soil moisture sensor sensing no water in the soil. When the high level sensor
senses the motor will stop pumping to the field.
3. The third inputs are start and stop which send command according to programmed parameters.
These input parameters to the controller sets high whenever the user want to start and stop the
irrigation system irrespective of the status of the level pressure sensor in the water pumping pipe
and status of moisture sensor in the root zone of the plant.
4.2 Description of the circuit based on each of them
4.2.1 POWER SUPPLY
The power supply is the section that provides the PLC with the voltage and current it needs to
operate. A power supply module converts available power to dc power at the level(s) required by
the CPU and directly used from batter to I/O module internal circuitry. Some PLC controllers have
electrical supply as a separate module, while small and medium series already contain the supply
module, depending on models of PLC. Power supply modules may be connected to the bus or may
have to be wired to the CPU module in modular PLC systems.

28
Fig 3.8: connection diagram of power supply

4.2.2 YL-69 moisture sensor


It sense soil moisture level and induce proportional electrical signal to moisture level available in
the soil. This signal could be analog/digital. But it must be understandable to plc. For this project,
due to its accuracy and comparatively low cost and compatibility of the sensor with LOGO12/24
RC, MAS-1 is used.
This is an Electrical resistance Sensor is made up of two electrodes. This soil moisture sensor reads
the moisture content around it. A current is passed across the electrodes through the soil and the
resistance to the current in the soil determines the soil moisture. If the soil has more water
resistance will be low and thus more current will pass through. On the other hand when the soil
moisture is low the sensor module outputs a high level of resistance. This sensor has both digital
and analogue outputs. Digital output is simple to use but is not as accurate as the analogue output.

5
V

Figure 3: Sensor connected to PLC

29
The parameter which is of importance is moisture content in the soil. A reliable indication of soil
moisture levels is provided by electrical resistance blocks. These are a cost-effective tool for
effective management of irrigation. They evaluate soil moisture tension by measuring the electrical
resistance between the two electrodes emerging out of the block. The blocks absorb and release
moisture as the soil wets and dries respectively. This electrical resistance is recorded with the help
of a portable meter that is attached to the wire leads coming out from the moisture sensors.
Instead of using commercially available sensors, effort has been made to build indigenous sensors
with the objective to make the project cost effective. For this model, we have used Sandy Loam
from types of soil in order to resistance for making the sensors.
Range of resistance in sandy loam 700Ω to 200 kΩ
This sensor sensing in the plc. In the form of electrical signal current ranges 20ms to 4ms changes
occurred on PLC.
Functional Description of Sensor:
1. For conversion of change in resistance to change in voltage, the sensor is connected with PLC
but the two of terminal soil moisture sensor insert to soil as resistivity level from minimum to
maximum divider arrangement. For example the maximum value for sandy loam soil is 700Ω is
minimum 200Ω from here, respectively dry and wet.
2. It gives a voltage output corresponding to the conductivity of the soil. The conductivity of soil
varies depending upon the amount of moisture present in it. It increases with increase in the water
content of the soil. The higher the water content of the blocks, the lower the electrical resistance.
3. The voltage output is taken from the output terminal of this circuit.
The moisture sensor is immersed into the specimen soil whose moisture content is under test.
The soil was examined under three conditions:
 Dry condition:
The sensor is placed in the soil under dry conditions and embedded up to a fair depth of the soil.
In dry condition, as there is no conduction path between the two copper leads the sensor gives a
high resistance value (nearly 700Ω). The voltage output of the potential divider in this case rages
from 2.2 V to lower optimum level (3 V).
 Excess wet condition:

30
With the increase in water content beyond the optimum level, there is drastic increase in the
conductivity of the soil and the sensor resistance is further decreased to around 500Ω. The voltage
output of the potential divider in this case ranges from upper optimum level (5 V).
V=R/I
Assumption value
V=5v; R=700 Ω; I=?
I=V/R=5V/700 Ω
I=7mA ; it is dry soil condition
If resistance of soil moisture is changed to 200 Ω
I=V/R=5V/200 Ω
I=25mA; it is wet
In order to the above method adjusted on PLC
4.2.3 Pressure sensor
It detects pressure of the flowing water in the pipe of the pumping system and change in to
proportional electrical signal. Its output could be analog/digital based on the design. For this
project, YGX-PTS503 is selected. Because, it using stainless steel integral component, the original
imported elastic body, high precision strain gauge and advanced technology, has the advantages
of high sensitivity, stable performance, and good shock resistance ability. It is installed in the
pumping system pipe by screw thread.

Figure 4. Pressure sensor and circuit


It detect pressure conditions in motor pump and other pressurized devices that experience rapid
changes
They can detect pressures between 6 psi and 40 psi (40kpa to 275mpa)
It is provided with over pressure protection of 50% to 100%; these protection is satisfy the
majority applications
31
4.3.4 RELAY 5DC
A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical Circuit.
The output PLC is connected to a relay. The ‘NO’ contact of the relay is Connected with the
power supply to water pump. When this relay will be on, then the Water pump will start and
when it is off then the power supply to water pump will be cutoff and hence it stops.
The working of the relay for various test conditions is tabulated below

Figure: Relay Circuit

Table: Relay option and relation with the other


S.No Voltage Amplified Soil Relay Water
range in output condition “NO” pump
percent from PLC operation
1 SMS>26% 1 wet OPEN OFF
2 SMSs<26% 0 dry CLOSE ON

4.3.5 INDICATORS
One bell indicator have been used for indication of the pressure sensor conditions.
If pressure set below the optimum value and sensing from water pump sensor less than
the amount of need for user.

32
Table: the indicator pressure sensor and other devices
S.n Indicat Soil Pressure Water
o or conditio sensor pump
n

1 sound Sms<26 Ps<50% OFF


%
2 sound Sms>26 Ps<50% OFF
%
3 no Sms<26 Ps>50% OFF
sound %
No Sms>26 Ps<50% ON
sound %

33
CHAPTER FIVE
CONTOLLER DESIGN AND ANAYSIS
1 Drive Mathematical modeling of electromechanical system parts

34
Figure 5.1 system block diagram

Depending on the above diagram there are two parts. Those are electrical and mechanical parts.
Thus we have calculated the electrical and mechanical parameters.

From electrical parts


Using ohms law:-

ΣV = 0 = Vs − VR − VL − ea. = 0

But, Vs − RaIa + LadIa/dt- ea. = 0

Vs − ea= RaIa + LadIa/dt

Vs − Ea(s) = RaIa(s) + LaSIa(s)

Vs − Ea(s) = (LaS + Ra) Ia(s)

Note: Tm = KtIa

Ea = KbWm

From the mechanical part

35
Kt Ia − TL – Jm𝑑2Ө/𝑑𝑡2 − bmdӨ/dt = 0

KtIa(s) − Jm𝑆2Ө(s) − bmSӨ(s) = TL

KtIa(s) = TL + (Jm𝑆2+bmS) Ө(s)

Tm(S) = TL + (Jm𝑆2+bmS) Ө(S)

Tm = TL + (Jm 𝑆2+ bmS) Ө(s)

By performing the energy balance on the DC motor system, the sum of the torque must be equal
to zero

We have ΣƮ = 0

Ʈm − Ʈα − Ʈω − ƮL = 0

Where: −Ʈm = is torque of motor

Ʈα = is torque due to moment of inertia

Ʈω = is toque due to viscous friction

ƮL = is load torque

From the above:

Ʈm = Ʈα + Ʈω + ƮL------------------------------1
Where; Ʈα = Jeq α--------------------------------------2
Jeq = Jm + JL (N1/N2)
Ʈω = beq beq = bm + bload (N1/N2)2
ƮL = Ʈturn
The above equation is the overall generalization of our system. Hence the design of the system as
follows by taking the following design parameters.

Vs = 12V, mL = 0.5kg, beq = 0.01Nms α = 0.1rad/se𝑐2,


rturn = 0.025m, g =10m/s2

36
Jeq = 0.275kgm2, mg = 0.15kg Vel =
0.0625m/sec, mmN1/N2 = 3rg = 0.015

By using the above parameters:


Fturn12 = mg = 10 0.5 = 5N
Fturn1 = Fturn12/2 = 5N/2 = 2.5N
Ʈturn = ƮL = F r = Fturn rturn
Ʈturn = 2.5 0.025m = 0.0625Nm
Where −Fturn is force of the turn
Fturn 12 is force due to turn 1&2.
Fturn1 is force due to only one turn and Ʈturn is torque of the turn.

Now calculate the speed;


Velocity = circumference rBL
RBL = velocity/circumference
RBL = (0.0625m/sec )/2πr
RBL = (0.0625m/s)/2π 0.025m = 0.398rev/sec
RBL = 0.398rev/sec 60sec
= 0.398 60rev/min = 24rev/min

The speed of the load become ωturn


= ωload = 24rev/min

ωturn = 2.512rad/sec
The next step is calculating the motor torque as follows;
Ʈm = Ʈα + Ʈω + ƮL

This is done by calculating each of the torques of the system

Ʈα = Jeq α

37
Jeq = Jm + Jl (N1/ N2)2

= N which is a gear ratio.

Where: −equivalent moment of


inertia N is a gear ratio.

From the design parameter we have


Jeq = 0.275kg𝑚2 and α = 0.1rad/𝑠𝑒𝑐2
Ʈα = Jeq α

Ʈα = 0.275kg𝑚2 *0.1rad/𝑠𝑒𝑐2
Ʈα = 0.075Nm
Ʈω = beq ω
beq = bm + bl (N1/N2)2

Where − beq = is equivalent viscous friction


bmis = motor friction and lb. = is load
friction

The value of the beq is considered in the design parameters


beq = 0.01Nms and

ω = V/r = 2.5rad/sec

Ʈω = 0.01Nms 2.5rad/sec
Ʈω = 0.0252Nm
ƮL = 0.0625Nm
𝑁2ƮL = 32ƮL-----------by choosing the gear ratio N1/N2 = 3
= 9ƮL = 9 0.0625Nm
= 0.5625Nm
Hence Ʈm = Ʈα + Ʈω + ƮL
Ʈm = 0.075Nm + 0.0252Nm + 0.5625Nm

38
= 0.66Nm

From the above calculation the torque the motor is greater than the torque of the load.
This suitable for the robot movement to the direction in a proper manner.
The next step is calculating the motor speed using the assumed design parameters.
By using the equation:
Ʈgωg = ƮLωL

But Ʈg = Fg rg
Fg = mg a
= 0.15kg 10m/s2
Fg = 1.5N
Now Ʈg = Fg rg
= 1.5N 0.015m
Ʈg = 0.0225Nm

Ʈgωg = ƮLωL

=66.7rev/min

Now gear ratio = 3

ωm = 3 ωg, ωm = 3 66.7 = 200rBL

Based on the above calculations we select the DC permanent magnet motor which has 220 rBL
max speed at 5 volt power supply.

39
4.2 Controller design

Figure 4.2 Block diagram of the controller

When described by a transfer function:

Figure 4.3 Transfer function representation of controller

The first thing is finding the transfer function of the plant to be controlled. In our case the plant
to be controlled is Simple DC motor.so our first step is finding the transfer function of a Simple
DC motor.

The motor torque is related to the armature current Ia by a torque constant K.


Ʈm = KIa
The generated emf is

40
By using the combination of Newton’s law with Kirchoff’s law:

Kai=

L RIa= Va-Eb-------------------------------------------------------------------2

Using the Laplace transforming of the two equations

J𝑆2𝜃(s)+b𝑆𝜃(𝑠) = Kia(s)--------------------------------------------------------3

LSIa(s)+RIa(s) = Va(s) – KS(s)

Ia(s) =

Substitute equation 4 in equation 3.

J𝑆2𝜃(s) - b(𝑠) = K[Va(s) - ]/RA + Las

{[RaSS + La)(JS + b +

Where𝐾 2 = Kt* Kb

In our controller design we assume that the effect of the friction is very small, and consider it as
negligible.

Hence: Gp(s)

is the transfer function of the system.

For our design we assume some parameters:


Jm=0.01𝐾𝑔𝑚2
Ia=0.624A
Now finding the K value at the selected motor speed 220rBL.
Vs=kωm

41
K=Vs/ωm
K=5v/220rBL
K=0.023
Hence, by using the above parameters:

Gp(s)

Gp(s)

Using the partial fraction of eq (**)

A= @ s=0

A = -46

B= @ S =2

B = 1.12

C = @ S = -0.05

C = 44.8

Now discretization of the GP(S) of (**) becomes:-

42
G(Z) = (1-

by assuming
T=1sec

G (Z) =

G (Z)

By finding Zeros and poles of G (Z):

To get zeros: 𝑍2 – 98.5Z + 110 =0

Z1 = 7.78 and Z2 = 0.092


to get poles: 𝑍2 – 83.5Z + 7.03 = 0
Z1 =7.4 and Z2 = 1.9

Now designing the controller using the direct design method as follows

Figure 4.5 Digital controller block diagram

GD (Z) =

Before entering to the calculation choose the design parameters as follows

Ts = 1 sec

T = 1sec

43
= 0.7

From the assumed parameters:

Finding the characteristics of the analog system as follows


S1 = - 𝜔𝜗𝑛 + j𝜔𝑑

S2 = - 𝜔𝜗𝑛 - j𝜔𝑑

= 𝑒−𝜗𝜔𝑛T

= 𝑒−0.7∗5.714 = 0.018

= = 4.08 *1 = 4.08*

Z1 = 𝛾 cos234 + j 𝛾sin234° = -0.01 – j0.014

Z1∗ = -0.01 + j0.014

Hence : ( Z - Z1 )(Z -Z1∗ ) = (Z+0.01+j0.014) (Z+0.01 – j0.014)

= (z-0.01) + ( 0.014)2

𝑍2 + 0.02 Z +0.0001+ 0.000196

𝑍2 + 0.02 Z +0.0001+ 0.000296

Finding C(Z)

To find the K value:

C(1) = 1

C(1)

44
K(-6.78) = 1.02029

K = -0.15

C(Z) =
Now! Finding the compensator from eq (***)

GD(Z)

But first finding of the

1-C(z) = 1+

GD(Z) = -

GD(Z) = -

GD(Z) =

The next step is realization of the system:


From the GD (Z) we get the realization
parameters: a0=0 b0=1
a1=0 b1= -0.072 a2=0
b2= -0.0015 a3= -1.85 b3=
0.00003

45
Figure 4.6 Implementation of the controller designed

From the above :


r (k) =e (k) +b1r(k− 1) + b2r (k−2)−b3r(k−3)
M1 = b1r(k−1) + b2r (k−2) − b3r(k−3)
r(k) = e(k) + M1

U( k) = − a3r(k−3)
U( k) = M2

46
CHAPTER FIVE
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
In this chapter results has been presented after setting of sensors and implementation of the
algorithms discussed in chapter three. The algorithm has been developed in LOGO software
environment.
5.1 Functional logic diagram and ladder logic diagram of control system

Figure 5.1: ladder logic diagram of control system

47
Figure 5.2: function logic diagram of control system
The logo software was used to design the automatic control system program. As shown in the
figure above, it comprise of the functional block diagram and the ladder diagram. All are represent
the automatic control irrigation system. The high function is activating both of the Analog
watchdog (B002) for moisture sensor and B005 for pressure sensor) i.e. the system become to
accepts the analog inputs. AI1 and AI2 are analog output of the moisture level sensor and flowing
water pressure sensor respectively. Q1 and M1 are outputs. Where, M1 is to operate relay for
starting of motor and Q1 is alarm signal (Red lamp or bell…). B004, and B006 are NOT
functioning, B001 is AND function, B003 IS off delay timer function and B008 is asynchronous
pulse generator.
When the simulation is turned on high function output is 1. This makes the Analog watchdog
function get ready to accept analog inputs.i.e analog is as like A/D converter system .Then, there
are three conditions of operation.
i. When pressure and moisture is below the required value. Both the Analog watchdog output will
be 0. In order to indicate the alarm, NOT function is connected to alarm output. The relay output
is 0. System indicating alarm but do not turn on the motor through relay (M1).
ii. When Pressure in normal operating range and the moisture is below the required. The system free
from fault. So that the alarm (Q1) output is 0. And in order to bring into normal range of moisture
level (M1) is turned on. When the sensor reaches to minimum of the normal range value of
48
moisture level the output of the Analog watchdog is 0. But in order to continue irrigating to the
farm, the off delay function will bring the pumping to certain seconds/minutes as desire.
iii. When the pumping system was operating in the middle of operation (II) but when suddenly the
pressure gets below the required level the output (M1) will be 0 or the motor will stop. This is
because of the AND function. Besides, off delay operation reset by the alarm output.

49
CHAPTER SIX
CONCLUSION AND RECOMENDATION
6.1 Conclusion
Soil moisture sensor detects the amount of moisture level then transmits to the PLC. One could
change the design with ease due to the flexibility of the programmable logic controller. The PLC
takes an action according the available programmed. If the moisture level reduces from the
required level, then it sends a signal to the relay to turn on the permanent magnet dc motor in
order to water the irrigation. On the contrary, if the moisture level in needed range, the system
holds the pump in the off position. Application of the system in accordance with soil moisture
level results economic water utilization and profit increment. Saved water from wastage will aid
to cultivate additional lands. Due to automatic operation of the system, it reduces human labour.
This project has a great impact in modernization of Ethiopia agriculture. The country would
demand such an automatic system for the farmer who are able to afford the system cost and for
who are in interest of cultivating additional land with the available limited water resource. This
also will be able to aid the large agricultural companies who might suffer from scarcity of human
labour or who has the interest to utilize the automatic irrigation system using system from other of
electrical energy.
To detect when the submersible pump is not operating normally using the pressure flow of the
water pipe pressure sensor is included in the system. When there is no water flow with low
pressure, the system protects the pump from running and wastage of stored power. The system
fault alarm indication is turned on by the PLC signal that the operator can identify existence of
fault in order to troubleshoot the problem occurred in the system.

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6.2 Recommendation
The automatic farm irrigation system still can be improved for future development .Some
modification and renovation on the system have to be made in order to acquire Powerful system
of automatic farm irrigation. Therefore a list of recommendations is given as below:
1. The system should be tested to be practical in agricultural sectors to assist the economic
activities of the country and therefore stakeholders such as our university and ministry of
agriculture must cooperate to see the fruit of this project.
2. The system can be used to spray the fertilizers on the farm in scientific way for proper growth
of the plants to increase agricultural production as a whole and the system can be improved by
PLC systems and Microcontrollers.
3. The system should be installed by skillful and knowledgeable persons in the field which have
different types of soil to set the system at the recommended values of moisture level of the soil,
local light intensity and local wind speed and it should be also repaired by these persons when
problems occurred on the system.

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REFERENCES
1) Rafael Munoz-Carpena and Michael D. Dukes, ʽʽ Automatic Irrigation Based on
Soil Moisture for Vegetable Crops,”(2001)
2) New Delhi, ʽʽ Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers 3rd Edition,”
(2006)
3) Siemens step 2000 basics of PLC
4) drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system (.m.)
5) Soil moisture sensor datasheet
6) Songle relay Datasheet
7) W. C. Dunn, Introduction to Instrumentation Sensors, and Process Control,
British Library Cataloguing, 2005
8) Skinner. A.Hignett. C., and Dearden. J., “Resurrecting the sandy resistivity
Block for Soil Moisture Measurement”, Australian Viticulture,
October/November 1997.
9) [2] Morris. M., “Soil Moisture Monitoring: Low Cost Tools and Methods” NCAT
Energy Specialist, ATTRA Publication #IP277, 2006.
10) [3] Daniel K. Fisher, HirutKebede, "A microcontroller-based system to monitor
crop temperature and water status", Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 74
(2010)
11) Helikson Haman, Pumping Water For Irrigation Using System,(2009)
12) [4] Richard Allen, “Soil Water Monitoring with Inexpensive Equipollent”,
University of Idaho, 2000

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APPENDIX I
LISTS OF ABBREVIATIONS
AC……………………………………..alternating current
CPU……………………………………central processing unit
DC……………………………………..direct current
Fig……………………………………..figure
IEC…………………………………….international electro technical commission
NC……………………………………..normally close
NO…………………………………….normally open
PLC…………………………………..programmable logic controller
R&D………………………………….research and develoBLent

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