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International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434

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International Journal of Fatigue


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijfatigue

Size effects on residual stress and fatigue crack growth in friction stir welded
2195-T8 aluminium – Part II: Modelling
Yu E. Ma a,b, P. Staron c, T. Fischer c, P.E. Irving b,⇑
a
School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, China
b
Damage Tolerance Group, School of Applied Science, Cranfield University, UK
c
Institute of Materials Research, Geesthacht, Germany

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The use of residual K (Kres) approaches for prediction of fatigue crack growth rates in residual stress
Received 29 October 2010 fields was studied. Finite element models of the samples were built and the measured residual
Received in revised form 18 April 2011 stress data put into the model. The virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) was used to calculate Kres
Accepted 2 May 2011
(stress intensity factor from residual stress) together with its changes with crack length using data
Available online 10 May 2011
from the part I paper. Local Kres values were used to calculate effective R values. Kop and DKeff values
throughout the crack path in the weld. The master curve approach was used to relate these to corre-
Keywords:
sponding values for crack growth rates. Predicted crack growth rates were compared with experimental
Friction stir weld
Residual stress
results. Changes in crack growth rate found as the crack grows through the weld can successfully be
Fatigue crack growth predicted via application of this closure based model. Agreement between predictions and experimen-
Closure model tal data was best for tensile residual stress fields and was not as exact in compression. Possible reasons
Prediction for this discrepancy are discussed.
Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction where h(x, a) is the weight function, available for several geometries
and conditions [7]. rres(x) is the residual stress distribution before
In the past few years it has been realised that calculation of crack propagation. However, if redistributions of residual stress
stress intensity associated with a crack in a residual stress field is arising from crack propagation are not taken into account, errors oc-
a fruitful way of accounting for the effects of residual stress fields cur in calculation of Kres. This has been pointed out by a number of
on fatigue crack growth [1–5]. There are however a number of dif- researchers e.g. [8,10,11].
ferent techniques to calculate or otherwise obtain Kres values for a For calculation of the effect of changes in Kres on fatigue crack
crack growing in a varying residual stress field such as might be growth rates, two complementary approaches can be used: one
associated with a weld. Current techniques are as follows. The is the superposition approach [2,12-14]; the other uses the crack
cut compliance technique [2–5], for instance uses slitting to cut closure model [1,9,11,15–18], as originally proposed by Elber
the sample [5]. The residual stress distribution can then be calcu- [18], and modified by Newman [15].
lated via discretisation, taking account of the weight function from In the superposition approach, shown in Fig. 1, the cyclic max-
Kres. imum and minimum stress intensity factors Kmax,tot, Kmin,tot derived
Another method uses weight functions, as suggested by Buech- from superposition of both external and residual stresses are given
ner [6] using one of the other functions for different sample geom- by:
etries produced by Glinka and Shen [7]. The finite element method
K max;tot ¼ K max;app þ K res
[8,9] can be applied after residual stress profiles have been mea- ð2Þ
sured. For the weight function method, the equation to be solved K min;tot ¼ K min;app þ K res
for Kres is: The stress intensity factor range and effective stress ratio Reff are
Z a calculated:
K res ¼ hðx; aÞ  rres ðxÞ  dx ð1Þ
a0
DK ¼ K max;tot  K min;tot ¼ ðK max;app þ K res Þ  ðK min;app þ K res Þ
¼ K max;app  K min;app ¼ DK app ð3Þ

⇑ Corresponding author. K min þ K res


Reff ¼ ð4Þ
E-mail address: p.e.irving@cranfield.ac.uk (P.E. Irving). K max þ K res

0142-1123/$ - see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2011.05.008
Y.E. Ma et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434 1427

Nomenclature

a crack length t thickness of samples


K stress intensity factor Dc element size
Kres stress intensity factor from residual stress E the Young’s modulus (modulus of elasticity)
N cycle (fatigue load) Rnom applied load R ratio
da/dN crack growth rate Reff R ratio with the presence of residual stress
G strain energy release rate DKeff the effective stress intensity factor range
Fj the reaction force on j node So the crack opening stress
ui the total displacement from i node Smax, Smin the applied maximum, minimum stress

da
¼ gðDK eff Þ ð9Þ
dN
where Sopen/Smax was given by Newman [15], as shown in Eqs.
(12)–(17) thereafter.
da
Following Newman [15], Eqs. (6), (7), the different curves of dN
versus DKapp measured at different R ratios can be replaced by a
da
single ‘‘Master’’ curve of dN versus DKeff. The master curve of DKeff
vs da/dN can be obtained [15] from three crack growth rate
curves measured at different tensile R values. For samples con-
taining a residual stress, values of Reff and DKeff can be calculated
Fig. 1. Superposition approach for calculation of fatigue crack growth rates under da
residual stress fields. from Kres as described above and then related to dN via the master
curve.
Both approaches use calculations of Kres to derive changes in
For Kres = zero Reff will be identical to Rapp the R ratio of the crack tip R ratio as the crack tip moves through the residual stress
externally applied loading. field. However the two approaches differ in their calculation of
In this approach, the stress intensity factor range DK is indepen- growth rates in that the superposition technique uses experimen-
dent of residual stress and of Kres, however the effective stress ratio tal crack growth rate data from parent plate at the relevant R val-
Reff is significantly affected. Then fatigue crack growth rates are a ues, whereas in the closure approach the derived master curve can
function of DKapp and Reff: be applied to all values of Reff, including negative ones, from data
from just three positive R ratio tests.
da
¼ f ðDK app ; Reff Þ ð5Þ However, Lam [8] has shown that there is a factor of four dif-
dN
ference in calculated Kres depending on whether redistribution of
Kres and Reff will change as the crack grows through the residual residual stress with crack growth is considered. Lee [10] and LaR-
stress field and the growth rate at each crack length can be obtained ue and Daniewicz [11] accurately predicted fatigue life using a
either from relevant experimental da/dN data obtained at Reff or de- crack closure model after considering the redistribution of resid-
rived from da/dN at other values of R by use of the Forman [19] or ual stress. This suggests that predictions of fatigue crack growth
other expressions. The experimental da/dN data easiest to obtain rates in residual stress fields should always account for the redis-
will be obtained on parent plate, but ideally should be material with tribution of residual stress with crack growth in deriving Kres
the same strength and microstructure as the weld and HAZ without values.
the residual stresses. In this work finite element models were built using ABAQUS
For the crack closure approach, shown in Fig. 2, the effective [20] for welded samples of C(T) and ESE(T) geometries in three dif-
stress intensity factor DKeff, the range of the applied load cycle ferent sizes tested as described in the companion Part I paper [22]
for which the crack is open, can be calculated [15] as: Sample geometries and sizes are given in Table 1. Half of each
DK eff ¼ U  DK app ð6Þ geometry was modelled because of symmetries of load. The SIGINI
subroutine in ABAQUS can be used to input the initial stress. This
1  Sopen =Smax subroutine can be programmed by FORTRAN. A FORTRAN program
U¼ ð7Þ was written to input the measured residual stress profiles (see
1  Reff
Fig. 6–8 in Part I [22]) into finite element models using the SIGNI
DK eff ¼ K max;tot  K open ð8Þ subroutine. This was the initial step of the analysis.

Table 1
Sample dimensions C(T) and ESE(T).

Relationship with weld Type Sample size (mm) W (mm)


length  width
Crack parallel to weld C(T) 84  87.5 70
120  125 100
240  250 200
(a) da/dN versus ΔK app (b) da/dN versus ΔK eff
Crack perpendicular to weld ESE(T) 148  40 40
185  50 50
Fig. 2. Crack closure concept for calculation of fatigue crack growth rates in residual 370  100 100
stress fields.
1428 Y.E. Ma et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434

50
Residual stress
40 6
Weld zone Kres

Residual stress (MPa)


X 30
Y 4
Weld zone

m)
20
Y X
2

Kres (MPa
10
Notch 8.0mm
Scan line Scan line 0 0
0 10 20 30 40
-10
-2
-20
-4
-30
Fig. 3. ESE(T) and C(T) samples.
-40 -6
Crack length a (mm)
(a)
0.8

Reff =(Kres+Kmin)/(Kres+Kmax)
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2 Reff-0.1

-0.4 Rnom-0.1

-0.6 Reff-0.6
Notch 8.0mm
-0.8 Rnomi-0.6

-1
0 10 20 30 40
Crack length a (mm)
Fig. 4. Calculated effects of crack growth on residual stress distribution in 148  40
ESE(T) sample.
(b)
Fig. 7. Kres and Reff in the smallest ESE(T) sample (148  40). (a) Calculated Kres and
the measured residual stress profile in the smallest ESE(T) sample (148  40 mm).
(b) Changes in Reff with crack length in the smallest ESE(T) sample (148  40 mm)
with external load cycle of R = 0.1 and R = 0.6.

2. Balancing and redistribution of residual stresses

2.1. Balancing of residual stress fields

Residual stress fields must be self balanced. The experimental


stress profiles shown in Figs. 6–8 in part I of this work [22], are
from discrete measurements along a line within and parallel to
the eventual crack plane and are not complete fields. Before the Kres
analysis, a static procedure was used to calculate the equilibrium
Fig. 5. Calculated effects of crack growth on residual stress fields in 125  120 C(T) self balanced stress state for the finite element model. In this step,
sample (CP = 48 is crack tip position at 48.0 mm away from sample edge, the others
ABAQUS/Standard was set up to check the stress field for equilib-
are the same).
rium and to change the stresses via iteration to achieve equilib-
rium. For CT and ESET samples, only the stresses perpendicular
to the crack plane were applied to the self balance routine. Stresses
parallel to this plane were not represented. In placing the experi-
mental residual stress fields into the FE model it was assumed that
the same profile for stresses longitudinal to the weld existed at all
points normal to the crack plane up to the sample boundary. Be-
cause the weld line is parallel to the long axis of the ESE(T) sample,
stresses in this geometry will be largely invariant with distance
along the weld until the sample boundary is approached and this
assumption is justified.
For CT samples crack growth is along and parallel to the weld
line. The residual stresses contributing to crack growth in this case
will be perpendicular to the weld line. As Fig. 7b in [22] shows,
these stresses are relatively small (maximum of 40–50 MPa) and
reduce significantly at distances in excess of 20 mm from the weld
line. Hence the assumption of residual stress profiles which do not
change with distance away from the weld line is not as well justi-
Fig. 6. Virtual crack closure technique. fied, in contrast to the situation with ESE(T) samples.
Y.E. Ma et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434 1429

15 15.0 mm significant redistribution of the original field is predicted,


10 although the compressive peak in stress immediately ahead of the
5 crack tip remains large. Double stress peaks are still predicted on
Kres (MPam0.5)

either side of the weld line but the first one is much reduced. Crack
0
growth to 20 and 30 mm length further modifies and reduces cal-
-5
culated residual stresses to trivial levels as the stress field further
-10 148x40
redistributes.
-15 185x50
In Fig. 5, for the C(T) sample 125  120 mm, the solid line with
-20 370x100 diamond points is the measured residual stress on the uncracked
-25 sample, while the solid line without points shows the calculated
-30 residual stress after balancing and before cracking. As was the case
-30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 for the ESET sample in Fig. 4, the balanced compressive residual
Distance from weld centre (mm) stress at the uncracked notch tip was large, in this case about
(a) 210 MPa. With crack growth to 65, 85 and 115 mm, calculated
balanced compressive and tensile residual stresses are reduced
with the same trends as for the ESET sample. Larger CT samples
showed the same trends.

3. Calculation of Kres from residual stress distributions

Finite element analysis was used to calculate the stress inten-


sity factor Kres from residual stress by using ABAQUS. The models
were built using Quadrilateral shell elements around the notch
tip and along the crack lines. The element size was 0.05 mm; trian-
gular elements were used in the transitional area and elements
with four nodes in the far field with the edge of 2 mm length in
order to save run time. Rigid elements were used to avoid overlap-
(b) ping material due to over-closure effects from the compressive
residual stress. In all finite element models contact elements were
Fig. 8. Kres and Reff changes with crack tip position in three sizes of ESE(T) samples. used to simulate the applied pin loads. The virtual crack closure
(a) Changes in Kres with crack tip position. (b) Changes in Reff with crack tip position. technique (VCCT) [21] was used for calculating strain energy
release rate for unit sample thickness with the formulation:

F j ui
G¼ ð10Þ
When residual stresses were put into the model, in both sam- 2t Dc
ples some small rebalancing occurred. For ESE(T) samples these
where Fj is the reaction force on j node; ui is the total displacement
were believed to be partly due to the nearby sample edge free sur-
from i node; t is thickness of samples and Dcs element size, see
faces, and partly due to incompatibilities between measured par-
Fig. 6.
tially defined fields and the assumed fields in other parts of the
For plane stress, the relation between the strain energy release
samples. The changes arising from rebalancing were greatest in
rate and stress intensity factor (SIF) is as follows:
the CT samples; this probably arises as a consequence of the
assumptions discussed above. K2
G¼ ðPlane stressÞ
E
2.2. Redistribution of residual stress with crack growth ð1  tÞK 2
G¼ ðPlane strainÞ ð11Þ
E
After stress rebalancing, a crack was inserted in the FE model
and allowed to grow by removing nodes in the model. As the crack If residual stresses are input to this model, Kres can be derived
grew Kres was calculated by the virtual crack closure technique from Eqs. (10) and (11).
(VCCT) [21] from the finite element model. Kres values in each sam-
ple size were compared. Differences of Kres in specimens of differ- 3.1. Kres and Reff in ESE(T) samples
ent size will arise from differences in residual stresses. The Reff
changes with crack length were calculated, and then DKeff was cal- Following Eqs. (4), (10), (11), Kres and Reff were calculated. Fig. 7a
culated using Eqs. (6)–(9). Using the crack growth rate data from shows residual stress profile and Kres for the smallest ESET sample.
the parent plate shown in part I, the master curve plot of DKeff vs It is clear that residual stress has a double peak of about 40.0 MPa
da/dN was calculated. Crack growth rates for DKeff were derived and 28.0 MPa at crack lengths of about 16.0 mm and 29.0 mm
from this curve. respectively, while Kres has a double peak as well about 1.5
pffiffiffiffiffi pffiffiffiffiffi
The residual stress field from a 148  40 ESET sample after MPa m and 0.2 MPa m at about 19.0 mm and 33.0 mm, a longer
equilibrium calculations but before a crack is introduced, is shown crack length than the peaks in residual stress.
compared to the measured residual stress data in Fig. 4. For this Fig. 7b shows a comparison of the nominal and the effective R
sample, the solid line connecting the square points is the measured ratio Reff for this test sample for nominal R ratios of 0.1 and 0.6.
residual stress profile in the uncracked state, while the continuous For the nominal R = 0.1, Reff starts from 0.8 then attains 0.9 at
line without data points shows the same field after balancing. To a crack length of around 10.5 mm. The Reff then steadily increases
balance the measured tensile stress data, the region without exper- with increasing crack length tending to Reff = 0.1 at a crack length
imental data between the notch root and the first experimental around 30.0 mm. Kres totally changed the curve of Reff. For the nom-
point should contain a local compressive field of 128 MPa. Intro- inal R ratio of 0.6, Reff starts from 0.5, then tends to 0.6 at 18.0 mm
duction of the crack modifies this initial field and at a length of and is constant with increasing crack length after this. For this
1430 Y.E. Ma et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434

sample experiments [22] show that residual stress has significantly reflecting the relative sizes of the residual stress distributions
more effect on crack growth rate for a nominal R = 0.1 than for a (shown in Fig. 6 of Part I [22]).
nominal R = 0.6. This is shown in Fig. 9 of Part I, [22]. This explains Changes in Reff with distance from the weld line are shown in
why it is difficult to initiate a pre-crack under the load R ratio 0.1. Figure 8b where Rapp = 0.6. Reff tends to Rapp = 0.6 at crack tip dis-
For the larger sample, such as 185  50 mm and 370  100 mm, tances of greater than 8–10 mm beyond the weld line. At smaller
the compressive residual stress is larger still than in the smallest crack lengths, when the crack tip is before the weld line, Reff is
148  40 mm samples and fatigue cracks could not be initiated much reduced approaching 0.1 in the largest sample and 0.35
and grown at R = 0.1. Crack growth occurred in these samples at and 0.5 in the samples 50 mm and 40 mm wide. This reflects the
R = 0.6 only. larger negative Kres in this region. At crack tip positions before
Following Eqs. (4), (10), (11), Kres and Reff in all three ESE(T) sam- 15 mm, Kres becomes increasingly negative, and Kmin and Kmax re-
ple sizes at nominal R of 0.6 were calculated and are compared in duce further as the crack length is small. When (Kres + Kmin) be-
Fig. 8a and b. Fig. 8a shows the changes in Kres for cracks growing comes negative, Reff becomes increasingly negative, the crack
across the three sample widths of 40, 50 and 100 mm. Sample being largely closed during the compression part of the load cycle.
widths are represented as distances from the weld centreline; When (Kres + Kmax) becomes negative as well then Reff will change
the smallest sample width will be from 20 to +20 mm, the middle sign and become positive; all of the load cycle being in compres-
from 25 to +25 mm, and the largest from 50 to +50 mm. The sion. The regions of negative and positive Reff in compression are
calculated Kres lines begin just ahead of the notch tip for each sam- not shown in Fig. 8b as they are difficult to represent graphically.
ple. Kres values in each sample start negative and move into tensile
(positive) values with increasing crack length. Positive values of 3.2. Kres and Reff in C(T) samples
Kres are achieved at crack tip locations 8–10 mm from the weld
centre line in all sample sizes. As the crack tip grows beyond the Fig. 9 shows the changes in Kres and Reff as the crack tip grows
weld, values of Kres tend towards zero in all samples, again with across CT samples. As in the ESET samples, residual stresses around
the longest crack length being required in the largest samples. This the notch tip are compressive for stresses perpendicular to the
p p
reflects the diminution of residual stress as the stress relaxes at weld. Kres at the notch roots are 5.0 MPa m, 8.0 MPa m,
p
long crack lengths. The three sample sizes show big differences and 18.5 MPa m for samples 87.5, 125 and 250 mm wide, the
in Kres, particularly in the notch region. The biggest samples show values increase with increasing Kres, becoming positive at long
the largest values in both tension and compression, once again crack lengths. As in the case of the ESET samples, Kres tends to zero
at long crack lengths, with the largest sample requiring the longest
crack length to become zero, reflecting the redistribution behav-
iour of the residual stresses as the crack length increases in the
three samples.
10
Fig. 9b shows that when the crack length is small, Reff in CT sam-
p
5
ples is 0.3, 1.5 and 3.5 MPa m for samples of 87.5, 125 mm
and 250 mm, implying DK is partially in compression, and DKeff
Kres (MPam0.5)

0 is significantly reduced as the crack will be partially closed for


much of the load cycle. With increased crack length, Reff moves into
-5 tension, and tends to R = 0.1. In the biggest specimen, Reff tends to
84x87.5 0.2 as Kres becomes significantly tensile. As in the case of Fig. 8b the
-10 120x125 values of Kres in the region nearest to the notch are not plotted in
240x250 Fig. 9b as they are either fully in compression and positive, or have
-15 very large negative values.

-20
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 4. Fatigue life predictions in welds using the closure model
Distance from notch tip (mm)
The equations introduced in [16] by the crack closure model can
(a) be used to calculate a crack opening stress level So for these tests as
follows.
1
Reff=(Kmax +Kres)/(Kmin +Kres)

0.5 So
Rnom=0.1 ¼ A0 þ A1 R þ A2 R2 þ A3 R3 for R P 0 ð12Þ
0 Smax
-0.5 and
-1
So
-1.5 ¼ A0 þ A1 R for  1 6 R < 0 ð13Þ
Smax
-2
84x87.5
-2.5 when So P Smin . The coefficients used [15–16] were:
120x125
-3 240x250 A0 ¼ ð0:825  0:34a þ 0:05a2 Þ½cosðpSmax =2r0 Þ1=a ð14Þ
-3.5
-4 A1 ¼ ð0:415  0:071aÞSmax =r0 ð15Þ
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Distance from notch tip (mm) A2 ¼ 1  A0  A1  A3 ð16Þ
(b)
A3 ¼ 2A0 þ A1  1 ð17Þ
Fig. 9. Kres and Reff for three sizes of C(T) samples. (a) Changes in Kres with crack tip
position in three sizes of C(T) samples and (b) changes in Reff with crack tip position For plane stress conditions, a = 1, while for plane strain conditions,
in three sizes of C(T) samples. a = 3. The flow stress r0 is taken to be the average between the uni-
Y.E. Ma et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434 1431

axial yield stress and uniaxial ultimate tensile strength of 2195-T8,


see Table 2 in Part I. In this paper, a was set as the intermediate
value a = 1.5.
Then the effective stress intensity factor range DKeff is given by
So
1  Smax
DK eff ¼ DK ð18Þ
1R
Reff was used in Eqs. (12)–(18) instead of R. For Reff < 0, Eq. (13) was
So
used to calculate Smax :
Crack growth rate data for parent material at three different R
ratios of R = 0.1, 0.35, 0.6 was taken from [22], These data are
shown in Fig. 10. DKeff and the master curve can be calculated
using the equations above. The resultant plot of da/dN vs DKeff is
da
shown in Fig. 11. The relationship of dN (m/cycle) with DKeff
pffiffiffiffiffi
(MPa m) in parent material 2195-T8 can be represented as:

da
¼ 3:0  1011 ðDK eff Þ4:5332 ð19Þ Fig. 11. ‘‘Master curve’’ of 8.0 mm thick 2195-T8 Parent material derived from Fig
dN
10 data.
For the 100 mm wide ESET sample, values of DKeff vs crack
length represented as distance from the weld centreline, was cal-
culated for the test at R = 0.6. The results are shown in Fig. 12, for
45
the situations with and without residual stress. The line without
40
residual stress is the normal unwelded situation. With residual

ΔKeffctive (MPa m)
370x100-No RS
35
stress, before a crack length of 12 mm, DKeff is reduced to
p 30 370x100-With RS
2 MPa m, about one quarter of DK without residual stress. DKeff
increases rapidly after 10 mm, merging with the line without 25
residual stress. In Fig. 13, DKeff for the three sizes of ESE(T) sam- 20
ples are compared. In the 370  100 mm, DKeff is much smaller 15
than the smaller sample because the residual stress is much high- 10
er there. 5
0
-50 -30 -10 10 30 50
4.1. Crack growth rates in ESE(T) samples
Distance from weld centreline (mm)
Fig. 14a shows the predicted crack growth rates for the three
Fig. 12. Comparison of DKeff with and without residual stress in 370  100 mm
ESET sample sizes. There is little difference between the curves ESET samples with external loading at R = 0.6.
for the two smallest samples of 40 and 50 mm wide. The
100 mm wide sample is predicted to have significantly reduced
crack growth rates at shorter crack lengths near the notch; the dif-
ference between all curves reduces at long crack lengths and the

Table 2
Mechanical properties of 2195-T8 aluminium alloy.

0.2% Proof (MPa) UTS (MPa) E (GPa) Elongation (%)


580 615 79 9

1.00E-05

R=0.1

1.00E-06 R=0.35 Fig. 13. Changes in DKeff with crack tip position in all three sizes of ESE(T) sample
da/dN (m/cycle)

with external loading at R = 0.6.


R=0.6

1.00E-07
largest DK values. Fig. 14b shows a comparison of predicted and
experimental data for the smallest sample; agreement is excellent
1.00E-08 near the notch with some error (less than a factor of 2) in growth
rate at the largest growth rates. The same comparison for the larg-
est 100 mm wide sample is shown in Fig. 14c. Here there is over
1.00E-09 prediction at both near the notch and at long crack lengths. Exper-
1 10 100
imental growth rates are generally smaller than calculated ones,
ΔK (MPa√m)
implying that calculated DKeff is slightly greater than is found
Fig. 10. Crack growth rates vs DK at R = 0.1, 0.35, 0.6 in 8.0 mm thick 2195-T8 experimentally. It is interesting that the region in which the crack
parent material. tip is crossing the weld line is where agreement is closest.
1432 Y.E. Ma et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434

Fig. 14. Predictions and experimental results in ESE(T) samples at R = 0.6. (a)
Predicted crack growth rate da/dN vs DKapp for three size ESE(T) samples with
external loading at R = 0.6. (b) Comparison of predicted and experimental fatigue
crack growth rates for the smallest ESE(T) sample (148  40) at R = 0.6; shaded area
denotes the extent of the weld nugget. (c) Comparison of predicted crack growth Fig. 15. Predictions and experimental results in C(T) samples at R = 0.1. (a)
rates with experimental ones for the largest ESE(T) sample (370  100 mm) at Comparison of predicted crack growth rate da/dN for three sizes of C(T) samples.
R = 0.6; shaded area denotes the extent of the weld nugget. (b) Comparison of predicted crack growth rates with experimental ones for the
smallest C(T) sample (87.5  84 mm) tested at R = 0.1. (c) Comparison of predicted
crack growth rates with experimental ones for the largest C(T) sample
(250  240 mm) at R = 0.1.
4.2. Crack growth rates in C(T) samples

Fig. 15a shows the predicted crack growth data for the three the three curves. Fig. 15b shows the comparison between pre-
sizes of CT samples. In many ways the CT samples show the same dicted and experimental for the smallest sample. Here there is
trends as the ESET in Fig. 13. There is little difference in the good agreement with a slight over prediction near the notch and
predicted lines for the two smallest samples. The largest sample under prediction at long crack lengths. The same comparison for
has growth rates near the notch significantly smaller than the the largest sample is in Fig. 15c, there is an increased tendency
other two, at long crack lengths there is little difference between to overpredict growth rates in the near notch region. There is no
Y.E. Ma et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434 1433

tendency to underpredict growth rates. At no point is the error on parent plate material. For the ESET sample, this assumption is
greater than a factor of 2. valid for most of the time, as the crack spends only a short dis-
tance propagating through the weld nugget; most of the life is
spent propagating through parent material. For CT samples,
5. Discussion
crack growth is initiated in the weld nugget, and then grows
out from the nugget to thermal mechanical affected zone. In
5.1. Redistribution of residual stress in FE calculations
Fig. 11 of Part I [22] there are no obvious discontinuities in crack
growth rates associated with this transition in crack path, which
In this work, the Mode I opening mode only was taken into ac-
might suggest that microstructure greatly influenced crack
count for crack propagation, so only residual stress perpendicular
growth rate. dos Santos et al., [23] have measured using micro-
to crack plane was input to the finite element model. Measured
tensile samples ductilities of between 20% and 30% on FSW nug-
residual stress parallel to the weld direction (X-direction) is much
get material. This is considerably greater than parent plate
bigger than the stress perpendicular to the weld (Y-direction) for
ductility and suggests that fatigue crack growth resistance will
the crack plane perpendicular to the weld, (shown in Figs. 6–8 in
be superior in the nugget and provides a rationale for crack devi-
Part I [22]). For ESE(T) samples, cracks grew perpendicular to the
ation to a weld region where growth is faster. The greatly re-
weld, therefore residual stress parallel to the weld (X-direction)
duced hardness values recorded in the welds in this study
was considered. For the ESE(T) samples this was 50–120 MPa max-
(Fig. 3 of part I [22]) support this conjecture. However, while
imum depending on the sample size. Residual stresses perpendic-
the effects of microstructure on crack path are clear, effects of
ular to the weld (Y-direction) were much smaller than this and
it on crack growth rate are not obvious.
were ignored. Local changes in stress near the notch only were nec-
A comparison of Figs. 14b and 15b, showing the da/dN values for
essary to achieve balance.
ESET and CT samples, shows that for the smallest specimens, there
For C(T) samples, the biggest residual stress (X-direction) was
is little difference in growth rates in the two sample geometries,
not input to the model. The local stress minimum on the crack
even though one is propagating in parent plate and the other is
plane when the crack is propagating on the weld line is almost
growing in nugget material first, then moves out of it to the ther-
equibiaxial tension (Figs. 7 and 8 of part I [22]) and only 50 MPa.
mal affected zone. This suggests that effects of microstructure
The stress maxima parallel to the weld are displaced either side
and hardness are less important in comparison to effects of DKeff.
of the weld line and it is unclear if crack growth will promote
Equally, there is little difference in accuracy of the predictions in
any stress redistribution other than to the stress perpendicular to
ESET and CT (Figs. 14 and 15) samples, despite the use of parent
the crack plane – which is small in any case. These stresses parallel
plate data throughout.
to the crack plane were not put into the model, and may cause
changes on rebalancing. In C(T) samples stresses perpendicular to
the crack plane reduced by 30% on finite element balancing. This
change is felt to be unrealistic and it may be that other components 6. Conclusions
of stress not represented in the analysis act to maintain the bal-
anced field at the measured values. For these samples, residual (1) Experimentally measured residual stress data points
stresses in both directions may need to be input at the same time. can imply a residual stress field which is not self bal-
Despite this change the predicted crack growth rates were in close anced; when they are put into an FE model of the sample
agreement with experimental ones. rebalancing may result in significant changes to the mea-
sured fields.
(2) Numerical models of residual stress redistribution with
5.2. Using DKeff and Reff in crack growth predictions
crack growth show that stresses and Kres values reduce sig-
nificantly as the crack grows.
For both types of sample, the residual stresses around the notch
(3) For ESET and CT welded samples, the edge notch root was in
tip were always compressive, leading to difficulties of crack initia-
a compressive residual stress field causing greatly reduced
tion and reduced initial crack growth rates. The nominal R ratio
DKeff values and reduced crack growth rates.
and DKapp are replaced with effective R ratio Reff and DKeff, these
(4) Measured fatigue crack growth rates were strongly depen-
being a function of the local Kres. Under the measured notch com-
pffiffiffiffiffi dent on the residual stress intensity Kres together with the
pressive residual stress, Kres was calculated as 25 MPa m for the
pffiffiffiffiffi applied R ratio, and the influence they jointly had on DKeff
largest ESET sample and 18 MPa m for the largest CT. Under
and Reff.
external cyclic loading at R = 0.1 (Kmax + Kres) < 0 and the entire
(5) Effects of residual stress field on fatigue crack growth rates
range of DK is in compression. This situation can be physically
appear to dominate over effects of microstructure and local
interpreted as a region where crack faces are closed and no crack
mechanical properties; crack path appears influenced addi-
growth can occur. If the R ratio is increased to 0.6, (Kmax + Kres)
tionally by local microstructure and mechanical properties.
can become positive and DKeff will be >0. Provided that DKeff > D-
(6) A closure model based on calculation of DKeff using a master
Keffth the threshold for crack growth, then crack growth can occur.
curve of parent plate crack growth data has been successful
As crack growth proceeds, residual stress will decrease, Kres and Reff
at predicting fatigue crack growth rates in welded samples
become less negative and DKeff gradually increases, with conse-
of a wide range of sizes, residual stresses and crack orienta-
quent increasing crack growth rates.
tions with respect to the weld.

5.3. Effects of weld microstructure and HAZ hardness


Acknowledgement
The predictive model used here has assumed that the effects
of the weld on fatigue crack growth are largely a consequence of The project was funded by the European Commission through a
the residual stress distribution, its size and shape in relation to Framework Programme 6 project entitled ‘‘cost effective integral
the growing fatigue crack, and its effect on DKeff as it grows structures (COINS)’’ under contract number AST5-CT-2006-
through the weld. The effect on crack growth rate of changes 030825. Grateful thanks to Rob Maziarz, Airbus UK for supply of
in DKeff has been interpreted in terms of growth rates measured FSW plates.
1434 Y.E. Ma et al. / International Journal of Fatigue 33 (2011) 1426–1434

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