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STANDARD

SPECIFICATIONS FOR
CONSTRUCTION WORKS
2008

Module – 02 – Concrete
Introduction

The Standard Specifications are published as a series of 21 stand-alone modules each addressing

a single distinct area of the construction process. This stand-alone module 02 is an integral part of

the Standard Specifications.

The purpose of the MoW STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION is to provide the

design professional with a guide for accepted construction practices for Ministry of Works projects.

As an aid to the designer, these Standard Specifications are provided for the inclusion in proposed

development projects for ease, efficiency and cost savings.

The Standard Specifications are not intended to limit the design responsibility of the design

professional. However, they establish a minimum acceptable criterion and/or quality for use within

Ministry of Works projects.

The design professional may increase the requirements of an item contained in the Standard

Specifications to meet job requirements, but when this is done, there should be no reference for

that item on the drawings to the Ministry of Works Standard Specifications and a new specification

should be included with the drawings or project contract documents.

The design professional must review all Standard Specifications to be sure that they are adequate

for the proposed project based on the job site conditions; the design professional is solely

responsible for the designs submitted under his seal.

In order to keep design standards current with changing regulations and improved construction

materials and practices this section will be updated and maintained by the concerned authorities of

the Ministry of Works. Prior to starting a new project, the design professional should contact the

concerned Directorate of the Ministry of Works to verify that he/she has the latest document

revisions.

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Module List

Module
No Module Title
01 Guidance and General Specifications

02 Concrete

03 Earthworks

04 Glass and Glazing

05 Joinery and Carpentry

06 Ironmongery

07 Internal Finishes including Thermal Insulation

08 Painting and Decorating (Internal & External)

09 Metalwork

10 Roofing

11 Structural Steel (and Coatings)

12 Structural Timber

13 Masonry

14 Plumbing and Sanitary

15 Mechanical Installation in Buildings

16 Electrical Installation

17 Sewerage, Pipelines and Pipework

18 Sewerage M&E Works

19 Roadworks

20 Landscaping

21 Dredging, Reclamation and Shoreline Protection

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Table of Contents
CLAUSE DESCRIPTION PAGE
Introduction 1
Module List 2
Table of Contents 3
Foreword 4

1 PART 1 MATERIALS 5
1.1 Sources Approvals………………………………………………………………………… 5
1.1.1 General……………………………………………………………………………………... 5
1.2 Repair and Protection Systems………………………..……………………………….. 18
1.3 Delivery, Site Storage, Handling and Protection of Materials………………………..19

2 PART 2 METHODOLOGY AND WORKMANSHIP 20


2.1 Method Statements……………………………………………………………………… 20
2.2 Mix Development………………………………………………………………………… 21
2.3 Pour Preparation…………………………………………………………………………. 30
2.4 Batching……………………………………………………………………………………35
2.5 Mixing………………………………………………………………………………………36
2.6 Transporting……………………………………………………………………………….37
2.7 Placing and Finishing……………………………………………………………………. 37
2.8 Curing and Protection…………………………………………………………………… 43
2.9 Post-concreting…………………………………………………………………………... 45
2.10 Non-Compliant Concrete………………………………………………………………... 48

3 PART 3 PRE-CAST CONCRETE 49


3.1 Source and Type Approval……………………………………………………………… 49
3.2 Methodology and Workmanship……………………………………………………….. 50

4 PART 4 SPECIAL CONCRETE 52


4.1 General……………………………………………………………………………………. 52
4.2 Lightweight Concrete……………………………………………………………………. 52
4.3 Pavement Concrete……………………………………………………………………… 53
4.4 No-Fines Concrete………………………………………………………………………. 54
4.5 “Granolithic” Concrete…………………………………………………………………… 54
4.6 Glass-Reinforced Cement (GRC)……………………………………………………… 55
4.7 Mortars, Grout and Render……………………………………………………………... 55

5 PART 5 SUMMARY 56
5.1 Approvals…………………………………………………………………………………. 56
5.2 Reference Documents…………………………………………………………………... 60

Abbreviations 67

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Foreword

This specification provides the basis for using concrete in construction. It covers the main

requirements for selecting materials, identifying the concrete mixes required, the procedures for

controlling the quality and requirements of producing, placing and finishing concrete.

This specification must be read in its entirety, as it is structured in order of work-flow, which means

that items or activities appear in several places in the specification corresponding to the

progression of the construction process.

For larger or more complex or specialist projects, a project-specific Particular Specification for

concrete may be also be provided, which will, together with the drawings, Client’s brief and details

of the ground and service environments, provide a basis for selecting appropriate concrete

materials.

An assessment of the environment must be made as part of the design process. Concrete of

appropriate durability characteristics must be adopted. Quality control testing of production

concrete is based on Acceptance Strength (AS), which is defined as the higher of the Structural

Strength (SS) required by the Designer, and the Durability Strength (DS) obtained from the

concrete mix required for durability purposes. The Flow Chart (attached) summarises the main

stages involved in producing concrete to comply with this specification.

Absence of clauses for materials and methods does not necessarily signify that they cannot be

used. Proposals for use of innovative methods and materials are encouraged and are subject to

review and approval by the Client.

Where the word approved is used in this specification, this means that the Client or Engineer has

been consulted and has confirmed that the item or procedure is acceptable in the specific context

for which approval has been requested.

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1 PART 1 MATERIALS

1.1 Source Approvals

1.1.1 General

A quality system shall apply for the supply and placement of concrete which conforms to
this specification and complies with the relevant requirements of ISO 9001 including
quality records, hold points, witness points and method statements.

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer a list of suppliers from whom he proposes to
purchase materials and services. All materials and associated testing shall be obtained
from suppliers and laboratories operating an accredited third-party quality assurance
system in accordance with ISO 9001. Documentary evidence shall be provided to
demonstrate that the third-party accreditation is current and covers the materials or
services being supplied, including but not limited to:

• Cement
• Aggregate
• Admixtures
• Reinforcement
• Testing.

Where suppliers do not operate a suitable quality system then a proposed schedule of
independent testing and auditing by an Accredited Laboratory or Accredited Testing
Body shall be submitted for approval. The cost of undertaking such independent testing
and auditing shall be at the Contractor’s expense.

1.1.2 Cementitious Materials

1.1.2.1 Portland Cement

The cement to be used throughout the Works shall be obtained from manufacturers
approved in writing and shall be strength class 42.5N or 52.5N to BS EN 197-1.

Cement shall comply with the tricalcium aluminate (C3A) contents required in Table 1.

Cement type for each mix shall be as shown in Tables 7 and 8, and in accordance with
Building Research Establishment SP1.

Table 1 C3A Contents for Cements

Cement Type Applicable Standards C3A content


Portland cement (PC):
Ordinary Portland cement BS EN 197-1 8% – 13%
(OPC) ASTM C150 Type I
Moderately sulphate 3.5% – 8%
resisting Portland cement
(MSRPC)
Sulphate resisting BS 4027 3.5%
Portland cement (SRPC) ASTM C150 Type V

Cement shall be certified by the manufacturer as complying with the requirements of the
appropriate Standard(s). Before ordering cement, the Contractor shall submit details of
the proposed supplier and information on the proposed methods of transport, storage
and certification for approval and show that the quantity and quality required can be
attained and maintained throughout the construction period.

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Having obtained approval, the Contractor shall not change the agreed arrangements
without permission. Each consignment of cement shall be accompanied by a certificate
showing the place of manufacture and the results of standard tests carried out on each
day’s bulk production included in the consignment.

Cementitious materials shall be free from lumps and other deleterious matter and shall
be otherwise undamaged when used. Before a concrete placement is started, sufficient
cementitious materials shall be in storage at the batching plant to complete the
placement.

1.1.2.2 White Cement

Cement for white concrete shall be white cement obtained from manufacturers approved
in writing and shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 197-1 or ASTM C150.
Strength class shall be not less than 42.5 N.

A key advantage of using white cement for decorative and architectural concrete is that it
provides a neutral tinting base and consistent colours results. Every colour option is
possible with it, from pure white to bright and pastel colours. However, appropriate trial
mixes shall be undertaken and care exercised at the batching plant to prevent
contamination of cement silos, aggregate bins and other equipment with material which
could alter the intended colour or lead to blemishes.

1.1.2.3 Blast-Furnace Slag

Ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) shall be used in a combination of Portland


Cement to BS 197-1 and GGBS conforming to BS 6699 or BS EN 15167. Where the use
of blast furnace slag inter-ground with Portland cement is proposed, this shall be from an
approved source.

The chemical and mechanical properties of the GGBS shall be as in Table 2.

Table 2 Chemical and Mechanical Properties of GGBS


Parameter Limit Acceptance inspection
Limit
Fineness (m2/kg) 275 250
Compressive strength 7-day 12 10
(N/mm2) 28-day 32.5 30
Glass content (%) 67 62
Or activity index
Activity index 7-day 45% 40%
28-day 70% 60%
Initial setting time Not less than PC Not less than PC – 15
minutes
Soundness (mm) 10 11
Moisture content (%) 1.0 1.25
Insoluble residue (%) 1.5 2.0
Magnesia (%) 14 15
Sulphur (%) sulphide 2.0 2.5
SO3 2.5 2.6
Loss on ignition (%) 3.0 3.5
Manganese (%) 2.0 2.5
Chloride 0.10 0.11
Chemical moduli CaO+MgO+SiO2 two-thirds
CaO + MgO 1
SiO2
CaO 1.4
SiO2

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1.1.2.4 Pulverised Fuel-ash (“Fly-ash”)

Pulverised fuel ash (PFA) shall only be used as a combination manufactured from
Portland cement to BS 197-1 mixed in the concrete mixer with pulverised fuel ash
conforming to BS 3892-1, BS EN 450 or ASTM C618. Where the use of pulverised fuel
ash inter-ground with Portland cement is proposed, this shall be from an approved
source.

1.1.2.5 Micro-silica

Micro-silica (MS), sometimes termed “silica fume”, shall comply with BS EN 13263.

If the use of concrete incorporating MS is instructed or agreed, the Contractor shall


provide a method statement giving details of the micro-silica material and the method for
its incorporation which shall be in accordance with internationally recognised standards
such as BS EN 13263, ASTM C1240 or Norwegian Standard NS 3045, and this
Specification, and be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

The concrete mix used shall be a standard ready-mix supplier’s mix, complying with this
Specification and with test results from trial mixes and satisfactory production tests
demonstrating compliance with requirements of this Section continuously over the six
months before use. If not a standard ready-mix supplier’s mix, then the requirements set
out below shall be followed for laboratory and plant/field trials.

Micro-silica shall not contain more than 0.2% silica metal by or any deleterious materials.
The material must originate from silicon plants producing silicon or ferrosilicon with
silicon contents higher than 85% which shall be demonstrated by documentation.

Micro-silica shall be incorporated in slurry from and must be thoroughly dispersed in the
concrete, and wherever possible delivered and stored in slurry form. Storage must
include agitation to avoid the MS settling and forming lumps.

Attention is drawn to the health hazards associated with micro-silica, particularly in the
powdered form, and the need to adopt protective systems to reduce dust generation and
the potential risk of hydrogen evolution due to silica metal contamination. These shall be
addressed in the Contractors HSE submissions.

1.1.2.6 Sampling and Testing

Representative samples of the proposed cementitious materials are to be taken and


forwarded to an independent laboratory approved by the Engineer for analysis as
frequently as deemed necessary at the Contractor’s expense before the source is
approved. For pre-existing mixes, or minor works, details of proposed cements shall be
submitted for approval.

The analysis of the cementitious materials shall include all the parameters required to
assess the material against its corresponding standard including:

a) physical properties (fineness, initial setting time, soundness

b) mechanical properties (early and standard strength of prisms)

c) chemical properties (major oxides, chloride, sulphur trioxide, insoluble residue, loss on
ignition and sodium oxide equivalent).

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1.1.3 Aggregates for Concrete

1.1.3.1 Aggregates General

Aggregate shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 206 and BS 8500 and shall be of
normal weight and from natural sources, unless light weight aggregates are required by
the Particular Specification.

The Contractor shall obtain approval of proposed aggregate sources, and shall select
suitable aggregate and samples of sand and stone for specified testing before obtaining
aggregate.

Aggregate to be used in the construction of structures for retaining aqueous liquids shall
comply with BS 8007.

The use of re-cycled concrete as aggregate may be feasible in some circumstances and
Contractors are encouraged to consider submitting well-supported technical proposals to
this effect.

1.1.3.2 Source Approval Testing

Laboratory tests according to BS 812, as identified in Table 3, shall be made for source
approval and subsequently at regular intervals to confirm the suitability of aggregate.

The criteria in Table 3 shall be ascertained by testing in accordance with BS 812 and
BS 882, unless indicated otherwise, to assess the suitability of aggregate. The test
results shall comply with the limits given in BS EN 12620 or as otherwise stated in
Table 3.

Table 3 Properties of Aggregates


Acceptance Criteria
Test Reference
Coarse Aggregates Fine Aggregates
Grading (BS 812-103.1) Standard
Hollow shells content 3% by mass retained on 2.36 mm sieve to BS 410
(BS 812-103.1)
Material passing 75 micron 1% (uncrushed) 3% (uncrushed)
sieve (BS 812-103.1 wet- 2% (crushed) 7% (crushed)
sieving method).
Magnesium sulphate material loss material loss
soundness (BS 812-121) 10% 10%
Specific gravity (BS 812-2) > 2.6 > 2.6
Water absorption 2% 2%
(BS 812-2)
Clay lumps and friable 1% 2%
particles (ASTM C142)
Organic impurities not darker than colour plate 3
(ASTM C40, ASTM C87) comparative mortar strength 95% at 7 and 28 days
Acid soluble sulphate 0.4% 0.4%
content (BS 812-118)
Acid soluble chloride content
(BS 812-119)
Reinforced 0.03% 0.06%

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Acceptance Criteria
Test Reference
Coarse Aggregates Fine Aggregates
Unreinforced - -
(see also clause 2.2.4.6)
10% fines value for coarse 100 kN -
aggregates (BS 812-111)
Elongation (BS 812-105.1) 35% -
Flakiness (BS 812-105.2) 30% -
Potential alkali reactivity Clause 1.1.3.6
Los Angeles abrasion test, Surfaces: -
if required (ASTM C131 & wearing 30%
ASTM C535) other 35%
Drying shrinkage 0.075% -
(BS 812-120)
Moisture content To be allowed for in concrete mixing
(BS 812-109)

1.1.3.3 Supply Approval Testing

The frequency of tests for ongoing supply approval shall be in accordance with the
following table. Tests marked * shall be carried out as in Table 4 or per 100 m³ whichever
is the more frequent. The frequency of testing can be reduced, subject to approval,
where historic data showing consistent compliance is available.

Table 4 Frequency of Testing Aggregates

Frequency (once per period of days)


Test Reference
Coarse Aggregates Fine Aggregates
Grading (BS 812-103.1) 1* 1*
Hollow shells content 1* 1*
(BS 812-103.1)
Material passing 75 micron sieve 1* 1*
(BS 812-103.1 wet-sieving
method).
Magnesium sulphate soundness 30 -
(BS 812-121)
Specific gravity and water 7 7
absorption (BS 812-2)
Clay lumps and friable particles 7 -
(ASTM C142)
Organic impurities - 30
(ASTM C40, ASTM C87)
Acid soluble sulphate and chloride 3.5 1
content
(BS 812-118 & 119)
10% fines value for coarse 7 -
aggregates (BS 812-111)
Elongation & flakiness 3.5 -
(BS 812-105.1 & 2)
Potential alkali reactivity Source approval only

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Frequency (once per period of days)
Test Reference
Coarse Aggregates Fine Aggregates
(Clause 1.1.3.6)
Los Angeles abrasion test, if Source approval only
required
(ASTM C131 & ASTM C535)
Drying shrinkage (BS 812-120) Source approval only
Moisture content (BS 812-109) 2/day * 2/day *

The combined grading of aggregate shall be determined on a daily basis, and shall be
consistent for all deliveries, and the proportion of coarse and fine aggregates shall be
selected to comply with the concrete mix requirements. The percentage passing any
sieve size as determined by approved trial mixes shall be the target grading for all
concrete of that type. The combined grading of the Works concrete shall not vary by
more than 4% on any sieve from that target.

1.1.3.4 Fine Aggregates

Fine aggregate for concrete shall consist of natural sand having hard and durable
particles, or subject to written approval, of other inert materials having similar
characteristics. It shall not contain harmful materials such as iron pyrites, coal, mica,
shale or similar laminated materials such as flat and elongated particles, or any materials
which may attack the reinforcement, in such a form in sufficient quantity to affect
adversely the strength and durability of the concrete. If necessary, fine aggregates shall
be washed and sieved to remove deleterious substances.

As defined in BS EN 12620 fine aggregate shall be mainly capable of passing through a


4 mm BS test sieve and shall be graded so that when mixed with the coarse aggregate
and cement a concrete of maximum density is produced.

Crushed sand may be added to natural sand in approved proportions in order to achieve
the required grading. Crushed sand alone may not be used without approval.

The use of washed beach sand as fine aggregate may be permitted, provided that the
grading and salt content are maintained within the limits given in Table 3. Beach sand
shall be dug from above high water level and washed thoroughly. Before taking sand
from any area, the salt content shall be established and only sand from approved areas
shall be used.

Sand for mortar shall comply with BS 1199 and BS 1200, or BS EN 13139.

1.1.3.5 Coarse Aggregates

Coarse aggregates shall consist of gravel, or crushed stone, free from coating of clay or
other deleterious substances.

As defined in BS EN 12620 coarse aggregate shall be mainly retained on a 5 mm


BS 410 test sieve; the grading shall be within the limits prescribed in BS 882, so that
when mixed with the approved fine aggregate and cement a workable concrete of
maximum density is produced.

1.1.3.6 Alkali Reactivity

Aggregate shall not contain any materials that are reactive with alkalis in the aggregate
itself or in the cement, the mixing water or in water in contact with the finished concrete
or mortar in amounts sufficient to cause excessive localised or general expansion of the
concrete or mortar.

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The Contractor shall initially assess an aggregate source by petrographic examination in
accordance with ASTM C295 or BS 812-104, and testing in accordance with
ASTM C289. If potential alkali-aggregate reactivity is indicated, then mortar bar tests in
accordance with ASTM C1260 (NBRI method) shall be carried out. A 14-day expansion
greater than 0.1% shall be considered indicative of alkali reactivity.

1.1.4 Mixing water

1.1.4.1 General

The Contractor shall make his own arrangements and obtain approval for the provision of
fresh water for the manufacture and curing of concrete.

1.1.4.2 Quality

Water and ice to be used for mixing concrete and mortar shall:

• be fresh (“potable”) water and free from sediment and dissolved or suspended matter
which may be harmful
• shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 1008
• shall not affect the setting time, strength, durability, or appearance of the concrete

Water quality for mixing concrete and mortar shall not exceed the limits required as
below:

• sulphate (SO3) content: 500 mg/l


• chloride ion content: 350 mg/l
• total dissolved solids: 2,000 ppm
• suspended solids: 2,000 ppm
• alkali bicarbonate / carbonate (HCO3)/(CO3): 1,000 ppm

The chloride and sulphate contents of each concrete mix shall also comply with the
overall limits given elsewhere.

1.1.4.3 Sampling and Testing

Water samples from the intended source of supply shall be taken for analysis before any
concrete work is commenced, and at intervals throughout the duration of the Contract. If
the samples are unacceptable the Contractor shall either change to a new supply or take
steps to improve the existing source, as approved.

Tests to verify the sulphate and chloride contents shall be carried out at monthly
intervals.

1.1.5 Admixtures

1.1.5.1 Admixtures General

Admixtures shall comply with BS EN 934-2 or any equivalent standards, and the product
must be certified by an accredited laboratory and subject for approval by the Materials
Engineering Directorate (MED). Approved admixtures shall be used as a means of:

• achieving workability with the lowest appropriate water-cement ratio in order to


achieve durability
• controlling and retarding setting
• reducing bleeding and associated plastic settlement and cracking
• integral waterproofing
• reducing the risk of scaling and damage due to Delayed Ettringite Formation
• inhibiting corrosion of embedded steel
• controlling wash-out in underwater concrete.

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Admixtures other than those specified herein shall only be used provided that the prior
approval of the Engineer has been obtained and any information or test results required
by him have been provided and are to his satisfaction.

Admixtures containing chlorides or other materials which could cause deterioration of the
concrete and embedded metals, shall not be used.

1.1.5.2 Admixture Trials

The concrete tests and trials described in this Specification shall be performed to ensure
the specified strengths are achieved and comparison shall be made with concrete
manufactured without the admixture(s) to demonstrate that the density has not been
significantly reduced through the use of admixtures.

When more than one admixture is to be used together in one concrete mix, the
compatibility of the various admixtures shall have been ascertained by the tests and
trials, and shall be certified by the manufacturers.

1.1.6 Fibres

1.1.6.1 Polypropylene Fibres

Polypropylene fibre reinforcement shall be 100% virgin polypropylene fibres specifically


manufactured for use as a concrete reinforcement and so certified by the manufacturer.
It shall contain no reprocessed olefin materials. The fibre dosage shall provide a
minimum surface area of 200 m² of fibres per cubic metre of concrete. The length of
each fibre shall be between 10 mm and 50 mm. Fibres may be monofilament or
fibrillated.

Polypropylene fibre reinforcement may be included to improve control of early shrinkage,


but not as a substitute for conventional reinforcement unless specifically required by the
Particular Specification.

1.1.6.2 Other Fibres

The following other fibres shall comply with the relevant particular specification

• glass fibres, for use in glass-reinforced cementitious products


• steel fibres for use in floors, precast items and sprayed concrete
• carbon and other fibres, for use in strengthening works.

Steel Fibre shall be deformed steel fibre Type 1, 2 or 3 in accordance with ASTM A820
except that Type 1 fibre may be either circular or rectangular in section. Fibre shall be
produced from mild steel or cold drawn wire.

i) Fibres may be collated with a fast-acting water-soluble glue, or may be uncollated


individual fibres.
ii) Fibres shall be stored in dry sealed containers until required for use and shall be free
from corrosion, oil, grease, chlorides and deleterious materials which may reduce the
bond between the fibres and the concrete.
iii) Fibres shall be hook ended of minimum diameter 0.45 mm and minimum strength
1050 N/mm2.
iv) Fibres shall be of low carbon content conforming to BS EN 14889-1 or BS EN
10016-2-C9D
v) Fibres shall have an aspect ratio in the range of 40 to 90 for lengths of 30 mm to
90 mm. Tolerances shall be in accordance with ASTM A820.
vi) Fibre type shall be selected on the basis of compliance with the particular
specification and on suitability and ease of use in the batching, mixing and concrete
placement processes proposed, as demonstrated by site trials.
vii) Fibres which tend to form fibre balls during batching and mixing shall not be used.

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1.1.7 Reinforcement

1.1.7.1 Carbon Steel Reinforcing Bar

Reinforcement for use in reinforced concrete shall comply where appropriate with
BS 4449, BS 4482, BS 8110 and BS 8666, or ASTM A615. Evidence of independent
testing for strength and ductility shall be submitted.

High yield deformed bars shall be Grade B500 complying with BS 4449: 2005, unless
otherwise approved

Reinforcement for bridge structures shall comply with the requirements in BS 5400.

1.1.7.2 Welded Steel Wire Fabric

Welded steel wire fabric (“mesh”) reinforcement for use in reinforced concrete shall
comply where appropriate with BS 4483, BS 8110 and BS 8666, or ASTM A615.

Welded wire fabric to be used for the reinforcement of concrete shall conform to the size
and dimensions shown on the plans.

Mesh fabric shall not be supplied on rolls. Sheets of fabric shall be flat and any tendency
to curve or twist shall be corrected before fixing.

1.1.7.3 Stainless Steel Reinforcement

Where specified and shown on the Drawings, stainless steel reinforcement shall be hot
rolled austenitic stainless steel Type 1.4436 to BS 6744, with a minimum tensile strength
of 510 N/mm². Test certificates and product analysis certificates shall be provided.
Stainless steel Type 1.4301 is strictly excluded.

1.1.7.4 Epoxy-coated Reinforcement

Epoxy-coated reinforcement shall not be used.

If epoxy-coated reinforcement is found in existing concrete that forms part of the works,
the Contractor shall report the same to the Engineer.

1.1.7.5 Non-metallic Reinforcement

The use of non-metallic reinforcement such as Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and
Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) containing carbon or Aramid fibre, may be
feasible in some circumstances, or required by the Particular Specification, and
Contractors are encouraged to consider submitting well-supported technical proposals to
this effect.

The use of non-metallic reinforcement shall be in accordance with the recommendations


of ACI Committee 440, Guide for the design and construction of concrete reinforced with
FRP Bars (ACI 440.1R-01) and Institute of Structural Engineers, Interim guidance in the
design of reinforced concrete structures using fibre-composite reinforcement, Institute of
Structural Engineers press, 1999.

1.1.7.6 Dowel Bars

Unless required otherwise by the Particular Specification, dowel bars shall be of carbon
steel or stainless steel, as shown on the Drawings, and complying with the requirements
of this specification. Approved bond breakers shall be used.

Page 13
1.1.7.7 Tie Wire

Tying wire shall be galvanised mild steel of diameter approximately 1.5 mm. Tying wire
shall have the same minimum concrete cover as detailed for reinforcement.

Tying wire for bridge superstructures, architecturally-important concrete, and any faces in
direct contact with soil or ground water shall be 1.2 mm diameter stainless steel wire.

1.1.7.8 Spacers

Only approved spacers may be used in permanent Works. Before spacers are approved
for use in the Works, their capability to securely hold the reinforcement in position during
concreting without detriment to concrete placement, compaction or durability shall be
fully demonstrated.

Concrete spacers shall be of similar concrete grade to the parent concrete and shall
have non-metallic ties. The spacers shall have 30-minute water absorption, tested in
accordance with the principles of BS 1881-121, not more than that of the concrete being
placed.

All laitance shall be removed from concrete spacers, by blasting or other approved
means during or following manufacture, from all embedded faces, to ensure bond to
surrounding concrete.

Concrete spacers shall be provided in accordance with BS 7973.

Plastic spacers shall only be permitted with the approval of the Engineer. Plastic spacers
will normally only be allowed for concrete which is not subject to rain, sea-water or humid
conditions. The contractor shall demonstrate the plastic spacers in accordance with
BS 7937 and are appropriate for the specific application and reinforcement
configurations, and able to achieve the specified spacing and cover without distortion.

1.1.7.9 Sampling and Testing

Prior to approval the Contractor shall provide copies of the manufacturer'


s certificates of
test results relating to the steel reinforcement to be supplied, and shall additionally
provide independent test results obtained from an approved laboratory. Samples for
testing shall be selected randomly from each consignment of reinforcement delivered to
the site representing different days’ production at the manufacturer' s works. One test
shall be carried out per 5,000 m length of bars delivered to site.

1.1.8 Pre-stressing

1.1.8.1 Pre-stressing Components and Equipment

The use of pre-stressing (in either pre- or post- tensioned pre-cast construction, or post-
tensioned in-situ construction) shall be covered by Particular Specifications.

The source, type and details of components (e.g. tendons, ducts, anchorages, vent
pipes, stressing equipment) from the proposed pre-stressing system, and associated
materials (for example, grouts), shall comply with the Particular Specification and shall
be the subject of submissions for approval.

Pre-stressing work shall be executed by a specialist firm which is familiar with the
proposed pre-stressing system, and details of the proposed firm and its supervisory
personnel to be assigned to the project, shall be submitted by the Contractor for
approval. Likewise, if the specialist firm is to perform any design associated with the pre-
stressing application, details of the design personnel to be assigned to the project, shall
be submitted by the Contractor for approval

Page 14
Where pre-post-tensioned pre-cast elements are proposed to be used in the works the
Contractor shall submit to the Client all relevant details of source, unit and concrete type
for approval, including:

• The standards to which the unit was manufactured


• Certification that the products and production techniques meet the standard above
• Statement from supplier confirming the concrete is appropriate for the intended use,
project, location, ground conditions, service environment and design life
• Structural design calculations and drawings for the proposed elements
• Amount, type and cover of pre-stressing
• Amount, type and cover of reinforcement
• Grade and composition of concrete, to demonstrate compliance with relevant
clauses of this Specification.

1.1.8.2 Grouts for Pre-stressing

Grouts, sampling and testing of grouts, and grouting operations, for pre-stressing, shall
be covered by Particular Specifications, and shall be the subject of detailed method
statements, all in accordance with Concrete Society Technical Report 47, Transport and
Research Laboratory Contractor Report 24, and other best practice documents, and
BS EN 446 and any other applicable standards.

Cements for grouts shall as a minimum comply with relevant sections of this
specification.

1.1.9 Formwork Materials

1.1.9.1 Temporary

The Contractor shall obtain approval of the methods and materials proposed. Details of
formwork for special finishes shall be approved before materials are ordered. Formwork
shall provide concrete of the shape, lines and dimensions shown on the Drawings.

Formwork shall be constructed from materials of sufficient strength, supported to provide


rigidity during placing and compacting concrete without discernible deflection, and shall
be removable without disturbing the concrete.

Formwork panels shall have true edges for accurate alignment and shall be fixed with
either vertical or horizontal joints. Where chamfers are required the fillets shall be cut to
provide an even line. Joints shall not permit leakage of grout, nor steps and ridges in
exposed surfaces.

1.1.9.2 Permanent Formwork

Permanent formwork of GRP, or of steel (fro example, for use in composite flooring), are
to be used where indicated on the Drawings, and in accordance with the Particular
Specification. The minimum wall thickness of the GRP shall be 5 mm.

1.1.9.3 Rough Formwork

Rough formwork shall be butt-jointed, seasoned, sawn timber.

1.1.9.4 Fine Formwork

Fine finish formwork shall be used for all concrete surfaces unless detailed otherwise on
the Drawings. This finish shall be obtained from forms designed to produce a hard
smooth surface with true, clean arises.

Page 15
1.1.9.5 Controlled Permeability Formwork

Controlled permeability formwork, if required by a Particular Specification, shall be a


proprietary system designed for and with a track-record in concrete construction, shall be
generally robust and fit for purpose, and shall be the subject of a submission for
approval, in accordance with Concrete Society Technical Report 52.

1.1.9.6 Shutter Ties

Internal ties shall be metal. Removable ties shall be located so that the specified cover to
reinforcement is maintained to all surfaces including that of the tie-holes. If ties are left in,
cover shall be as specified for reinforcement or as approved. Tie cavities shall be
roughened and filled with approved non-shrink mortar or epoxy mortar.

1.1.9.7 Release Agents

Shutter release agents shall be correctly selected to achieve the required finish with the
intended concrete mix and formwork material.

1.1.10 Curing

1.1.10.1 Curing Water

Water to be used for curing concrete and mortar shall be fresh (“potable”) water, subject
to the same requirements as mixing water.

1.1.10.2 Curing Compounds

Curing compounds shall be aluminised or white resin-based and shall be compatible with
coatings, waterproof membranes or other materials that may subsequently be applied to
the surface of the concrete.

The curing efficiency of curing compounds shall be subject to approval.

1.1.10.3 Thermal Insulation Materials

Thermal insulation materials used for curing shall be robust, non-absorbent, and
generally fit for purpose.

Their use shall be determined by the requirements of this Specification in relation to


early-thermal behaviour, heat and cracking.

1.1.11 Tanking Membranes

1.1.11.1 External Sheet Tanking Membrane

External sheet tanking membrane to concrete substructures shall be an impervious, cold


applied flexible laminated sheet, consisting of multi-layer high density cross laminated
polyethylene film with a backing of self-adhesive rubber bitumen compound to give a
combined thickness of 1.5 mm and protected with silicone coated release paper. The
mass of the membrane shall be not less than 1.6 kg/m² gross. A special grade of
compound formulated for hot climates shall be used, with at least 10 years of successful
usage in the Middle East. The laminate shall withstand cracking of the substrate up to a
crack width of 0.6 mm. Minimum test performance data shall be as in Table 5.

Table 5 Properties of External Sheet Tanking Membranes

Property Test Method Results


Tape Strength ASTM D638 Long. 4.2 N/mm

Page 16
Property Test Method Results
Trans. 4.8 N/mm
Tensile Strength ASTM D638 Long. 42 N/mm²
Trans. 48 N/mm²
Elongation Film ASTM D638 Long. 210%
Trans. 160%
Tear Resistance ASTM D1004 Long. 270 N/mm
Trans. 270 N/mm
Adhesion to Primed ASTM D1000 1.8 N/mm
Concrete
Adhesion to Self ASTM D1000 1.8 N/mm
Puncture Resistance ASTM E154 290 N 65 mm
Water Resistance ASTM D570 After 24 hours 0.14%
After 35 days 0.95%
Environmental Resistance ASTM D543 Conforms
Moisture Vapour ASTM E96 0.3 g/m²/24 hours
Transmission Rate
Adhesive Softening Point ASTM D36 Not lower than 103°C

Primers shall be compatible with the membrane, recommended by the membrane


manufacturer, suitable for single-coat application and specially formulated for hot
climates, containing 50% aromatic hydrocarbon solvents and 50% bitumen solids, giving
an average coverage of approximately 10 to 12 m² per litre, dependent on texture and
porosity of concrete surface.

Cold applied rubber/bitumen mastic compound, or bitumen putty for trowel application, or
other product compatible with the membrane, recommended by the membrane
manufacturer, shall be used for moulding into fillets and collars. Similarly, tapes shall be
used for sealing around pipes and irregularities. All such materials shall be formulated for
hot climates.

1.1.11.2 Brush or Spray-applied Tanking Membrane

Coatings shall be solvent based bituminous compounds complying with BS 3416 Types
1 and 2. They shall be applied in two coats and the second coat shall incorporate non-
asbestos fibre reinforcement and shall be applied to a minimum thickness of 1.5 mm.

This includes asphalt modified materials and fibre reinforced materials.

1.1.11.3 Polythene Sheeting

Polythene sheeting does not constitute a water-proof membrane for surface protection.

Polythene sheeting for use in curing applications must be strong enough to resist tearing
during fixing and wind forces during the curing period. This will normally require 500
gauge in a double layer, or 1,000 gauge

1.1.11.4 Protection Board

Waterproofing membrane shall be protected from mechanical damage by a bitumen-


impregnated board of minimum thickness 3.0 mm, which shall be weather, water and rot-
proof.

Page 17
1.1.12 Jointing Materials

Materials for use at expansion/contraction joints, including those listed in Table 6, shall
be compatible with the service conditions, required joint size and movement
accommodation, and are subject to approval.

Table 6: Jointing Materials

Joint Material
Contraction joint • Rubberised bitumen paint for joint faces
• sealant on de-bonding tape, for exposed edges
• free-flowing sealing fluid for rapid sealing
Expansion joint in a non- • non-absorbent closed-cell polyethylene joint filler
water-retaining structure

Design joint in a water- • continuous water stop strip of copper, rubber, rubber
retaining structure and steel or PVC
• bituminous paint for copper water stop
• bituminous compound to fill copper water stop
Where required • injection hoses
Joint sealants • purpose-made compressible, elastic product, with
movement accommodation factor suitable for the
application in question
• backing rod
Expansion joint filler • purpose-made cellular, compressible, elastic product
Bond breakers • polyethylene tape, or closed cell polyethylene foam
in strip or solid circular section
Bond breakers for dowel • bitumen paint which shall not affect the setting of the
bars concrete
Water stops and water • proprietary products as required
bars

1.2 Repair and Protection Systems

1.2.1 Concrete Repair

In the event of concrete being found non-compliant in relation to test criteria, or suffering
from construction defects such as cracking or low cover, a course of action will be
determined as in Clause 2.10 of this Specification, which may include repairs.

Repair materials and material testing requirements, for repairs to concrete structures
shall be as stated in BS EN 1504, unless particular requirements are determined for the
particular project circumstances.

1.2.2 Cathodic Protection

If cathodic protection is to be installed as part of the concrete construction work


(sometimes termed “cathodic prevention”), or if cathodic protection is to be installed onto
an existing concrete structure, it will be the subject of a Particular Specification, which
will require compliance with BS EN 12696.

Installation may require some system materials and components to be mounted on the
reinforcement cages and thus be incorporated into the concrete during concrete pouring.

Page 18
In this case, the Contractor shall clearly address the following in his method statement
for concreting operations, and shall make appropriate preparations:

• System components may obstruct normal concrete placement and vibration


• System components are fragile and could be damaged by normal concreting
operations
• Good vibration is necessary to ensure intimate contact between concrete and all
surfaces of all embedded system components
• The Particular Specification may require electrical monitoring during concreting
operations to detect short-circuits
• In the event of short-circuits being detected during or after concreting operations, it
may be necessary to remove the freshly placed concrete by water blasting before it
hardens.

1.3 Delivery, Site Storage, Handling, and Protection of Materials

1.3.1 General

All materials delivered to site shall be recorded, stored and handled in accordance with
this specification.

The Contractor shall provide information as required, and to the satisfaction of the Client
with regard to materials delivered elsewhere for eventual use on the Project. This
includes materials for the manufacture of ready-mixed concrete.

A record of all deliveries must be made, retained and made available by the Contractor
to the Client upon request. The records must include:

• The date, time, amount and method of delivery


• The party delivering (i.e. name of company, contact details, and unique delivery
reference)
• The person responsible for accepting the delivery
• The condition of materials delivered
• The location of use or storage after delivery

1.3.2 Ready-Mixed Concrete

Requirements for controlling delivery to site of ready-mixed concrete are covered under
Clause 2.6 of this Specification.

1.3.3 Site-Batched Concrete

1.3.3.1 Cementitious

Cement and Cementitious materials shall be delivered in bulk or in sealed and marked
bags, and protected from the weather by enclosed transfer systems or other approved
coverings.

The Contractor shall provide approved silos, painted a light colour, to store sufficient bulk
cement for continuity of work, and the cement shall be placed therein upon delivery.
Approved precautions shall be taken to prevent cement dust causing a nuisance.

Alternatively, the Contractor shall provide ventilated sheds, painted a light colour, with
raised floors for the storage of sufficient bagged cement for continuity of work. Each
consignment shall be stacked separately for inspection, and approval before use. The
cement shall be placed in the sheds upon delivery and shall be used in the order in
which it was delivered.

Cement shall not be used after more than 6 months from its manufacture.

Page 19
The temperature of the cement shall not exceed 65°C at the time of incorporation into a
concrete mix.

Micro-silica shall be delivered and stored in slurry form. Storage shall include agitation to
avoid the micro-silica settling and forming lumps.

1.3.3.2 Aggregates

Aggregate shall be stored in concrete-based bins with the base laid to falls to provide
drainage away from the storage area or on stages to prevent intermixing and the
inclusion of dirt and foreign materials. Each size of aggregate shall be stored separately.
Storage bins shall be emptied and cleaned regularly.

Aggregate storage shall be covered with approved shading.

1.3.3.3 Mixing Water

Water shall be stored in approved, clean, covered containers painted white, which are
protected from sun, wind and dust, and contamination from any other source. Pipe work
shall be protected from sun and insulated.

1.3.3.4 Admixtures

Admixtures shall be stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

1.3.3.5 Fibres

Fibres shall be stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

1.3.4 Reinforcement

Steel reinforcement shall be stored in an approved manner above ground, at a location


covered by a concrete ground slab, under cover and racked as necessary, at least
150 mm above ground slab level. Canvas or similar covers shall be provided for the
reinforcing bars and used to prevent the deposit and accumulation of deleterious
materials on the bars, and for protection from aggressive elements, humidity and salt-
laden dews, and deterioration, until incorporation into the works. Similar provision shall
be made to cover the bars in the reinforcement bending area. Stored materials shall be
inspected once per week and removed from site if deteriorated.

1.3.5 Pre-stressing

Pre-stressing materials, (for example, tendons, ducts, anchorages, stressing equipment)


shall be stored in an air-conditioned “indoor” environment, at all times from delivery to
site and incorporation into the works. Stored materials shall be inspected once per week
and removed from site if deteriorated.

1.3.6 Other Materials

Other materials, such as surface protection or jointing materials, shall be stored in


accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

2 PART 2 METHODOLOGY AND WORKMANSHIP

2.1 Method Statements

For every construction operation or linked set of operations, the Contractor shall submit
for approval, a Method Statement and corresponding Inspection and Test Plan.

Page 20
The Method Statement shall describe in detail the sequence, staff, equipment and other
details of how the operation is to be performed.

The Inspection and Test Plan shall be a checklist of all inspections, checks and tests
necessary for the Contractor to perform to ensure compliance with the project
specification. The Inspection and Test Plan shall be incorporated in the Project Quality
Plan and Quality Management System, together with examples of all other forms needed
to provide documentary evidence, including space for recording the result, time, date and
name of observer, against each entry.

2.2 Mix Development

2.2.1 Durability Requirements

2.2.1.1 Definitions

Concrete mixes shown in Tables 7 and 8 below are intended to provide concrete which is
durable for typical applications in the respective Service Environment Zones, provided
the concrete is constructed in accordance with this Specification. Project-specific
requirements for Design Service Life may be addressed by concrete mixes required by
the Particular Specification.

The number of mixes may be increased by the Particular Specification, or the mixes in
any of the Service Environment Zones may be enhanced by the Particular Specification
to provide greater durability.

The concrete shall be capable of being transported and readily compacted by the
approved methods, to a dense impermeable mass without segregation, bleeding or
plastic cracking. The concrete shall be free from crazing, thermal cracks, drying
shrinkage cracks, or any other cracks, of width exceeding the maximum allowable under
the Design or under BS 8110, whichever is the lesser. The slump shall be kept to the
minimum compatible with the approved placing and compacting requirements.

Cement content shall always refer to the total content of all cementitious materials used
in a concrete mix (e.g. cement, blast-furnace slag, pulverised fuel ash, or micro-silica).

Cement replacement percentage (%) is defined as follows:

• Blast-furnace slag, or pulverised fuel ash: % of total cementitious content


• Micro-silica: % of Portland cement

Water-cement ratio shall always refer to the ratio of the water content to the total content
of all cementitious materials used in a concrete mix (for example, cement, blast-furnace
slag, pulverised fuel ash, or micro-silica).

“SP” indicates that a super-plasticizing admixture complying with this specification is


likely to be necessary to achieve a suitable workability.

“WP” indicates that an integral water-proofing admixture complying with this specification
is likely to be necessary to achieve adequate water-tightness and durability.

2.2.1.2 Concrete Service Environment

For each construction element, the Designer will identify the Service Environment Zone
from Table 7, and this will be stated on the Drawings or in the Particular Specification,
based on the required Design Service Life and the most severe Service Environment
applying to each concrete element:

Page 21
Table 7 Service Environment Zone
Zone Description of Service Environment
1 • Internal, OR
• No exposure to sulphate or chloride, OR
• Low criticality, e.g. blinding
2 • Underground above capillary-rise zone (CRZ), OR
• Exposed to water-soluble sulphates (SO4) < 1.5 mg/l
-
or chloride (Cl ) < 0.5 g/l
3 • External above ground, OR
• Exposed to wind-blown chlorides
4 • Exposed to seawater, submerged, OR
• Underground solid elements, below water-table, OR
• Exposed to water soluble sulphates (SO4) 1.5–3.0 g/l
-
or chloride (Cl ) > 12 g/l, OR
• Moderate criticality
5 • Exposed to seawater, splash, spray or tidal, OR
• Exposed to non-potable water
(e.g. from plant watering, fire-fighting, or industrial sources), OR
• Underground solid elements, in CRZ, OR
• Exposed to water soluble sulphates (SO4) > 3.0 g/l
-
or chloride (Cl ) > 12 g/l, OR
• High criticality
6 • Underground hollow elements – in or below CRZ
(e.g. basements, tunnels, culverts or pipes), OR
• Water-proof, i.e. water-retaining or water-excluding, OR
• Exposed to water soluble sulphates (SO4) > 3.0 g/l, or chloride (Cl-)
> 12 g/l, with pressure head > 5 x section thickness, OR
• Subject to severe abrasion or impact, OR
• Very high criticality
Criticality

Low Service life < 30 years, unreinforced or non-structural concrete


Moderate Service life 30–60 years
High Service life 60–100 years, difficult to inspect and maintain
Very High Service life > 100 years, difficult to inspect and maintain,
water-retaining or water-resisting

2.2.1.3 Concrete Durability and Strength

For each element, the Contractor shall provide a concrete mix complying with the criteria
given in Tables 8 and 9, for the required Service Environment Zone, or other criteria
which may be stated in the Particular Specification.

The criteria given in Tables 8 and 9, and the procedures to be followed for approval of
concrete mixes are designed to produce concrete of the durability required for the
appropriate Service Environment Zone, as well as adequate strength, and to provide a
simple means of monitoring for durability during production.

Page 22
The limits on cement content and water-cement ratio are specified primarily for durability
and may result in a concrete mix which has a characteristic strength greater than that
required by the structural design. This is the expected consequence of complying with all
the criteria in Tables 8 and 9, and is not an added or special benefit.

The strength resulting from the criteria on cement type and content, cement replacement
type and content, and water-cement ratio, shall be referred to as the Durability Strength
(DS). The characteristic DS shall be determined by:

• Historical data for standard mixes, checked when sufficient test results become
available from production, or
• Test from trials, and
• Applying a standard deviation which shall not be greater than 5.5 MPa.

The characteristic strengths are for concrete which has been cured at a temperature of
20°C ± 1°C, and are the values below which no more than 5% of the test results fall. The
7-day strengths shall be used only as a guide.

The Designer will also identify the concrete strength required by the structural design of
each construction element, and this will also be stated on the drawings on in the
Particular Specification, and shall be referred to as the Structural Strength (SS).

The densities of the grades of concrete shall be as approved after trials, or from
approved records from standard mixes.

Table 8 Reinforced Concrete Mixes

Service Environment Zone


MPa Units

Criterion
1 2 3 4 5 6
Indicative
35 40 40 40 45 50
Strength1
Type of a: OPC or
OPC

OPC
Any

Portland --- b: MSRPC or OPC OPC


Cement SRPC
a: GGBS a: GGBS2
Type of Cement a: GGBS2 & MS or
--- --- --- --- or PFA or MS or
Replacement b: PFA & MS
b: none b: PFA
A: GGBS 35-55%; a: GGBS 50-70% &
a: GGBS 56-70%
Cement or PFA 20-30%; MS 5-10%
% --- --- --- or
Replacement or MS 5% b: PFA 20-25% &
b: PFA 25-35%
b: none MS 5-10%
3

Minimum
kg/m

330

350

360

360 380 380


Cement Content
Maximum
3
Ratio kg/m

430

450

460

Cement 460 480 480


3
Content
Maximum
0.50

0.45

0.42

0.42 0.40 0.38


W/C Ratio
Admixture Type --- --- --- SP SP SP SP & WP
Note 1: 28-day characteristic cube strength is indicative only. The strength generated by the
structural and durability requirements shall govern.
Note 2: for sulphate resistance, where the alumina content of the slag exceeds 14%, the tri-
calcium aluminate content of the Portland Cement shall not exceed 10%.
Note 3: maximum cement content may need to be limited below this value to control temperature
rise (Clause 2.3.1.2).

Page 23
Table 9 Unreinforced Concrete Mixes
Service Environment Zone

Units
Criterion
1 2 3 4 5 6

Indicative

MPa
20 25 30 35 40 50
Strength1

Type of a: OPC or
a: OPC or a: OPC or

Any

Any

Any
Portland --- b: MSRPC or
Cement b: SRPC b: SRPC
SRPC
Type of a: GGBS a: GGBS a: GGBS
Cement --- --- --- --- or PFA or MS or PFA or MS or PFA or MS
Replacement b: none b: none b: none
a: GGBS 35-55%; a: GGBS 56-70% a: GGBS 56-70% or
Cement or PFA 20-30%; or PFA 25-35% PFA 25-35%
% --- --- --- or MS 5-10% or 10% MS or 10% MS
Replacement
b: none b: none b: none
Minimum
kg/m3

280

310

330

Cement 340 360 380


Content
Maximum
Ratio kg/m3

380

410

430

Cement 440 460 480


Content3
Maximum
0.65

0.55

0.50

0.50 0.45 0.40


W/C Ratio
Admixture
--- --- --- SP SP SP SP & WP
Type
Note 1: 28-day characteristic cube strength is indicative only. The strength generated by the
structural and durability requirements shall govern.

Note 2: for sulphate resistance, where the alumina content of the slag exceeds 14%, the tri-
calcium aluminate content of the Portland Cement shall not exceed 10%.

Note 3: maximum cement content may need to be limited below this value to control
temperature rise (Clause 2.3.1.2).

2.2.2 Mix Design

2.2.2.1 General

Before placing concrete, approval shall be obtained for the concrete mix proposed for
each element in accordance with tables 8, 9 and 10.

The mixes shall also be designed to provide the workability necessary to consistently
achieve placing and compaction of the concrete under the range of conditions likely to be
experienced on site, including variations in ambient temperature and concrete delivery
time.

2.2.2.2 Ready-mixed Concrete

Ready-mixed concrete plants shall be subject to approval, and shall hold current
accreditation to an approved quality scheme.

Page 24
Standard ready-mix supplier’s mixes shall be used, and satisfactory production test
results shall be submitted which demonstrate compliance with requirements of this
Specification continuously over the six months before use.

Where historic data to demonstrate compliance is not available, trial Mixes shall be
performed, in accordance with Clause 2.2.3, or if required by the Particular Specification.

The previous production results, and/or Trial Mix results, shall clearly demonstrate the
following:

1. compliance with the criteria of Tables 9 and 10


2. the characteristic Durability Strength (DS) resulting from the proposed mix
3. compliance with the required characteristic Structural Strength (SS)

The higher value of either the characteristic Structural Strength (SS) or the characteristic
Durability Strength (DS), shall be the basis for acceptance testing during routine
production and shall be designated the Acceptance Strength (AS).

2.2.2.3 Site-batched Concrete

Laboratory trial mixes shall be performed. These shall followed by site trial mixes if
required by the Particular Specification. Trial mixes shall be performed in accordance
with Clause 2.2.3.

The Trial Mix results, shall clearly demonstrate the following:

1. compliance with the criteria of Table 9


2. the characteristic Durability Strength (DS) resulting from the proposed mix
3. compliance with the required characteristic Structural Strength (SS)

The higher value of either the characteristic Structural Strength (SS) or the characteristic
Durability Strength (DS), as measured in the laboratory trials and confirmed by the field
trials, shall be selected as the basis for acceptance testing during routine production and
shall be designated the Acceptance Strength (AS).

2.2.2.4 Compressive Strength Testing

Sampling for test purposes shall comply with BS EN 12350-1. The making and curing of
specimens shall comply with BS EN 12390-2.

The characteristic strengths are for concrete which has been cured at a temperature of
20°C ± 1°C, and are the values below which no more than 5% of the test results fall. The
7-day strengths shall be used only as a guide.

If concrete specimens are cured at higher temperatures or for longer periods than BS EN
12390-2 requires, the adjusted characteristic strength shall be calculated as follows for
OPC, MSRPC or SRPC and for curing temperatures up to 27°C.100f' /f = A + B log10
[24D (T+12)/1000]:

Where

f' = adjusted required characteristic strength


f = specified characteristic strength
T = curing temperature
D = age at testing in days
A and B are coefficients from Table 10.

Page 25
Table 10 Coefficients used for calculating strength

Recorded Cube Strength (MPa) A B


Less than 15 10.0 67.5
15 to 35 20.0 60.0
Greater than 35 30.0 52.5

The mean strength shall exceed the characteristic strength by a margin of at least 1.64
times the standard deviation expected from the concreting plant, except that no standard
deviation less than 3.5 N/mm² shall be used as a basis for designing a mix.

2.2.3 Trial Mixes

2.2.3.1 Laboratory Trials Mixes

Laboratory Trial Mixes shall be carried out to determine the mixes to satisfy the
Specification with the available materials. Trial mixes should be undertaken across the
range of W/C ratios and ambient conditions likely to be experienced during the works.

Laboratory Trial Mixes shall be tested to determine the following properties of mixes
proposed for Field Trials:

1. Compressive strength at 28 days


2. Flexural strength if required
3. Nil/negligible bleeding in accordance with ASTM C232 (non-vibrating)
4. Air content if applicable.
5. Cement content and free water/cement ratio
6. Workability
7. Workability retention, from time of mixing to the greater of 3 hours or the projected
maximum time of completing concrete pouring and finishing operations.
8. Fresh and hardened concrete densities.

If required by the Particular Specification, Laboratory Trial Mixes shall also be tested at
ages stated in the Particular Specification, to determine any of the following durability-
related properties (or similar) of mixes proposed for Field Trials. Compliance shall be
demonstrated with reference to limits provided in the Particular Specification:

9. Absorption in accordance with BS EN 1097-6 or equivalent.


10. Initial surface absorption tests (ISAT) in accordance with Test 6 of BS 1881-5 and
BS 1881-208 or equivalent.
11. Penetration of water in accordance with DIN 1048 or equivalent.
12. Chloride penetration in accordance with Nordtest NT Build 492 or equivalent.

If any of the values obtained for the required properties are unacceptable, the mixes shall
be redesigned and re-tested.

2.2.3.2 Plant / Field Trial Mixes

Plant or Field Trial Mixes shall be prepared under full-scale site conditions and tested in
accordance with BS 1881 or equivalent. The Contractor shall submit a proposal for the
scope and nature of Field Trials, which shall be commensurate with the complexity and
scale of the works. Trial mixes should be undertaken across the range of W/C ratios and
ambient conditions likely to be experienced during the works.

Field Trial Mixes shall be made on each of three days; the workability shall equate to the
designed target value. Six cubes from each mix shall be taken for strength testing, three
at 7 days and three at 28 days.

Page 26
Further Field Trial Mixes shall be made if the range (the maximum minus the minimum of
the three cube results in any batch) exceeds 15% of the average of that batch, or if the
range of the three batch averages exceeds 20% of the overall average of the batches.

The mixes shall also be tested to determine the following properties:

• Bleeding, as above.
• Free water/cement ratio, as above.
• Temperature rise
• Durability, as above, if required by the Particular Specification
• Workability
• Workability retention, from time of mixing to the greater of 3 hours or the projected
maximum time of completing concrete pouring and finishing operations.

The average 28-day characteristic strength for each of the three field trial mixes shall not
be less than the designed mean strength. The results of the above tests shall be
acceptable before the mix is approved. If the trial mix does not meet the specification
criteria it shall be redesigned and re-tested.

The required workability and workability retention shall be determined, for the intended
method of placement, from measurements made in the Plant/Field Trials, as well as the
acceptable tolerance and method of testing.

2.2.4 Production Control

2.2.4.1 Manufacture of Test Specimens

Test specimens shall be manufactured in an on-site laboratory, specially equipped for


the purpose, in controlled conditions.

They shall be made, cured, stored, transported and tested to BS EN 12390-2. The
method of compacting test specimens shall be as approved.

The testing machine shall comply with BS EN 12390-4 or equivalent, and shall be
housed in a laboratory and be calibrated to BS EN 10002-3 when delivered; the
calibration shall include the use of the Foote strain gauge (or equivalent) and be verified
at 3-monthly maximum intervals.

2.2.4.2 Sampling and Testing for Strength

A sample of concrete shall be taken at random on eight separate occasions during each
of the first five days of using a mix and tested for compressive strength. The standard
deviation shall be calculated from at least 40 individual cube results each representing
separate batches of similar concrete produced by the same plant under the same
supervision. The ‘current margin’ (CM) for the plant shall be thus established as 1.64
times the standard deviation.

Thereafter one sample shall be taken at random for each grade of concrete from every
group of 25 batches made by each batching plant, and at least one sample shall be
taken each day that concrete of a particular grade is made.

In addition to the above requirements, at least one sample shall be taken from each
individual structural unit, or part of a unit, when the latter is the product of a single pour.

From each sample three cubes shall be made for testing at 28 days and one for testing
at 7 days. The 28-day results shall be the mean of the three cubes.

The frequency of sampling may be required to be varied.

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The procedures may be required to be repeated when materials or design mixes are
changed.

The following information shall be recorded for each cube:

• Cube identification reference


• Concrete grade
• Site mixed or ready-mixed and supplier
• Location in the structure of the concrete represented by the cube
• Slump and temperature of the concrete

2.2.4.3 Sampling and Testing for Workability

Workability shall be measured by flow table method to BS EN 12350-5 or the slump test
BS EN 12350-2 (for slump values not exceeding 175 mm), at the site of the pour, on
each truck load of concrete delivered.

If workability is not appropriate at time of placing and compacting, the concrete may be
rejected and the mix may be required to be redesigned and retested.

2.2.4.4 Testing for Temperature

The temperature of each truck load of concrete shall be measured at site immediately
before placing.

2.2.4.5 Testing for Density

Random monitoring of the plastic density of the concrete shall be carried out weekly, in
accordance with BS EN 12350-6. The results shall be compared with the densities
established in Trial Mixes.

2.2.4.6 Testing for Chloride Content

The constituents of the concrete shall be tested to determine their chloride contents, as
required elsewhere in this Specification.

The Contractor shall submit for approval a calculation of the total estimated chloride
content of each concrete mix, with supporting documentation for chloride contents of
each material component. The calculation shall take account of the variability of chloride
content in each material component. The calculation shall also be updated weekly based
on production control test results from each material component, as in Clause 1.1. In
addition, the chloride content in the hardened concrete shall be tested monthly to
BS 1881-124, and shall not exceed the limits in Table 11.

Concrete shall comply with the limits on the individual ingredients as given elsewhere in
this specification and the total values for the concrete mix as in Table 11.

Table 11 Allowable Total Chloride Content

Concrete Total calculated in concrete mix Measured in hardened concrete


Type Action Level Max Value Action Level Max Value
Reinforced 0.16 0.20 0.20 0.30
Prestressed 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.15
Mass 0.40 0.50 0.50 0.65
Note: all value are % chloride ion by weight cement for individual determinations

When the Action Level is exceeded, further testing and inspection and corrective action
should be initiated to identify the causes and control the reoccurrence of high chloride

Page 28
values. Where the maximum value is exceeded the concrete will be considered non-
compliant and at risk of rejection.

2.2.4.7 Testing for Sulphate Content

Concrete shall comply with the limits on the individual ingredients as given elsewhere in
this specification and the total values for the concrete mix as given below.

The total estimated sulphate content (SO3) of the mix calculated from the ingredients
including that present in the cement shall not exceed 3.7% by weight of cement in the mix.

In addition, regular tests to BS 1881-124 shall be made on the hardened concrete to


determine the total sulphate content, which shall not exceed 4% by weight of cement in the
mix.

2.2.4.8 Total Alkali Content

The total alkali content of the concrete calculated in accordance with BRE Digest 330,
3
Part 2 shall not exceed 3.0 kg/m sodium oxide equivalent.

2.2.4.9 Testing for Chloride, Sulphate and Alkali Content

The permissible level of chlorides, sulphates and alkalis quoted in the above Clauses
shall not be considered as mean values for the whole of the Works, but shall apply to any
concrete.

2.2.4.10 Acceptability of Test Results

The cube strength results will be unacceptable if:

The 28-day results shall be examined both individually and for the running mean of groups
of four results as described in BRE Digest 326. After forty results have been obtained, the
overall average and the standard deviation of the 40 results shall be calculated.
Subsequently, the overall average and the standard deviation of sets of results shall be
calculated on overlapping sets of 4 and 40 results.

Test results will be acceptable if:

• The mean of the group of four test results exceeds the specified characteristic
compressive strength by at least 3 N/mm2
• Any individual test result is not less than the characteristic compressive strength less
2
3 N/mm .

The Contractor or supplier will respond by implementing one or more of the following:

• Changing the mix.


• Improving quality control.

If the range of individual strengths of specimens made from the same sample exceeds
15% of the mean then the method of making, curing and testing specimens shall be
checked. In the event of the range exceeding 20%, the Engineer will order one or more
of actions (a) to (e) above.

Further concreting operations shall be suspended until the Engineer is satisfied that an
acceptable mix is available. Proposals to change the mix may require the mix to be re-
designed and/or re-tested, as stated above.

The Engineer shall also review the unacceptable results and shall designate affected
structures as potentially defective in relation to the DS or SS (or both). The Contractor

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shall respond accordingly by submitting a proposal for a durability-based or strength-
based investigation (or both), of the designated structures for the Engineer’s approval.

The investigation shall include some or all the following:

• Sampling and laboratory testing.


• Performing durability-related tests if required by the Particular Specification.
• Non-destructive testing.
• Load-testing relevant structural units or parts.
• Submission of the investigation report.

The Engineer shall review the investigation report and instruct the Contractor on the
remedial actions, if any, to be taken. The Contractor shall carry out the investigation and
remedial measures as instructed at his own expense.

2.3 Pour Preparation

2.3.1 Pour Planning

2.3.1.1 Contractor’s Pour Sequence Proposals

The Contractor shall prepare and submit the following for approval:

• drawings showing proposed limit and sequence of individual pours, location of


construction joints and the height of lifts (unless shown on the design Drawings)
• proposals to minimise thermal and shrinkage strains in the concrete
• calculations and/or trials to demonstrate that shrinkage and thermal strains which will
develop in the concrete from the proposed sequence of placing the concrete in the
works, are acceptable

Calculations and trials utilising the concrete and replicating site conditions shall be
carried out at the Contractors expense as required and to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

The Contractor’s attention is drawn to the need to address the risk of Delayed Ettringite
Formation. The following precautions are outlined within the Specification and shall be
strictly adhered to by the Contractor:

• Limits on the aggregate and cement type and cement content to be used and a
requirement to make appropriate use of admixtures (Clauses 1.1.5.1 and 2.1)
• Restrictions on sulphate content of the cement and the concrete (Clauses 1.1.2 and
2.2.4.7)
• Limits on placing, peak, and differential temperatures (Clauses 2.3.1.2 and 2.7.3.1)
• For sections over 0.5 m minimum dimension, monitoring temperatures within trial
pours and the works and extracting cores for testing and examination
(Clause 3.6.9).

2.3.1.2 Temperature Control in Concrete Sections

Where the minimum dimension of the concrete element exceeds 600 mm, the Contractor
shall adopt special precautions, subject to approval, to avoid thermal cracking due to
temperature differential.

Temperature differential is defined as the difference in temperature between the form or


face of concrete pour and the centre of the pour, or at a distance of 1.5 m, whichever is
shortest. Peak temperature is defined as the maximum temperature at any point in a
pour.

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Concrete shall not be placed until the Contractor’s Pour Sequence Proposals, (and the
outcome of trials where performed), demonstrate that the temperature limits given in
Table 12 will not be exceeded.

The limits given in Table 12 may be revised upwards or downwards on the basis of the
Contractor’s Pour Sequence Proposals.

Furthermore, concrete pours may be rejected if temperature monitoring equipment


shows that the following limits have been exceeded.

Table 12 Maximum Temperature Limits in Hardened Concrete

Temperature Maximum
Differential 20°C
Peak 65°C (or 75°C where at least 25% PFA or 50% GGBS
have been incorporated in the concrete)

For pours having a minimum dimension exceeding 600mm, the Contractor’s Pour
Sequence Proposals shall also include the following:

• system for monitoring concrete temperatures


• formwork type and removal time
• time intervals between pours
• measurements of concrete heat of hydration
• proposed additional precautions including but not only, thermal insulation, concrete
cooling, or cooling pipes
• calculations of temperature and strain development at internal and surfaces, taking
account of ambient conditions and physical restraints, as well as the items listed
above
• reference should also be made to concreting temperatures and concrete cooling
techniques, as defined elsewhere in this Specification

For pours having a minimum dimension exceeding 600 mm, the Contractor shall also
undertake a trial pour under conditions representative of those anticipated during the
works. Thermocouples shall be used to monitor the ambient, core and surface
temperature values in the trial pour and in the works. Cores shall be removed from trial
pours and from any parts of the works which fail to comply with the limits on total
sulphate or peak temperature. The cores shall be subject to sulphate testing to BS 1881-
124, petrographic examination, and expansion testing. The expansion testing shall be to
the method in Appendix H of British Cement Association publication “Diagnosis of Alkali-
Silica Reaction”, except the cores shall be nominal 75 mm diameter and 150 mm long
(see Annex A). If the expansion exceeds 500 microstrain during the period of the test, the
concrete shall be assessed to be potentially at risk of developing Delayed Ettringite
Formation.

2.3.2 Reinforcement

2.3.2.1 Bending Schedule

The Contractor will be supplied with Drawings detailing the reinforcement required and
shall prepare for approval bending schedules in accordance with BS 8666. Laps and
anchorages shall be 45 bar diameters in length unless detailed otherwise.

2.3.2.2 Cutting and Bending

Steel rod reinforcement shall be cut, bent and fixed to BS 8110-1. Cold bending shall be
used which does not damage the material. Bending hot at a cherry-red heat not
exceeding 849°C may be approved except for bars dependent on cold-working for
strength. Bars shall not be cooled by quenching.

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All cutting and bending operations are to be carried out on a hard, free-draining platform,
on or off site, by cropping or sawing, but not by flame-cutting.

2.3.2.3 Fixing and Erection

The number, size, form and position of pieces of reinforcement shall be as shown on the
Drawings. They shall be held in position in the formwork during the placing of concrete
by use of distance pieces and spacer bars.

Links shall be taut so that bars are braced and the inside of their curved parts shall be in
contact with the bars being connected. Tying wire shall be twisted tight with pliers and
the free ends shall be bent inwards.

Top reinforcement in slabs shall be rigidly supported by chairs fabricated from reinforcing
steel, from the bottom reinforcement, as required for working loads.

Reinforcement shall be grit-blasted before use to remove rust, oil, grease, salt and other
deleterious matter, and where pitting has occurred the causes and products thereof.
Repeated blasting may be required when the reinforcement is in position, or partially cast
in. Partially-set concrete adhering to exposed bars during concreting operations shall be
removed.

Reinforcement temporarily projecting from the concrete at joints shall not be bent out of
position without approval, in which event the reinforcement shall be bent over a suitably
sized former to prevent any damage or over-stressing.

Electrical continuity within the reinforcement may be required to be provided and


demonstrated in accordance with the Particular Specification

2.3.2.4 Welding

Electric arc welding may be used, if approved, for joining bars. Covered-alloy or
shielded-arc electrodes shall conform to BS EN ISO 2560. Workmanship shall be to
BS EN ISO 17660-1 and BS EN ISO 17660-2. Joints shall be butt-welded with standard
double-V or double-U welds.

Electric arc welding of any reinforcement is prohibited on all bridgeworks.

2.3.2.5 Continuity Reinforcement at Joints

The use of mechanical couplers of any type or form in bridge structures shall only be as
detailed on the Drawings or as instructed by the Engineer. Couplers shall conform to the
requirements in BS 5400-6.

2.3.2.6 Depth of Cover

The location of reinforcement and nominal dimensions of concrete cover shall be as in


Table 12, or as shown on the Drawings, or in the Particular Specification, whichever is
the greater.

The Contractor shall submit for approval, details of his proposed quality control checking
of reinforcement position both before and after concreting, including checking typically at
least 5% of the surface areas of representative elements.

The Contractor will remain fully responsible for providing reinforced concrete with
reinforcement cover depths complying with the minimum cover requirements, that is,
nominal cover minus tolerance. At the commencement of construction, the Contractor
shall demonstrate that this can be achieved by constructing and checking trial panels or
by checking the first pours.

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The nominal target cover allows for a reinforcement fixing tolerance added to the
minimum cover required for durability. Table 13 below shows the tolerances AND the
effect of applying those tolerances to the nominal cover depths. For precast concrete the
tolerances allow for more the precise fixing expected from manufacturing processes.

Table 13 Depth of Cover to Reinforcement

Category Table 7 Zones Minimum Nominal Maximum


Cover Cover Cover
Internal Zone 1 40 mm 55 mm 70 mm
External Zone 4 50 mm 65 mm 80 mm
submerged solid
External Zone 2, 3, 5, 6 60 mm 75 mm 90 mm
Note
Assumed fixing tolerances for precast : 5 mm and in situ concrete : 15 mm

Nominal cover shall be measured to the reinforcement nearest to the concrete face
concerned.

The achievement of cover shall be confirmed by checking by calibrated cover meter after
concreting using a cover-meter in accordance with BS 1881-204.

2.3.2.7 Pre-pour Inspection

All aspects of reinforcement preparation as in the clauses above, are subject to


inspection and approval before concrete pouring.

2.3.7 False Work

2.3.7.1 False Work Design and Erection

It is the responsibility of the Contractor to design and erect all false work, which shall
support all dead and imposed loads, so that the lines and surfaces of finished members
are within permissible dimensional tolerances.

2.3.7.2 False Work Inspection

The Contractor will perform and record his own inspection of the false work, and shall
submit the same to the Engineer. The Contractor’s inspection and inspection records will
include, as a minimum, confirmation that the false work is

• built as designed,
• solidly founded,
• assembled from members which are straight and undamaged,
• securely and well fixed and connected,
• dimensionally correct

The same requirement for Contractor’s inspection shall apply to back propping or re-
propping as required.

After performing his inspections, the Contractor’s responsible person will issue the
Contractor’s Permit-to-Load, and shall submit the same to the Engineer with the
Contractor’s inspection records.

2.3.8 Formwork

2.3.8.1 Formwork Design

It is the responsibility of the Contractor to prepare the design for all formwork, which shall
support all dead and imposed loads, so that the lines and surfaces of finished members
are within permissible dimensional tolerances.

Page 33
2.3.8.2 Formwork Erection

Formwork and supports shall be cleaned and temporary openings shall be provided for
the removal of rubbish. The formwork shall be coated with an approved release agent
and the excess removed. Release agent shall not be allowed to come into contact with
concrete already placed or with reinforcement.

Formwork exposed to direct sunlight during the curing period shall be shaded.

2.3.8.3 Controlled Permeability Formwork

If required by the Drawings or the Particular Specification, Controlled Permeability


Formwork shall be fixed to the forms in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.

2.3.8.4 Formwork Inspection

Not less than 24 working hours notice shall be given for the inspection and approval of
the formwork and reinforcement, prior to which concrete shall not be placed.

Formwork shall be inspected in accordance with the requirements for false work
inspection, plus the following additional requirements:

• reinforcement
• depth of cover to reinforcement
• embedded items
• checking washing and cleaning

2.3.9 Jointing

2.3.9.1 Construction Joints

Joints shall be positioned to reduce their impact on the structural performance and
durability of the elements. In general horizontal joints shall be positioned at least 500 mm
above ground level and at least 500 mm above high water in marine locations. The
positions should be as shown in the approved drawings, and in accordance with the
Contractors Pour Sequence Proposals (Clause 2.3.1.1).

Joints shall be formed square to the work with keyways included.

Upon removal of the formwork, the joint face shall be inspected, and if the soundness of
the concrete is not approved the Contractor shall investigate and remedy defects to the
Engineers satisfaction.

Chemical surface retarders shall not be used.

Construction joints shall be sealed with an approved sealant on debonding tape at


external and liquid-contact faces.

Construction joints in water-retaining structures shall incorporate an approved water bar


and construction joint details shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval.

All construction joints are required to be leak-proof, unless an allowable rate of leakage
is stated in the Particular Specification.

In the event of leakage, the effects of the leakage on both durability and serviceability
shall be assessed and other corrective action taken in accordance with Clause 2.10.

2.3.9.2 Design Joints

Expansion and contraction joints shall be as shown on the Drawings.

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A contraction joint in a non-water-retaining structure shall form a plane of discontinuity in
the member. The concrete face first cast shall be painted with two coats of approved
paint before the adjacent concrete is placed. The adjacent concrete shall include a
groove against the joint for sealant. The exposed edges shall be sealed with an
approved sealant on approved de-bonding tape.

If a contraction joint may be vulnerable to contamination, the joint shall be sealed


immediately with an approved fluid as soon as the formwork has been removed.

An expansion joint in a non-water-retaining structure shall be formed as for a contraction


joint, but joint filler shall be included so that the adjacent concrete members can expand.

A design joint in a water-retaining structure shall include a continuous waterstop strip


fixed across the joint as shown on the Drawings. The concrete shall be free from
honeycombing and worked against the embedded part of the strip. Projecting portions of
the strip shall be protected from damage during operations and, in the case of rubber
and plastic, from light and heat.

Paint shall be applied to the lips of the loop of copper water stop and the loop filled
before embedding in the concrete, all in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions and
an approved method statement.

The method of jointing water stops shall be in accordance with the manufacturer'
s
instructions.

Injection hoses shall be provided if required by the Particular Specification.

All design joints are required to be leak-proof unless an allowable rate of leakage is
stated in the Particular Specification.

2.3.9.3 Cold Joints

In the event of a cold joint, normally considered to be any unplanned break in concreting
operations, concrete shall be removed to the approval of the Engineer and treated as a
construction joint.

2.3.9.4 Joint Sealants

Before application of the joint sealant, the surfaces of the joint shall be cleaned, dried
and primed, and a backing rod shall be installed, in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.

The joint shall be finished true and flush with the adjacent surfaces, subject to the
manufacturer’s instructions for final profile.

2.3.9.5 Water-stops and Water-bars

Approved water-stops/water-bars shall be provided in all joints subject to water pressure,


from either ground water or water-storage.

2.4 Batching

2.4.1 Batching Equipment

2.4.1.1 Machinery and Water Supply

Batching shall be by weigh-batching machines equipped with accuracy checks for the
weighing mechanism. The machines shall be cleaned, checked and adjusted regularly as
approved.

Page 35
The water supply to the concrete mixers shall have an approved metering system to
control and record the amount.

Very strict control is to be maintained to ensure that the correct quantity of admixture is
used at all times. The equipment to be used for dispensing and the method of
incorporating the admixture in the concrete shall be to the approval of the Engineer.

2.4.1.2 Calibration

Weighing and water-dispensing equipment shall be checked and calibrated at the start of
preliminary concrete tests and at weekly intervals, and the accuracy shall be maintained
within the tolerances described in BS 1305. The necessary test weights and the like shall
be kept available on site.

Scales shall be checked over their complete range by a specialist at intervals not
exceeding 6 months. In the event of non-compliance on calibration, all concrete
produced since the last compliant calibration will be at risk of rejection.

A calibrated container shall be used to check the accuracy of admixture dispensers once
each month. The results of these checks shall be notified to the Engineer.

2.4.1.3 Preparation and maintenance

Batching equipment shall be maintained in fully operational condition enabling consistent


measuring of concrete constituents within tolerances as shown in 2.4.1.4.

2.4.1.4 Tolerances

Batched materials shall be measured out within the tolerances in Table 14 and
discharged into the mixer without loss:

Table 14 Batching Accuracy

Material Accuracy % of the weight


Cement ± 2% of cement in the batch
Aggregate ± 2% of each aggregate in the batch
Water ± 2% of water added to the batch
Admixture ± 5% of admixture to be added to the batch

The batched quantities shall be adjusted to compensate for variation in the moisture
content of the aggregates with the approval of the Engineer.

2.4.2 Records

Daily returns shall be provided to the Engineer showing the quantities of cement and the
total volume batched of each grade of concrete for each section of the Works and
temporary Works.

2.5 Mixing

2.5.1 General

Concrete shall be mixed in batches in machines which comply with BS 1305. The
constituents shall be thoroughly mixed before discharge. The machines shall be capable
of discharging while running.

An adequately drained concrete slab shall be provided as a working platform unless


other arrangements are approved.

Page 36
Concrete mixing equipment must enable effective mixing of concrete constituents to
provide uniform and required consistence, based on an approved testing frequency.
Performance of the mixer must comply with uniformity tests (ASTM C94) performed
regularly.

Micro-silica shall be incorporated in slurry from and must be thoroughly dispersed in the
concrete.

No additional water shall be added during mixing except with approval of the Engineer.

The entire batch shall be discharged before the mixer is recharged.

2.5.2 Admixtures

Admixtures shall be dosed into the mixing water within the time allocated for adding
water to the mix, using approved dispensing equipment.

2.6 Transporting

2.6.1 Equipment

Concrete shall be transported by means, which prevent contamination (by dust, rain, and
so on) segregation or loss of ingredients, and shall be transported and placed within the
planned period and without significant loss of workability.

Ready-mixed concrete mixer trucks shall be subject to approval. Truck-type concrete


mixers shall be painted white and shall comply with the requirements of BS EN 12001.

2.6.2 Delivery Control

Ready-mix concrete delivery notes shall record the following information:

• Type of cement and cement content


• Type of cement replacement materials and content
• Maximum specified water/cement ratio
• Estimated free water/cement ratio of delivery
• Acceptance strength (AS) of concrete
• Date, time and place of commencement of concrete mixing
• Registration number of truck and name of depot
• Date and time of truck arrival
• Date and time of discharge of concrete from truck

The Contractor shall also record for each delivery:

• Position in the structure where the concrete delivery is placed


• Whether test cubes were taken from the delivery
• Actual slump measurements
• The amount of any water added on site

2.7 Placing and Finishing

2.7.1 General

Concrete shall be placed in the position and sequence indicated on the Drawings, or as
directed by the Engineer. Placing shall not commence until the following requirements
have been completed:

• the fixing and condition of reinforcement and items to be embedded has been
approved

Page 37
• the condition of the containing surfaces or formwork has been approved
• the Contractor’s responsible person has issued the Contractor’s Permit-to-Load and
has submitted the same to the Engineer with the Contractor’s inspection records

At least 24 hours’ notification shall be given by the Contractor to the Engineer of the
intention to place concrete.

2.7.2 Preparation

2.7.2.1 Placing on Ground

Before placing concrete for reinforced work on the ground, the formation shall be
compacted as specified and a screed of blinding concrete at least 50 mm thick shall be
applied to form a surface for construction.

All concrete placed below ground level shall be laid on a waterproof membrane and the
sides of such concrete below ground level shall be protected by a waterproof membrane,
as defined elsewhere in this Specification.

2.7.2.2 Placing on Rigid Substrates

Before placing concrete on or against rock, masonry, brickwork or old concrete, any
loose material shall be removed and the surface washed down, and water seepage shall
be stopped or channelled away from the work.

For mass concrete placed against masonry or brickwork the following shall apply:

• The mortar joints in the face-work shall have fully hardened.


• The surface shall be soaked prior to placing for a minimum of 30 minutes, and
standing water removed by air hose.
• The concrete shall be worked around ties and bond stones and into open joints.

2.7.2.3 Placing Underwater

Concrete to be placed in water shall normally be the subject of a Particular Specification.


The Contractor’s Method Statement for placing concrete underwater shall address, as a
minimum, Mix Design, Additives, Washout, and Placement Trials.

Underwater concrete shall be placed with minimum disturbance of the water. Concrete
shall not be placed into running water or waves. The specified concrete grade shall be
used and the mix design shall provide for good flowing ability but without segregation or
washout (of cement).

Tremie pipes, bottom-dump skips or other approved placing equipment shall be used.
Segregation shall be avoided.

Placing shall be commenced in approved sections and continued to completion.

The Tremie pipe shall be buried in the concrete and the pipe must not be emptied until
the pour is complete. If a bottom-dump skip is used, the contents shall be covered by
canvas or similar before lowering into the water. The doors shall be opened when the
skip is resting on the bottom with no tension in the support cable, and the skip shall be
lifted gradually so that the concrete flows out steadily.

2.7.2.4 Placing at Night

If approval has been given for placing at night or in dark interiors, adequate lighting shall
be provided where mixing, transportation and placing are in progress.

Page 38
2.7.3 Ambient Conditions

2.7.3.1 High Temperature Concreting

Concrete shall not be placed when the limits in Table 15 are exceeded:

Table 15 Temperature Limits for Concreting


Temperature Maximum
Concrete 32°C
Ambient shade 40°C

Most concreting operations performed between the months of April and October inclusive
should be considered “High Temperature Concreting”, and should comply with
“Recommendations for Hot Weather Concreting” in ACI 305, and with Concrete
Society/CIRIA “Guide to the construction of reinforced concrete in the Arabian
Peninsula”.

The following measures may be required amongst others to control the placing
temperature:

• Shade aggregate, cement silos, water tanks and concrete plant.


• Paint concrete plant white.
• Run concrete plant with flake ice before mixing or transporting concrete.
• Use chillers to cool the mixing water.
• Add flake ice as a proportion of the mixing water.
• Place concrete at night.
• Use liquid nitrogen.

As a minimum, the Contractor shall supply suitable equipment and record the following,
at the place of concreting, before and after every pour, or at 3-hourly intervals during
every pour, whichever is the more frequent:

• maximum/minimum thermometers
• shade and sun temperatures
• wind speed
• relative humidity

2.7.3.2 Plastic Shrinkage

The Contractor shall take all necessary measures to prevent plastic shrinkage cracking.
These measures shall include avoiding placing concrete under environmental conditions
when plastic shrinkage is likely to occur (refer to ACI 305 and Concrete Society/CIRIA
Guide, as above).

Special precautions are likely to be required for concrete containing micro-silica, flat
slabs, or when drying is promoted by high surface temperatures or exposure to wind.

2.7.3.3 Inclement Weather

Placing shall not take place in the open during high winds, storms, sand-storms or heavy
rains. If such conditions are likely to occur, the Contractor shall as a minimum provide
protection for the materials, plant, formwork and work-force so that work may proceed, or
consider postponing the pour. If strong winds are prevalent, protection of the newly-cast
concrete from the effects of drying, driving rain and/or sand/dust shall be ready before
concrete is poured.

Page 39
2.7.4 Placing Operations

2.7.4.1 General

Concrete shall be placed directly in its final position without segregation or displacement
of the reinforcement, embedded items and formwork.

Concrete shall be carefully placed in horizontal layers which shall be kept at an even
height through the work. The depth of layers and time between placing of layers shall be
such that each layer can be properly merged into the preceding layer before initial set
takes place. The depth of layers shall be determined from the type of plant the Contactor
proposes to use.

The size and sequence of pours shall be planned so as to minimise internal and external
restraint and associated thermal and shrinkage cracking. The size of pours shall be
maximised consistent with the rate of supply, placing and compaction.

Joints shall be at pre-determined locations. Construction shall generally proceed


progressively from one end of the structure and chequerboard placing shall be avoided.

Adjacent pours shall be placed within a period of 2 to 4 days, unless approved, to optimise
the requisite strength gain and minimise the effects of relative thermal movement and
shrinkage cracking.

2.7.4.2 Equipment

Concrete shall generally be placed without segregation by pumping or bottom-opening


skips. Concrete shall not be dropped into place from a height exceeding 1.5 m. If chutes
are used their slopes shall not cause segregation, and spouts or baffles shall be
provided.

The use of slip-forms or paving trains shall comply with the Particular Specification
covering all aspects of placing with these specialised techniques, and the Contractor’s
method statements shall be supported by engineering justifications.

2.7.4.3 Placing Time

Concrete and mortar must be placed and compacted within 90 minutes of water being
added to the mix or otherwise included via damp aggregates. This period may be
extended only with the use of approved concrete mixes with extended workability
retention, which has been demonstrated in Trial Mixes.

Partially-set concrete shall not be used in the Works.

2.7.4.4 Tremie

Approved Tremie pipes shall be used. If a rigid Tremie pipe is used, its discharge end
shall be kept below the surface of the fresh concrete at all times. The pipe must not be
emptied until the pour is complete.

2.7.4.5 Continuity of Placing

Concrete placing shall not be interrupted except where joints occur, and shall continue
after normal hours if necessary to achieve this.

Placing in each section of work shall be continuous between construction joints. The
Contractor shall make provision for standby equipment. If the placing of concrete is
delayed due to breakdown of equipment or other cause, then the Contractor shall erect
vertical stop-ends and form a construction joint or remove the concrete already placed
and restart after repair of the breakdown, as directed.

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Before placing is resumed at a joint the set surface shall be roughened to remove
laitance and expose the aggregate; the concrete shall have gained sufficient strength to
ensure that aggregate is not in any way damaged or loosened within the matrix. If
damaging materials, e.g. saline water, have come into contact with the surface of the
joint the concrete shall be cut back to an approved depth to remove contamination and
the roughened surface cleaned by compressed air or water jets, and brushed and
watered immediately before placing.

2.7.4.6 Compacting

Concrete shall be compacted during placing by approved internal vibrators, to a


minimum of 98% of the density of the relevant test cubes. The vibrators shall operate at
a frequency of not less than 10,000 cycles per minute, and shall be designed for
continuous operation. The performance of vibrators shall suit the working conditions, and
they shall generally not be less than 75 mm diameter. The radius of influence shall
ensure that the mass under treatment is compacted at a speed commensurate with the
rate of supply of concrete.

2.7.4.7 Vibration

Vibrators shall be operated such that each layer of concrete is well compacted and is
thoroughly intermixed with the previously placed layer at the joint line, and shall be
withdrawn from the concrete in a manner that does not form voids.

Vibration shall not to be applied directly or indirectly to concrete after the initial set has
taken place, nor shall it be used to make concrete flow in formwork.

2.7.4.7 Cathodic Protection

If cathodic protection is required by the Particular Specification, then special care is


required in concrete placing to avoid damage to any components to be included within
the concrete. Trial pours of full-scale mock-ups shall be made, incorporating the
reinforcement cages and the cathodic protection components, and subject to
comprehensive pre- and post- pour testing. Under such circumstances, special training
shall be provided to members of the Contractor’s supervision team and workforce for
placing, compaction and vibration operations.

2.7.5 Finishing and Tolerances

2.7.5.1 Minimum Requirements

A fine finish shall be provided unless detailed otherwise on the Drawings.

The finished faces of fine-finished concrete shall be sound, even coloured, even-textured
and free from defects. Arises shall have a 20 mm by 20 mm chamfer unless detailed
otherwise on the Drawings.

The surface of all finishes shall be protected from water drops.

2.7.5.2 Unformed Surface Finish

On upward-facing surfaces which do not require formwork or special finish, the finish
shall be produced by proper placing, compacting and finishing operations alone.

For a fair finish, screeding shall be used, carried out by sliding and tamping a screed
board running on the top edges of the formwork, or on screeding guides, to give a dense
concrete skin.

For a fine finish to unformed surfaces, screeding shall be used as described for a fair
finish. When the concrete has stiffened and the film of moisture has disappeared, a steel

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or wooden float shall be used to provide a glossy or sandpaper surface as required.
Working shall be the minimum compatible with the required standard of finish.

2.7.5.3 Chemical Retarders

Chemical surface retarders, if approved, may be used to produce an exposed aggregate


finish, and the Contractor shall demonstrate that the durability of the concrete surface is
not reduced.

Exposure of aggregates and/or removal of the laitance will reduce durability, and
additional durability provisions may be required by the Particular Specification as a
result.

2.7.5.4 Wire-Brushed Finish

After removal of the formwork, the surface of the concrete shall be abraded by stiff wire
brushes and water to remove the cement laitance and expose the aggregate.

Exposure of aggregates and/or removal of the laitance will reduce durability, and
additional durability provisions may be required by the Particular Specification as a
result.

2.7.5.5 Bush-Hammered Finish

Bush-hammering is likely to introduce micro-cracking into the concrete, which may


reduce durability, and additional durability provisions may be required by the Particular
Specification as a result.

The surface shall be abraded by carborundum stones to remove irregularities. Within


three weeks, the surface shall be bush hammered to remove the cement laitance and
expose the aggregate. Approved bush hammers shall be worked to within 12 mm of
corners and arises; the remaining 12 mm shall be hand-chiselled to match. Bush
hammers shall be operated perpendicularly to the surface, and the remaining exposed
aggregates shall not be loose or fractured. The treated surface shall be washed with
water and stiffly brushed. The exposed aggregate shall be clean and free from film.

2.7.5.7 Carborundum Finish

Carborundum finish shall be achieved by sprinkling carborundum grit on the unset


surface and working-in by wooden float. The grit shall vary in size between 1.18 mm
mesh and 0.60 mm mesh and shall be distributed evenly over the surface from a
1.18 mm hand-screen at the rate of 2.15 kg/m².

2.7.5.8 Control Panels

Before pouring concrete into the permanent works, the Contractor shall produce
specimen panels of finished concrete for approval. The approved panels shall be
retained by the Contractor for reference by the Engineer at any time to determine the
acceptability of concrete finishes in the Works.

2.7.5.9 Tolerances

The tolerances of concrete surfaces shall be as stated on the Drawings. Outline


guidance on tolerances for concrete surfaces are defined in Table 16.

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Table 16 OutlineTolerances for Concrete Surfaces

Description Tolerance
Foundations and Buried Concrete BS 5606, Table 1
Exposed Concrete BS 5606, Table 1
Floor Slabs for Self-levelling Floor BS 8204-1, Class SR3
Compound BS 5606 Deviation from plane ± 25 mm
Concrete Wearing Surface BS 8204-2, Class SR2
BS 5606 Deviation from plane ± 15 mm

2.7.5.10 Vacuum Dewatering

Vacuum dewatering of the concrete, if required by the Drawings or the Particular


Specification, shall be carried out by a specialist contractor with at least five years’
experience of application of the process in the Middle East.

Vacuum dewatering shall be achieved by the use of specialist system incorporating a


filter mat and vacuum extraction of water at a suction pressure of between 0.6 and 0.8
atmospheres.

Concrete with micro-silica shall not be used in areas subject to vacuum dewatering.
Where blast furnace slag or pulverised fuel ash are used, the test results of fineness of
the cement and cement substitute material shall be submitted to the specialist contractor,
and written acceptance of suitability obtained. For all mixes, the details of mix design
shall be submitted to the specialist contractor and written acceptance of suitability
obtained.

Following submittal of the contractor'


s method statement and initial approval, a trial area
of vacuum dewatering shall be carried out. The trial area of slab shall be at least 100 m²
and shall not be part of the permanent Works, and shall be laid using the mix, equipment
and personnel proposed. Finishes and joints within the trial area shall match the
requirements of the final slab.

Vacuum dewatering shall be carried out on each part of the slab for a period of one
minute for each centimetre of slab thickness, or as otherwise established by trial or
during the progress of the Works and agreed by the Engineer.

2.8 Curing and Protection

2.8.1 Importance of Curing

Curing must be recognised as an important process in the construction and therefore


must be properly included in the Contractor’s method statements, and inspection and
test plans.

Concrete containing blast-furnace slag, pulverised fuel ash, or micro-silica requires


particular attention to curing.

Concreting shall not take place until all Hessian, polythene and a supply of fresh water is
on the site and ready for use, and the relevant Method Statements and Inspection and
Test Plans have been submitted and approved.

Failure by the contractor to maintain proper and effective curing on the structures for the
periods and in the manners specified shall result in the Engineer designating any
affected areas as potentially defective as in Clause 2.10. The Contractor shall respond
accordingly by submitting a proposal for a durability-based or strength-based
investigation (or both), of the designated structures for the Engineer’s approval.

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In certain circumstances such as construction of marine structures, concrete will require
curing methods and durations which should follow the principles of this and subsequent
Clauses, but should be adapted to be feasible in the construction environment, and these
methods and durations will be subject to approval.

2.8.2 Duration

Concrete shall be protected as follows, immediately after placing, for the periods, from
casting, shown in Table 17 unless approved otherwise:

1. from the environment, including:


• sunshine and drying winds by approved shading and windbreaks
• cold, rain or running water and
2. from contamination by sea or brackish water, oil, fuel and other deleterious materials

Table 17 Curing Periods

Zones 1, 2 or 4, or no Zones 3, 5 or 6, or slag,


slag, pfa or ms pfa, ms
Environmental Protection (EP)
Initial water curing period First 7 days First 10 days
Further water curing period Total of 14 days Total of 28 days
or curing compound (that is, days 8–14) (that is, days 11–28)
Contamination protection
During and after the EP Total of 28 days Total of 28 days

2.8.3 Application Methods

2.8.3.1 Curing Compounds

Curing compounds shall be applied shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s


recommendations.

In the event that coatings to be applied to the concrete surface would be inconsistent
with the use of curing compounds, the wet curing shall be continued up to a total of 14
days and 28 days respectively.

2.8.3.2 Horizontal Upper Surfaces

The following measures shall be taken to prevent the loss of moisture in the surface of
the concrete:

• Polythene sheeting shall be placed immediately after finishing.


• After final set has taken place, the polythene shall be replaced either by ponding, or
by wet hessian covered with polythene; and the hessian kept permanently damp.
• After the initial water curing period, either the water curing shall be continued, or the
hessian and polythene may be removed and an approved curing compound shall be
applied.

2.8.3.3 Horizontal Lower Surfaces (Soffits)

The following measures shall be taken to prevent the loss of moisture in the surface of
the concrete:

• Soffit formwork shall be retained for the duration of the initial water curing period.
• After the initial period, the soffit formwork may be removed and an approved curing
compound shall be applied.

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2.8.3.4 Vertical Surfaces

The following measures shall be taken to prevent the loss of moisture in the surface of
the concrete:

• Polythene over wet hessian shall be secured to the surfaces immediately after
removal of the formwork. The hessian shall be kept permanently damp.
• After the initial water curing period, either the water curing shall be continued, or the
hessian and polythene may be removed and an approved curing compound shall be
applied.

2.8.3.5 Alternative Methods

Alternative methods of curing may be applicable, such as fog spray, leaving formwork in
place or applying surface coatings, but must be approved before use.

2.8.4 Insulation

Insulation in the form of insulating formwork, insulating blankets and/or other approved
insulating materials, shall be left in place until it can be removed without causing thermal
distress to concrete in thick sections as described in section 2.3.1 of this Specification.
The curing period above may then be reduced in proportion subject to approval.

2.8.5 Protection of joints

Rebates formed to receive sealant and the surfaces of construction joints shall be
protected from the curing compound by wet hessian to ensure proper curing of the joint
surface and adjacent concrete. The protection shall remain in place until the joint surface
is sealed.

2.9 Post-concreting

2.9.1 False work and Formwork Removal

2.9.1.1 Strength

Formwork shall be removed without damage to the concrete, but not until the concrete
has sufficient strength to support itself. Centres and props may be removed when the
member has sufficient strength to carry itself and any loading. External loading shall not
be applied until the concrete has reached the 28-day characteristic strength.

The information in Table 18 is a guide to the minimum periods between placing concrete
and removing formwork. Reference should also be made to Clause 2.8, Curing and
Protection.

Table 18 Guide to Formwork Removal Periods

Cement Type Configuration Lift Height Minimum Period


Vertical sides of Not exceeding 12 hours
beams, walls, 1.2 m
columns exceeding 1.2 m 36 hours
OPC, MSRPC
and SRPC Soffits of main n/a Shutter removal after 5
slabs and beams days
Prop removal after total 18
days
Other cement To be determined in accordance with:
types CIRIA Report 136, “Formwork Striking Times – criteria, prediction and
methods of assessment”

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After removal of formwork, remedial work shall not be undertaken until the concrete has
been inspected and approved.

2.9.1.2 Removal Permit

Removal of false work or formwork shall not commence until the following requirements
have been completed:

• the concrete strength has been approved


• any back-propping or re-propping required has been installed, inspected and
approved in accordance with the requirements of Clause 2.3.7.2 for false-work
inspection before concreting
• the Contractor’s responsible person has issued the Contractor’s Permit-to-Unload
and has submitted the same to the Engineer with the Contractor’s inspection records

At least 24 hours notification shall be given by the Contractor to the Engineer of the
intention to remove false work or formwork.

2.9.1.3 Re-use of Formwork

When formwork is to be reused, it shall be cleaned immediately after removal from


previous use and shall be stored separately.

Prior to re-use clean and repair all damage caused by placing, removal or storage.
Forms to be reused shall be straight, clean, free from nails, dirt, hardened concrete, rust,
and other injurious matter with edges and surfaces in good condition.

Reuse of formwork that would reduce quality of exposed-to-view concrete will not be
permitted. Forms shall not be reused for Architectural concrete if there is any evidence of
surface wear or defects that would impair the appearance of the surface.

2.9.2 Below-Ground External Tanking

2.9.2.1 Sheet Tanking Membrane

This section covers both membranes onto which concrete is to be poured, and
membranes which are applied to concrete after casting.

Sheet tanking membrane shall be applied as per the design, drawings, and any
Particular Specification, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations and standard details. Typical requirements to be followed are set out
below.

Generally, for floor slabs, the membrane shall be applied to the blinding concrete, which
shall be placed to extend at least 200 mm outside the lines of the floor slab.

Typically for a membrane being applied onto a cast vertical face, the dry surface shall be
cleaned and primed in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. A fillet 25 mm by
25 mm of bitumen putty shall then be formed at the corner between the wall and the
protruding membrane-covered blinding layer. The membrane shall then be backed to the
wall, brought down over the fillet, and extended over the protruding margin of the bottom
membrane to form a watertight seal. A layer of concrete or mortar shall be placed over
the jointed section. Minimum 150 mm overlaps shall be provided at joints.

Cold applied rubber/bitumen mastic compound, or bitumen putty for trowel application, or
similar approved product, shall be used for moulding into fillets and collars, and tapes
shall be used for sealing around pipes and irregularities.

Typically, the membrane shall extend to 75 mm below finished ground level where it shall
be tucked into a 20 mm by 20 mm continuous rebate, secured by canalised hardwood

Page 46
battens fixed at 300 mm centres by shot-fired masonry nails, and pointed with approved
sealant.

Typically, above membrane tuck-in level, the vertical edges of concrete structures shall
be coated to 200 mm above finished ground level, or other level as detailed on the
Drawings, with an approved pitch extended epoxy resin, or similar approved coating to a
minimum thickness of 250 microns.

2.9.2.2 Brush-Applied Tanking membrane

Substructures shall be protected externally, where required, with a two-coat brush-


applied tanking membrane applied to the top of blinding concrete and to the outside
surfaces of all buried concrete.

The surfaces shall be cleaned and brought to a fine finish, as in Clause 2.7.5 of this
Specification, before coating, in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. Each coat
shall be applied at the rate specified by the manufacturer.

2.9.2.3 Protection Board

All membranes shall be protected from mechanical damage during backfilling by an


approved permanent protection board. The board shall be neatly cut to closely abut at
joints which shall be continuously taped with 75 mm wide strips of heavy-duty self-
adhesive tape.

2.9.3 Above-Ground Coatings

2.9.3.1 Requirement

All exposed surfaces of reinforced concrete elements shall be protected by a water


repellent, chloride resistant coating, except as specifically shown on the Drawings.

2.9.3.2 Surface Preparation

Surfaces shall be lightly grit blasted to remove all contamination such as oil, grease,
loose particles, decayed matter, laitance, mould release oils and curing compounds.

Any surface defects and blow holes shall be filled to produce a fine finish as in Clause
2.7.5 using a proprietary product such as an acrylic modified cementitious repair fairing
coat (or mortar for larger defects), the durability performance of which shall be no less
than the original concrete. The repair shall be completed at least 48 hours before
application of coatings.

2.9.3.3 Application

The complete coating system, including primers, shall be applied in accordance with the
manufacturer’s instructions.

Coatings shall be applied by a specialist applicator approved by the manufacturer and


the Engineer, and shall have at least five years’ proven successful experience.

A method statement for application shall be submitted for approval giving full details of all
proposed equipment and application methods and safe access provisions. The method
statement shall include wet and dry film thickness tests, pull off tests and any other
quality control tests appropriate to the coating performance.

Sample panels of each coating type shall be prepared, as the basis of approval by the
Engineer of both the material and the applicator, on L shaped panels comprising vertical
and horizontal surfaces of at least 1 m² each.

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Full records of areas coated, quantity of material applied, ambient and substrate
temperature, and humidity during coating and curing, shall be kept on a daily basis and
submitted to the Engineer.

2.10 Non-Compliant Concrete

2.10.1 Identification

The Contractor shall immediately bring all defects and/or the need for repair to the
attention of the Engineer, who may designate the concrete concerned as non-compliant.

Whether or not it has been brought to the attention of the Engineer by the Contractor,
concrete may be designated non-compliant by the Engineer on the basis of various
conditions such as the following:

• unacceptable test results


• low depth of cover to reinforcement
• cracks, honeycombing or other defects
• finish or appearance not consistent with approved control panel

2.10.2 Investigation

The Contractor shall respond accordingly by submitting a proposal for an appropriate


investigation of the designated structures for the Engineer’s approval.

The investigation shall include some or all the following:

• Sampling and laboratory testing.


• Performing durability-related tests if required by the Particular Specification.
• Non-destructive testing.
• Load-testing relevant structural units or parts.
• Submission of the investigation report.

2.10.3 Reporting

The Engineer shall review the investigation report and instruct the Contractor on the
remedial actions, if any, to be taken. The Contractor shall make clear records of the
location and nature of the corrective action. The Contractor shall carry out the
investigation and remedial measures as instructed at his own expense.

2.10.4 Concrete Repairs

Repair materials, material testing requirements, and procedures for repairs to concrete
structures shall be as stated in BS EN 1504, unless particular requirements are
determined for the particular project circumstances.

Repair procedures may include techniques such as the following or others as approved:

• Resin injection of cracks


• Cutting out and reinstatement of concrete using polymer modified cementitious repair
mortars
• Demolition and recasting

Proposed methods and materials for carrying out repairs to defective concrete work shall
be submitted by the Contractor in the form of a detailed proposal for approval by the
Engineer.

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No work shall be carried out until the Engineer' s approval has been obtained. Any
concrete work, finish or surface which has been repaired before being inspected by the
Engineer shall be liable to rejection.

In general, repairs and remedial methods shall be based on the use of cementitious
materials.

3 PART 3 PRE-CAST CONCRETE

3.1 Source and Type Approval

3.1.1 Source Approval

The Contractor shall submit the following for approval:

• name of proposed precast subcontractor


• details of the contractor’s own, or subcontractor’s, facilities, methods and experience
• evidence of assessment of factory production control in accordance with Clause
6.1.3.2 of BS EN 13369
• details of the inspection schemes being applied in accordance with the guidance in
Annex D of BS EN 13369.

3.1.2 Type Approval

Mass produced concrete products shall generally comply with BS EN 13369 or a specific
product standard, Precast concrete products shall comply with BS EN 13369, except
where indicated in Clause 3.1.2 to 3.2.7 below.

The Contractor shall submit the following for approval:

• evidence of demonstration of compliance in accordance with the product standard or


Clause 6.1.2 of BS EN 13369.

• details of the proposed acceptance testing at delivery in accordance with Annex F of


BS EN 13369.

• evidence of assessment of the product in accordance with Clause 6.1.3.3 of


BS EN 13369.

• for precast structural units, full design details with relevant calculations, to
demonstrate full compliance with BS 8110.

• for precast structural units and bespoke architectural units individual mould drawings,
reinforcement drawings and schedules for each type of pre-cast unit.

3.1.3 Materials Approvals

Materials shall comply with the relevant requirements of this specification.

All inserts, fixings, or shims which remain permanently embedded in the works shall be
of stainless steel and shall be electrically isolated from reinforcing bars.

• All nuts, bolts and screws shall be stainless steel of grade A4-70 to
BS EN ISO 3506-1 and BS EN ISO 3506-2, to the dimensions of BS 3692.

• The screw threads shall be standard coarse pitch ISO to BS 3643-1.

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• Structural design shall comply with the requirements of BS 5950 and with The Steel
Construction Institute Publication 123: ‘Concise guide to the structural design of
stainless steel’.

• Washers shall be of grade A4-70 to BS EN ISO 3506-1 and BS EN ISO 3506-2 and
manufactured in accordance with the requirements of BS 4320, Form A.

• Machined fixings shall be of stainless steel grade 1.4404 to BS EN 10088.

• Hexagon socket screws shall have dimensions in accordance with BS EN ISO 4762,
BS EN ISO 4026, BS EN ISO 4027, BS EN ISO 4028, BS EN ISO 4029 and
BS EN ISO 7380.

3.2 Methodology and Workmanship

3.2.1 Method Statement Approvals

The principles of Parts 1, 2 and 5 of this specification apply generally, as varied by or


added to by the requirements of this section and the Particular Specification if provided.

The Contractor shall submit the following for approval:

• details of proposals for casting, handling, storage, transportation, delivery, erection,


and protection, including a detailed programme for the same
• full design details for lifting devices with relevant calculations
• his own inspection and testing plan, including as a minimum, dimensional accuracy,
cover to reinforcement, and twist, squareness and flatness.

Precast products which are not produced by a manufacturer to a recognised standard,


must be treated as in-situ concrete.

Precast products which are produced by a manufacturer to a recognised standard must


be accompanied by test data and certification to confirm suitability for the intended
application.

3.2.2 Prototype Approvals

The Contractor shall cast samples of each typical type of pre-cast unit for approval, and
approved units shall be retained on site as the control standard for subsequent panel
production.

Load testing, water-tightness testing, or other testing, of prototypes, shall be performed


in accordance with the Particular Specification; similarly prototype units may be required
as a visual standard.

3.2.3 Manufacture

Pre-cast concrete units shall be cast on manufactured beds. The beds shall not be liable
to settlement and shall have smooth, hard and level surfaces.

Each unit shall be marked with a serial number and other information in accordance with
Section 7 of BS EN 13369.

Steel bars shall not be embedded in the concrete for lifting.

Cubes and flexural strength samples shall be made as required to demonstrate that pre-
cast units have gained sufficient strength to be lifted. Units shall not be removed from the
beds until the representative flexure-test beams reach adequate strength for handling

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and shall not be placed until the cubes representing them reach the appropriate 28-day
characteristic strength.

All concrete for one pre-cast unit shall be placed in one operation except where a special
facing mix is required, in which case the two mixes shall be placed within 2 hours of each
other.

Minimum striking times shall be in accordance with this specification, except in


accordance with the Particular Specification and/or approved submittals.

3.2.4 Storage, Curing and Protection

Handling and stacking shall avoid overstressing and deflection of the pre-cast units.

Units shall only be lifted from inserts provided for lifting.

The Contractor shall ensure that units are protected from contamination (including
saline), staining or damage.

Curing and protection shall comply as a minimum with Clause 2.8, except where
otherwise approved.

3.2.5 Delivery

Units shall be delivered to the construction site in accordance with a pre-planned delivery
sequence, which shall be designed to minimise accumulation of units on site.

The Contractor’s delivery procedure shall include inspection, acceptance testing and
action to be taken when units are found to be defective, including setting aside and
marking products to ensure they are not incorporated in the works.

3.2.6 Installation

All pre-cast units are to be placed on an even layer of cement mortar, or other approved
bedding.

Bedding, backing and jointing shall be in accordance with the approved method
statement and/or Particular Specification.

Shims shall be positioned in accordance with the design and so as to provide a stable
bearing.

Preparation and placing of in-situ bedding mortar or concrete stitching joints shall be in
accordance with the approved method statements and programme.

The Contractor shall submit details for approval to demonstrate the proposed materials
will provide the required performance over the intended life in accordance with the
design.

3.2.7 Tolerances

Minimum tolerances required for pre-cast units are set out in Table 19 below.

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Table 19 Tolerances for Pre-cast Units (dimensions in mm throughout)

Length 0 – 3000 3001 – 4500 4501 – 6000


(and add ± 6 per 6000 over 6000) ±6 ±9 ± 12
Cross section 0 – 500 501 – 750 per extra 250
(each direction) ±3 ±5 ±2
Straightness or bow (deviation from 0 – 3000 3001 – 6000 6001 – 12000
intended line) ±3 ±5 ± 12
Squareness 0 – 1000 1001 – 2000 over 2000
(max. distance of shorter side from a
longer side, of two sides meeting at a
corner, according to length of longer side) ±3 ±5 ±6

Twist (maximum vertical distance of a


0 – 3000 3001 – 6000 6001 – 12000
corner from the plane containing three
other corners, according to length of
longer side) ±6 ±9 ± 12
max. 6 deviation from a 1,500-long
Flatness straight edge placed on a nominally flat
surface
0 – 3000 Over 3000
Erection (in plan)
±6 ± 10
max. ± 6 deviation out of horizontal, within
Erection (in level)
the plan area
Erection (in plumb) max. ± 6 deviation within a storey height
± 20, or as stated in the Particular
Maximum deviation within total height
Specification

The cumulative nature of tolerances shall be taken into consideration when designing fixings
and joints, ensuring fit between components and positioning and members to meet limits on
total deviation.

4 PART 4 SPECIAL CONCRETE

4.1 General

All Special Concretes shall have a Particular Specification. In the event that none is provided
by the Client, the Contractor shall prepare a Particular Specification for review and Approval
by the Client.

All Special Concretes shall comply with the requirements of the other sections of this
Specification, the requirements of this section, and the requirements of the Particular
Specification.

4.2 Lightweight Concrete

4.2.1 Aggregate

Lightweight aggregate shall comply with BS EN 13055-1 including some not within
the scope of BS EN 206-1 and PD 6682-4.

For lightweight aggregates specified in accordance with BS EN 13055-1, the producer


should specify to the aggregate supplier the requirements for lightweight aggregates given in
this clause, together with the following:

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• maximum aggregate size
• grading including tolerances
• target loose bulk density.

Lightweight aggregates shall conform to the following requirements:

• The acid soluble sulphate content shall be not more than 1 % when measured in
accordance with BS EN 1744-1;
• For furnace bottom ash or clinker, the loss-on-ignition shall be not more than 10 % when
measured in accordance with BS EN 1744-1.

Where fine lightweight aggregate is to be used, the method of determination of the water
absorption shall be selected by the producer and documented. The producer shall supply
details of the test method to the specifier, if requested (see BS 8500-1, 5.2).

There is no standard test method; the most appropriate technique will depend on the type of
lightweight aggregate used. The specifier may require a different method to be used.

The method given in BS EN 1097-6, Annex C is not applicable to aggregates with particle
sizes less than 4 mm.

4.2.2 Storage

Lightweight aggregate should be stored in single-size fractions in enclosed free-draining


bays to minimise moisture fluctuations through the stockpile and prevent intermixing with
normal-weight aggregate.

4.2.3 Batching

The moisture content of lightweight aggregate shall be monitored daily and the water
absorption or free moisture content of the aggregate shall be allowed for when calculating
the water to be added to the batch.

4.2.4 Admixture

Concrete mixes incorporating lightweight aggregate shall incorporate appropriate pumping


aids.

4.2.5 Placing and compaction

The method of placing and compacting the concrete shall prevent flotation of coarse
aggregate and formation of excessive blowholes in the finished surface.

4.2.6 Testing

Lightweight aggregate concrete testing shall be in accordance with BS EN 206-1, Annex A.

4.3 Pavement Concrete

4.3.1 General

The principles of parts 1, 2 and 5 of this specification apply generally, as varied by or added
to by the requirements of this section and the Particular Specification.

4.3.2 Testing

A sample of mass concrete for paving shall be taken at random on eight separate occasions
during each of the first five days of using a mix and tested for flexural strength. The standard
deviation shall be calculated from at least 40 individual results each representing separate
batches of similar concrete produced by the same plant under the same supervision. The

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current margin for the plant shall be thus established as 1.64 times the standard deviation.

Thereafter one sample shall be taken at random for each grade of concrete from every group of
25 batches made by each batching plant, and at least one sample shall be taken each day that
concrete of a particular grade is made.

In addition to the above requirements, at least one sample shall be taken from each individual
structural unit, or part of a unit, when the latter is the product of a single pour.

From each sample three specimens shall be made for testing at 28 days and one for testing at
7 days for control purposes. The 28-day result shall be the mean of the three specimens.

The frequency of sampling may be required to be varied.

The procedures shall be repeated when materials or design mixes are changed.

4.4 No-Fines Concrete

The aggregate for no-fines concrete shall be coarse graded from 10 mm to 20 mm. A small
percentage of fines from 10 mm to 5 mm may be added to improve the strength if approved.
Cement shall be mixed with the aggregate in the proportion of 1 to 8 by volume. Segregation of the
cement grout shall be prevented.

4.5 “Granolithic” Concrete

Granolithic concrete for heavy duty concrete floor finishes shall consist of one part cement to three
parts of combined crushed coarse and fine aggregate by weight. The combined aggregate grading
shall be as in Table 20.

Table 20 Aggregate Grading for Granolithic Concrete

BS Sieve (mm) Percentage Passing


14 100
10 95 – 100
5 30 – 45
2.36 30 – 35
1.18 15 – 25
0.60 10 – 20
0.30 5 – 10
0.15 0–5

Aggregates for granolithic concrete shall as a minimum:

• comply with the requirements for heavy duty floor finishes in BS EN 12620, except as modified
by this specification or the Particular Specification
• be suitable for a wearing finish
• be selected in accordance with criteria in this specification for hardness, surface texture and
particle shape, and deleterious substances
• consist of crushed rock with a 10% fines value not less than 150 kN

Granolithic concrete screed shall be laid on top of the unset base concrete, and compacted and
worked to the correct levels. The surface shall be floated with a steel float after hardening until
water sheen has disappeared. Cement or cement-sand shall not be sprinkled onto the surface.
The layer shall be 12 mm to 18 mm thick.

If a granolithic layer is required to be placed on set concrete, the latter shall be scrabbled and
cleaned to expose the aggregate, and an approved bonding agent applied. The layer shall not be
less than 50 mm thick.

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If required, compounds shall be added or applied to give a concrete with improved dust-proof and
oil-proof qualities. The compounds shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer' s
instructions.

Granolithic concrete paving shall be placed in panels not exceeding 3 m square. Approved
contraction joints shall be provided around the perimeter of each panel.

4.6 Glass Reinforced Cement (GRC)

4.6.1 Materials

4.6.1.1 Source Approval

Glass Reinforced Cement products shall be manufactured in accordance with the requirements of
BS EN 1169: Precast concrete products. General rules for factory production control of glass-fibre
reinforced cement.

Test data demonstrating, compliance with the requirements of BS EN 1170: Parts 1 – 7: Pre-cast
concrete products: test methods for glass-fibre reinforcement and the International Glass fibre
Reinforced Concrete Association: Method of testing glass fibre reinforced cement (GRC) material
shall be submitted.

When required by the Engineer representative samples shall be submitted and an inspection of the
manufacturing facility shall be offered.

Preference shall be given to any manufacturer operating a certified quality system. This may be
BS EN ISO 9001 or BS EN ISO 9002 of the GRCA Approved Manufacturer’s Scheme.

4.6.2 Delivery Control

4.6.2.1 Documentation

Each delivery of pre-cast GRC items shall be accompanied by the following documentation:

• Delivery documentation indication documentation indicating for each item:


o the date of manufacture of each item
o the standard used to control the manufacturing process
• Quality Control Documentation providing assurance that test of delivered product undertaken
in accordance with the applicable requirements of BS EN 1170 and International Glass fibre
Reinforced Concrete Association: Methods of testing glass fibre reinforced cement (GRC)
material were satisfactory.
• Manufacturer’s recommendations for Handling, Storage, Packaging and Protection.

4.6.2.2 Handling Storage Packaging and Protection

Handling storage packaging and protection shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s
recommendations.

Items damaged in such a way that they are structurally unsound or their appearance is not in
accordance with approved samples shall be rejected.

4.6.3 Methodology and Workmanship

Installation methodology and workmanship shall be in accordance with the requirements of Clause
3.2.

4.7 Mortars, Grout and Render

4.7.1 General

Mortar, grout and render shall be used freshly mixed.

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4.7.2 Cement Mortar

Cement-mortar shall normally consist of one part cement to four parts fine sand by volume with
just enough water to achieve workability.

4.7.3 Grout

Grout shall consist of cement mixed with water in approved proportions. Fine sand may be
included in approved quantities. Approved admixtures may be included to meet project-specific
performance requirements.

4.7.4 Render

Rendering shall consist of three parts fine, sharp sand to one part cement applied in two 10 mm
coats and one 5 mm finishing coat. The colour of the finishing coat shall be as approved.

4.7.5 Acid-Resistant Epoxy Mortar

Acid-resistant epoxy mortar shall be obtained from an approved manufacturer and shall be applied
in accordance with the manufacturer' s instructions.

5 PART 5 SUMMARY

5.1 Approvals

5.1.1 Submittals

5.1.1.1 Method Statements


• Every concreting operations (or linked set of operations) including inspection and test plan.
• Concreting operations including cathodic protection.
• Underwater concreting operations having mix design, activities, wash out and placement trials.
• Details and method of incorporating micro-Silica.
• Grouting method for pre-stressing.
• Method of incorporating the admixture.
• Method of Vacuum dewatering.
• Application of coatings (including equipment/access and testing).
• Method of bedding, backing and jointing of pre-cast units.
• Method of determination of water absorption for light weight aggregates.
• Method of Application of paint
• Method of testing glass fibre reinforcement.

5.1.1.2 Test Certificates


• Third party quality assurance in accordance with ISO 9001 for all materials.
• Periodic testing of cement, aggregates and reinforcement as per frequency mentioned in the
specification.
• Water testing before and during duration of contract. Tests to verify for sulphate and chloride
content shall be carried out every month.
• Tanking sheet membrane
• Laboratory trial mixes for various tests mentioned in the document.
• Plant trial/site mixes for various tests mentioned in the document.
• Compressive strength testing for concrete for all test specimens.
• Testing certificate for cement.
• Testing for density of concrete
• Testing for chloride content, sulphate and alkali content for each concrete mix.

5.1.1.3 Manufacturer’s Certificates


• Cement manufacture test certificate for each consignment of cement brought on site.
• Statement from ready mix supplier confirming suitability of concrete for each application.

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• Test Certificates for reinforcement bars.
• Details of pre-cast subcontractor facilities (methods, experience and inspection schemes).
• Polypropylene fibres
• Test and product analysis certificates shall be provided for stainless steel reinforcement
• Details of pre-tensioned pre-cast elements showing source, unit and concrete type.
• Admixture (including compatibility).
• Test certificate for grout.

5.1.2 Inspections

• Inspection of storage condition of bagged cement


• Inspection of storage condition of steel reinforcement
• Inspection of storage condition of pre-stressing components
• Pre-pour inspection
o the fixing and condition of reinforcement and items to be embedded has been approved
o the condition of the containing surfaces or formwork has been approved
o the Contractor’s responsible person has issued the Contractor’s Permit-to-Load and has
submitted the same to the Engineer with the Contractor’s inspection records
• False work inspection
o built as designed,
o solidly founded,
o assembled from members which are straight and undamaged,
o securely and well fixed and connected,
o dimensionally correct
o propping and back propping
• Formwork
o reinforcement
o depth of cover to reinforcement
o embedded items
o checking washing and cleaning
• Joint Face (Post Concrete)
• Inspection prior to executing any concrete repairs

5.1.3 Tests

Table 21 Tests and Standards


Property Standard
Cement
Finess or Specific Surface Area BS EN 196-6
Soundness and setting time BS EN 196-3
Strength BS EN 196-1
Chloride BS EN 196-2
Sulphate BS EN 196-2
Major Oxides (Ca, Si, Al, Mg, Fe) BS EN 196-2
Insoluble residue BS EN 196-2
Loss on Ignition BS EN 196-2
Moisture content BS EN 15167, Annex A
(ggbs and pfa) BS EN 450
Alkali (Na2O equivalent) BS EN 196-2
Glass content (ggbs) BS 6699
45 micron residue (pfa)_ BS EN 450
Activity Index (pfa and ggbs) BS EN 196-1

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Property Standard
Aggregates
Source approval BS 812
Hollow shells content (BS 812-103.1)
Material passing 75 micron BS 410 / BS 812-103
Grading (BS 812-103)
Magnesium sulphate soundness BS 812-121
Specific gravity BS 812-2
Water absorption BS 812-2
Clay, silt and dust content BS 812-103
Clay lumps and friable particles) ASTM C142
Organic impurities ASTM C40, ASTM C87
Acid soluble sulphate content BS 812-118
Acid soluble chloride content BS 812-119
10% fines value for coarse aggregates BS 812-111
Elongation BS 812-105.1
Flakiness BS 812-105.2
Los Angeles abrasion test, ASTM C131 & ASTM C535
Drying shrinkage BS 812-120
Moisture content BS 812-109
ASTM C295, BS 812-104
Alkali silica reactivity
ASTM C289 & ASTM C1260

Water
pH BS EN 1008
Total dissolved salts BS EN 1008
Suspended solids BS EN 1008
Alkali bicarbonate BS EN ISO 9963-2

Reinforcement
Reinforcement testing BS 4449
BS 7973
Concrete spacers
BS 1881-121

Grouts for Prestressing


Grouts for Prestressing BS EN 446

Tanking Membrane
Tape Strength ASTM D638
Tensile Strength ASTM D638
Elongation Film ASTM D638
Tear Resistance ASTM D1004

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Property Standard
Adhesion to Primed Concrete ASTM D1000
Adhesion to Self ASTM D1000
Puncture Resistance ASTM E154
Water Resistance ASTM D570
Environmental Resistance ASTM D543
Moisture Vapour Transmission Rate ASTM E96
Adhesive Softening Point ASTM D36

Concrete Test
BS EN 12350-2
Workability or consistence
BS EN 12350-5
Air content BS EN 12350-7
Fresh concrete density BS EN 12350-6
Bleeding ASTM C232 (non-vibrating)
Concrete compressive strength BS EN 12390-3
Flexural strength BS EN 12390-5
Hardened concrete density BS EN 12390-7

Concrete Durability Test


Absorption BS EN 1097-6 or equivalent
BS 1881-5:1970 and BS 1881-
Initial surface absorption tests (ISAT)
208:1996 or equivalent
Penetration of water DIN 1048 or equivalent
Chloride penetration Nordtest Method NT Build 492
Chloride Content BS 1881-124
Sulphate content BS 1881-124
Cover BS 1881-204

Precast Units
Concrete compressive strength BS EN 12390-3
Flexural strength BS EN 12390-5

Lightweight Concrete
Sulphate content aggregate BS EN 1744-1
Loss on ignition of aggregate BS EN 1744-1
Concrete BS EN 206-1, Annex A

5.1.4 Mock-ups or Trials

The following trials shall be undertaken:

• Production of concrete using white cement (Clause 1.1.2.2)

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• Admixture compatibility trials (Clause 1.1.5.2)
• Laboratory trial mixes (Clause 2.2.3.1)
• Plant field trial mixes (Clause 2.2.3.2)
• Trial panel for achievement of cover (Clause 2.3.2.6)
• Full-scale mock-ups for cathodic protection (Clause 2.7.4.7)
• Control panels for acceptability of finish (Clause 2.7.5.8)
2
• 100 m trial area of vacuum dewatering (Clause 2.7.5.10)
• Prototypes of precast units (Clause 3.2.2)

5.1.5 Concrete Mix Allocation to Elements

The following guidelines and Table are provided in this Specification to assist with the identification
and communication of the Service Environment Zone, and the Structural/Durability/Assessment
Strengths, for all elements to be constructed.

• The Designer should provide, on the Drawings or elsewhere, a table in the form of Table 22
below, and should provide the entries in the first three columns for each element of the Works.
• The entries in the fourth column should be provided by the Concrete Supplier.
• The entries in the fifth column should be provided by the Engineer

Table 22 Mix Allocation Table

Durability
Service
Structural Strength Assessment
Element Environment
Strength Achieved in Strength
Zone
Trials
SS Zone ref DS AS

Table to be filled in by:


Concrete
Designer Designer Designer Engineer
Supplier

Example:
2 2 2
Basement walls 40 N/mm Zone 6 55 N/mm 55 N/mm

5.2 Reference Documents

5.2.1 British Standards

Reference Title
BS 812-2 Methods for the determination of density
BS 812-101 Guide to sampling and testing aggregates
BS 812-102 Methods for sampling
BS 812-103.1 Method for determination of particle size distribution. Sieve tests
BS 812-103.2 Method for determination of particle size distribution. Sedimentation
test
BS 812-104 Method for qualitative and quantitative. Petrographic examination of
aggregates
BS 812-105.1 Testing aggregates. Method for determination of particle shape –
Flakiness index
BS 812-105.2 Testing aggregates. Method for determination of particle shape –
Elongation index of coarse aggregate
BS 812-109 Methods for determination of moisture content

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BS 812-111 Methods for the determination of ten per cent fines value (TFV)
BS 812-121 Method for the determination of soundness
BS 812-117 Testing aggregates – Method for determination of water-soluble
chloride salts
BS 812-118 Testing aggregates – Methods for determination of sulphate content
BS 812-119 Testing aggregates – Method for determination of acid soluble
materials in fine aggregate
BS 812-120 Testing aggregates – Methods for testing and classifying drying
shrinkage of aggregates in concrete
BS 1199 and 1200 Specifications for building sands from natural sources
BS 1305 Specification for batch type concrete mixers
BS 1881-5 Testing concrete. Methods of testing hardened concrete for other
than strength
BS 1881-122 Methods of testing concrete. Method for determination of water
absorption
BS 1881-124 Testing concrete. Methods of analysis of hardened concrete
BS 1881-204 Testing concrete. Recommendations on the use of electromagnetic
covermeters
BS 1881-208 Testing concrete. Recommendations for the determination of the
initial surface absorption of concrete
BS 3148 Methods of test for water for making concrete (including notes on
the suitability of the water)
BS 3416 Specification for bitumen-based coatings for cold application,
suitable for use in contact with potable water
BS 3643-1 ISO metric screw threads. Principles and basic data
BS 3692 ISO metric precision hexagon bolts, screws and nuts. Specification
BS 3892-1 Pulverized-fuel ash. Specification for pulverized-fuel ash for use
with Portland cement
BS 4027 Specification for sulphate-resisting Portland cement
BS 4246 Specification for high slag blast furnace cement
BS 4251 Specification for truck type concrete mixers
BS 4449 Steel for the reinforcement of concrete. Weld-able reinforcing steel.
Bar, coil and decoiled product. Specification.
BS 4482 Steel wire for the reinforcement of concrete products. Specification.
BS 4483 Steel fabric for the reinforcement of concrete. Specification
BS 5135 Specification for arc welding of carbon and carbon manganese
steels
BS 5400-6 Steel, concrete and composite bridges. Specification for materials
and workmanship
BS 5606 Guide to accuracy in building
BS 5950-1 Structural use of steelwork in building. Code of practice for design –
Rolled and welded sections
BS 5950-5 Structural use of steelwork in building. Code of practice for design of
cold formed thin gauge sections
BS 5950-6 Structural use of steelwork in building. Code of practice for design of
light gauge profiled steel sheeting
BS 5950-7 Structural use of steelwork in building. Specification for material and
workmanship: cold formed sections
BS 5950-9 Structural use of steelwork in building. Code of practice for stressed
skin design
BS 6588 Specification for Portland pulverized-fuel ash cements
BS 6699 Specification for ground granulated blastfurnace slag for use with
Portland cement
BS 6744 Stainless steel bars for the reinforcement of and use in concrete.
Requirements and test methods
BS 7973-1 Spaces and chairs for steel reinforcement and their specification.
Product performance requirements
BS 8007 Code of practice for design of concrete structures for retaining
aqueous liquids
BS 8110-1 Structural use of concrete. Code of practice for design and
construction

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BS 8204-1 Screeds, bases and in situ floorings. Concrete bases and cement
sand levelling screeds to receive floorings. Code of practice
BS 8204-2 Screeds, bases and in situ floorings. Concrete wearing surfaces.
Code of practice
BS 8500-1 Concrete. Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1. Method
of specifying and guidance for the specifier
BS 8500-2 Concrete. Complementary British Standard to BS EN 206-1.
Specification for constituent materials and concrete
BS 8666 Scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of steel
reinforcement for concrete. Specification
BS EN 196-1 Methods of testing cement. Determination of strength
BS EN 196-2 Methods of testing cement. Chemical analysis of cement
BS EN 196-3 Methods of testing cement. Determination of setting time and
soundness
BS EN 196-6 Methods of testing cement. Determination of fineness
BS EN 196-21 Methods of testing cement. Determination of the chloride, carbon
dioxide and alkali content of cement
BS EN 197-1 Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for
common cements
BS EN 197-4 Cement. Composition, specifications and conformity criteria for low
early strength blast furnace cements
BS EN 206-1 Concrete. Specification, performance, production and conformity
BS EN 446 Grout for pre-stressing tendons. Grouting procedures
BS EN 450 Fly ash for concrete. Definitions, specification and conformity criteria
BS EN 480-1 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods.
Reference concrete and reference mortar for testing
BS EN 480-2 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods.
Determination of setting time
BS EN 480-4 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods.
Determination of bleeding of concrete
BS EN 480-5 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods.
Determination of capillary absorption
BS EN 480-6 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods. Infrared
analysis
BS EN 480-8 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods.
Determination of the conventional dry material content
BS EN 480-10 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods.
Determination of water soluble chloride content
BS EN 480-11 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods.
Determination of air void characteristics in hardened concrete
BS EN 480-12 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Test methods.
Determination of the alkali content of admixtures
BS EN 934-2 Admixtures for concrete, mortar and grout. Concrete admixtures.
Definitions, requirements, conformity, marking and labelling
BS EN 1008 Mixing water for concrete. Specification for sampling, testing and
assessing the suitability of water, including water recovered from
processes in the concrete industry, as mixing water for concrete
BS EN 1011-1 Welding. Recommendations for welding of metallic materials.
General guidance for arc welding
BS EN 1011-2 Welding. Recommendations for welding of metallic materials. Arc
welding of ferritic steels
BS EN 1097-6 Tests for mechanical and physical properties of aggregates.
Determination of particle density and water absorption
BS EN 1169 Precast concrete products. General rules for factory production
control of glass-fibre reinforced cement
BS EN 1170-1 Precast concrete products. Test method for glass-fibre reinforced
cement. Measuring the consistency of the matrix. ' Slump test'
method
BS EN 1170-2 Precast concrete products. Test method for glass-fibre reinforced
cement. Measuring the fibre content in fresh GRC, ' Wash out test'
BS EN 1170-3 Precast concrete products. Test method for glass-fibre reinforced
cement. Measuring the fibre content of sprayed GRC

Page 62
BS EN 1170-4 Precast concrete products. Test method for glass-fibre reinforced
cement. Measuring bending strength. ' Simplified bending test'
method
BS EN 1170-5 Precast concrete products. Test method for glass-fibre reinforced
cement. Measuring bending strength, "complete bending test"
method
BS EN 1170-6 Precast concrete products. Test method for glass-fibre reinforced
cement. Determination of the absorption of water by immersion and
determination of the dry density
BS EN 1170-7 Precast concrete products. Test method for glass-fibre reinforced
cement. Measurement of extremes of dimensional variations due to
moisture content
BS EN 1504-1 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures – Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation
of conformity. Definitions
BS EN 1504-2 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures – Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation
of conformity. Surface protection systems for concrete
BS EN 1504-3 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures – Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation
of conformity. Structural and non-structural repair
BS EN 1504-5 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures – Definitions, requirements, quality control and evaluation
of conformity. Concrete injection
BS EN 1504-10 Products and systems for the protection and repair of concrete
structures – Definitions – Requirements – Quality control and
evaluation of conformity. Site application of products and systems
and quality control of the works
BS EN 1744-1 Tests for chemical properties of aggregates. Chemical analysis
BS EN 10002-3 Tensile testing of metallic materials. Calibration of force proving
instruments used for the verification of uniaxial testing machines
BS EN 10016-2 Non-alloy rods for drawing and/or cold rolling. Specific requirements
for general purpose rod
BS EN 10088-1 Stainless steels. List of stainless steels
BS EN 10088-2 Stainless steels. Technical delivery conditions for sheet/plate and
strip of corrosion resisting steels for general purposes
BS EN 10088-3 Stainless steels. Technical delivery conditions for semi-finished
products, bars, rods, wire, sections and bright products of corrosion
resisting steels for general purposes
BS EN 12001 Conveying, spraying and placing machines for concrete and mortar.
Safety requirements
BS EN 12350-1 Testing fresh concrete – Part 1: sampling
BS EN 12350-2 Testing fresh concrete – Part 2: slump test
BS EN 12350-6 Testing fresh concrete. Density
BS EN 12350-7 Testing fresh concrete. Air content – pressure methods
BS EN 12390-1 Testing concrete – Part 1: Shape, dimensions and other
requirements for specimens and moulds
BS EN 12390-2 Testing hardened concrete – Part 2: making and curing specimens
for strength testing
BS EN 12390-3 Testing hardened concrete – Part 3: compressive strength testing of
test specimens
BS EN 12390-4 Testing hardened concrete – Part 4: Compressive Specification of
testing machines
BS EN 12390-5 Testing hardened concrete – Part 5: flexural strength
BS EN 12620 Aggregates for concrete
PD 6682-1 Aggregates –Part 1: Aggregates for concrete – Guidance on the use
of BS EN 12620
PD 6682-4 Aggregates –Part 4: Lightweight Aggregates for concrete, mortar
and grout – Guidance on the use of BS EN 12620
testing of test specimens
BS EN 12696 Cathodic protection of steel in concrete

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BS EN 13055-1 Lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregates for concrete,
mortar and grout
BS EN 13139 Aggregates for mortar
BS EN 13263-1 Silica fume for concrete. Definitions, requirements and conformity
criteria
BS EN 13369 Common rules for precast concrete products
BS EN 14889-1 Fibres for concrete. Steel fibres. Definitions, specifications and
conformity
BS EN 15167-1 Ground granulated blastfurnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and
grout – definitions, specifications and conformity criteria
BS EN 15167-2 Ground granulated blastfurnace slag for use in concrete, mortar and
grout – conformity evaluation
BS EN ISO 2560 Welding consumables. Covererd electrodes for manual welding arc
welding of non-alloy and fine grained steels. Classification
BS EN ISO 3506-1 Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel
fasteners. Bolts, screws and studs
BS EN ISO 3506-2 Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant stainless-steel
fasteners. Nuts
BS EN ISO 4026 Hexagon socket set screws with flat point
BS EN ISO 4027 Hexagon socket set screws with cone point
BS EN ISO 4028 Hexagon socket set screws with dog point
BS EN ISO 4029 Hexagon socket set screws with cup point
BS EN ISO 4762 Hexagon socket head cap screws
BS EN ISO 7380 Hexagon socket button head screws
BS EN ISO 9001 Quality management systems – requirements
BS EN ISO 9002 Quality management and quality assurance standards. Generic
guidelines for the application of ISO 9001, ISO 9002 and ISO 9003
BS EN ISO 9963-2 Water quality. Determination of alkalinity. Determination of
carbonate alkalinity
BS EN ISO 17660-1 Welding. Welding of reinforcing steel. Load-bearing welded joints.
BS EN ISO 17660-2 Welding. Welding of reinforcing steel. Non load-bearing welded
joints.

5.2.2 American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)

ASTM A 615/A615M-08b Standard Specification for Deformed and Plain Billet-Steel


Bars for Concrete Reinforcement
ASTM A820/A820M-08a Standard Specification for steel fibres for fibre-reinforced concrete
ASTM C33-03 Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates
ASTM C40-04 Standard Test Method for Organic Impurities in Fine Aggregate in
Concrete
ASTM C87-05 Standard Test Method for Effect of Organic Impurities in Fine
Aggregate on Strength of Mortar
ASTM C94/C94M-06 Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete
ASTM C131-06 Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of
Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in
the Los Angeles Machine
ASTM C142-97 Standard Test Method for Clay Lumps and Friable
Particles in Aggregates
ASTM C150-07 Standard Specification for Portland Cement
ASTM C227-03 Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali Reactivity of
Cement-Aggregate Combinations (Mortar-Bar Method)
ASTM C232-07 Standard Test Methods for Bleeding of Concrete
ASTM C289-07 Standard Test Method for Potential Alkali-Silica Reactivity
of Aggregates (Chemical Method)
ASTM C295-08 Standard guide for petrographic examination of
aggregates for concrete
ASTM C494/C494M-05 Standard Specification for Chemical Admixtures for Concrete
ASTM C535-03e1 Standard Test Method for Resistance to Degradation of
Large-Size Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in
the Los Angeles Machine

Page 64
ASTM C618-08 Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined
Natural Pozzolan fort Use in Concrete
ASTM C1240-05 Standard Specification for Silica Fume Used in
Cementitious Mixtures
ASTM C1260 Standard Test for Potential Alkali Reactivity of Aggregates
(Mortar-Bar Method)
ASTM D36-06 Standard Test Method for Softening Point of Bitumen
(Ring-and-Ball Apparatus)
ASTM D543-06 Standard Practices for Evaluating the Resistance of
Plastics to Chemical Reagents
ASTM D570-98 Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics
ASTM D638-08 Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics
ASTM D1000-04 Standard Test Methods for Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive-
Coated Tapes Used for Electrical and Electronic
Applications
ASTM D1004-03 Standard Test Method for Initial Tear Resistance of Plastic
Film and Sheeting
ASTM E96/E96M-05 Standard Test Methods for Water Vapour Transmission of
Materials
ASTM E154-08 Standard Test Methods for Water Vapour Retarders Used
in Contact with Earth Under Concrete Slabs, on Walls, or
as Ground Cover

5.2.3 NORDTEST Methods

NT Build 492 Concrete, Mortar and Cement-based Repair Materials: Chloride


Migration Co-efficient from Non-Steady-State Migration Experiments
NS 3045 Silica fume for concrete – Definitions and requirements

5.2.4 DIN Methods

DIN 1048-5 Testing concrete; testing of hardened concrete (specimens


prepared in a mould)

5.2.5 Miscellaneous Documents

ACI 305.1-06 Specification for hot weather concreting


BRE Digest 330 Alkali-silica reaction in concrete. Part 2 – Detailed guidance for new
construction, 2004
Concrete Society TR 47 Durable bonded post-tensioned concrete bridges, 2nd edition, 2002
Concrete Society CS136
/CIRIA C577 Guide to the construction of reinforced concrete in the Arabian
Peninsula, 2002
SCI Publication 123 Concise guide to the structural design of stainless steel, 1993

Page 65
Client’s Design life Service environment Ground Investigation

Information
Provided by
Brief requirement (e.g.: exposure to salts) (e.g. BRE SD1

Designer
classification)
Particular Drawings Design Particulars
Specification (e.g.: reinforcement Form of construction
cover) (e.g.: pre-cast, jointed)

Selection of
Special Pre-cast
Concrete Type for
Concrete concrete
specified

Selection of Generic Concrete Mix


Environment
(Section 2.2.1,
Tables 7, 8 and 9) Identify
Materials
The concrete shall comply with (1.1)
relevant Particular
Specifications and national and
Request
international standards referred
Mix Selection- Approvals for
to therein
Concrete Durability Materials
and Strength
(2.2.1.3, Tables 7
and 8)

Site-batched Ready-mixed Concrete

Confirmation of Actual Mix


Concrete (2.2.2.3) (2.2.2.2)
Request Preliminary Or*
Approvals for
Production Method Laboratory Trials Submission of data for
(2.2.3.1 including existing mix with 6-
testing) Not approved months compliance data

Fail Fail Pass

Plant /Field
Testing (2.2.3.2,
including testing)

Approved Approved

Delivery Control (1.2) Full-scale trials


Site Storage, Handling and (if required)
Protection (1.3)
Submission and Approval of
Method Statements

Concrete Pour Placing and


Preparation (2.3) Finishing (2.7) Submit details and method
statements relevant to 1.3 to 2.10.
Concrete Batching (2.4) Curing and Request Approvals for Method of
Protection (2.8) Production
Mixing (2.5)
Tolerances (2.7)
Transporting (2.6)

Post Concreting (2.9)

Concrete Production, as per this Specification, including checks, submissions and approvals as required
Production and
Works Stage

Production Control (2.2.4) including request for approval based on strength, chloride and sulphate ions
content, durability, density, temperature, workability data

*– when Particular Specification required or


Compliance data not accepted

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Abbreviations
ACB Air Circuit Breakers EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility
ACOP Approved Code of Practice EPDM Ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer
ACRIB Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Industry copolymer
Board FA Fresh Air
ADCM Acoustic Doppler Current Meters FBA Factory Built Assembly
AFMA Australian Fisheries Management Authority FRP Fibre Reinforced Polymer
AGMA American Gear Manufacturers’ Association FSC Forest Stewardship Council
AISI American Iron and Steel Institute GANA Glass Association of North America
AS Acceptance Strength GGBS Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag
ASTA Association of Short-circuit Testing GMS Galvanized Mild Steel
Authorities GRC Glass Reinforced Cement/Glass Reinforced
ASTM American Society for Testing Materials Concrete
ATS Automatic Transfer Switch GRP Glass Reinforced Plastics
AWS American Welding Society HCFC Hydrofluorocarbons
BASEC British Approval Service for Electric Cables HDPE High Density Polyethylene
BOCA Building Officials and Code Administrators HEPA High Efficiency Particulate Air
BRE Building Research Establishment Ltd. HFC HydroFluoroCarbon
BS British Standards HPL High Pressure Laminate
BSRIA Building Service Research and Information HPPE Higher Performance Polyethylene
Association HRC High Rupturing Capacity
CBR California Bearing Ratio HSE Health and Safety Executive
CCTV Close Circuit Television HSFG High Strength Friction Grip
CECOMAF Comité Européen des Constructeurs de HV High Voltage
Matériel Frigorifique HVCA Heating and Ventilating Contractors’
CENELEC Comité Européen de Normalisation Association
Electrotechnique ICBO International Conference of Building Officials
CFC Chlorofluorocarbons IGCC Insulating Glass Certification Council
CIBSE Chartered Institution of Building Services IGE/UP Institution of Gas Engineers – Utilization
Engineers Procedures
CHW Chilled Water IP Ingress Protection
CI Cast Iron ISAT Initial Surface Absorption Test
CLW Cooling Water ISO International Standard Organization
CM Current Margin / Communication cable ITP Inspection Testing Plan
CMP Communication cable (Plenum) KD Kiln Dried
CP Code of Practice kVA Kilovolt Ampere
CPC Circuit Protection Conductor LCD Liquid Crystal Display
CPT Cone Penetration Testing LED Light Emitting Diode
CRS Categorised Required Strength LPG Liquid Petroleum Gas
CRT Cathode Ray Tube LS0H Low Smoke Zero Halogen
CRZ Capillary Rise Zone LSF Low Smoke and Fume
CT Current Transformer LV Low Voltage
c(UL) Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated MCB Miniature Circuit Breaker
(Canada) MCC Motor Control Centre
DEO Defence Estate Organisation MCCB Moulded Case Circuit Breakers
DFT Dry Film Thickness MDF Medium Density Fireboard
DI Ductile Iron MDD Maximum Dry Density
DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung MDPE Medium Density Polyethylene
DPC Damp Proof Course MEP Mechanical Electrical Plumbing
DPDT Differential Pressure, Differential MICC Mineral Insulated Copper Covered Cable
Temperature MIO Micaceous Iron Oxide
DS Durability Strength MMI Man Machine Interface
DVR Digital Video Recorder MOD Ministry of Defence
DW Ductwork Specification MS Micro-silica
EA Exhaust Air MSDS Material Safety Data Sheet
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers MSRPC Moderate Sulphate Resistance Portland
Association Cement
EA Exhaust Air N Nitrogen
ECMA European Computer Manufacturers NDFT Nominal Dry Film Thickness
Association NEMA National Electrical Manufacturers’ Association
ECR Extra Chemical Resistant NFPA National Fire Protection Association
EIA Environmental Impact Assessment/ NRC Noise Reduction Coefficient
Electronic Industries Alliance NS Norwegian Standard

Page 67
O/D Outside Diameter
ODP Ozone Depletion Potential
OFS Oil Fired (Appliance/Equipment) Standard
OFTEC Oil Firing Technical Association
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OPC Ordinary Portland Cement
PD Published Documents
PE Polyethylene
PFA Pulverised Fuel Ash
PFC Power Factor Correction
PM Project Manager
PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene
PVC Polyvinylchloride
PVC-u Unplasticised Polyvinylchloride
PWTAG Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group
QA/QC Quality Assurance/Quality Control
RA Return/Recycled Air
RCCD Residual Current Circuit Breaker
RCD Residual Current Device
R&D Research and Development
REFCOM Register of Companies Competent to handle
refrigerants
RPM Reinforced Plastic Mortar
RPZ Reduced Pressure Zone
RTD Resistant Temperature Detector
RTR Reinforced Thermosetting Resin
SA Supply Air
SBCCI Southern Building Code Congress
International (Incorporated)
SDR Standard Dimension Ratio
SIS Swedish Institute of Standards
SP Super-plasticizing
SPDT Single Pole Double Throw
SRPC Sulphate Resistance Portland Cement
SS Structural Strength
SSPC Steel Structures Painting Council
TIA Telecommunication Industry Association
TRA Trussed Rafter Association
UL Underwriters Laboratories Incorporated
ULPA Ultra Low Penetration Air
UP Unsaturated Polyester Resin
UPS Uninterruptible Power Supply
UTP Unshielded Twisted Pair
UV Ultra Violet
VC Vitrified Clay
VR Video Recorder
WBP Weather and Boil Proof
W/C Water Cement Ratio
WIS Water Industry Specification
WP Water Proofing
WRAS Water Regulations Advisory Scheme
XLPE Cross Linked Polyethylene

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