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PROJECT

ENGINE TESTING

DIESEL ENGINE:
The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf
Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel, which is injected into
the combustion chamber, is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due
to the mechanical compression (adiabatic compression). Diesel engines work by compressing
only the air. This increases the air temperature inside the cylinder to such a high degree that
atomised diesel fuel injected into the combustion chamber ignites spontaneously. The diesel
engine has the highest thermal efficiency (engine efficiency) of any
practical internal or external combustion engine due to its very high expansion ratio and
inherent lean burn which enables heat dissipation by the excess air. A small efficiency loss is
also avoided compared to two-stroke non-direct-injection gasoline engines since unburned
fuel is not present at valve overlap and therefore no fuel goes directly from the
intake/injection to the exhaust.

originally used as a more efficient replacement for stationary steam engines. Since the 1910s
they have been used in submarines and ships. Use in locomotives, trucks, heavy
equipmentand electricity generation plants followed later. In the 1930s, they slowly began to
be used in a few automobiles. Since the 1970s, the use of diesel engines in larger on-road
Diesel engines may be designed as either two-stroke or four-stroke cycles. They were
and off-road vehicles in the US increased. According to the British Society of Motor
Manufacturing and Traders, the EU average for diesel cars accounts for 50% of the total sold,
including 70% in France and 38% in the UK.

The world's largest diesel engine put in service in 2006 is currently a Wärtsilä-Sulzer
RTA96-C Common Rail marine diesel, which produces a peak power output of 84.42 MW
(113,210 hp) at 102 rpm.

Engine can be called as heart of automobile. Engines are used for different purposes. The
engine used in INTERNATIONAL TRACTORS is of these types. The engine fitted in 740
DI is made by SYMPSONS, which are imported. The engine in 740 & 760 models are
assembled in the engine assembly shop. The engine in 50 & 60 H.P. are of two types one is
standard model and its design is taken from ZETOR of Checkosolavia and other is fuel
efficient model in which crank case and head design is taken from AVL (Auto Vehicle Ltd.0
of Austria). Due to better performance of F.E. model engines the production of standard
engines is stopped now.

The engine shop of INTERNATIONAL TRACTOR LTD. is well furnished with latest fitting
and checking instruments. . The worker’s in this shop are of high skill level and have lot of
experience. The production of shop is about 50 engines per day and can be increased if
required. All the component of engines except crankcase is brought from outsides. The shop
is having latest engine testing shop and having latest equipment. In testing shop engine is
checked for efficiency, specific fuel consumption, power, torque, leakage, rpm and other
faults.

ENGINE SPECIFICATIONS:

TYPE 4 CYLINDERS, 4 STROKES


COMBUSTION DIRECT INJECTION
BORE 100 mm
STROKE 110 mm
CYLINDER DISPLACEMENT 3456 cc
COMPRESSION RATIO 17:1
FIRING ORDER 1-3-4-2
ATOMISING SETTING PRESSURE 205 ± 5 kgf/cm²
INJECTING TIMING 25 + 1º B.T.D.C
FUEL INJECTION PUMP Inline Type With Mechanical Governor
INLET VALVE OPENS 26º B.T.D.C
EXHAUST VALVE OPEN 10º A.T.D.C
TOTAL INLET OPEN PERIOD 236º
TOTAL OUTLET PERIOD 236º
LUB OIL PRESSURE 2-5 kgf/cm² (2200 RPM AT 80º
CELSIUS)
AIR CLEANER Two Stage With Oil Filling
COOLING Water Cooled With Thermostat Control
CAPACITY OF FUEL 73 LIT
FILLING OF OIL SUMP 12 LIT
FILLING OF F.I.P. 0.6 LIT (MICO SYSTEM)
CLUTCH Dry, Double Clutch Plate, Actuation,
Through Heavy Duty Spring Ensuring.
Longer Clutch Life At Constant
Operating Pressure.
ALTERNATOR 12 V/44 amp
STARTER 12 V/4 H.P.

3 CYLINDER, 49HP:
3 CYLINDER, 58HP:
6 CYLINDER, 116HP:
ENGINE TESTING:
Engine testing is done for checking the performance of newly assembled engine to found out
any assemble fault, their H.P., leakage and other faults. Engine testing shop of the I.T.L. is
equipped with latest digital control equipments. The engine testing is done with help of
turbine (water) or hydro dynamometer. The hydro dynamometer are four in number so that
four engine is tested at a time. The shop is equipped with heavy-duty oil filter, which is used
to clean the oil from dust or other large particle. The shop has bush pump tester, which is
used to test the pump if there are any fault. The engine power is measured on the bases of
S.A.E. ratings. The society of automobile engineer’s U.S.A has specified the method of
measuring the power output of the engine for standardized purpose. The engine is run without
generator, air cleaner, cooling fan etc. However standard circulating pump, fuel pump is
fitted to the engine. The horsepower of the engine is measured with dynamometer and
measured values are then corrected for the standard pressure, ampere and humidity condition
prescribed.
Before starting the engine the, lubricating oil is filled into the engine and then engine is
mounted on the fixture. The flywheel is directly attached to turbine through connecting shaft
and engine is started. The engine is made to run for three hour’s to check the engines leakage
and if there is any leakage then that fault is found out and again put into the testing and if
again there is any fault then that engine is rejected. After minute running the tappet clearance
is checked. Tappet clearance is to be kept .25±.005. The clearance is necessary otherwise the
thermal expansion of valve will alter the opening or closing of valve angles. After that engine
is run at 2400 r p.m. m. for 2.30 hours and then the engine is run at various r.p.m. and loads
to calculate the power, b.h.p. and s.f.c. . If the engine is seen to emitting too much smoke than
smoke level is also checked.

POWER OUTPUT:
The engine shop is having latest technology and all the information is available digitally. The
load can be increased or decreased r.p.m. or s.f.c. can be changed from within the electronic
cabin. Power test is done on 2200 r.p.m. (Maximum r.p.m. of engine is 2400) where torque is
rated and is indicated on digital meter. The alteration in r.p.m. is made by varying the load
and fuel supply is kept constant.
The power is calculated as follows
POWER = (R.P.M×TORQUE)/(7023.746) H.P.
If the power calculated from above formula comes lower than prescribed limit
than usually fuel timing is altered. The fuel timing is altered with the help of F.I. pump.
Usually the engine is tested on 18 º Celsius advancement .By revolving the pump away from
engine the timing is reduced and by revolving F.I.P. toward the engine the time is advanced.
The advancement usually lower down the power, so timing is reduced into possible limit to
increase the power.

S.F.C:
It is one of the most important parameter for engine comparing. It is defined as the ratio of
amount of kg of fuel used per hour by the engine to power produced by the engine.
S.F.C. = (297000) / (POWER×TIME) Gm/B.H.P/Hr.
Constant = fuel gravity × volume of oil (100 cc) × time
= 0.825 × 100 × 3600
= 297000
TORQUE BACKUP TEST:
It is capacity of engine for maximum load that after the engine r.p.m will decrease to zero.
TORQUE (backup) = {T (max) – T (rated)} / {T (rated)} × 100
T (rated) is displayed by meter on 2200 ± 50 r.p.m. and T (max) is displayed by meter at
1500 + 100 r.p.m. T (max) is found by loss of r.p.m and increased of torque. The engine is
loaded till torque is max and after which the loaded cause drop in torque.

ENGINE TESTING PROCESS:

 The engine is mounted on the test bed and preparation of engine is done by assembly
of fan belt, water hoses fitment, top exhaust mountings, fuel connections and engine is
coupled to dynamo meter thru cardon shaft.

 The engine runs on the test bed as per specified instruction at the different rpm &
specified adjustment are done for cylinder head torque, tappets. Low & fly up rpm
and oil pressure leakage and defective components are removed/repaired.

 Verification of different parameters i.e bhp, fuel consumption, oil pressure, water
temperature, fly up rpm is done by operator and recorded for above results is
maintained in the testing card, as well as in the register.

 The supervisor decides acceptability of tested engines. Accepted engines are put with
O.K stickers. Faulty engines are sent to engine rework section for replacing
components with new one & L.R note is made by concerned rework section in charge.
Analysis of the components under bought out, own manufactured and assembly faults
are done month wise by assembly supervisor.

 Various connections are dismantled and engine is unloaded from the test bed and
mounted on frames.

 Details of testing procedure are explained in successive pages.

 Engine testing done on 100% basis.


HYDRAULIC DYNAMOMETER:
Hydraulic dynamometer work compartment consists of blades and stainless steel rotors and
stators. Water flows through the blades in a circular vortex mode, producing torque response
through the dynamometer housing, and the torque response is measured by a precision load
cell. The load cell signal is passed to the load cell amplifier. The water level and load of the
hydraulic dynamometer are controlled by the outlet valve and operated by a closed loop
electro-hydraulic servo system. The dynamometer control command passes to the water
valve. The power absorbed by the dynamometer is carried away by water in the form of heat.

water brake (hydraulic dynamometer) is under the international advanced level and has been
widely sold abroad. Water Brake has a total of more than 10 specifications with electric
butterfly valve control. By changing the butterfly valve opening, the absorbed power amount
is changed. The braking power ranges from 120kW to 3600kW. Hydraulic dynamometer is
mainly used to detect the effective power of various diesel engines, gasoline engines, electric
motors, automobile transmission parts, gas turbines, hydraulic turbines and other power
machines, which is an indispensable test equipment for the test of power machine
characteristics and efficiency of transmission machinery.

Major features of water brake:

 Small size, easy to install


 Simple structure, easy operation and maintenance

 Large braking torque

 High measurement accuracy

 Stable and reliable

 Using magnetic speed sensor to achieve high-precision instantaneous speed


measurement

 Electronically controlled butterfly valve for fast load control

Water brake major technical specifications:

 Cooling medium: Clean and fresh water, free of impurities and debris

 Cooling water pressure: 0.05 ~ 0.15Mpa

 Water pressure fluctuation range: ±5KPa

 Hydraulic dynamometer water outlet temperature: Less than 70℃

 Direction of operation: Single direction right-handed (Bi-directional as option),


continuous work

 Torque measurement accuracy: ±4% FS (SG120 to SG380), ±0.2% FS (SG400 to


SG3600)

 Speed measurement accuracy: ±1rpm

 Torque measurement sensor: Tension-compression force transducer

 Speed measurement sensor: 60 pulse magnetic-type speed sensor

Work principle of water brake:

The power machine drives the rotor assembly on the main shaft through the coupling for
synchronous rotation and stirs water in the working chamber. Due to the centrifugal force
generated by the rotation of the rotor and the function of rotor pits, water produces a strong
water vortex between the side housing and the rotor pits, which gives the housing a rotating
torque which transmits the torque of the power machine from the rotor to the casing. The
power arm on the housing will rotate an angle to transmit the braking torque to the pull
pressure sensor connecting with the brake arm and display the braking torque through the
electronic digital display device.

The water brake controls the opening of the butterfly valve through the electric drain valve,
or the drainage actuator is controlled by the automatic regulating device. The butterfly valve
opening is controlled by the drainage actuator to change the amount of the absorbed power by
changing the water pressure in the hydraulic dynamometer working chamber. At the same
time hydraulic dynamometer speed can be measured by the speed sensor and displays
through electronic display.

As a pressure-controlled hydraulic dynamometer and changing the butterfly valve opening


for working chamber pressure adjustment, the whole process must be an automatic closed-
loop control system, so the pressure-controlled dynamometer must be equipped with
automatic control function cabinet in order to run the job.

TEST RESULTS:

3 CYLINDER, 49HP:
3 CYLINDER, 58HP:
6 CYLINDER, 116HP:
FAULTS THAT MAY BE SEEN IN ENGINE DURING ITS TESTING:

*NOISE: Noise from a diesel engine can be significant, and can also be a sign of something
wrong. Diesel engines are naturally louder than other vehicles, but if you notice inconsistent
noise or distinct knocking in the engine, it could be a sign of a problem with the fuel
injectors, which can affect the compression balance and reduce performance.

*Leaks – Oil, Fuel, or Coolant: Most often oil leaks are not, in fact, leaks, but the result of
“wet stacking” (or “engine slobber”). Wet stacking is the accumulation of carbon particles,
un-burned fuel, lube oil, condensed water and acids in the exhaust system.

The most common coolant leak occurs in the block heater hoses. Due to the extreme
temperatures produced by the block heaters it causes the heater hoses to fatigue more quickly.

The most common fuel leak service calls are due to overfilling of the base tank. This is
typically caused by human error or a failure of a pump system. In order to prevent this from
occurring it is always recommended that you have a trained professional fuel your generator.

* DRIVE BELT SLIPPAGES: Check with your finger to ensure that the belt movement is
within the manufacturer’s recommendations. Drive belt slippages can cause a slow water
pump and alternator speed. On the other hand, overtightening will reduce the life of their
bearings.
*LOOSE ENGINE MOUNTINGS: Check visually and then feel the mountings for
yourself. Tighten any loose nuts, normally from the bottom, to keep the engine in alignment.
Retighten the lock nut on top. If they are found to be loose, the engine may need to be
realigned.

*LOOSE ELECTRICALS: Diesel engines do not need electrical power to run, but most
need it to start and others, to stop. Many have an alternator or generator to charge the battery.
Electrical and battery terminals can sometimes vibrate loose, so check they are secured well.