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Intact Stability


Additional Module – DNV-GL Noble Denton Marine Services –

Marine Warranty Wizard

DNV-GL Noble Denton

Marine Services –
Marine Warranty Wizard

Section 10 – Load Out

10.6.4 Stability afloat

Sufficient stability afloat shall be ensured during load-out.

Guidance note 1:

Generally load-out should be performed with a minimum GM of 1 mat all stages.

The accuracy requirements to ballasting will tend to increase with decreasing GM.

Section 10 – Load Out

Guidance note 2:

• Normally there is no requirement to document damage stability during load-out.

However, it is recommended to consider if/how incorrect operation of the ballast
system may influence stability.

• Due attention should be given to situations with small metacentric height where
an offset centre of gravity may induce a heel or trim as the structure transfer is
completed, i.e. when any transverse moment ceases to be restrained by the
shore skid ways or trailers.

Section 10 – Load Out

Guidance note 2:

• Friction forces between the vessel and the quay, contributed to by the reaction
from the pull on system and the moorings, should be given due attention. (Large
friction forces may cause “hang-up” by resisting the heel or trim until the pull-on
reaction is released, or the friction force is overcome, whereupon a sudden
change of heel or trim may result)

• Due attention should be given to situations where a change of wind velocity may
cause a significant change of heel or trim during the operation.

Section 10 – Load Out

For load-out operations the minimum “effective freeboard", should for vessels be
fmin = 0.5 + 0.5Hmax


fmin = Minimum effective freeboard in metres, see the Guidance Note

Hmax = Maximum anticipated wave height in metres at the site during load-out

Section 10 – Load Out

Guidance note:

• The "effective freeboard" is defined as the minimum vertical distance from the
still water surface to any opening, e.g. an open manhole or deck area where
personnel access could be required. A maximum possible tide level and any
possible vessel heel/trim should be considered. Coamings/bundings at openings
could be installed to increase the "effective freeboard”.

• In order to use a vessel with less freeboard than defined by the load line
certificate, approval from class is required. The freeboard should be sufficient to
maintain the vessel's water-plane area.

• Procedures to monitor freeboard at all 4 quarters of the vessel should be in

place; where this is not implemented fmin should be increased by 0.3 m.

Section 10 – Load Out

10.6.5 Load-out vessel draught and motions

Nominal values and allowable tolerances for the load-out vessel(s) level, trim and
heel shall be clearly defined for all stages of the load-out.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

11.10 Floating stability

11.10.1 General

Free-trimming stability programs can give misleading results when the trim is
significant relative to the heeldue to the hull geometry. Stability calculations using
fixed trim can be used provided that a sufficient number of axes of rotation are
considered to identify the most severe heeling axes. The most severe heeling axes
are the ones for which the maximum righting arm or range of stability is lowest,
ignoring possible downflooding.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

The lightship data used in the stability calculations shall accurately reflect the
current status ofthe unit.

Guidance note:

It is common practice to maintain a lightship alteration log to record minor iterations

to light ships with modification/mutations over a period of time from previous
lightship survey.The weight and position of additions or removals in excess of 100
kg (220 Ib) should be recorded in the log.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

The details would typically include:

• Date the modification was made

• A description ofthe item

• Weight (positive value for weight addition,negative value for removal)

• Vertical Centre of Gravity (VCG)

• LongitudinalCentre of Gravity (LCG)

• Transverse Centre of Gravity (TCG)

• Reference to modification,project or approvalnumber as applicable

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

The stability calculations shall also take into consideration any addition or removal of mooring
chain from the system that will impact the final loads during passage/departure and arrival

During towing,all watertight doors and openings on and underdeck on both the tug(s) and tow
shall be closed at all times. Where vessels are fitted with remote indication of watertight door
position,this shall be confirmed as operational.

The towed asset and tug(s) should have a systematic programme for the assurance that
such openings are closed prior to and throughout towing operations, and these
arrangements referenced as necessary in the tow plan.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

The effects of free surface shall be considered in all stability calculations. These
shall include:

a.the effects of free surface liquids in unit and cargo,

b. residual free surface due to incomplete venting, such as can occur if ballasting
when trimmed

c.any Air Cushion Effect from air trapped or introduced below any part of the hull
which produces additional buoyancy. The Air Cushion Effect is in addition to the
Free Surface Effect from all standard closed tanks. It reduces stability due to the
compressibility ofthe air.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

Vessels shall comply with the mandatory parts ofthe IMO Intact Stability Code 2008,/89/, and
the IMO InternationalConvention on Load Lines, Consolidated Edition 2002/90/.

Any cases where stability or damage IMO Intact Stability Code 2008,/89/, requirements
cannot be met should be agreed with the MWS company at an early stage.

The MWS company will generally accept the stability of ships and MOUs when they are
operated within the limits accepted for Class by a Recognized Classification Society.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

11.10.2 Intact stability (apart from GBS's and floating jackets)

This section does not cover stability of GBSs (for which see (6.2) or self-floating structures (if not MOU,
barge or ship shaped) for which the criteria should be agreed with the MWS company once full details are

Where there is a significant difference between the departure, arrival or any intermediate condition, then
the most severe should be considered, including the effects of any ballast water changes during the

The initial apparent metacentric height, GMo.shall be greater than 0.15 m and should be greater than 1.0
m. The calculation of GMo shall include adequate margins for computational and other inaccuracies.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

The intact range of stability, about any horizontal axis, defined as the range between 0°
inclination and the smallest angle at which the righting arm (GZ) becomes negative shall not
be less than the values shown in Table 11-10. When assessing the range of stability,
downflooding does not need to be taken into account provided that the watertight and
weathertight requirements of (11.1 0.8) and (11.27.6) are met.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

Requirements for objects which do not fall into the categories shown in Table 11-10, which
are non-symmetrical, or which have an initial heel or trim which is not close to 0°, shall be
agreed with MWS company.

Alternatively for barges, if maximum amplitudes of motion for a specific towage or voyage can
be derived from model tests or motion response calculations, the intact range of stability shall
be not less than:


where GM is in metres and B = the maximum amplitude of roll or pitch caused by the design
sea state as defined in (3.2), plus the static wind heel or trim caused by the design wind, in

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

In areas and seasons prone to icing of superstructures, the effects of icing on

stability shall be considered as described in (11.19.28).

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

11.10.3 Wind overturning (intact condition - all units)

For the intact condition,the area under the righting moment curve shall not be less
than 40% in excess of the area under the wind overturning arm curve (30% for
column stabilised units). The areas shall be bounded by 0° inclination, and the
dynamic angle (defined as the angle at which this condition is met). The dynamic

angle shall be less than both the second intercept and the downflooding angle as
shown in Figure 11-2.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

The wind velocity used for intact wind overturning calculations for the
survivalcondition shall be the 1-minute design wind speed, as described in (3.2). In
the absence of other data, 52 m/s (100 knots) shall be used. A 36 m/s (70 knot)
wind can be used for operating conditions as long as the unit can always change to
a survival condition within an adequate time scale.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

11.10.4 Damage stability background (all except for column-stabilised)

This section gives the common requirements for damage stability before the
specific requirements for jack-ups in (11.10.5) and others in (11.10.7)

The wind velocity used for overturning moment calculations in the damage
condition shall be 26 m/s (50 knots) or the wind usedforthe intact calculation if less.
It shall be applied in the most critical direction.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

All units (except for those covered in ( shall have positive stability about any horizontal
axis with damage caused by an assumed minimum penetration of 1.5 m from any external plating,
between effective watertight bulkheads, with the following:

a. All piping and ventilation systems within the 1.5 m penetration in damaged compartments shall
be assumed damaged. Positive means of closure shall be provided to preclude the progressive
flooding of other spaces which are intended to be intact.

b. Damage shall be assumed to extend from the baseline upwards without limit.

c. The distance between effective watertight bulkheads or their nearest stepped positions which are
positioned within the assumed extent of horizontal penetration should not be less than 3 m; where
there is a lesser distance, one or more of the adjacent bulkheads shall be disregarded.

d. Where damage of a lesser extent than in [a)] to [c)] results in a more severe condition such
lesser extent shall be assumed.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

If buoyancy of the cargo has been included to meet intact stability requirements,
then loss of cargo buoyancy or flooding of cargo compartments, shall be
considered as a damage case, as appropriate.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

11.10.7 Damage stability (apart from jack-ups and column stabilised)

Except as described in ( and (, the unit should have sufficient
reserve stability in a damaged condition to withstand the wind heeling moment
using the wind speed in ( superimposed from any direction and the
damage as described in ( In this condition the final waterline, after
flooding and wind heel, should be below the lower edge of any downflooding
opening as shown in Figure 11-6.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

One-compartment damage stability is not always achievable without impractical

design changes, for the wet towages of the following and similar structures:

• Concrete gravity based strucwres, particularly when towing on the columns

• Submerged tube tunnel sections

• Bridge pier caissons

• Outfall or water intake caissons

• Monopiles, transition pieces (TPa) and suction bases for wind farm foundations.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

For those structures listed in (, or similar, damage stability requirements can be
relaxed, provided the towage is a one-off towage of short duration, carried out under
controlled conditions, and suitable precautions are taken, which can Include:

• Areas vulnerable to collision should be reinforced or fendered to withstand collision from the
largest towing or attending vessel, at a speed of 2 m/s.

• Projecting hatches, pipework and valves are protected against collision or damage from
towing and handling lines.

• Emergency towlines are provided, with trailing pick-up lines, to minimise the need for
vessels to approach the structure closely during thetow.

• Emergency pumping equipment is provided.

Section 11 – Sea Voyages

• Potential leaks via ballast or other systems are minimised.

• Ballast intakes and discharges, and any other penetrations through the skin of the
vessel or object, shall be protected by a double barrier system, or blanked off.

• Vulnerable areas are conspicuously marked and Masters of all towing and
attending vessels are aware of the vulnerable areas.

• A guard vessel is available to warn off other approaching vessels.

• A risk assessment in accordance with (2.4) shall be carried out.

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

The relaxations allowed by ( and ( do not apply in ice-affected areas, where the
vessel or structure should comply with (11.19.28).

The damage stability recommendations of this section do not apply to transport of cargos on
flagged trading vessels, sailing at the assigned 'B‘ freeboard or greater.

Guidance note:

The 'B‘ freeboard is the minimum freeboard assigned to a Type B vessel, which is generally defined
as any vessel not carrying a bulk liquid cargo. Reduced freeboards can be assigned to a Type B
vessel over 100m in length, depending on the arrangements for protection of crew, freeing
arrangements, strength, sealing and security of hatch covers,and damage stability characteristics.
See the IMO International Convention on Load Lines, Consolidated Edition 2002,/90/, for further

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

11.10.8 Compartmentation and watertight integrity

All external openings below the static intact and any one-compartment-damaged
waterlines from (11.10.3) to (11.10.7) with wind applied in the most onerous
directions, but no waves, shall be fitted with watertight closing appliances in
operable condition.

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

Hatches, ventilators, gooseneck air pipes and sounding pipes shall be carefully checked for
proper closure and their watertight or weathertight integrity confirmed. Where such equipment
could be damaged by sea action or movement of loose equipment, then additional
precautions shall be considered.

Outboard accommodation doors shall be carefully checked for proper closure and their
watertight or weathertight integrity confirmed. All dogs shall be in good operating condition
and seals shall be functioning correctly.

Watertight doors in holds, tween decks and engine room bulkheads, including shaft alleyway
and boiler room spaces, shall be checked for condition and securely closed.

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

Any watertight doors required to be opened for access during the voyage, shall be
marked, on both sides, "To be kept closed except for access" or words to that effect In
some cases a length of bar or pipe can be required to assist opening and dosing.

Portholes shall be checked watertight. Porthole deadlights shall be closed where fitted.
Any opening without deadlights that can suffer damage in a seaway shall be plated

Windows which could be exposed to wave action shall be plated over, or similarly

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

All tank top and deck manhole covers and their gaskets shall be in place, checked in good
condition, and securely bolted down.

All overboard valves shall be closed and locked with wire or chain. Where secondary or back-
up valves are fitted for double protection, they shall also be closed.

Closure devices fitted to sanitary discharge pipes, particularly near the waterline, shall be
closed. Any discharge pipe close to the waterline not fitted with a closure device, can need
such a facility incorporated, or be plated over.

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

All holds, void spaces and engine room bilges shall be checked before departure
and should be pumped dry.

All other spaces shall be sounded before departure. It is recommended that all
spaces should be either pressed up or empty. Slack tanks should be kept to a

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

11.10.9 Draught and trim

The draught should be small enough to give adequate freeboard and stability, and
large enough to reduce motions and slamming. Typically, for barge towages, it

will be between 35% and 60% of hull depth, which is usually significantly less than
the load line draught.

Section 11 - Sea Voyages
For guidance, and for discussion with the Master of the tug, the tow should be
ballasted to the minimum draughts and trims for barges in Table 11-11.

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

Where barges with faired sterns are fitted with directional stabilising skegs, it can
be preferable to have no trim. However allowance should be made for trim caused
by the towline force and there should be adequate freeboard at the bow (and
possibly a breakwater) to minimise damage from “green water" coming over the

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

For towed ship-shaped units (where LOA is the overall length of the unit in metres) the
forward draught should be greater than:

for LOA ≥ 200 m 2.0 m+ 0.015 x LOA

for LOA < 200m as for barges in Table 11-11

but in both cases the mean draught shall not be less than the minimum Class approved
ballast draught. Slamming pressure under the forefoot estimated for the metocean criteria for
the tow route shall be less than the bottom design pressure. For directional stability, a
minimum aft trim of0.75% of LOA is normally recommended

Section 11 - Sea Voyages

Draught marks forward and aft shall be easily readable and, if necessary, re-
painted in the area above the waterline.

Modulo Finale

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