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Study Report
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On Refrigeration System

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Topic Index
Sl.
Topics Page No.
No.
1 Scope

2 Engineering

i Piping and Instrumentation Diagram

ii Process Flow Diagram for Refrigeration Package

iii Equipment Layout

iv General Arrangement Drawing

v Piping Layout

vi Isometric Drawing

vii Control Philosophy

3 Mechanical

i Compressor

ii Heat Exchanger

iii Valves

iv Flanges

v Fittings

vi Welding

vii Thermostatic Expansion Valve


4 Materials

i Carbon Steel

ii Low Temperature Carbon Steel

iii Stainless Steel

5 Instrumentation

i Pressure

ii Temperature

6 Knowledge Sharing
1. SCOPE
Scope

Following is a detailed Study Report on the various components of a


Refrigeration Package.

The study encompasses various aspects involved in the Production, Packaging


and Commissioning of a Refrigeration Package. It also includes the significance
of the several documents involved during the Engineering and dispatch of the
package.

It explains the various Mechanical and Instrumentation components of a


package along with their materials of construction. The ASTM, TEMA, and
several relevant standards for the same have also been provided. It also includes
various Notes which serve as a FAQ.
2. ENGINEERING
i. Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
P&ID is a drawing which displays the piping which interconnects the various
equipments and the Instruments which are used for controlling the processes.

It serves as the basis for the design, erection and commissioning of the entire
skid. There are standard symbols and notations which denote various
components.

The P&ID consists of the following details:

a. Piping Connections
b. Process Flow Directions
c. Equipments
d. Fittings like Valves
e. Piping sizes
f. Gauges and Switches
g. Mounting of switches (Field, control panel mounting, etc.)
h. Tie in Points
i. Items to be supplied loose
j. Insulation
k. Tag Nos.
l. Fittings like Nuts and Bolts, etc.
m. Materials

Some of the Components found commonly in the P&ID of a Refrigeration


Package are,

i. Compressor
It is one of the most important components of the package. Various type
of Compressors used are Screw, Reciprocating or Centrifugal.
The compressor id loaded or unloaded using an Oil circuit. The
Compressor has been dealt in detail in the subsequent Chapters.

ii. The Oil Circuit


The oil circuit consists of Lube oil Pump, Strainers, Lube oil coolers,
Duplex oil Filters and the Oil Supply Header.
The Pump pumps oil from the Oil Tank Separator and the oil flows
through the oil cooler. The oil then reaches the duplex oil filter. There is a
bypass line provided so that when the oil is at a sufficient low
temperature, then the control valve bypasses the oil cooler and sends the
oil directly to the Duplex oil filter.
The duplex oil filter consists of a cleanable SS element which helps in
eliminating the debris and foreign particles in the oil. The element should
be changed if there is a loss in differential pressure across the filter.
The oil header has various tubing which supply oil to the bearings of the
compressor, for lubrication as well as for loading and unloading.

iii. Oil Tank Separator and Secondary Oil Separator


The OTS is a pressure vessel which separates the Oil carried over by the
Compressor discharge. This refrigerant is in the form of vapor and when
it flows through the OTS, the Oil droplets separate through the Demister
pad and fall down into the tank. This is further pumped to the
compressor.
But some of the oil still gets carried over with the OTS discharge. This is
separated in the SOS. The SOS consists of a coalescing element which
separates the remaining oil and the discharge remains with oil about 5-20
ppm. Similarly, the Coalescing element has to be replaced when diff.
pressure drops across SOS.

iv. Seal Drain Pot


This is present to check if the mechanical seal has a leak. If there is a
leakage, then the oil flows to the Seal Drain Pot. When the level of oil
reaches a certain set point, the compressor trips off.

v. Economizer
Economizer is used when the Temperature difference to be achieved is
large and cannot be achieved only with the use of a Chiller.
Here, the refrigerant received from the Condensor-Reciever, is split into
two parts. One goes into the tube side and other to the shell side. The
liquid going into the Shell side is flashed using an expansion device and
this in turn cools the liquid in the tube side.
The evaporated vapor is collected in the surge drum and is sent to the
superfeed of the Compressor. The pressure of the Superfeed line is higher
than the regular suction.
vi. Chiller and Condenser
Chillers and the Condenser are the heat exchanging units of the System.
They are generally Shell and Tube type Heat exchangers with the
respective fluids flowing in shell and tubes. Again, the Heat Exchangers
have been dealt with in detail in the further sections.

vii. Knock Out Drum


Knock out Drum is provided at the suction of the Compressor. Its main
function is to not allow liquid refrigerant to flow to the compressor.

viii. Oil Reclaimer Vessel


Oil recovery vessel recovers the oil from the various components and its
pump sends it to compressor suction. The recovery is periodic in
operation and various components like the heater, pump and the control
valve operate on the signals provided by the Level Gauge.

ii. Process Flow Diagram for Refrigeration Package


A process flow diagram is a document which shows the flow of the various
processes in the system. The PFD is generally used as the overall representation
of the flow of a system. It does not contain the specifics such as pipe sizing,
valves, etc.

The PFD contains the Heat and Mass Balance Chart which gives all the process
parameters at various points in a system. It also contains information on the
various bypasses and system connections.

iii. Equipment Layout


The equipment layout is a general layout of the entire package. It gives the
placement of the package and the various equipments with respect to each other.
The Equipment layout does not contain process piping though, it contains the
various tie in points. Similar to a foundation key plan, it contains the Length,
Breadth and the Elevation of the package skid.
iv. General Arrangement Drawing
A General Arrangement Drawing or a GA Drawing of Equipment gives the
detailed view of the component along with the dimensions. Various parameters
to be found in the GAD are the General Arrangement of a particular equipment,
various views of the equipment, different labeled parts, Load descriptions,
Nozzle descriptions, Welding parameters, details of subassemblies, details of
supports, etc.

v. Piping Layout
As the name suggests, the piping layout gives the general layout of the piping
connections between various components. In case of multiple skids, the
interconnections between the skids are displayed in the Layout.

Some of the considerations to be taken while designing a piping layout are as


follows

a. The routing of the pipes should be as simple and economical as possible.


The placing of the Valves and Instruments should be such that the
Accessibility of operation should be proper.
b. The hot and cold pipes should not be grouped together. The Hot, non
insulated lines at a higher altitude than the cold pipes.
c. Care should be taken to include suitable clearances for removal of certain
components of equipments. For Example, No piping should be placed
above the duplex oil filter so that the filter element can be removed
easily. Similarly, Piping should be kept clear of Manholes, Access
openings, inspection points, emergency escape routes, etc.
d. The field mounted instruments should have a proper visibility either from
the ground or an extended platform.
e. Break-up flanges should be added at suitable locations so that the pipes
can be dismantled and dispatched separately.

vi. Isometric Drawing


Isometric drawings are detailed orthographic representations of the pipes as they
are to be built. Generally all the dimensions of the piping are showcased in the
Isomeric drawing. They are used for the actual manufacturing of the
Refrigeration Skid. A north direction is always specified to provide a reference
to the viewer.
Some of the data which is carried by the Iso is,

a) Isometric drawings carry a graphical representation of the 3 dimensional


piping systems being represented.
b) Straight lengths of all the pipe runs on the drawing are reported as
clearly as possible.
c) The line numbers for lines pipe runs represented on the drawing is
clearly indicated. This line number is indicative of the fluid service,
piping class and material, insulation etc.
d) The operating and design process conditions (pressure and temperature)
for the pipe run may also be reported on the isometric.
e) In addition, all the fittings including, valves, flanges, elbows etc. are
clearly represented graphically.
f) A table gives the number and detailed description of each type of fittings
represented on the drawing.
g) For complex piping systems, individual pipe runs are represented on
separate isometric drawings.

vii. Control Philosophy


A control philosophy is a document which defines each control point and the
sequence of the process in a system. A control philosophy consists of various
circuits of equipments like the closed loop refrigeration circuit, cooling water
circuit, lube oil circuit, reclaimer circuit, etc. Using a Control philosophy we
can obtain the procedure to control these various circuits and the various
equipments using Instruments like control valves, various pressure, temperature,
level transmitters, etc.
3. MECHANICAL
i. Compressor
A gas/vapor compressor is a device which uses mechanical energy to increase
the pressure of the gas by decreasing the volume of the gas.

The various types of compressors used have been shown below:

The compressors mostly used here are:

a. Screw Compressor
A screw Compressor uses 2 helical screw rotors to compress vapor when it
enters through the suction and moves through the screws.

The vapor enters the screw through the suction and moves along the threads.
There are two screws, one male and other female, the space between the two, as
they mesh, reduces and hence the vapor is compressed. In case of oil flooded
compressors, the oil serves as a cooling agent and as a mechanical seal.

The loading and unloading is done using injection of oil into the compressor
loading/unloading chamber. It consists of a double acting piston-cylinder
arrangement (single acting in case of Howden XRV) and the loading takes place
by inserting oil into one side of the piston and unloading by inserting oil into the
other side. This depends on the Pressure of the vapor at suction of the
compressor. The Pressure transmitters transmit signals to the controllers and
hence the solenoid valves load or unload the compressor.
The loading/unloading takes place with the help of a sliding spool which
operates with the loading piston. The length of the rotors which is engaged with
the spool is said to be loaded and the gas gets compressed only in that length of
rotors.

There is also a Superfeed Suction along with the regular suction. The refrigerant
which has evaporated from the Economizer will be fed to the superfeed. This
vapor is at a higher pressure than the compressor suction. So the superfeed will
be provided at a distance where the pressure of the suction gas inside the
compressor is equal to the vapor in the superfeed.
b. Reciprocating Compressor
A reciprocating compressor is a compressor which uses a Piston cylinder
arrangement for compression of vapor. The reciprocating compressors used for
refrigeration are generally in a V or W arrangement. It consists of solenoid
valves which take part in the loading and unloading of the compressor. Unlike a
screw compressor, this compressor cannot undergo step-less capacity control.

The PC2 compressor is a Kirloskar Pneumatic Co. Ltd. Reciprocating


Refrigeration compressor.

It is a double cylinder compressor (bore 85mm and stroke 110mm) with one of
the cylinder always under loaded condition and the second is loaded using a
solenoid operated valve. The Cylinder liners are cast iron material and fine
boring and honing is done for mirror finish surfaces. The compressors are belt
driven and give max. and min. speeds of 1450RPM and 600RPM.
Piston has 3 compression rings and one oil ring and they ensure ample
lubrication with minimum usage of oil. The crankshaft is made of aluminum
alloy.
ii. Heat Exchangers
Heat exchangers are of the following types:

a) Double Pipe
b) Shell and Tube Type
c) Plate Type

Depending on which side the Refrigerant flows, the Shell and tube type chillers
are classified into two types

a) Direct Expansion(DX) Heat Exchanger


b) Flooded Type Heat Exchanger

Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanger


Shell and tube type heat exchangers are used basically because they provide a
large ratio of heat transfer area to volume and weight.

The components of a typical Shell and Tube Type Heat Exchanges are,

1. Shell
2. Tubes
3. Tube Sheets
4. Baffles
5. Tie Rods
6. Head/Bonnet
7. Gasket
a. Shell
A shell is a cylindrical container which houses shell side fluid in the heat
exchanger. They are generally made by rolling metal plates and then
passing through the mandrel to check for out of roundness. The material
generally used is Low Carbon Steel.

The Above Figure gives the TEMA designations for the various types of Shells
and Channels (Heads).
b. Tubes
The tubes form as the medium between the shell fluid and the tube side
fluid. Materials used are copper, steel alloys, Alloys of Nickel, titanium,
aluminum. Finned tubes are used to increase the heat transfer area by
about 2 to 5 times.

The configuration of the tubes is as follows

The above figure shows the Tube configuration


c. Tube Sheets
Tube Sheets are plates with holes which are made in the required pattern
to hold the tubes. The main function of the tube sheets is to prevent the
entry of the tube side fluid into the shell. The tube sheet holes contain
grooves which help in the fixation of the tubes in the holes. The tubes are
either welded or expanded to form a mechanical joint.
The tube sheet must also resist a corrosion attack from the dissimilar
fluids on either side.

d. Baffles
The baffles are plates in which holes are drilled and are inserted in
between the shell. They have the following functions:
a. Support the Tubes.
b. Maintain the tube spacing
c. Direct the flow of the fluid in the desired pattern.

The spacing between the baffles is called as Baffle Spacing. The Baffle
spacing must be 15% of the Diameter of the shell. Baffles are either
stamped/punched or drilled. For a gas or a vapor, baffles are placed such
that the gas moves horizontally. For a liquid, they are placed such that
liquid flows vertically.

The various types of configurations of baffle arrangements are


e. Tie Rods
Tie in rods have two functions.
a) Hold the baffle assembly together.
b) Maintain selected baffle spacing.

f. Head/Bonnet
It is required to contain the tube side fluid and provide the desired
direction.
The various configurations of the channels according to TEMA standards
are given in the figure above.

g. Gasket
The gasket is a sealing element which provides the sealing between the
various mating surfaces. The gaskets contain sealing materials which
prevent the leakage within the members under compression.
A commonly used gasket is a Spiral wound gasket. It consists of an outer
ring of SS, a filler material which is generally softened graphite and an
outer ring. The filler material is wound spirally. The filler acts as a
sealing material and the metallic parts act as the rigid support.
iii. Valves
A valve is a device which does the regulation of flow of a particular fluid. The
regulation can be in terms of various fluid properties like flow rate, pressure,
direction, etc. This is done by opening or closing the obstruction to the flow,
partially or fully.

The various types of the Valves are,

a. Gate Valve
A Gate Valve is a valve which is used primarily for allowing or
obstruction the flow of the fluid by using a rectangular wedge to do the
obstruction.
This valve should only be used to on or off the flow and not to regulate
the flow.
The valve consists of a body which has a rectangular wedge blocking the
path of the flow. The gate is operated with the help of a threaded Stem
which rises or lowers because of a handle.
The Gate tends to vibrate if the gate is partially open.
They have a rising or a non-rising stem where a rising stem gives an
indication of the status of the gate. They can have either a flanged end or
an end which needs to be welded.
b. Globe Valve
A Globe valve consists of a plug which sits on a seat to obstruct the flow.
The Globe valve is generally used for regulation the flow of liquid. The
plug is operated using a stem which can be operated using a handwheel.
Apart from the regular Body, stem, bonnet, the globe valve consists of a
cage which determines the flow of the fluid.
The Valves are generally made of Carbon Steel, LTCS or Stainless Steel.

c. Butterfly Valve
The Butterfly Valve is a valve used for regulating the flow using a disc.
This disc is mounted on a rod where the rod is turned using a handle and
it in turn turns the disc to open or close the path of flow.
d. Check Valve
A check valve, also called as a non-return valve, is a valve which allows
the flow of liquid only in one direction. It blocks the flow coming from
the other side. The various types of check valves are;
a. Ball Check Valve: It consists of a spring loaded ball which allows the
entry of fluid when the spring is compressed and blocks it from the
opposite side as the spring recoils.
b. Swing Check Valve: This consists of a disc which is hinged at one
end and allows flow as it swings off the seat and blocks it as it goes
back on to the seat.
c. Flapper Check Valve: It has a flapper which is hinged and is similar
to the swing check.

A flapper type Check valve should not be used in a vertical line when the
flow is from the top.
e. Needle Valve
A needle valve is a valve which obstructs and regulates the flow of the
fluid with the help of a needle shaped plunger. This is operated with the
help of a threaded stem and a handle. It is only used for relatively lower
flow rates. They are generally used for flow metering circuits.

f. Pressure Safety Valve


A pressure safety valve is a type of a valve which allows the flow of fluid
through it after the pressure in a system reaches beyond the specified
value. It consists of a spring which holds the plunger/disc on the seat. The
spring has a predefined tension which is proportional to the maximum
pressure sustained by the vessel.
g. Ball Valve
A ball valve is the simplest type of valve where a ball which has a hole is
the medium which obstructs the flow of the fluid. When the valve is
closed, the hole is perpendicular to the flow in the pipe and is parallel
when the valve is open.
iv. Fittings
The Various Types of Pipe Fittings are:

a. Elbows
They are used when the direction of the piping is to be changed by 90deg
or 45deg. It consists of either Short Radius (Radius is 1.5 times the pipe
diameter) or Long Radius (Radius is equal to the size of the pipe).

b. Reducers
They are used if the size of the pipe is to be changed.
Length of the Reducer = Average of smaller and larger diameter of the
reducer
The reducer can be concentric or eccentric.
c. Union
It consists of a male and a female ends and a nut which allows for easy
fixation and removal as compared to a coupling.

d. Tee
A Tee is a fitting which is used when the piping has to be split divided
into two directions like 108deg. The Tee can be Equal Tee or an Unequal
Tee based on the sizes of the pipes on the branches. The Tee is generally
classified as Reducing Tee, Double Branch Tee, etc.
e. Coupling
A coupling is one which connects two pipes .If the pipes are of different
diameters then it is called as a reducer. The Coupling can be a socket
weld type or a threaded type. If the Threads are only on one of the sides,
then it is called as a half coupling; it is called a full coupling if the
threads are on both the sides.

f. Olets
Whenever a Tee is not advisable, then fittings like Olets are used. The
olets can be Socket Weld Olets, Butt Weld olets, Threaded Olets, etc.
g. Cap
A Cap is used where the end of the pipe is to be blinded or closed.

v. Flanges
Types of flanges are;

a. Slip-on Flange
Slip-on flanges are the ones where the inner diameter of the flange is
slightly larger than the diameter of the pipe. These are welded to the pipe
after the pipe is inserted in the flange.

b. Weld-neck Flange
These flanges give a reduction in the concentration of stresses. These
contain a neck at the end of the flange which can be welded to the pipe.

c. Threaded Flange
The flange has internal threads which fit on to the pipe which has threads
on its outside surface. The flanges has tapered threads which can be used
in highly combustible areas where welding is dangerous.

d. Blind Flange
This is a flange which is used to seal the ends of the pipes so that the fluid
cannot escape through the pipes.
The flanges are also further classified as Flat Face, Raised Face, Male-Female
Face, Tongue-grove face Flanges.

Weld Neck Flange


vi. Welding
Types of Welding Processes Used:

a. Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

This Process is one in which weld is produced using a non-consumable


Tungsten Electrode which is shielded by an Inert gas like argon or helium. A
filler rod is generally used which is compatible to the material of the base metal.
It can be used for dissimilar metals and from 0.5mm thickness onwards.

b. Metal Arc Welding


This is a method in which an electric arc is generated between a consumable
electrode and the metal to be weld. The electrode used is a flux coated electrode
where the flux covers the hot welded area from oxidation due to atmospheric
conditions.

Generally, the weld at the root is made using TIG welding as it produces a
cleaner weld. And the rest of the weld is done using MAW.
Classification of Welding Electrodes is done as follows.

E7018-X

E - Indicates Electrode

70 - Indicates the strength of the joint made by the electrode when welded.
Measured in pounds per square inch.

1 - Indicates Welding Position

8 - Indicates Coating

X - Indicates Additional Requirements if any.

 Welding Positions

1 – Flat, Horizontal, Vertical, Overhead


2 – Flat, Horizontal
3 – Flat, Horizontal, Vertical, Overhead

 Coating

0 – Cellulose, Sodium
1 – Cellulose, Potassium
2 – Rutile, Sodium
3 – Rutile, Potassium
4 – Rutile, Iron Powder
5 – Low Hydrogen, Sodium
6 – Low Hydrogen, Potassium
7 – Iron Powder, Iron Oxide
8 – Low Hydrogen, Iron Powder
9 – Iron Oxide, Rutile, Potassium
vii. Thermostatic Expansion Valve
The Thermostatic Expansion Valve is an expansion valve which opens or closes
based on the pressure changes on the diaphragm. It consists of a bulb which is
filled with the refrigerant used in the system. The bulb is attached to the chiller
outlet pipe and the pressure in the bulb varies as the temperature of the chiller
outlet changes.

The pressures acting on the diaphragm are Bulb pressure, Evaporator pressure
and spring pressure.
4. MATERIALS
The Materials used in Piping are:

a. Low Temperature Carbon Steel


It is used for low temperature equipments. It has a low Carbon (0.2 to 0.3%),
High Manganese (0.7 to 1.6%) & high silicon (0.15 to 0.60%).
It has moderate strength. It is used for cryogenic applications below -45 degC.
Good strength ductility and toughness.

b. Carbon Steel
It is a material which has a considerable percentage of carbon as unless a
minimum value is specified.

c. Stainless Steel
Austenitic Chromium Nickel Alloy Steel pipe for high temperature service has
excellent corrosion resistance except chlorides. Stress concentration cracking
can occur at temp above 60 deg C. It consists of two types viz. 304L and 316L.
304 is a versatile type of a material. The old name was 18/8 because of the 18%
Chromium and 8% Nickel. It undergoes Work Hardening so Annealing should
be done.
304L is the Low Carbon Version of the 304. It has improved weldability. Also
called as EN58E. It has high resistance to carbide precipitation.
Material Composition ASME Standards Description Properties
Forged Cast
Forged Carbon
A105 Steel Piping
Components
Carbon Steel C-Si Seamless -290C to
A216-WBC
Carbon Steel 4250C
A106 pipe for high
Temperature
Applications
Seamless and
welded Steel
A333
pipe for low-
Low Temperature
-460C to
Temperature C-Mn-Fe Low
A352-LCB 3400C
Carbon Steel Temperature
A350-LF2 Carbon Steel
A352-LCC for piping
Components
Seamless and
welded Steel
A333
pipe for low-
Low Temperature
-1010C to
Temperature 3.5 Ni Alloy Based
3400C
Alloy Steel (Nickel) Forged
A350-LF3 A352-LC3 Carbon Steel
for piping
Components

The above Table shows various types of materials and ASME standards
5. INSTRUMENTATION
The various types of Instruments used are:

i. Pressure
The pressure transmitters consist of pressure sensors which sense the pressure in
a system and the transmitter/transducer converts this signal to feed to the
controller.
The various types of pressure sensors are,
a) Capacitive : This type of sensor uses a diaphragm to form a variable
capacitor and then measures this displacement caused due to pressure.
b) Piezoelectric : The sensor employs piezoelectric strain gauges to measure
the strain caused due to the pressure.
c) Electromagnetic : The sensor uses electromagnetic principles to detect the
displacements in the diaphragm.

A Differential pressure sensor uses two pressures on the two sides of the
diaphragm in contrast to the simple pressure sensor which uses pressure on one
side and atmospheric pressure on the other side.

The Above figure shows the working of a pressure differential transmitter


ii. Temperature
The temperature sensors used are the following:
a) Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD): The electrical resistance of
metals rises as heat increases and the metals become hotter, while their
electrical resistance falls as heat decreases and the metals become colder.
RTDs are temperature sensors that use the changes in the electrical
resistance of metals to measure the changes in the local temperature.
b) Thermocouple: It uses two dissimilar conductors which contact each other
at two different spots. The circuit produces a voltage when a differential
temperature is set up in between the spots. This voltage can be fed to a
controller.

The Above figure shows the comparison between RTD and Thermocouple.
6. KNOWLEDGE
SHARING
i. Pressure Testing
a. Initially the PSVs are isolated and all connections are checked.
b. Pressure is raised upto 1.7 kg/cm2 g using a compressor and dry air or
nitrogen is let in through the Filter Drier core and major leaks are found out.
c. Now the pressure is increased to 13.97 kg/cm2g and held for 10 minutes.
d. Now for the leakage testing, Pressure is brought to 12.7 kg/cm2g.
Examination is done by putting soap solution over all the joints, flanges,
valves, glands, etc.
e. During inspections, each component is checked according to the P&ID.

ii. Liquid Stroke


Excess Liquid is sent to the chiller by the TEX. This entire volume cannot be
evaporated by the chiller and hence some of this liquid reaches the suction of
the compressor. Since the compressor cannot compress liquid, it can lead to the
damage of the compressor parts. The liquid mixes with the oil in the compressor
and the compressor unloads automatically.

iii. Refrigerant Charging


The refrigerant used is R134-A.
A vacuum is made in the entire skid initially. This is done by connecting the
vacuum pump to the filter drier core. All the valves of the cycle are opened. The
valve of the drier core is opened and the pump is started. When a required
amount of vacuum is achieved, the valve is closed and the pump is
disconnected. Then the pipe is connected to the refrigerant cylinder. The air
present in the charging pipe is taken out by opening the cylinder valve and
letting the gas leak through the connection near the skid. Then the charging is
done by closing the discharge valve of the condenser and starting the
compressor. This fills the condenser with the refrigerant.
The amount of refrigerant in the condenser is 60% of (the total volume of the
condenser minus the volume of the tubes).
iv. Equalizing line from OTS to Compressor Suction
This particular line has been provided for the following reason:
a. The pressure is high before the gate valve of the equalizing line ( Pressure at
OTS outlet)
b. Pressure is low after the Gate valve of the Equalizing line (Pressure at comp.
suction)
c. If equalizing line is not provided, then when the compressor shuts off, the
pressurized fluid comes back from the OTS to the compressor outlet, resulting
in the reverse rotation of the rotors of the screw. This can damage the
compressor since the oil pump is shut off at the moment.
d. There is a 30 sec. lag after the compressor starts and the equalizing line valve
closes.

v. Stand by pressure
At the start of the compressor, the gas of refrigerant at compressor suction has
an initial pressure at atm. temperature called as standby pressure.

vi. No PDT across the OTS


The OTS consists of a demister pad and due to the high porosity of the demister
pad, there is no clogging of the demister pad and hence no Pressure drop.
However the SOS consists of a coalescing element which clogs and hence a
PDT is required across the SOS.

vii. Hot Gas Bypass


This line is provided to supply an intermediate load to the Compressor. Now,
whenever the chiller has no heat load, the suction pressure at compressor
decreases. Hence the compressor can trip at Low Suction. Hence to keep the
compressor running even when there is very less load at the chiller, the hot gas
bypass line provides an intermediate load to the compressor. This line works
only when the load is less than 20% of the max output.

viii. EPCG
Export promotion capital Goods license is given by the Govt. of India to
companies who export certain amount of their produce.
If the company requires certain imported machinery etc, then those imported
goods are exempted from import duty.
ix. Method to find flow of Pump if Flow Meter is not Available
If a direct flow meter is not available for a water pump, then take the Head (H)
vs Flow (Q) curve which is available for each pump. Convert the pressure
generated by pump into head and for that flow, note the corresponding Flow.