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COMPARATIVE SUR ey ENGLISH AND ARABIC COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS: ENGLISH AND ARABIC Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli ] Publisher: DAR ALFALAH Geiss pu CML gia = pL) P.O. Box 818 818 4.08 Swaileh 11910 11910 Che Jordan Ou 009626-541 1547 asidy Go Copyright: by the publisher ALL RIGHTS ARE RESERVED .: No part of this publication may be translated, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any | means, - electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, ‘or otherwise without the prior ‘written permission of the \ publisher . Edition 2007 ely A CS Dia A B18 3.08 11910 eee Publisher: DAR) ALFALAH P.O, Box 818 Swaileh 11910 n Tel & Fax 009626-5411547 0096266541 1547 Sy wa E-mail: book: Website: www. ralfalah.com Deposit N (191/2/1997) ! Class No. 400 : Author; Muhammad Ali Alkhuli Title: | Comparative Linguistics: English and Arabic Subject Heading: 1- Languages 2- English Language 3- Arabic Language Deposit No. .: (1 91/2/1997) Notes : Amman: Alfalah House Prepared by the National Library ISBN 9957-401-05-9. (423) Preface Chapter 1: Chapter 2: Chapter 3: CONTENTS English and Arabic Phonemes Common Consonants ... Consonants Restricted to English Consonants Restricted to Arabi Vowel Comparison Diphthong Comparison Syllables of English and Arabic Consonantal Clusters .......... Questions and Exercises (1) Parts of Speech in English and Arabic Parts of Speech in English Parts of Speech in Arabic . Language Differences Noun Test ..... Adjective Test Verb Test ... Pronoun Test Adverb Test ... - Questions and Exercises (2) Sentence Types in English and Arabic Nominal Sentence Verbal Sentence Verbless Sentence Auxiliary Sentence . Other Types of Sentences Levels of Sentences Questions and Exercises (3) OADAKAWNEK Chapter 4: Chapter 5: Sentence Patterns in English and Arabic SuV Pattern ... ae SuVO Pattern SuVOO Pattern SuVCs Pattern SuVOCo Pattern SuVOc Pattern . V Pattern VD Pattern SuVD Pattern Aux SuVX Pattern SuCs Pattern .... Adjective Option . Place-Adverb Optio: Manner-Adverb Option Recursion Option ... Multiplicity Option .. Questions and Exercises (4 Verb Tenses in English and Arabi Present Simple .... Present Progressive Present Perfect ... Present Perfect Progressive Past Simple ..... Past Progressive Past Perfect ... Past Perfect Progressive Future Simple .... Future Progressive Future Perfect ....... Future Perfect Progressive Non-Progressive Verbs Future in Time Clauses 30 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 35 36 36 37 39 43 B B 44 45 45 45 46 47 47 48 48 49 Chapter 6: Chapter 7: Present for the Future Questions and Exercises (5) The Passive in English and Arabic Passive Rule in English ... Passive Rules in Arabic Passive Rule (1) in Arabic . Comparison of the E Rule to Rule (1 Passive Rule (2) in Arabic .. Comparison of the E Rule to Rule Q). Passivisation of Ditransitive Verbs Non-Passivised Sentences Undeletable Agent Obligatory Passivisation .. Questions and Exercises (6) ‘Types of Verbs in English and Arabic Verb Forms .. Verb Regularity and Irregularity .. Consonantal and Vocalic Verbs Base and Affixed Verbs . Progressive Verbs Perfective Verbs Active and Passive Verbs Intransitive Verbs ........ Monotransitive Verbs . Reflexive Verbs ... Ditransitive Verbs Tritransitive Verbs Phasal Verbs ... Phrasal Verbs .. Reciprocal Verbs Infinitive Verbs Delexical Verbs 49 50 53 53 33 54 54 55 56 56 57 58 59 61 Chapter 8: Chapter 9: Chapter 10: Non-Progressive Verbs .. Ergative Verbs ... Reporting Verbs . Simple and Compound Verbs Equational Verbs Auxiliary Verbs . Questions and Exercises (7) Reported Spéech in English and Arabic Reporting Clauses Connector . Punctuation Tense Changes .....- Pronoun Changes . Syntactic Changes Distance Rules - Questions and Exercises (8) eee Agreement in English and Arabic Subject-Verb Agreement Verb-Adverb Agreement . Subject and Subject-Complement Agreement .. Object and Object-Complement Agreement Subject-Adverb Agreement ... Adjective-Noun Agreement Antecedent-Pronoun Agreement ..... Questions and Exercises (9) ...--+-- Subjects in English and Arabic Determiner+Noun Noun. Adjective+Noun .. Nount+Cont+Noun Pronoun ...... “ive BBB 98 98 98 100 101 105 Chapter 11: Chapter 12: Det*Nount Adjective Clause, Pronoun+ Emphasizer .. The Adjective The+Cardinal . The+Ordinal Determiner+Empty Noun Preparatory Pronoun Zero Subject Noun Clause Infinitive .. Particle Gender z Questions and Exercises (10) ..... Nouns in English and Arabic Genitive Structure . Countable Nouns Uncountable Nouns Quantifiers with Nouns . All as Quantifier Areas of Comparison . Singular Quantifiers . Quantifier-Verb Agreement Noun Phrase .. Recursion .. - Questions and Exercises (11) Pronouns in English and Arabic Pronoun Criteria 0.0... lie 129 Chapter 13: Semantic Features . Free and Baund Pronouns .. Personal and Impersonal Pronouns . 133 Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns 133 Possessive Pronouns .. 134 Demonstrative Pronouns 135 Relative Pronouns ..... 135 Interrogative Pronouns 136, Negative Pronouns 137 Indefinite Pronouns 137 Questions and Exercises (12) . Adjectives in English and Arabic Adjective Positions .. Adjective Features Gradable Adjectives Ungradable Adjectives Proper Adjectives .... Ordinal Adjectives Cardinal Adjectives Compound Adjectives Comparative Adjectives Superlative Adjectives Demonstrative Adjectives .. Possessive Adjectives ... Marked and Unmarked Adjectives Deverbal Adjectives . Denominal Adjectives Classifying Adjectives .. vie Chapter 14: Chapter 15: Chapter 16: Qualitative Adjectives . Noun Adjectives... Adjective as Noun .. Questions and Exercises (13) . Relative Clauses in English and Arabic Relative and Gender .... a Relative and Number .. Relative and Humanity ..... Relative-Antecedent Agreement Antecedent Deletion Relative Deletion Prepositional Position ..... Object and Completive Pronouns .. Definiteness of Antecedents Defining and Non-defining Relatives Sentential Relative .. ceecneee Possessive Relative Other Differences Questions and Exercises (14) Noun Clauses in English and Arabic ‘Types of Noun Clauses . Noun Clauses and Prepositions Functions of Noun Clauses Deletion of the Connector Questions and Exercises (15) Adverb Clauses in English and Arabic Flexible Position oe Time Clause and Futurity .. ‘Jf-Clause and Futurity Adverb-Clause Reduction .. Ip-Deletion ........... wvii- 152 152 152 154 157 157 157 157 157 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 161 161 163 165 165 166 167 167 169 172 172 173 173 173 174 ‘Adverb Clause of Time . ‘Adverb Clause of Reason .. Adverb Clause of Result ‘Adverb Clause of Purpose Adverb Clause of Contrast Adverb Clause of Place ‘Adverb Clause of Manner ‘Adverb Clause of Condition . Result Connector ......- Questions and Exercises (16) ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ..... APPENDIX A: ABBREVIATIONS APPENDIX B: SYMBOLS ..... SUBJECT INDEX .... THE AUTHOR’S BOOKS 175 175 176 177 177 178 179 180 182 183 186 189 Table (1): Table (2): Table (3): Table (4): Table (5): Table (6): Table (7) Table (8): Table (9): Table (10): Table (11): Table (12): Table (13): Table (14): Table (15): Table (16): Table (17): Table (18) TABLES Types of Phonemic Differences .. Common Consonants ......... English-Restricted Consonants Arabic-Restricted Consonants ..... Vowel Comparison ....... Diphthong Comparison .... Syllable Comparison .... Parts of Speech in E and A....... Sentence-Type Comparison Sentence-Pattern Comparison ............... Tense Comparison .... E-A Passive Comparison Verb-Type Comparison Agreement Comparison Subject Comparison ... Noun Comparison ...... Pronoun Comparison . Comparison of Relatives ...... six. PREFACE . ‘This book presents a comparative study of English and Arabic linguistics. It compares the two languages with respect to phonetics, morphology, and syntax, to the exclusion of some other branches such as semantics. ‘The two languages that have been compared here are Arabic and English, more accurately Standard English (SE) and Standard Arabic (SA). To be more specific, the two languages are Modern SE (MSE) and Modern SA (MSA). As for English, the variety being studied here is American English, rather than British English. It is to be understood that ‘the comparative approach here has focused equally on areas of similarity and areas of difference between the two languages, ie., English and Arabic. The direction of the comparison has been from English to Arabic, rather than from Arabic to English. In other words, English has been the starting point or the target of the comparative study. Jt must be pointed out that this comparison, like any other one, is not, nor can it possibly be, @ comprehensive one. A complete comparison covering the phonetics, morphology, and. syntax of any two languages certainly requires many extended volumes, which is beyond the purpose and scope of this book. The emphasis in this book has been basically on the main points, to the exclusion of endless details. The book compares English and Arabic phonetics in Chapter (1), parts of speech in Chapter (2), sentence types in Chapter (3), sentence patterns in (4), tenses in (5), and the passive voice in (6). It compares English and ‘Arabic verb types in Chapter (7), reported speech in (8), agreement in (9), subjects in (10), nouns in (11), pronouns in (12), adjectives in (13), relative clauses in (14), noun Clauses in (15), and adverb clauses in (16). Jt is obvious that many other chapters could be easily added, but this much is more than adequate in an introductory textbook for university students. i Concerning the transcription of Arabic words and sentences, the choice has been between phonemic IPA transcription and Arabic orthography. The author has chosen Arabic orthography in most ‘occasions because it has proven to be more easily recognized, read, j and comprehended by Arab students than phonemic symbolization. At the end of every chapter,-a significant number of questions and exercises appear in order to reinforce what has been learned through the chapter text. The student is advised to do all the exercises and to write down the answers in the blanks on the book itself. Do not forget to.refer to the final pages of the book, where you find the abbreviations (Appendix A) and the symbols used in the book (Appendix B). It also helps a great deal to consult the subject index whenever the need be. The author does hope that this book will be a great help to students of comparative linguistics and any individuals interested in such branches of knowledge. Finally, the author wishes to thank all the colleagues who helped in the proofreading process. i Author : Dr. Muhammad Ali Alkhuli CHAPTER 1 ENGLISH AND ARABIC PHONEMES Each language (L)' has its own phonemic system, but such systems may share some similarities in addition to some differences, When two phonemic systems are compared, the comparison gives us three types of relationship. First, there are phonemes common to both languages. Second, there are phonemes existent in the first language (L1), but not in the other language (L2). Third, there are phonemes existent in L2, but not in L1; see Table (1). In some cases, the phoneme may be common to both languages, but not identical. The difference may still be there: in the point of articulation, manner of articulation, or distribution Table (1): Types of Phonemic Differences In Table (1), type (1) covers phonemes (P) that exist in both languages. Type (2) covers phonemes that exist in L1, but not in L2, Type (3) covers phonemes that exist in L2, but not Ll. In future references, we shall refer to type (1) as common phonemes, to type (2) as L1 phonemes, and to type (3) as L2 phonemes, * For abbreviations, see Appendix (A) at the end of the book. For symbols, sec Appendix (B), Common Consonants: ‘These consonants are common to both English @®) and Arabic (Ab t4k)£056523 hLmawr y/. Table (2) illustrates the point. Table (2): Common Consonants No. | Common Phoneme | English Example | Arabic E: 1 fol rr bait oh 2 AL tea, als 3 ial day a 4 Al Kit ds. 5 n jog ely 6 ft fine A 7 el thin ae 8 a then ts 9 ish sign hy 10 i 700 JS ul Ua shoe Sat 12 th c hen. ry 13 mu fittle es 4 fond mother ole 15 Inf now Pa 16 wl water eyes 7 fl. rate 0 18 if yet Sis Table (2) shows that there are eighteen consonants common between English and Arabic, However, these common consonants are not always identical; there are some differences: 1, // in English is alveolar, but dental in Arabic. Here is a difference in the point of articulation. 2, /a/ in English (E) is alveolar, but dental in Arabic (A). 2 3. /W/ occurs in initial and medial positions in English, but not finally, ¢.g., horse, behalf. In Arabic, /h/ Occurs in all positions, 3, 43, Lids. Here is a difference in distribution. 4. /r/ is flat in British English and retroflexed in American English, but trilled in Arabic, especially ina final position, eg., “ei The terms here refer to tongue shape atid tongue position. With a flat ‘Af, the tongue is flat. With a retroflexed /1/, the tip of the tongue is curved back. With a trilled /r/, the sound /r/ is repeatedly produced. 5. Although /I/ is a common consonant, the rules of light-dark- phone distribution are different in E and A. eg.’ Consonants Restricted to English: There are consonants that exist in English, but not in Arabic. We may call them English-restricted consonants. Here is a list of them, shown in Table (3) Table (3): English-Restricted Consonants English Example _{ Arabic Example Basically, the English-restricted consonants in T .ble (3) do not exist in Standard Arabic. However, some elaboration may be desirable here: 1. /p/ exists in English as a phoneme. It does Not exist in Arabic as a distinct phoneme. Nevertheless, [p] exists in Arabic as an allophone of /b/ conditioned by the phonetic environment, .g., /laps UGl/. Here /b/ shows itself as [p] if followed by a voiceless, sound; /b/ is devoiced into the voiceless [p]. Thus, the difference between Pol and ip/ is phonemic in English, i.e., significant or functional, because it affects meaning, but the difference in Arabic is phonetic, ic., non- phonemic, non-functional, or insignificant, because it does not affect meaning. “2. /g/ is an E-restricted consonant. However, it exists in some Arabic dialects such as the Egyptian dialect and the Yemenite dialect, dialects not considered ideally standard dialects. For example, a reader of The Holy Quran would not produce /g/ in the place of / jl. 3. [8 does not exist in Standard Arabic; it only exists in some rural dialects. The counter-consonant in SA (Standard Arabic) is /k/. 4. /2/ does not exist in most Arabic dialects. However, it does exist in Syrian Arabic and Lebanese Arabic in the place of /j/ in other dialects, e.g., /Zabal/ instead of / Jabal / 5. /g/ has no place in Arabic at all. In English, it has a restriction on occurrence: it does not occur initially. It only occurs medially and finally, e.g., finger, sing. Consonants Restricted to Arabic: ‘Arabic has some consonants that do not exist in English. Let us call them Arabic-restricted consonants, shown in Table (4). These Arabic-restricted consonants present @ symbolization difficulty. How to symbolize them depends on what facilities the computer has. Sometimes /t / stands for /T/ ‘dl for /D/; /s/ for /S/; [w/ or / be / for JV; /g/ or fe for /G/. Capitalization, however, is a safer choice because all word processors and typewriters can provide capital letters, but cannot provide dotted of barred letters, Vowel Comparison: ~ When we compare two languages (L's), we have to work with both L’s on the same level: we compare Standard English (SE) to Standard Arabic (SA). We should not compare SE_ to colloquial Arabic or SA to colloquial English, The comparison will be better controlled if the two levels of both languages are maintained identical, Table (5) will show the details of the vowel comparison between English and Arabic. The last column in the table gives three classifications: EA for a common vowel, ie., a vowel used in E and A, E for a vowel restricted to English, and A for a vowel restricted to Arabic. Table (5): Vowel Comparison English Example Arabic Example bit bet man wanted In Table (5), there is a list of simple vowels. Three of them are common to both B and A :/i,au/. Four of them are restricted to = English: /e, © , %, af. Only one vowel is restricted to A, ie., /a/, the only long vowel in the table. . There is also a difference in distribution_between E and A vowels, Whereas all A vowels can come at the end of the word, only some E vowels can. These E vowels cannot be final in words or morphemes: fi, ¢, @ , a, w/. . Diphthong Comparison: ‘A diphthong is a vowel followed by a glide or semi-vowel, e-g., boy, bow. Table (6) shows that there are four diphthongs common to E and A. Remember’that we refer here to SE and SA, ie., the two standard languages. The common ones are /iy, ay, aw, uw/. There are four ones restricted to English: /ey, ow, oy, 2w/. There is no diphthong restricted to Arabic. Table (6): Diphthong Comparison Jt is mentionworthy to say that some phoneticians consider the diphthongs /iy, ey, uw, 2w/ long vowels, which have to be symbolized as such: /i, e;, u:, 2:/, However, this disagreement among phoneticians does not change the comparative observation in this respect. The types of relationship between E and A with regard to these sounds remain the same, no matter how they are transcribed. ~6- Before we conclude, a main EA difference must be pointed out here with respect to vowels and diphthongs. English allows them to occur anywhere: initially, medially, and finally, e.g., in, not, no,with some exceptions in final positions. In contrast, Arabic does not allow them to occur initially, all Arabic words begin with consonants, never with vowels or diphthongs. an Syllables of English and Arabic: The smallest linguistic unit is the phoneme, e.g,, /k,g,n/, but these units have no meanjngs. They are phonetic units with which we build larger units. The linguistic unit immediately higher than the phoneme is the syllable, e.g., /bir/. The syllable in any language consists of a margin followed by a nucleus followed by a margin, possibly symbolized as (MI) +Nu+ (M2). The brackets indicate the optionality of a margin. Each syllable may have two margins: initial and final, but the nucleus is an obligatory component. We may have a syllable without margins, ¢.g., the article a. The margin is always a consonant (c), and the nucleus is always a vowel (v), simple or compound. Table (7): Syllable Comparison No. ube Example | Languages i Vv a E 2 ve on E 3 vce its E q VeCe warms 8 3 cv fo 8 E&A 6 CCV fee E 7) ecev straw E § CVC Tet_ts ERA 9 eve Tets 38 E@A To evcce farms E I CVCCCO) texts E 12 ccve skin E 3 CCVEE skins E Table (7): Continued No. Sviabee Example . | Languages ia Ccvece Plants E i5_ | €ecve sireet E CCCVEE streels E CCCVECE | soripss E Examining Table (7), one may observe the following 1. There are only three syllabic patterns common to both E and A, ie., Nos. 5, 8,and 9, marked EA in the table. 2. There is no syllabic pattern restricted to A 3. Fourteen of the syllabic patterns are restricted to E, marked E in the table. 4. The Arabic syllable is generally shorter than the E syllable. The former ranges from two to four sounds, whereas the latter ranges from one to seven sounds. 5, English allows syllables without consonants at all, e.g, 4, but Arabic does not. 6. English has at least seventeen different syllabic patterns, whereas Arabic has only three. 7. English allows one, two, or three consonants before the nucleus, whereas Arabic allows only one consonant. 8. English does not always require a consonant before the nucleus, whereas Arabic does. 9. After the nucleus, English allows one, two, three, or four consonants, whereas Arabic allows one or two consonants, 10. The maximum number of consonants before the nucleus is three in E, but one in A. 11. The maximum. number of consonants after the nucleus is four in E, but two in A. 12. English has three open syllables, i.e., ending in a vowel: v, cy, and cev. Arabic has one: cv. 13. English has fourteen closed syllables, i.e., ending in a _ consonant. Arabic has two closed ones: Nos. 8 and 9. 8. Consonantal Clusters: A consonantal clusters is a group of consecutive consonants in one syllable, Looking at Table (7), one may notice the following 1. English allows a cluster of two or three consonants before the nucleus. Arabic does not allow consonant clusters before the nucleus. coe 2. English allows a cluster of two, three, or four consonants after the nucleus. Arabic allows a cluster of two consonants after the nucleus, but not one of three consonants, 3, The two-consonant cluster is allowed before and after the nucieus in English, but allowed only at the word end in Arabic. 4. The maximum length of a cluster in English is four consonants. In Arabic, it is two. Ques 1. What is the difference between the E /t/ and the A /t/? ions and Exercises (1) 2. What is the difference between the E /d/ and the A /d/? 3. What is the difference in distribution between the E /h/ and the A /h/? 4, What is the difference between the A /r/, the British /r/, and the American /r/? The A /1/ is . The British /t/ is The American /t/ is 5. What consonants exist in E, but not in A ? 6. What consonants exist in A, but not in E ? 7. What is the difference between /p/ in E and [p] in A? 8. What are the phonemic symbols of these A phonemes? Bo 6 é — -& & ue t 9. What simple vowels are common to E and A? 10. What diphthongs are common to E and 11. What diphthongs exist in E, but not in A? 12. What diphthongs exist. in A, but not in E? 13. Give one word to exemplify each vowel or diphthong in Eand A ifit fits. -10- Vowel / Diphthong E Example leyf Jaw/ Joy! fowl fay! faw/ ns 14, Analyze these syllables using the M1 + Nu + M2 formula. Put @ instead of M1 or M2 if the margin is not there. Examples: a= B+ Nut+@ in = @+Nu+M2 go = MI+Nu+@ have all nm moon star o we on Vv be —___ ~ oo i oe a 15. Divide these words into their syllables , e.g., window = win + dow. writer blackboard recorder _ situations distinguish transformational modernization psa sss: Able peting 16. Use small ¢ (for consonant) and small v (for vowel) to ' describe the syllables of these words according to pronunciation, not according to spelling. . ' Example: these =cve. sentence = eve + eve. ' language reason ri matters ~ kind vl dealing replaced Vai other correct \ keeps ready ' as “ ie I Lei 17. Decide whether // in each following word is light or ly dark. {nj | fight —-——__——__ #*t lit oo late bil |= Pell , low line “t leap )3=-———— ep _____—_— i less | ——_-_———___ east. ________ ee 80 OS ap . ait ais | 18, What is the distribution of the dark /1/ and the light // | in E? =, _-H OO 19. What is the distribution of the dark /V/ and the light (V/ in A? CHAPTER 2 PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC th Every word ina langage has a grammatical category. English im classifies its words into eight categories or parts of speech: noun (N), ‘i pronoun (Pr), adjective (Adj), verb (V), adverb (Adv), preposition a (Prep), conjunction (Con), and interjection (Int), On the other hand, ns Arabic classifies its words into three parts of speech only: noun, verb, and particle. See Table (8). Parts of Speech in English: ce The English parts of speech may be grouped in a variety of Wet ways ihe 1. Nouns and pronouns can make one group because they both ‘ii may occupy the subject slot or the object slot and because pronouns ti may refer to or replace nouns. ‘Table (8): Parts of Speech in E & A w 2. Nouns, pronouns, and adjectives may form one group ut because nouns and pronouns are to be modified and adjectives are to modify them. 3. Nouns and verbs may form one group since they are essential components of the sentence, unlike the other parts of speech, which often function as either optional additions or grammatical connectors. 4. Verbs and adverbs may form one group because adverbs function as modifiers of verbs. 5. Prepositions may be grouped with nouns and pronouns because prepositions govern nouns and pronouns 6. Prepositions and conjunctions may make one group as function words, unlike the ‘other parts of speech, which basically function as content words, Although some parts of speech may be grouped into wider units, grammarians have chosen to divide them into eight parts, with ‘obvious inter-relationships, but certainly with distinct characteristics of each part. Nouns are names of things, persons, or acts. Pronouns replace or refer to nouns. Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Verbs report about actions made by nouns or pronouns, Adverbs modify verbs. Prepositions relate a verb, whether explicit or implicit, to a noun or Pronoun. Conjunctions conjoin two words of the same part of speech or two. units of the same syntactic function. Interjections stand alone as sentence words, ie., a word that may mean a whole exclamatory expression. Parts of Speech in Arabic: Arabic grammar gives three parts of speech as Table (8) shows: nouns, verbs, and particles. This tri-classification does not mean that Arabic does not have what English has. In most cases, it is a matter of difference in classification. In Arabic, the term noun covers what English labels as nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs. The Arabic Particle covers three English parts: prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. The two languages have no disagreement on the verb label: the term verb in both languages covers a very much similar content. Language Differences: Arabic can classify adjectives and advetbs as nouns, but English cannot do the same. In Arabic, adjectives and adverbs behave exactly like nouns. They can be singularized, dualized, and pluralized as nouns, ©B, as cal, A, SS OLS LG They can be masculinized and femininized as nouns, €.g., 453. They can take the definite J as a noun, eg, Shas, In contrast, English adjectives and adverbs do not behave like nouns. Nouns in English can be pluralized, but adjectives and adverbs cannot, Nouns’ in English can take determiners before them, but adjectives and adverbs cannot. Further, one can see that the tri-classification in Arabic, if compared to the octa-classification in English, can be explained in terms of under-classification in some cases. For example, the Arabic particle is made to cover the three English labels of prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. However, the English classification has nouns, adverbs, and adjectives, when the Arabic classification has nouns only. The reason here is not a matter of over-classification on the part of English or under-classification on the part of Arabic. In fact, it is a difference in how these parts behave in each language. In Arabic, adjectives and adverbs behave very much like nouns; that is why they come under the blanket term of a noun. In English, each of adjectives, adverbs, and nouns behave in a unique way; that is why they cannot be combined as one part of speech. Noun Test: What makes a word a noun? What is the nominality test in E and.A? 1. Plurality test. If a word takes the plural morpheme, it is a nourin both L’s, e.g., doors, children, chains, 31 J, dylan, 2. Genitive test. Ifa word in E takes’s, itis aN, ¢.g., boy’s. This test is not applicable.to A. ~16- 3. Determiner test. If a word takes a determiner (Det), it is a N in both L’s, e.g., my book, the book, a’b0ok, iS , xsd. Notice that the Det in E comes before the N, but in A it may come before, like oust, or after, like .s 4. Duality test. Ifa word in A accepts the duality suffix, it is a N, ©.g., daly, ches. This test does not apply to E. 5. Pronoun test. If a word in both L’s can be replaced by a pronoun, it is aN, ¢.g., Alihe, car—rit, hp, Gab iA. 6. Demonstrative test. Ifa demonstrative can replace a word or point to its referent, the word is a N in both L’s, ¢.g., this man, that car, NSN, tate,” Adjective Test: ‘What makes a word an adjective (Adj)? What are the Adj tests? In E, as mentioned before, the Adj is a distinct part of speech because it behaves very differently from how the N behaves. Although A places Adj’s under N’s, the Adj and the N in A have a positional relationship: the Adj comes immediately after the N. Not all N’s in A are typically Adj’s, &.g., Jy, des, #Am, Such N’s are not typical modifiers in A. The Adj in A is normally a derived N, e.g., dts 35, oud, Gai, pal, The adjective tests could be the following: 1. Comparative test. If a word in E accepts the comparative suffix /-ar/ or more, it is an Adj, e.g., larger, more complicated. In A, if a word accepts the comparative infix, it is an Adj, ¢.g., esi, dot, 0s), dash, gual 2. Superlative test. In E, ifthe word accepts the superlative ‘est! or most, it is an Adj, e.g., fastest, most wonderful. This test is a redundant one: ifa word accepts /-ar/, it automatically accepts /-ast/, If it accepts more, it accepts most. In A, the superlative is the comparative form itself with /? al W, ¢.g., Jes, unl, «I. 3. Intensifier test. If a word accepts very in E or iss in A, it may be an Adj, e.g., very good, very beautiful, \s» 15, ise cod. 4. Modification test. If a word is typically used to modify a N, it is an Adj, e.g., useful book, historic event, +\ yan 423, Usp tase, Verb Test: What marks a verb in both L’s?_~ * 1. Verb-morpheme test. In E, a word isa verb (V) if it accepts one of these four morphemes: the present simple morpheme eg., goes, comes, washes, the past morpheme, ¢.g., learned, knelt, spoke, the past participle morpheme, ¢.g., gone, spoken, or the present participle morpheme, e.g., speaking, coming. In A, if a word can be changed into the past form or the present from, it is a verb, e.g, ub, USS 2. Imperative test. If a word in both L’s can be used to initiate ‘a command, it is a verb, €.g., 20, sit, come, Wai, ei ints! Pronoun Test: How can a word be tested for pronominalization? 1, Noun test. If a word in both L’s can replace a noun, it is a pronoun, e.g., he — John, she —» Mary, they—boys, it> house, A dele, baa > old. 2. Reference test. Ifa word in beth L’s refers to a noun in the same context, it is a pronoun, ¢.g., This boy is a hard-working pupil; he studies five hours daily. 3. Negative test. If a word refers to a thing or person, but fails all or most of the noun tests, it is a pronoun. The pronoun in both L’s does not usually take the plurality morpheme, genitive morpheme, a determiner, a demonstrative, nor a duality morpheme. Adverb Test: In E, if the word is an Adj accepting -/y, the output is an adverb, ¢.g., quickly, carefully, gracefully. In A, if the word can modify a verb and take the suffix /- an/, it is an adverb, e.g,, Luts ie aa less ~18- Questions and Exercises (2) 1. What are the eight parts of speech in E? ~ 1 2 4 5 6. 7. 8. - 2. What are the three parts of speech in A? 1 2 3. 3, Which is wider in cover: the E noun or the A noun? Why? 4. What E partof speech does the A particle parallel? 5. What E parts of speech are parallel to the A noun? 6. Why does the E classification of parts of speech mention the adjective, whereas the A classification does not? 7. Prove that adjectives behave like nouns in A. 8. Prove that adjectives and nouns in E have a completely different behavior. 9. What is the part of speech of each foliowing word? reflect aspect taught life -19- cultural into round moder _. modernize modernization - impress linguistic precisely too enough slow slowly oh in spite of despite nevertheless * either...or over up if . so. running therefore out of one any who given minor 10. What is the part of speech of each word, using the A n? Mention the subdivision whenever necessary. eh! @ é rr 11. Some words may belong to more than one part of speech, Use each in a sentence according to its assigned part. broken (V): broken (Adj): round (Prep): round (N): round (V): spy (V): spy (N): chair (N): Il chair (V): firm (Adj): firm (N): first (Adj): first (N): high (Adv): high (Adj) referee (V): referee (N): they populous 13, Determine the part of speech of each word and name the test you have used to determine the part. duty _ Test: clash Test: weekly Test: century Test: you Test: John education informal material population innovation indulging educated doubt new fantastic yourself Test: ~ Test: Test: Test: Test: Test: Test: Test: Test: Test: Test: Test: CHAPTER 3 SENTENCE TYPES - IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC Every language allows its words to string together horizontally, one after another, in certain ways, called patterns. Some patterns may be common to two languages ar more. Some others may be particular, i.e, restricted to one language. Further, sentences. show a variety of types. In this chapter, we will discuss how English and Arabic differ and how they resemble one another with regard to sentence types. See Table (9), which summarizes the E-A sentence-type comparisons. E-A patterns will be discussed in the following chapter. Nominal Sentence: A nominal sentence is one that begins with a noun, eg., Edward came to school, ij 3 sLs.315) Both English and Arabic allow nominal sentences. In fact, all English sentences are nominal ones. The only apparent exception is the imperative sentence, ¢.g., Come here. Even here, this sentence is nominal in its deep structure because the subject you is often deleted although it may appear, e.g., You come here. However, the Arabic nominal sentence differs from the English one, e.g., The boys came late, ca, \s31s 5981 . Notice the /uw/ plural morpheme after the verb in the Arabic sentence. Arabic requires a Pronoun suffix after the verb, a suffix in agreement with the subject with respect to number, gender, and person, Examine these sentences: Lasay 4, ts gi 2, US gato 5. uss pal 3. bgi8 a8 In the previous five A sentences, a pronoun is suffixed after the verb in concord with the subject with regard to singularity, plurality, duality, masculinity, femininity, and person (first, second, or third). -23- Nevertheless, when the subject is third-person singular, the pronoun suffix is zero (SI). We may call such a pronoun a subject copy because this copy refers to and agrees with the previous initial subject. In contrast, English nominal sentences do not have a subject copy. Verbal Sentence: . A verbal sentence is one that begins with a verb. It is understood that Arabic usgs such sentences abundantly, unlike English, which does not use such sentences. If you examine $’s 1-5 in the previous section, and you omit all the subjects, what remains is sentences without subjects, i.e., verbal sentences. Such sentences include the verb and do not need the subject because the subject copy is always there, suffixed after the verb, whether there is a subject or there is not. Look at this rule: Nominal Sentence minus Subject => Verbal Sentence It means that if you omit the subject from some nominal sentences in Arabic, you will get a correct verbal sentence. For example, peasy pens) |i SVM. However, the condition of this tule is that the predicate of the nominal sentence must be a verb. Verbless Sentence: A verbless sentence is a sentence without a verb, It is different from a nominal sentence, which is a sentence that begins with a noun. Every English sentence must contain a verb usually after the subject, e.g, Ali is a polite boy. The only exception is some exclamations, ¢.g, What a day! In Arabic, the parallel sentence is ysl) 1. This Arabic sentence is Noun+NountAdjective. Itisa verbless sentence and a nominal one at the same time. Some nominal sentences in Arabic contain verbs, ¢.g., ub: p16 & . A nominal Arabic sentence may contain a verb or may not. In contrast, the nominal English sentence must have a verb. Which nominal Arabic sentences are verbless? Such sentences must refer to the present time. If the time is non-present, a verb must be used to mark past or future times, e.g., Ua Ay) ls, ta a9 gS We omit /yakuwn/ only when the time is present, e.g. tas, With the negator #1, /yakuwn/ appears again, .g., ts 1,3 oS 41. This /yakuwn/ deletion may account for verbless sentences in Arabic. Auxiliary Sentence: - An auxiliary sentence is one that begins with an auxiliary. It is usually called a yes-no question, e.g. Did he come yesterday? Such sentences exist in English, but not in Arabic. More discussion about questions will be presented later. Other Types of Sentences: All languages, most probably, have statements to make, questions to ask, commands to give, and exclamations to utter, and English and Arabic are no exceptions. Grammarians have always given these four types of sentences: 1, Statements or declarative sentences, ¢.g., She is beautiful, yan gt. 2. Questions or interrogative sentences, e.g, What is his TAME? sas) Le 3. Commands or imperative sentences, e.g., Sit down, ‘3 . 4. Exclamatory sentences, ¢.g., What a nice car it ist Bio ota eal Ue Both languages, E and A, have the same four types with the same final punctuation marks, A stop or period marks a statement. A question mark indicates an interrogation. An exclamation mark indicates an exclamation. A stop or an exclamation mark indicates a command. Of course, we are referring here to similarity in the four types, but there are differences in internal structure. Levels of Sentences: 1. He came late. 2. He came late, and his excuse was accepted, 3. He came late because he lost his keys. -35- 5. Yyde | Se gay dale oly. _y 6, Anglia afi OY i alia cla S1 is a simple sentence with one subject and one verb. S4 is also a simple one, but with one verb and no subject because Arabic sentences allow omitting the subject if it is followed by a verb. The formal rule in Ais: ° Subject+Verb+(K) «B+ Verb+ &) This rule applies” to Arabic sentences beginning with a subject followed by a verb followed by other optional components. This rule optionally allows the deletion of the subject. For example, Rep gb + Iya +O Sap Dt ad + YY S2 is a compound one consisting of two simple sentences conjoined by the coordinating conjunction and. So is S5. Both E and A have compound sentences with similar criteria. S3 in E and S6 in A are complex sentences. Each has two verbs and two simple sentences connected by a variety of special connectors. ‘Table (9): Sentence-Type Comparison ‘Aspect of Comparison Nominal Sentence ‘Subject Deletion = Subject Copy = ‘Verbal Sentence Declarative Sentence +[+]i imperative Sentence Exclamatory Sentence. +[+]+]+] 1 ]+]+] Questions and Exercises (3) 1. Define the following. a. nominal sentence: b. verbal sentence: ¢. auxiliary sentence: d. verbless sentence: 2. What is the difference between a nominal sentence in and a nominal one in A? 3. Decide whether each following sentence is not verbal, a, He asked her why she was late. b. Therefore, he left. c. Did he get it? und glial poo a ©. ay Ga lana oyating OUD 4. Underline the subject copy in these sentences if and wherever you find it, a. The boys washed the dishes. b. diab tik 9 c. The students have finished their assignments. i. peStanls platy Cyaleal! (ld CBS Cakes yadle CL Blast ge Git aR 5. Determine the type of each sentence: declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory. The punctuation marks are intentionally omitted here. a. He asked where she was b. Ask him why he was late c. When he was born is not quite known d. What a day e. How great you look f. Yes g. [know what you mean hess os i pia Ge WY joy ot al Kis ay slau aad ls Luis ty ys ¥ US 6. Which sentence of these is a verbless one? Put +V if there isa V, and -V if there isn’t, If it is not verbless, underline its verb or verbs. a. Is the second floor occupied? b. What car do you have? c. He wrote two plays and three stories. d. Either you do it, or I will. e. I know that he is honest. f If you know the answer, give it to him. g. He ran quickly, but he could not catch the bus. 1h, ad day gb aaa ole Lore dae yet aly ” jie sey af doe 7. Decide whether each sentence is grammatical or not. If not grammatical, re-write it correctly. a. The boys they were late yesterday. TTT! oo . Was the farmer running quickly when he fell down and broke his leg. ¢. The sky clear today. d. Why did not you attend the party. -28- . What a beautiful car is it. f Did not he understand the real reasons? g. Idon’t know why is he so hesitant?, hd yaa od YY 1 pad, i tial Lacs obit 8. Determine whether each sentence is true or false; if false, why? a. Both L’s allow subject deletion. b. All E sentences are nominal. c, All A sentences are either verbal or nominal. d. All nominal sentences in A are verbless. e. In both L’s, some questions include statements. 9. What kind of agreement is required between the subject and its copy in A? 10. When is the subject copy zero in A? 11, What is the condition of subject deletion in A? 12. What is the condition of subject deletion in E? CHAPTER 4 SENTENCE PATTERNS IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC A sentence pattern is the form underlying a specific sentence. For example, The boy came yesterday and +.1,.1) are two sentences following the pattern Subject + Verb + Time Adverb. Any sentence is one example of a certain pattern, but a pattem is the frame underlying billions of possible similar sentences. SuV Pattern: Both E and A use the SuV pattem, ie, Subject + Verb. Examples: 1. Ice melts. 2. det $1 has two words and three morphemes (ice + melt + 3). S2 has two words, as spaces between words show, and three morphemes, ie, Gp:+et +). Notice that general mass nouns do not take the in E, but they take /?al u/in A. Such a pattem is possible with intransitive verbs only, and not with all intransitive verbs. We do not usually say* The baby sleeps, ;ts dik"; such a verb requires a completion such as He sleeps early, See gl died SuVO Pattern: 1. He likes coffee 2. bye ons (4) This pattern consists of three slots: Subject + Verb + Object. This pattern is allowed in both E and A. It uses monotransitive verbs, ie, a verb which takes one object. -30- SI has three words and four morphemes: he + like + s+ coffee. Sentence 2 has three words and four morphemes: + J+ Gay + is4 Notice that English does not use she with general mass nouns, but Arabic does use /Yal/. Notice also that the subject in SI is obligatory, but optional in S2, and the brackets mark this option. SuVOO Pattern: 1. He gave me the Book. 2. Ah the! (a) SI and S2 are parallel in both meaning and structure. $1 has five words and six morphemes because gave is give + past morpheme. S2 is three words and six morphemes: Wits + J + y+ y+ che! + a, where /n/ is a meaningless grammatical morpheme, In both languages, the indirect object comes before the direct object. Further, in both E and A, the direct object is usually a non- personal noun, and the indirect object is a personal one. There are some differences between S1 and S2: 1. The subject in A is deletable, but not in E. 2. The definite article the appears as a free morpheme in E, but (al appears as a bound morpheme in A. 3. The indirect object is a free morpheme in E, but bound in A. SuVCs Pattern: 1. Alias sick, 2 Lee gS gle 3. Ali is honest. 4. cad gle Sentences 1-3 are examples of SuVCs, which is Subject + Verb + Subject Complement. However, S4 is not SuVCs; it is SuCs. The complement of the SuVCs pattem is a subject complement (Cs), which may be an adjective attributed to the subject, noun, or an adverb of place, as respectively exemplified in S’s 5-7: 5. Ali was honest. td 5 gle 6. Ali was a teacher. (utes JS le 31. 7. Ali is here. ta ge Notice that the verb ¢,%disappears in Arabic, as in S7, when the tense is present simple, but be does not in E, as in $7. In brief, the SuVCs pattern is used in E, without any tense restrictions and used in A except with /yakuwn u-S/, which is obligatorily deleted, 0.8, ced HO AS cal oS ws. - SuVOCo Pattern: _ 1. They elected him president. 2. Lea 95.258) (ms) There are four words in S1 and five morphemes. S2 has three words and seven morphemes: gust uy tat + 308+ pha SI includes these slots: Subject + Verb + Object + Object Complement. So does $2 despite differences in terms used by English and Arab grammarians. The object complement (Co) may be a noun, asin S1, or an adjective, e.g., They found him guilty, isi» 50.3 (a) . Both E and A require agreement between the object and its complement if the complement is a noun, e.g., They elected them (presidents, +113, 43,181 (pa). However, when the Co is an adjective, A requires such agreement in both number and gender, but E does not, e.g., He found them guilty, He found her guilty, (asia ps (o) m SuVOc Pattern: vy 1. Ali lives a good life. vi 2, Kae ite bas ge ih, S1 has five words and six morphemes. $2 has four words and a nine morphemes: quSt ++ Gut oa tot ba that Git + gle Notice 1h that A has three case markers: nominative, accusative, and genitive ' case markers, which are grammatical morphemes, generally non- vie existent in E. /t/ in Arabic is a femininity morpheme, very frequently tlie used in A, but rarely used in E. Notice the indefinite article, often used \ in E, but it has no equivalent in A. -32- Both S1 and S2 follow this pattern: Subject + Ver + Cognate Object. The cognate object is a noun, often an abstract noun, derived from the verb in the same sentence. Both languages tise such a pattern. V Pattern: 1.Go 2. bas Both sentences are one word and one morpheme with no explicit subject. This pattern is used in the imperative with a main E-A difference . In Sl, we may address a boy, a girl, a group of boys, ora group of girls. It could be used with a singular, plural, masculine, or feminine addressee. In contrast, S2 is used with a singular masculine addressee only. Thus, in E this pattern has a much wider cover than in A VD Pattern: 1 ath cas Here, we have a pattern restricted to Arabic, i.¢., not used in E. This sentence is Verb + Doer, an order not allowed in E, although very common in A. SuVD Pattern: 1. Nya av 9 Here, the sentence follows this pattern: Subject + Verb + Doer, where the doer is a bound pronoun, which may be called a subject copy because it is in full agreement with the subject in number, gender, and person. Here are some more examples, 2. lad gals 3. gia 4. gas eae 5, Leas Lal The SuVD pattern is restricted to A and never used in E. Once we have SuVD in A, it may be optionally transformed into VD, eg., -33- \paxt pai v1. This rule may be called the rule of subject deletion, conditioned by having a subject copy attached to the verb in A. See S’s 1-5. - Aux SuVX Pattern: 1. Did he come early? 2. tiSmele de The pattern Aux SuVX stands for Auxiliary + Subject + Verb + Any Completion. Such a pattern is exemplified by S1 and is restricted to E. It is usually used with interrogative sentences, but not exclusively so, e.g., Had he come early, he would have caught the train. This pattern shows a syntactic E peculiarity called Su-V inversion, ie, subject-verb inversion, where the auxiliary precedes the subject. Such a pattern is not used in A, which uses a different pattem to parallel E, as in S2. SuCs Pattern: Lod as Qi aw Buta gle In the three sentences above, the implied tense is present. The sentences are verbless, and each consists of Subject + Subject Complement. The auxiliary /yakuwn 5,5 is obligatorily deleted. It reappears in the case of negation or past tense, e.g, te os day, igd gts al,3. Such a pattern is restricted to A, and it is non-existent in E. Adjective Option: 1, He is a tall boy. 2. The ‘all boy is not here. 3, I saw the tall boy. 4, The boy under the tree is Ali 5. The boy who is under the tree is Ali 6. Wh uatdehrass TBD pa git hgh al» -e All sentence patterns mentioned in the previous sections in this chapter allow the addition of an adjective with some restrictions. The added adjective may come before or after the noun, depending on the language and on the adjective. The adjective, to be optionally added, may be a word, phrase, or clause,” Looking at $’s 1-7, one observes the following: 1, In SI, the adjective word is added before the noun in the subject complement slot. 2. In S2, tall is addec-before the noun in the subject slot. 3. In S3, tall is added before the noun in the object slot. 4. In S4, the adjective phrase is added after the noun. 5. In $5, the adjective clause is added after the noun. 6. Ifthe English adjective is a word, it usually comes before the English modified noun; it is called a premodifier or pre-noun adjective. If the adjective is a phrase or clause, it comes after the modified noun in E, eg., S’s 4-5; it is called a postmodifier or post- noun adjective. 7. In A, the adjective never comes before the modified noun. It always comes after it, as in $’s 6-7. Place-Adyerb Option: Both E and A allow adding an adverb of place to most patterns. Here are some examples. 1. He slept (there) 2. He saw them (here). 3. (cud) Sy te AL (Reet gt) cad If the speaker needs to add the place adverb, he can do so, and this addition is optional in both E and A, e.g., $’s 1-4. A similar option is true about the time adverb in both L’s. Manner-Adverb Optio In both languages, a sentence’may accept an adverb of manner with some exceptions. Here are some examplés. 1. He wrote it (carefully). 2, He slept (deep) 3. *He is good carefully. 4. (ise) gut ais 5S. Gatia) wold iS 6. (6a) 7, Fiding le 8. Do it (as he tells you). Upon examining the previous sentences, one may observe the following: 1. The manner-adverb is not allowed with English linking verbs, eg., $3. Noris it allowed in Arabic verbless sentences, €.g., S7 2. The manner-adverb addition is optional whenever it is allowed in both E and A, and brackets mark such options. 3. $3 and S7 are ungrammatical, and the asterisk marks this non-grammaticality. 4. In both languages, the manner adverb can be expressed by a word, phrase, or clause as S’s 1, 5, and 8 show respectively. 5, InF, in the case of a word expressing the manner adverb, the suffix -ly may mark the manner adverb, e.g., SI. In Arabic, the accusative case marker does the marking, e.g., S4. Recursion Option: Both E and A allow recursion in sentence patterns: a syntactic category may keep on recurring in one sentence endlessy if desired, e.g, S's 1-2 1. The boy saw John, who saw Mary, who met Bob, who met his mother, who visited her father, etc. Do a pat JS gh dF MLS go cca sl GAD Dats 19 ald extend the verb, Sentences (5) and (6) extend the adjective. Sentences (7) and (8) extend the object. Sentences (9) and (10) extend the theoretically speaking. The limit to this number is controlled only by acceptability. However, E and A differ in using the conjunction (Con). In a series, E uses one Con at the end, whereas A uses the Con repeatedly, e.g., S’s 11-12. Multiplicity Option: Both E and A allow multiplicity” often by -conjoining nouns within the same noun phrase, conjoining verbs, conjoining adjectives, or conjoining adverbs. Here are some examples. 1. He and she came. 2. pam gt 3. The boy came and sat. 4. dng pe . 5, The honest (and) clever boy came. 6, an Sih cus algd 7. He read the book and the poem. 8. tapaiy uss Lf 9. He walked quickly and carefully. TO, Ccaten (y) be jae ele S’s_ 1-2 extend the subject by conjoining. Sentences (3) and (4) Of course, multiplicity may go beyond two to any number, LI. He bought a pen, a ruler, a book, and a bag. 12, Aang Ly 5 pases g Las th Table (10): Sentence-Pattern Comparison ‘Table (10); Sentence-Pattern Comparison (Concluded) -38- Questions and Exercises (4) ‘A. Give two sentences to exemplify each following pattern: one sentence in E and one in A if the language allows such a pattern, If it does not allow it, write -E or -A. Give sentences other than those mentioned in this book. 1. Suv: 1 2. SuVO: . SuVOO: . SuVCs: . SuUVOCo: . SuVOc: Ve . VD: 9. SuVD: 10. Aux SuVX: 11. SuCs. E A E A E A E A E A E A E A E A E A E A E A B. List the patterns restricted to E. C. List the patterns restricted to A. D. Here is a of sentences in E and A. Determine whether each sentence is grammatical (~) or not (X). If not, decide why. - 1, They are writing quick. . 2, He saw them there. 3. He see no one. 4. She came in immediately. 5. Came the boy yesterday. 6. Why you arrived late?> 7. ch Sian tags JS 8. pein VM od 9. pawl aS LO. te jue pian Cu 1, fae wos J ee a 12. diya gh andi ool) E. What is the pattern of each sentence? 1. They made him a cake. 2. She slept early. 3. They went home. 4. She ran fast. 5. He was sick. 6. They elected him chairman. Tegan 8. oe al yas 9. va ge DO, be pan ghaad oly F. The Adj may be word, phrase, or clause in E and A. Give one sentence to exemplify each type of Adj. 1. Adj word: E A 2. Adj phrase: E A Vue veeveveyeeee YL ~40- 3. Adj clause: E: . A : G. Compare E to A according to instructions: 1, She told him ai story. +25 ,s\ a. Compare objects. 2. He likes coffee. +38 O+V,+C2 + (min +Su) This passive rule indicates the following: 1. The input, left to the double arrow, consists of a subject, active transitive verb, a copy of the subject, and a recipient object. 2. The double arrow indicates a transformational process. 3. OPT above the arrow means that the transformation is optional, not obligatory. 4. The output, right to the double arrow, consists of the ex- object, which is now a new subject, the verb in its passive form, a second copy congruent with the new subject, and optionally /min/ followed by the agent, i.¢., the ex-subject. 5. Notice that Cy is a copy of the subject in the input and that Cy is a copy of the new subject in the output. Comparison of the E Rule to Rule (1): Let us compare the passive rule of E to passive rule (1) in A: 1. Both rules have Su + V + O as inputs. 2. Both rules require a transitive verb as a condition to rule application. 3. Both rules are optionally applied. 4. Both rules front the object as the first step. _ 5. Both rules change the main verb into a special form, 6. Both rules optionally add a preposition phrase (PP) consisting of a preposition followed by the ex-subject as an agent. 7. Both rules put the agent between parentheses to mark the option of deleting the agent. 8, Both languages requige SuV agreement in both’the input and the output. 9. E adds the be-verb in the output. A does not adda be equivalent here. 10. E does not use subject copies, but A uses them in both the input and the output. 11. E does not use case markers, but A does. Passive Rule (2) in Arabic: NM Ge Es fhe Here, the sentence begins with a verb; it is a verbal sentence. The steps of passivisation here are the following: 1, Change the active verb into a passive one according to the morphological rules of A. 2. Switch the object to a position after the verb. 3. Add /min/ before the doer, resulting in a PP. 4. Extrapose the PP, i.e., switch it to the end of the output To formalize the four steps, here is Rule (2): V.tD+O =>V, +0+ (mintD) To comment on the above rule , we may notice the following: 1, The input consists of Va, ie., an active verb, D, ie., the doer, and then O, i.e., the object. 2. We refer to a doer in the input here, not to a subject, because the input sentence begins with a verb and because there is no subject here. The input has a doer, not a subject. 3. The transformation is optional (OPT). 4. The output consists of Vp, i.e., the passive form of the verb, 55: ©, ie, the object switched, and /min/, a preposition added before the doer to make a prepositional phrase (PP). 5. The PP is optional and thus marked by-parentheses. Comparison of the E Rule to Rule (2): If we compare the E passive rule to Rule 2 of A, we observe the following: 1. Both rules are optional, 2. Both rules use # PP to express the agent. 3, Both rules extrapose the agent. 4, Both rules make the agent optional. 5. Both rules require a transitive verb and an object in the input. 6. Both rules change the main verb of the input to a special form in the output. 7. E adds be , but A does not have a be equivalent here. 8. E fronts the object, ie. puts it at the beginning of the output sentence. A does not front it, but it rather switches it to the slot right after the verb. 9. E has a subject in the input, but A has a doer, not a subject. 10. E has a subject in the output, but A has a sub-doer, not a subject. Passivisation of Ditransitive Verbs: 1. Ali gave Moses the book. 2. Moses was given the book. 3. The book was given to Moses. 4. MSH gage hel ie 5. (ted hel eye 6. ens aff ghel ksh The verb give is ditransitive. It takes two objects: a direct non-personal object (Od) and an indirect personal object (Oi). The Oi usually refers toa person, ¢.g., Moses in $1; the Od usually refers to a thing, e.g., book in S1. Sentences (1) and (4) are the active ones; each includes a ditransitive verb and two objects. When two objects are there in one sentence, we may have two passive choices. The first choice is to front the Oi, e.g., S’s 2 and 5, The second choice is to front the Od, e.g., S’s 3 and 6. When the Od is fronted in both languages, a preposition is added before the Oi: /o in E and /?ila:.9/ in A. To conclude, both languages share these points with respect to ditransitive verbs: - 1, There are two possible passives for each sentence in either language. - 2. In both languages, the Od is impersonal and the Oi is personal. 3. In the active sentence in both languages, the Oi precedes the Od, e.g, S’s 1 and 4, 4. In both languages, when the Od is fronted, a preposition is added before the Oi, ¢.g., S’s 3 and 6. Non-Passivised Sentences: Both E and A have sentences that cannot be passivised although they seem passivisable. Here are some examples: 1. He saw himself in the mirror. 2 Td hai sly 3.* Himself was seen in the mirror. AY Shad ii alt S1 is a reflexive sentence because it has a reflexive verb and a reflexive pronoun. So is S2. In these two sentences, the subject and the object refer to the same person. S’s 3 and 4 are ungrammatical because reflexive verbs cannot be passivised, in both E and A. 5. Ali married Salma, 6 terse 7. * Salma was married by Ali. BM le a Cin ae S5 has a reciprocal verb, i.e., married. Here, if X married Y, then, of course, Y married X. With such a verb, no passivisation is -s7- possible. Therefore, S’s 7 and 8 are ungrammatical. Simply, they are neither used nor acceptable in both E and A. 9. He moved his head. 10, aul, eyo Sik 11. * The head was moved by him. 12." aa gt In S9, the object is a part of the subject . So is the case with S10. When the object is a part of the subject in a certain sentence, such a sentence cannot be passivised despite the fact that its verb is transitive. Thus, S’s11 and 12 are ungrammatical. 13. Ali has a car. 14, 5 pe lly le 15, * A car is had by him 16. * pe cyt ips td S13 with its has is not passivisable because car here is not a direct object. Has here is, in fact, a relational verb. The paraphrase could be Ali is the owner of a car. Car is not receiving an action here. Compare He destroyed the car, where the car is a recipient object, and the sentence is passivisable. The verb «lly in $14 is not passivisable too because it is a relational verb, not a transitive one. Thus, S’s 15 and 16 are ungrammatical. To conclude, both E and A do not passivise reflexive verbs, reciprocal verbs, relational verbs, and a sentence whose object is a part of its subject. Undeletable Agent: In most cases, the agent in passive sentences is optionally deletable, e.g. The window was broken (by John). However, this deletion is not allowed in some cases in both E and A: t. If the agent is important in the communication message, it cannot be deleted. Either the speaker wants to reveal it or the hearer is interested in knowing it. 2. The agent cannot be deleted if the sentence negates the subject, but not the result of the action, e.g., Ali did not break the —58- window, John is the one who broke it. Here, we cannot say The window was not broken, with the agent omitted. We must say The window was not broken by Ali, where the agent has to appear. 1. Ali did not break the window. It was John who broke it. 2. cape gh pS ce SER jas oh lee 3. The window was not broken by Ali. 4. geo nS I 5. * The window was not broken. It was John who broke it. 6. aye A nS ye op A Examples 1 and 2 are the active input, where the doer is negated, but not the action itself as indicated by the second sentence in each example. S’s 3 and 4 are the passive outputs, where the agents by Ali and .o» must appear because their omission leads to the negation of the action, contrary to the general meaning. S’s 5 and 6 are unacceptable here because each does contradict the following sentence. Obligatory Passivisation: It is always confirmed that the passive transformation is an optional one, and this is true in most cases, but not in all. Look at these sentences: 1. The students of the Mathematics Department at the College of Sciences in Stanford University taking Course 571 this semester and participating in the chess society are filling the front seats. 2, Wa OV sla gal Gail ayia dale pghD AAS i cla D pd OL AndAN seta Shy at yuan dS ty Gail Dead In S’s 1 and 2, the subject is very long and the object is very short. In both languages, such a structure looks obviously unbalanced and thus unacceptable. Such a lengthy subject should be extraposed, and the short object is fronted in obedience to the end-weight principle. The better alternatives are these: 3. The front seats are being filled by the students 4, Bae DD ge US ALM seta 5. Bes DU gly QL Seliad etc, ~59- To avoid a lengthy subject, passivisation becomes obligatory, not optional, as S’s 3 and 4 show. However, Arabic has a second alternative other than the passive: A can front the object without passivisation. e.g., S5. Table (12): E-A Passive Comparison Aspect “The passive transformation is optional. ‘The subject and the object exchange positions. The object is fronted in the passive. ‘The verb must be transitive. “The main verb requires a special form. ‘A preposition is added before the ex-subject agent. “The agent is often deletable in the passive sentence. ‘A be form is added. A subject copy is suffixed after the passive verb. With ditransitive verbs, there are two passive options. The indirect object, not the direct one, takes a Prep if the direct object is fronted. Reflexive verbs are not passivised. Reciprocal verbs are not passivised. If the object is a part of the subject, the Vis not a+ fafa le [+ fe fe [> + fel le fs fe [+ [+ foo | passivised. Relational V’s are not passivised. The agent is sometimes undeletable under certain Passivisation is generally optional, but sometimes obli under certain restrictions. Questions and Exerc s (6) 1, Make these sentences passive if possible. a. It will be hot tomorrow. b. He is taking the test right now. c. She walked her father to the gate day Slant Gis J Gas e. Thope that you are alright. f Le ays of yal g. You can’t ignore the truth. Bh, ss Lp ot ees 2. Why does E have one passive rule, whereas A has two passive rules? a ee 3. Which sentences in A need Rule 1 for passivisation, and which ones need Rule 2? a a 4. Which rule in A is more similar to the E passive: Rule 1 or Rule 2? dy yal “a yi il yi 5, Mention two points of similarity between the E passive rule and Rule 1 in A. * a. b. 6. Mention two differences between the E passive rule and Rule 1 in A. . a b. 7. In passivising SuVO active sentences, decide whether each aspect is applicable to E only, A only, or both. a. The verb must be transitive. _ b, Passivisation itself is usually optional __ c. The object has to be fronted. __ 4, The agent is optional in the passive sentence. __ ec. A subject copy is suffixed to the passive verb, 8. Passivise these ditransitive verbs in two ways in each case whenever possible. If not possible, explain why. a. She called her mother a taxi b. She has made his friend a cup of tea. ¢. She is telling her children a good story. d. They are writing him three letters. e. John will lend his partner two thousand dollars. eS Eis TLS Al gi Byte Lyk Yl eagh ta yal 9. Can we passivise each following sentence? Write Yes or No. If we cannot, explain why, a. She cut herself, Why? eee b. hat ani Soh Why? eee c.They embraced one another. ©. He shook his head in disagreement. Why? fd ody Lak at, Why? 8. The book contains one hundred pages. Why? cpa ee Bat yh ly aap gf Why? 10. Give a sentence with an obligatory passivisation. See 11. Give a passive sentence with an undeletable agent. Bee, ee CHAPTER 7 TYPES OF VERBS IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC ‘The verb (V) isa major component of English (E) and Arabic (A) sentences. The E-A difference here is that the verb is always essential in the E sentence, but not always so in the A sentence. Every E sentence has a verb, but some A ones do not have verbs; we call them verbless sentences. In this chapter, we will discuss the various types of verbs and how they are similar or different in E and A. Verb Forms: E has four forms: present (F1), past (F2), past participle (F3), and present participle (F4), ¢.g., go, went, gone, going. The base form in E is F1. The other forms, i.e., F2, F3, and F4, are derived from Fl. The normal derivation rules are: 1, F2=Fl + past morpheme, e. g., learned = learn + ed. 2. F3 =F + past participle morpheme, e. g., spoken — speak + en 3. F4=Fi + ing, e. g., going = go + ing. The verb in E may also be used to make other derivations, e.g., worker, teacher, professor. Such derivations come from Fl, i.e., the base form. Arabic has these forms: past, present, and imperative. We may call them respectively as such: F2, Fl, and FS Comparing E to A , we may observe the following: 1. There is a present form (F1) in both languages, ¢.g., go, ae 2. There is a past form (F2) in both languages, ¢.g., wert, a3. 3. The base form in E is F1, but it is F2 in A. When we derive ~64- words from the verb in E, we derive them from the present form, but in ‘Awe derive them from the past form.» 4, The EV has F3 and F4, but the AV does not have such forms, 5. E uses Fl to express the imperative, e.g. Go. Ausesa special form, ic, F5,¢.g., usa! Verb Regularity and Irregularity: The E verb may be regular or irregular. If it takes - ed to make F2 and F3, it is a regular verb, e.g., learn learned learned move moved moved translate translated translated If the E verb does not take -ed with F2 and F3, it is irregular. Such irregularity may take one of these patterns: In pattern (a), the three forms are totally different: 1+2+3. In pattern (b), the three forms are exactly the same: 1+1+1. In pattern (c), F1 and F3 are the same, and F2 is different: 1+2+1. In pattern (4), F2 and F3 are the same, and Fl is different: 2+1+1. Thus, the four patterns of irregular E verbs are: 1 + 2+ 3, 1+1+1, 1+2+1, and 2+1+1. With regard to verb regularity in E , one may notice that: 1. Monosyllabic verbs tend to be irregular, 2. Multisytlabic verbs tend to be regular. 3. Verbs ending with certain affixes tend to be regular. Such affixes are -ale, -ify, -ize, -en, e.g., dictate, simplify, idealize, shorten. 4. Verbs originally nouns are usually regular, e.g., man, chair, and carpet. Concerning Arabic, it has a different structure related to verbs. Regular verbs in A are: * 1. Quadri-literal verb, ie, a verb ‘consisting of four consonants and long vowels, e.g, @°53 & hy ES. 2. Penta-literal verb, i.c., a verb made of five consonants and long vowels, ¢.g., #8, A. 3, Hexa-literal verb, i.e., a verb made of six consonants and long vowels, e.g., 1, (lian, ‘The three above-mehtioned types of verbs are derived regularly from the past forms. Such forms depend on the number of consonants and long vowels which a verb has. Any verb which has more than three consonants and long vowels is regularly conjugated, i.e., according to certain regular patterns. In A, irregular verbs are tri-literal verbs, which are the shortest verbs. Such verbs are grouped into six groups, where every verb becomes Tegular within its group. The six x BroUps are: aw Pwr we Comparing E to A , one may may observe the following: 1. The minimal number of consonants in the verb in A is usually three. Such a restriction does not apply to the EV, ¢.g., go, sit. 2. The minimal number of syllables of the verb in A is usually three, ¢.g,, “+3. In E, it may be one syllable, e.g., sleep. 3. In both E and A, the longer the verb is, the more regular it tends to be. 4, Generally, the verb in E is less regular than the verb in A. Consonantal and Vocalic Verbs: Arabic divides verbs into two types: consonantal and vocalic. A consonantal verb is a verb whose root is made of consonants and short vowels only, e.g. ¢ 2% Gum ial. A yoealic verb isa verb whose root is made of consonants and one long vowel or more, ¢.g., ots Os Such classification is significant in A because it affects other words derived from the verb. The morphology of the derived word can be determined by whether the verb root is consonantal or vocalic, The consonantal-vocalic distinction has no place in E because it is insignificant and because it has no influence on other linguistic processes. Base and Affixed Verbs: E has base verbs and affixed verbs. A base verb is a root without any affixes, ¢.g., go, speak, sit swim. An affixed verb is one with affixes added to it. Affixed verbs in E may be one of these types: 1. Prefixed verbs. The affix here is a prefix, e.g., enrich, belittle, interact, return. 2. Infixed verbs. The affix here is an infix, e.g., swam, sang, spoke, became. 3. Suffixed verbs. The affix here is a suffix, e.g., blacken, realize, learned, running. Similarly, Arabic has base and affixed verbs. The base verb in A is the same as that in E: a verb without affixes, e.g., ¢355, 14 iis The affixed verb in A is that verb which has an affix, which is similar to E. However, affixation in the E verb is clearer: it is a prefix , infix, or suffix, as explained earlier. In A, verb affixation takes a different tendency: 1. In many cases, the verb affix in A is discontinuous, e.g., aii, where /?i/ + /t/ make one discontinuous morpheme. The root of ¢t8 is (Ai, where /ta/ and /a:/ make one discontinuous morpheme. Such discontinuous morphemes are not used in E verbs. 2. In A, the past form is suffixed with the doer pronoun or the subject copy, a phenomenon not used in E, €.g., cai, Li, 13, 3. In E, the present form (F1) is suffixed with -s, the present morpheme, if the subject is third-person singular, e.g, He sleeps early. In A, the present form is prefixed according to the doer or subject, e.g, Gas, Gas, Gas, cua, in addition to probable pronoun suffixation, ¢.g., o#4, c5. B, in contrast, does not prefix the present form, nor does it suffix it with a pronoun or subject copy. 4, E sometimes changes a present form to a past one by infixation e.g., sat, spoke, sang, came. This infixation is not used in A to change a past formo a present one as a sole means; it only occurs in combination with prefixation, e.g., ¢.3, (- Progressive Verbs: E uses the progressive aspect in the present, past, and future tenses, e.g, is speaking, was speaking, will be speaking, to mark the continuity of an action during a specified period of time. The common components of such a progressive aspect are 7+ be + present participle (P4). The formula is this: 1. Progressive = T + be + F4, where T refers to time, ie, present, past, or future. The various realizations of this formula could be : 2.T rant be > was were 3. Tyres tbe > am is are 4. Trimet be = > will be Arabic has the progressive aspect although Arabic grammarians do not mention it in their grammar books, ¢.g., ds, St lS el ose. The formula in A is this: 5, Progressive = I'+ .is + present, where T is time. The realizations are: 6. T pa t US > 7. Trescat + HS > B 8. True + oS > oe To compare the progressive aspects in E and A, one sees that: -68- 1, Each progressive formula has three components: T, an auxiliary, and the main verb, Refer to rules Vand 5. 2, In E, the main verb is the present participle form. In A, the main verb is the present form, Refer to rules 1 and 5 3. In both languages, there is the past-present-future choice. Refer to rules 2-4 and 6-8. 4. In E, be appears with each of the three choices, ie., past progressive, present progressive, and future progressive. In A, /:is/ appears in the past and the future and is deleted in the present choice Refer to rules 2-4 and 6-8. Perfective Verbs: E has the perfective aspect in the present, past, and future, eg., has gone, had gone, will have gone, to express an action completed before a specific point of time. The E formula is : Perfect = T+ have + F3, where T is time, and F3 is the past participle. The possible realizations of the rule in E are: 1 Tyme t have —> had 2. T present have —> has have 3. Tjawe+ have ~> will have A has a similar aspect although not recognized by A grammarians, €.g.,.03 8, GAS SYS, Gui gS, The A formula is this: Perfect = T+ /ka:nal + Iqad! + past The possible realizations in A are : ALT past + AS > ols 5. T present + 3S > DB 6. T fusure + AS cipSuw To compare the perfective aspect in both E and A, one may observe that: 1. Both languages have the perfective aspect in its three varieties: past, present, and future. Refer to rules 1-6. 2. The perfect formulae in both languages have the T (time) component. * 3. The E formula uses F3, ie., the past participle. The A formula uses the past form. 4, EB uses have, but A uses /ka:na o/s an auxiliary in the perfective aspect. . 5. E uses three components in the perfect formula, but A uses four ones, with the particle /qad/ as an extra morph. Active and Passive Verbs: Both E and A use the active voice and the passive voice for the same reasons and purposes. For comparison between E and A with regard to the passive, see the chapter on the passive. The two languages show a lot of grammatical similarity in passivisation rules, a phenomenon that may reinforce the arguments for a universal grammar and a human language. Intransitive Verbs: 1. fly, laugh, smile, come, fall, go, kneel, lie, rise, set, shine. 2 ay cag py Ah ay a en lg ely SU Oo, Group (1) isa group of intransitive verbs in E, i.e., verbs that do not need objects. Group (2) is a group of parallel verbs in A. One notices that a verb intransitive in E usually has an intransitive equivalent in A as well, as far as the two groups prove. Such verbs need an agent only, and they do not need an object. However, this does not mean that all intransitive verbs in E have intransitive counter-verbs inA. Monotransitive Verbs: A monotransitive verb is one that takes one object, e.g., Ali wrote a letter, tay 38 le. L Look at these pairs: draw p+», dig Jin, drink 54, drive Goes, cat Us, fight Gta, find sy, forget wis, freeze a4, . These verbs take one object in either E or A, eg., to draw a picture, dig a hole, -10- drink the juice, drive the car, eat the food, fight the enemy, find the ball, forget the word, and freeze the meat. The parallel structures in A show the quality of monotransitivity as well, ¢.g., i» pu» , etc. In Group I verbs, if the verb in E is monotransitive, its Arabic equivalent is monotransitive as well, but this cannot be a general rule, of course. TI. Look at these pairs: foresee . {sy , forgive oe sia, get Jumny «©. In this group, the E verb is monontransitive, but the A parallel verb is not directly monotransitive, it is so with the help of the PP (prepositional phrase), For example, He forgave her, Wc is. The A verb here is a prepositional verb. II. Look at thesé pairs: rely on ye sc, depend on ye sin, insist onto ye, excel at gi Gis, agree to gle Gly, specialize in aids «A This group shows that some E verbs are prepositional verbs and that their A counter-verbs are similarly so as well. Such verbs are called prepositional verbs Reflexive Verbs: 1. He saw himself in the mirror. 2. She blamed herself. 3. ad gh euii oly 4 gees cay Both E and A allow any monotransitive verb to take a reflexive object (Or) instead of the non-reflexive object. The license is optional and can be expressed by this transformational rule: SutV+O = Sut V+ Or In this rule, Su stands for the subject, V for a transitive verb, and O for the object; Cr is the reflexive object like himself, 11. She made (him) a cake. 12. (A) MSS cnsl * Looking at $’s 9-12, one may observe that a ditransitive verb, in E and A, can become monotransitive because the deletion of the indirect object is allowed, whether it is recipient, e.g., 8’s 9-10, or beneficiary, e.g., S’s 11-12. After omitting the indirect object in both E and A, the sentence remains grammatical. However, ifthe direct object is omitted, the sentence becomes ungrammatical, e.g., S’s 13- 14, 13. * She made him. 14, * Jewel This shows that the direct object is more important to the grammaticality of the sentence than the indirect one in both E and A: we may delete the indirect object, but we cannot delete the direct one. 15. * He gave it me. 16. * He gave me it. 17. He gave it to me 1B. glsthet 19. su) ple! When the two objects are pronominal, e.g, $’s 15-19, E requires changing the Oi to a prepositional object, PP, e.g., S17; that is why S’s 15-16 are ungrammatical. In contrast, A allows the Pronominalization of the two objects, e.g., $19, or using a PP, e.g, S18. Tritransitive Verbs: 1. * I told him his father coming. 2. [told him that his father was’ coming. 3. at - 4. sb fi aysl Arabic grammarians argue that there are a few verbs in A, about seven, that take three objects and thus called tritransitive verbs, most of which are reporting verbs, e.g., S3. The other alternative in A. is pattern (4), ie, V+ D+ O + O, where the second O is a noun clause, as in $4, ~ In contrast, E does not allow the three-object pattern; S1 is urgrammatical. However, E allows S2, the pattern of which is Sut V+ O+ O, where the second O is a noun clause, a similarity to A, asin S’s 2and 4. Phasal Verbs: 1. He started to read. 2, Lily E has a type of verbs called phasal verbs. Such a verb is a verb that takes an infinitive, usually a fo-infinitive, to make the meaning complete. This infinitive normally functions as a verb complement because it completes the meaning of the verb, e.g., S1. Other examples are begin to, continue to, commence to, and stop to. Arabic has similar verbs too, e.g., S2.Other Arabic examples are yi, Gik, isl, ¢.2 However, phasal verbs in A, unlike E ones, usually take a bare infinitive after them, i.e., one without an infinitive marker such as uJ, e.g, S2. Phrasal Verbs: An E verb (V) made of two words or three is called a Phrasal verb. It could be one of these patterns: 1. V + Adverb , eg, sat down, fell over, go away, take off, come in. Such verbs are intransitive, ¢.g., He came in. -14- 2. V+ Preposition, ¢.g,, look after, come across, sail through. These verbs take prepositional objects, ¢.g...She looked after the child, and are thus called prepositional verbs. - 3. V+ Adverb + Preposition, e.g., /was looking forward to seeing you. Such verbs are called three-word verbs, On the other hand, A has only one type of phrasal verbs, ie., prepositional verbs, e.g. I yi gi haw od, sD le Uda. E allows the phrasal verb to split optionally or obligatorily, but A does not allow such a split-Look at these sentences: 1. He switched on the radio. 2. He switched the radio on. 3. He switched it on. 4. *He switched on it. 5. gees gle old ula 6 ca gle Atal S1 shows an unsplit phrasal verb, ie, switch on. S2 exemplifies an optional split because the object is a noun. S3 is a case of an obligatory split because the object if is a pronoun; that is why S4 is ungrammatical. A does not allow the split whether the object is a noun, as in $5, or a pronoun, as in S6. Reciprocal Verbs: 1, They embraced. 2. They embraced one another. 3. They argued with one another. 4. They fought against one another. 5, He embraced his brother. A reciprocal verb (RV) is a verb requiring two Participants doing the same action to each other or one another. Such verbs can take the following patterns: I. plural subject + RV, eg, Sl, where the RV is used intransitively. Il. plural subject + RV + one another, e.g., $2, where the RV is used transitively. III, plural subject +RV + preposition + one another e.g., S's 3-4, where a preposition comes before one another ot each other. IV. participant 1 + RV + participant 2, ¢.g., 85, where the first participant is a subject and the second one is an object . Other examples of reciprocal E verbs are hug, kiss, marry, meet, touch, agree with, disagree with, compete with, mix with, talk with or to, correspond to or with. Look at these A sentences: 6. tis ~ 7, sah gie 8. 8! Lage US ite” 9, *gie ‘A has reciprocal verbs as well, €.g., Gi, pul, Jeti, puslss, dul i, dt, which are usually penta-literal verbs, but sometimes quadri-literal as in $°s 7-8, following a certain pattern. Comparing E to A, one may observe the following: 1. The same RV in E may be used transitively or intransitively, eg, S's 1-2. InA, some RV’s may be intransitive, e.g., S6, and some may be transitive, ¢.g., ¢jte) Luts 2. E does not have a reciprocity morpheme, but A has, i.e., /ta/ asa prefix meaning reciprocity, €.g., “3: Infinitive Verbs: 1. He likes 10 read. 2. He can read. 3. Lb fons 4. bigot Both E and A use the marked infinitive and the bare infinitive. FE. marks the infinitive with fo, e.g., $1; A with /ol/, e.g, S3. Both languages may use the infinitive without a marker. The unmarked infinitive is called a bare infinitive, ¢.g., S's and 4. 5, He likes not to read. 6h yom In negation, E places the negator not before the marked infinitive, e.g., SS. In contrast, A places the negator ¥ inside the infinitive, e.g., S6. 7. Lask you to carefully do it. B. Sin dead says of etn 9 Fad gos Gen I deel Concerning splitting the infinitive, E allows placing an adverb of manner inside the infinitive, e.g., S7, Such an infinitive is called a split infinitive. A does not allow splitting the infinitive with an adverb: S88 is grammatical, but S9 is not. The only split allowed in A is the negator split: splitting the infinitive with a negator, e.g, S6. The negator split is allowed in A, but not in E. The adverb split, in contrast, is allowed in E , but not in A. 10.* He insisted o7 to go. 11. He insisted to go. 12, candy of pao 13. ah J pe pot As for the preposition before the infinitive, E obligatorily deletes the preposition before the infinitive. That is why $10 is ungrammatical, but S11 is grammatical. However, A makes the preposition deletion before the infinitive optional, e.g., S’s 12-13, Delexical Verbs: 1. He gave a lecture. 2. He had a quarrel. 3. He took a photograph of the zoo. 4, He made a remark. Some E verbs are used transitively losing their actual normal meaning. Such verbs are called delexical verbs (DV). Such sentences can be respectively expressed otherwise: 5. He lectured. 6, He quarreled with them. 1. He photographed the zoo. 8. He remarked that... . S's 1-4 can be praphrased by S’s 5-8 respectively. Giving in S1 ig not the normal giving. Nor are had, took,-and made in S's 2-4. Arabic has similar DV’s. Look at $’s 9-13: - 9, tpalas ghel 10, gi pat ppm Sel 11, 425 38) 12. 513 gel 13, Sapa a8) Non-Progressive Verbs: Both E and A have verbs that cannot be used in the progressive aspect. They are non-voluntary verbs, static verbs, mental verbs, ‘emotional verbs, possession verbs, and relational verbs. For details on this area, refer to the chapter on tenses in this book (Chapter 5). Ergative Verbs: 1. He melted the ice. 2. The ice melted. 3, He moved the chair. 4. The chair moved. 5, She opened the window. 6, The window opened. E has some verbs which are transitive and whose objects may become subjects of the same verb form functioning intransitively, e.g., S’s 1-6. Such verbs are called ergative verbs, More examples are begin, break, burn, change, continue, double, end, finish, improve, shut, slow, start, stop, and widen. 7, gs sagt 8. Seca 9. pail ot eb Examining S’s 7-9, one observes that the transitive form of the verb is different from the intransitive form in each sentence. In E, the same form functions transitively and intransitively, and the object of the transitive verb becomes the subject of the intransitive one with both —78- verbs being in the active voice, A does not have such ergative verbs as. E has. -* Reporting Verbs: Both languages have verbs that report what people say, think, or learn. Look at these three groups. Group (1): To report what people say, E has verbs such as add, admit, ask, command, cry, say, state, suggest, write, reply, repeat, and warn, Arabic has plrallel verbs as well, e.g, c’s=, «ial, J, dL. Such reporting verbs, in both E and A, are used in both direct and indirect reporting. Here aré some examples. 1, He said, “Iwill come.” 2. He said (that) he would come 3. al 4, enn 4 Examining S’s 1-4, one may observe that: a. Both languages have direct and indirect reporting. b. E uses the optional subordinating conjunction, that, and A uses the obligatory ¢y as an embedding particle, e.g., S’s 2 and 4. ¢, Both E and A use double quotation marks in direct reporting and omit them in indirect reporting, e.g., S’s 1-4. In fact, E and A use similar punctuation in direct reporting with two differences. First, E uses capital letters, at the beginning of the direct report, but A doesn’t. Second, E uses a comma after the reporting verb as in S1, but A uses a colon as in $3. Group (2): To report what people think, E has verbs such as hold, feel, doubt, decide, believe, guess, and understand. A uses parallel verbs such as “a2, bis siel . 5. He believes (that) God exists. 6. Song tb J (4) sing Comparing E to A in $’s 5-6, one sees that: a. E does not allow a preposition before the that-clause. A allows it before the /2annat} / clause optionally. b. E uses optional that, but A uses obligatory /?anna/ after all reporting verbs except /qa:la/, which takes /?innai7. Group (3): To report what people learn or perceive, E has verbs like learn, see, infer, hear, note, and conclude. A has parallel verbs, €.g., ce ex wee. Group (3) verbs behave like Group-2 verbs in each of E and A. Simple and Compound Verbs: 1. He came late. 2. He has come late. Bijalee pee 4. ond a MS 5. capi LplLj be Lys A simple verb consists of one word, e.g, S’s 1 and3. A compound verb consists of two verbs or more: one of them is the main verb or the lexical verb, which is the last verb in the verb phrase, and the others are auxiliary verbs, ¢.g., has been playing. The only simple verbs in E are those in the present simple, e.g, go, and those in the past simple, e.g,, went. Other verbs are compound ‘ones ranging from two words to five words, e.g., has written, has been writing, will have been written, will have been being written. As for A, it also has simple and compound verbs. S3 has a simple verb, but S4 has a compound one consisting of the auxiliary /u's/ and the main verb. S5 has a compound verb of three verbs. However, there is a difference between E and A here, The B compound verb is made solely of verbs, but the A one allows particles like /qad sj, /sa./, and /sawfa G'-./ to supplement the process of compounding. Equational Verbs: 1, Ali was the president. 2. The president was Ali 3. gS gle 4. te St > Some verbs can be called equational verbs, whose best test is reversibility, as the pair 1-2 and the pair 3-4 show. The verb become, for example, cannot be an equational verb because Ali became the president is grammatical, but *The president became Ali is not. 5. He became a doctor. 6. * A doctor became he, 7. He is innocent. - 8.* Innocent is he. The verb becamé in SS in not equational because the reversed sentence, 86, is not grammatical. The only equational verb in E is be in its past, present, and future tenses. In A, the only equational verbs are JS» aSm/ , noticing that oS, is always deleted unless negated. Look at these sentences: 9. aM os gle 10, iF ye 11. ge aw oat 128.8 aS le In A, if the sentence is past or future, we use /s!5/ oF /cS+), respectively. If it is present, /u,Sy is usually deleted; that is why $9 is often ungrammatical. However, after /yakuwn/ deletion, a separative Pronoun is added to separate the definite subject and its definite predicate, e.g., S’s 10-11. Such a separative pronoun is not used in E. Auxiliary Verbs: E has special verbs different from full verbs, sometimes called ‘main or lexical verbs. Full verbs have F1, F2, F3, and F4, can be used in the imperative, and can take the present morpheme, €.g., go, went, Bone, going, go, and goes, respectively. The verb must, for example, is not a full verb: it does not have any of the forms taken by go. Such special verbs are called auxiliaries, some of which are modals, and the others are primaries. E modals are verbs such as can, may, must, should, used to, had better, might, and would rather. E has -81- three primaries: have, be, and do. A has auxiliary verbs as well. Some of them are primaries like cS, which are used to help in making some tenses, ¢.g., of them function as modals equivalent to E modals, ¢.g., i} , Dols; DAS Uosd UL) Notice that these A modals differ from lexical verbs in that they do not usually take subject copies, e.g., 259! Noay oI oon 1. You must go. aS J os 2. He may come, yas;'} <=} 3. You should see him. 033 cnss In S's 1-3, the E modal takes a bare infinitive, i.e., one without to, Counter-modals in A take marked infinitives, i.e., one with /?an/. Table (13): Verb-Type Comparison Aspect present form past form. base form past participle ‘present participle imperative form regular and irregular verbs forms based on number of consonants in the V consonantal and vocalic verbs base (root) verbs affixed verbs rogressive perfective aspect some non-progressive verbs active-passive voice intransitive verbs monotransitive verbs Teflexive verbs ditransitive verbs tritransitive verbs [phasal verbs hrasal verbs A + + + +f] fede] f tele fede] [fe] fel fede + [eft le ]a]al+|+]4]+]+ls|+l+]+]4feli Table (13): Verb-Type Comparison (Concluded) Aspect split phrasal verbs uunsplit phrasal verbs reciprocal verbs marked and bare infinitives negator before the infinitive negator inside the infinitive adverb inside the infinitive Prep before the infinitive delexical ‘verbs grative verbs juational verbs auxiliary verbs Questions and Exercises (7) 1. Compare the present forms of the verb in E and A, e.g., write i. 2. What is the root of verb forms in E? In A? 3. What is a regular verb in E? In A? 4, Which verbs in E tend to be irregular? In A? 5, What are F2 and F3 of these E verbs? upset seek hold burst bite lie on breed mistake overdo HLTA HT pay grind lie to - dig bleed lay draw welcome lead WT MTT 6. What is the derivation model of each verb: 14243, 14141, 14241, or 24141? burst clothe dream feed forsake go hit rise shake choose cost drink fly freeze hide hurt arise slay ~84 sting swing wear 7. Which L classifies verbs according to the number of consonants: E or A? Why? 8, Define these terms: consonantal verb: vocalic verb: Does E grammar have such terms?. 9. Decide whether each V is a base verb or an affixed verb. If it is affixed, single out the affix, and mention the meaning or function of the affix. 10, Compare was playing and ab future in the past Rules 1 and 3 are general : they apply to any present or future tense, this means that the present progressive is changed to the past progressive and the future perfect to the future perfect in the past. Rule 2 is specific: it applies to the past simple only. Look at these examples: writes > wrote is writing > was writing will write + would write cab oS cab See IS iS However, there are two restrictions applicable to both E and A. First, if the DS is a present fact, no tense change is made even with a past reporting verb, e.g., He said that the earth is round. Second, in the case of immediate reporting, no tense change is made even with a past reporting verb, ¢.g., He said that they will come, «ys a43} JS. 91- Pronoun Changes: Both E and A require changing pronouns whenever references require such a change. Examine these sentences: 1. He said, “Lam ready.” 2, He said that he was ready. 3. Sate pil! sli 4. saline Ai} SE Syntactic Changes: When DS is changed to RS, all outputs usually become statements. This means that a DS question in E with a subject-verb inversion will no more need such an inversion because it ceases to be a question after the DS-RS transformation takes place. 1. He asked, “Why are you late?” 2. He asked him why he was late. BL Ny yale 13k sla 4. Vy jal 13td atl The subject-verb inversion needed and used in SI is eliminated from $2 because S1 includes a direct question, whereas S2 does not. In contrast, A does not use such an inversion, neither in DS nor in RS, whether the sentence is a statement or an interrogation, eg, S's 3-4. Distance Rules: The transformation from DS into RS causes a change in place and time. The place and time of direct speaking are different from those of reporting. This difference requires the activation of some distance rules. Such rules require changing some adverbs of time, adverbs of place, and deictic words in both E and A. Examples are: Ds RS here there Alia «Sia that the day before ikl pal the following day AD pl then ite > > > > > > Questions and Exercises (8) 1. Give examples of reporting verbs in both E and A used in reported speech with: a. Statements: b. Questions: c. Commands: 2. Punctuate these direct-speech sentences: a. He said I will not attend the meeting b. aS Yu cha dl of ghia Us c. He asked why are you late d. ysl tld ate ©. She said go out now £ Via gs! eats 3. What connector is used before each of the following if changed to RS? If the connector is optional, include it in brackets ( ) a, Statement: b. Yes-no question: c. _ Informative question 4. Imperative: PMUPpmpm po 4. What is the distribution of {| and Gas RS connectors? 5. Give the tense-change rules common to both L’s when DS is changed to RS. Rule (1): Rule (2): Rule (3): -94- 6. What are the two restrictions to tense-change rules in both L’s? 7 a b. 7. Change the verbs in the second column from DS to RS according to the reporting verbs in the first column. He has said _is coming She says write Youtoldme departed They will say broke pias HS IS Je pe di ate 8. Say whether each sentence is grammatical (“) or not (X). If not, correct it. a. Has he told you why will he be late? b. I don’t know where is he? c. Could you tell me what is the problem? d. Tell him what can he do. 9. Fill in these distance rules that are applicable when DS is changed to RS: yesterday usd now owl last week 28! g gall this Sia that 3 tomorrow here CHAPTER 9 AGREEMENT IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC Most of the components of a sentence have to agree with one another. This principle of concord or agreement is obvious in both E and A. However, the two languages differ in how such agreement is manifested. Subject-Verb Agreement: In E, the subject and the verb agree only when the subject is third person singular and the verb is present, e.g., S1. 1, He comes early, 2. They come early. 3. You come early. 4, He came early. 5. Icame early, If the subject is not third-person singular, e.g., S’s 2-3, or if the verb is not present, e.g., S’s 4-5, subject-verb agreement is not existent. Past and future verbs show no agreement with the subject. Subjects other than the third-person singular require no such agreement. The exception is verb to be: I am, you are, he is. The agreement in E shows itself by the suffix -s after the present form of the verb, e.g., Sl. In A, this agreement is much more visible and general. It works wherever there are a subject and a verb, e.g., S’s 6-11. . AS ah LES gal pt cast 10. (988) sY YI 11. 8S a In A, the verb invariably changes whenever the subject -96- are changes in gender, number, or person. The gender in A is basically masculine or feminine. The number in A is singular, dual, or plural. The person is first, second, or third. In A, such agreement manifests itself through prefixation e.g., S9 and S11, suffixation, e.g, S7 and $8, or both, e.g, S10. The subject copy is the suffix normally attached to the verb in A. With multiple subjects, i.¢., two coordinated subjects for one V joined by a correlative conjunction, E makes the V agree with the noun closer to the V, e.g., S’s 42-14 12. Neither the boy nor the girls are here. 13. Either the boys or the girl is here. 14. Not only the boys but also the girl is absent. A has a different tendency with such multiple subjects. A uses these principles: 1. The masculine Su dominates the feminine Su regardless of proximity to the V, e.g, !y aa lal J aY 91, 2. The plural Su dominates the non-plural Su, eg, Vygame WT gf ale, ty pcan pled sf ov M1, 3. The human Su dominates the non-human Su, 2g, Gye sla My GLI, 4. The dual Su dominates the singular Su, Cg, Lama Gill J gli Verb-Adverb Agreement: Both E and A maintain a certain level of agreement between the verb tense and the time adverb. Such sentences are ungrammatical because they lack verb-adverb agreement: 1. * He is coming yesterday. 2. * She came tomorrow. 3. * pal Li 4.* he day The verb tense must be in harmony with the adverb of time. This is true for both E and A. Subject and Subject-Complement Agreement: 1. They are teachers. 4. gene po 2. She is an honest woman. 5. plas 3. alee ya 6. gales a ‘As §’s 1-6 show, the subject and its complement (Cs) must. agree in both L’s. E requires number and gender agreements, ¢.g., S’s 1-2. A also requires agreement in number and gender, e.g,, S's 3-6. OF course, E has two numbers,,.c., singular and plural, but A has three numbers, ie., singular, dual, and plural. Notice that when the Cs is a NP, Su-Cs agreement appears in both L’s. However, when the Cs is an Adj, this agreement appears in A only, €.g., They are honest, olid pa Object and Object-Complement Agreement: 1. They selected him captain. 2. They selected them captains. 3. Lays 9 Kh 4, clay tg JS! 5, Aug tay 165! In both E and A, when the. object is singular, the NP object complement is singular too The two components agree in number. Of course, A has the dual number, which E does not have, The two L’s also require gender agreement here, as in S’s 1-5. If the Co is an Adj, it agrees with the object in A only, eg, He found her innocent, Hay ares Subject-Adverb Agreement: 1. The boy came quickly. 2. The boys came quickly. 3. be jue ole alyl! 4, ie puta Nol Glalyl 5. gue sue | shen oY 9S 6, Cle pau ip Cis! E does not require agreement between the subject and the manner adverb, e.g., S’s 1-2; the adverb quickly remains as it is 98+ whether the subject is singular or plural, masculine or feminine. A, however, requires agreement between the subject and the adverb of manner in number, e.g., S’s 3-5, and in gender, e.g., $’s 5-6, Adjective-Noun Agreement: 1. Look at the clever boy. 2. Look at the clever boys. 3. Look at the clever girl, ~ 4 Sill Up ole 5. SY Glalyl ole 6, GSH itl! Sole. 7. This boy is honest. 8, These boys are honest. E does not require any agreement between the attributive adjective and the following noun, e.g., S's 1-3. The only exception is this/ these and that/ those, ¢.g,, S’s 7-8, bearing in mind that these four words are basically determiners. In contrast, A requires full agreement between the noun and the following attributive adjective in both number and gender as Proven in S’s 4-6. The exception to this is the non-human broken plural, which requires obligatory gender agreement and optional number agreement, ¢.g., syllabi, datum ->data. ‘The plurality morpheme in A expresses itself in these ways: 1. /uw/ is added to the human singular in the nominative case to make the sound masculine plural , ¢.g., /ka:tib + uw ss1S /, /mudarris + uw suljSe/. The /n/ morpheme is added as a closing morpheme, €.g., Ika:tibtuwtn 6 sls /. 2. fiy/ is added to the human singular in the accusative or genitive case to make the sound masculine plural, e.g., /ka:tib + iy.S/. The morpheme /n/ may be added as a closing morpheme, e.g. Tka:tib + iy +n cust. ~ 3. /a:t/ is added to the human feminine singular to make the sound feminine plural, e.g., /ka:tibat + a:t — kactibart “:L9/, where some phonemes are deleted from the singular. 4, Some singulars are changed internally to make what is called broken plurals, e.g., US > SS, Js) ub). To compare E to A, one notices that: 1. Both languages have regular and irregular plurals. 2. The regular plural in E is called the sound plural in A. 3. The irregular plural in E is called the broken plural in A. 4. B does not have a plural morpheme based on gender, but A has the sound masculine plural morpheme and the sound feminine plural morpheme both based on gender, ie., /uw, iy, a:t/, 5. Inboth languages, the plurality morpheme can be a suffix or infix, e.g., books, oySIS, feet, iS. Gender: E. has four genders: masculine, feminine, neutral, and common, eg. boy, girl, chair, teacher, respectively. A has three genders: masculine, feminine, and common, e.g., aly , csi, 90, There are two noun patterns used for the common gender in A: /fa9u:l Jsé/ and Ma9i:l asi] e.g, 2900 eI E sometimes uses the feminine morpheme -ess, e.g., singress, lioness. A. uses such a morpheme more frequently, i.e., /at/ suffixed as in framiylgt Ms/ , /mu9allimat 42) . However, A distinguishes real femininity from figurative -11s- femininity, a distinction not made in E. The real feminine refers to females, ¢.g., Cris sl ,Zslee The figurative feminine refers to non. female femininized words, e.g., sii, + ya, yt. The same holds true for real masculinity, which refers to males, e.g., J, , and figurative masculinity, which refers to non-male masculinized nouns, e.g.,,i . Genitive Structure: The genitive structure (GS) in Eis a structure which uses an apostrophe or an apostrephe s between two related nouns, e.g., the boys’ books, the boy’s book. In A, such a structure does need an apostrophe or an apostrophe s; it simply requires the stringing of two related nouns with certain restrictions, ¢.g., 1s! Lits, 1. The boy's book is here. 2. kita:bu ?alwaladi buna: Ua sigh LES Examining the two genitive structures (GS), one may notice that: 1, The GS in B has three words and four morphemes: the + boy +s + book. The GS in A has two words and five morphemes: kita:b + u + ?al + walad + i, where /u/ is the nominative morpheme and /i/ is the genitive morpheme. 2. The GS in E needs an apostrophe or an apostrophe s, e.g., the boys’ books, the boy's book. The GS in A needs the genitive case marker, i.e., /i/ or /in/, suffixed to the second N of the GS. 3, The GS, in E and A, is mainly a relationship between two nouns, Such a relation could be an owner-owned relation, as in S’s 1- 2, whole-part relation, e.g., the dog’s tail, iS) (38 , a doer-action relation, e.g., the man's hunting, J>)) sxe, or other semantic relations. In A, the relation is in the opposite direction: owned-owner, part-whole, and action-doer, respectively. 4. The GS in E does not allow a determiner before the second part, e.g., *the boy's the book. The GS in A does, e.g., S2, where i is allowed before ify. 5. The GS in E allows.a determiner before the first part, e.g., the boy in $1. The GS in A does not, eg., *al kitabu atwaladi -116- slg Gtsiie 6. The GS in E generally requires ai animate first part, ie., human or animal, e.g.; the boy's book, the cat's tail, but not * the table's leg. The GS in A does not have such a restriction. 7. Ehas an alternative structure, i.¢., the of-structure, e.g., the book of the boy. A does not have a structure exactly parallel to the of structure. Notice that the of-structure does not have the plus-animate restriction required by the GS inE. Countable Nouns: A countable noun (CN) in E takes a or an and cardinal numbers, €.g., a chair, an umbrella, five chairs. It can be counted and can be pluralized. In A, the countability test may be slightly different: there is no indefinite article in A like the E a or an, but the cardinal number still holds as a countability criterion in A , ¢.g,, daz «8S, It is often the case that a CN in E has a CN equivalent in A. Uncountable Nouns: Uncountable nouns (UN) cannot be pluralized, cannot be counted, and cannot take cardinal numbers, e.g, water, honesty, furniture, chemistry, ¢Ligs 20) Ld ,ele, Such nouns refer to whole groups like mail, +, fluids like milk, ) 33319 4p 7. Is the N specific or non-specific? You can compare QN structures in I! and A by answering the -120- above questions. Apply them to the Q in E and its equivalent in A and to the accompanying N, and then the comparison will be self-evident. Singular Quantifiers: E has some singular quantifiers (Q): one, each, and every. Each Q is followed by a singular noun, e.g., each student. In A, there are similar Q’s like 2s}y JS e.g, Gib dS, asl) tLLNotice the E-A differences in position: every and JS precede the N, but one precedes the N in E, whereas as! follows the Nin A. In A, the counter-word for both of each and every is JS: one word in A for two words in E. Another possible pattem for singular Q’s is this: Q + of + the + plural CN, ¢.g., one of the students, ia) ya aa. Another pattern is: Q + one + of + the + plural CN, ¢.g., every one of the boys, NM (a ashy JS Quantifier-Verb Agreement: 4 When the quantifier (Q) is a subject (Su) or part of the Su, the i Su-V agreement requires special attention in both E and A. ¥ 1. Every man and woman is to attend the meeting. s 2. Each book and notebook is important. 3, Capea gb Ait pan yy day US 4, Cath SSI say 5. Vy pain DU asians 6. Two thirds of the book is good 7. Two thirds of the students are good. 8. Every one of my students is polite. 9. peas Dib Gy asl y US 10, fle DUAN 8B 1 BUS gb yf aE Upon examining the above-mentioned sentences, one may notice that 1. Although the Su seems plural, with a singular Q like every, each, JS, it is treated as singular in both E and A, e.g., S’s 1-3. 2. With a singular Q in the Su, the Su is considered singular, -121- and so is the verb in E and A, e.g., S8 and $9. 3. With most Q’s in E and A, the Q is singular if the N after it is singular, and it is plural if the N is plural, e.g., S’s 4-7 and S’s 10-11 Compare $6 to $7 in order to get the point clearly. Noun Phrase: The noun phrase (NP) could be one word or more combined together as a unit functioning as a subject (Su), object (0), or prepositional completive (Com), e.g., S’s 1-3. Other possible functions of the NP are a Cs, Co, and appositive. 1. a. The book is good. (Su) b. ais Ws (Su) 2. a. Tread the book. (0) b. wumeis (0) a. He was interested in the book. (Com) b. lis sia (Com) What are the possible components of the NP in both E and A? 1. The NP, in both E and A, may include a determiner (Det), e.g, the boys, Ys NP — (Det) + N. The parentheses mark optionality, 2. The NP may include a predeterminer (Pred) in both E and A. eg, all the Boys, 31 $3) gas . NP —> (Pred) + (Det) +N. 3. The NP may include one adjective (Adj) or more after the N in E, but before the N in A, eg, all the clever boys, 2USY! CUA Que, NP > (Pred) + (Det) + (Adi) +N NP 4 (Pred) + (Det) + N + (Adj) Here we need two phrase-structure rules: one for E and one for A because of the difference in the Adj position. 4. The NP may include an adjective clause (Adj C1), always after the N in both languages, e.g., all the clever boys who got high Brades, Hylle lade li cyill SN) VMN aan. -122- NP 5 @red) + (Det)+ (Adj) + Nt (Agj C1) NP > @red) + (Det) +N+ (Adj) + (Adj C1) 5. The NP in E may have a prepositional phrase (PP) after the N, eg, The book on the table is mine. In fact, such a PP may be considered a reduced adjective clause, i.e., a clause reduced to a PP: the book which is on the table => the book on the table. Similarly, A allows a PP inside the NP after the N, ¢.g., Ua «gle US. NP > Pred) + (Det) + (Adj) +N-+ (PP) + (Adj C1) np} (Pred) + (Det) +N + (Adj) + (PP) + (Adj C1) To compare the last two phrase structure rules, we notice a. The NP in both languages allows the same components. b. In both E and A, all the NP components are optional except the N, which is the obligatory head of the NP. c. The only E-A difference here is that the NP in E places the Adj word before the N, whereas the NP in A places the Adj word after the N. d. In both rules, the Pred and the Det precede the N, and the PP and the Adj C1 follow the N. Recursion: The PP, ic., prepositional phrase, consists of a preposition and a completive, i.e., a noun phrase (NP) governed by a preposition, e.g., on the desk, xia ie. The phrase-structure rule is this: PP > P + NP. However, there is another related rule: NP > N + PP, This means that the NP is always a part of the PP and the PP may be a part of a NP. This phenomenon is common to both E and A. Such a fact leads to recursive structures, which may extend endlessly, ¢.g., Look at the boy under the tree near the car in the yard behind the building by the shop on the corner of the street, etc. A parallel extended sentence is quite possible in A as well. Table (16): Noun Comparison i plurality morpheme and plurality allomorphs ‘phonetically-conditioned plurality allomorphs regular and irregular plurals ‘plurality infix neutral gender masculine, feminine, and common genders femininity morpheme genitive structure ‘ys genitive structure of genitive structure countable N’s uncountable N’s quantifier +N. Adj +N +]4f4l+l4+]e etl f+ [sete felt N+ Adj, general Questions and Exercises (11) 1, Which L expresses duality in a lexical way, not through affixation? Give an example: 2. Express the plural morpheme of these words phonemically, ¢.g,, /s/, /a:t/. i ships plang houses 1 words formulas contrasts I alternatives fish ___— hospitals nurses, geese kicks | cat ies ones 3. Which plurality allomorphs in E are phonetically ! conditioned? Which ones in E are lexically i conditioned? 4, Which nouns in A accept /uw/ as a plurality morpheme? 5. What are the three genders common to E and A? Which gender is restricted to E only? 6. Comparing the GS in E and A, decide whether each statement applies to E only, A only, or both. a. An apostrophe is needed b. The owner comes before the owned. c. No determiner is allowed before the first N in the GS. d. No determiner is allowed before the second N in the GS. e. The first N must be animate. 7. What is the test of N countability in E? 8. Compare the generic uncountable N in both L’s. 9. Compare the nouns in twenty books and Wiss 43,20. 10. In which L is the counted N affected by the cardinal in gender? Give an example. 11. Compare a few to .4/ concerning the + countability of the following N. 12. Does A have a pair similar to many/much? Why? 13. Does A have a pair similar to little/a little? Why? 14. Is the door’s knob grammatical? Why? 15, Decide whether each sentence is grammatical (“’) or not (X). If not, correct it. a. All cars are red. b. Most of boys are here. c. All are ready. d. All of they will take the test. ¢. Both they like this course £. Sala oka Ghay gall 9S j. They all are here. k. All they are honest students. 1 Use pel Ub Ga aay dS m. Two thirds of the money are dollars. 1. ile COU Lalas! 26 o. Every question and answer are important. 16. Compare all in these sentences: a. All these books are expensive. b. These ail are his. ¢. All are cooperative. 17. Compare little in these structures: a little water end a little boy. 18. Compare most/ pia, some / Gas , or each/Js regard to the seven following aspects already mentioned in the textbook. a. Is the Q specific or general? E: b. Is the N singular or plural? E: c. Is the N countable or not? E: d. Is the Q before the N or after? E: e. Is a selector allowed? E: f. Is the Q sensitive to gender? g. Is the N specific or not? Boo A 19, What is the maximal pattern of the NP in E and A? CHAPTER 12 PRONOUNS IN ENGLISH AND ARABIC Pronouns (Pr) in E make a distinct part of speech. In A, they come under the term N. ~ Pronoun Criteria: In E, the Pr differs from the N in these aspects: 1. It takes no determiner, but the N does, e.g., *the he, the book. 2. It shows the accusative case, but the N does not, e.g., The boy saw them. 3. Ithas the person contrast, but the N is always third person, eg., we, you, he, boy. 4. There is no morphological relationship between the singular and the plural of the Pr, which is not applicable to the N, e.g., he, they, book, books. In A, the same criteria can be applied to pronouns. They do not normally take /?al/, whereas the N takes, e.g, GUIS. They have a distinct accusative form, e.g.,3, /hu/. They have person contrasts, e.g., /hiya a, 2antum ,a! /. The only criterion applicable to E but not to A is the fourth criterion, in A a morphological relation can still be investigated into the singular and the plural pronoun forms, e.g.,/?anta cal/ and /antumal /, /huwa_a/ and /hum pa/, Reference: Normally, the Pr refers back to a noun. Such a reference is called an anaphoric reference, true for both E and A, e.g., The man whom you saw is my friend, gaia 43) 5 cil! Se 3 ‘The. only pronouns that require no previous co-referential N -129- are Ist-person and 2nd-person pronouns, ie, J, we, you. Here the situation gives the reference, which is a metalinguistic one. However, the Pr sometimes refers forward, not backward. It is called a Pr with a cataphoric reference. Examples are: 1. It is he whom I told you about. 2. die cae il Jay ye In both SI and S2, the Pr may refer to a following co- reference, not to a preceding one; this is possible partiy when an adjective clause follows the Pr. Co-reference and Concord: In both B and A, a Pr usually refers to a N, whether anaphorically or cataphorically, and the two have a common reference: they both refer to the same person or thing; the Pr and the N become co-referential. This co-reference requires concord, ie., agreement, between the Pr and the N in person, gender, and number. This concord is true for both E and A alike, e.g., they for boys, he for boy, she for girl, it for knife, V5) pa, cs ga, ly Case: Both E and A have pronouns distributed over different cases. 1. Nominative (Nom) Pr, e.g, /, he, Ua. 2. Accusative (Ace) Pr, e.g., him, us, sti, 3. Genitive (G) Pr, e.g., mine, my, liy/ 4. Pr for two cases or more, €.g., you and /#/ for Acc and G, & for Nom, Ace, and G. ‘Usually, the Pr changes its form when the case changes in both E and A, eg, I me, (449%). In contrast, the N in both E and A keeps its root upon the case change, ¢.g., man, J>). Of course, A adds case marker to the N, an addition unused in E, ¢.g., US, te Je. 130+ Number: The Pr in E has two numbers like the N: singular and plural. Singular pronouns are J, he, she, it, you, me, him, her, mine, my, his, her, hers, its, and your. Plural pronouns are we, you, they, us, them, our, ours, your, yours, their, and theirs. There are many pronouns other than those mentioned above, e.g., myself, none. Each Pr in E is either singular or plural. Some pronouns can be used to cover both singular and plural, e.g., you, yours. The pronoun in A is singular, dual, or plural. Examples of dual pronouns are Lah and US. The dual meaning in E is considered plural, but not so in A. Further, in A, every difference in number causes a difference in the Pr form: there is not one Pr that can cover two numbers or more, E has you, which parallels tail, of, gal, cul, cal, Gender: Pronouns in E have four genders: masculine like he, feminine like she, neutral like if, and common like they. Pronouns in A have these three genders: masculine like a, feminine like ya, and common like gx, To compare the gender of the Pr in E and A, one may notice that: 1, Ehas a neutral gender; A does not. 2. First person pronouns have a common gender in both E and A.J, we, U, and 3 stand for both masculine and feminine. 3. EB uses you as common in gender. A uses a different Pr for each different reference, e.g., Gul, sal, 2a, Lal, ol 4, A.uses some pronouns as common in gender, e.g., Las « Lait Person: E uses the Pr in three persons, and so does A: 1. First Person. It covers pronouns referring to the speaker. It includes the pronouns 7, we, Ul, gai 2. Second Person. It covers pronouns referring to the addressed person, e.g. you,