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Communication Systems

Notes Part I

1
Introduction to Communications
Systems

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 Transmitter
 Transmission medium
 Receiver
 System noise
 A collection of one or more
electronic devices or circuits that
converts the original source
information to form more suitable
for transmission over a particular
transmission medium
 A means of transporting signal
between a transmitter and
receiver
◦ Pair of copper wires
◦ Microwave
◦ Satelite
◦ Optical fiber
◦ Free space
 A collection of electronic devices
and circuits that accepts the
transmitted signals from the
transmission medium and then
converts those signals back to
their original form.
 Unwanted electrical signal that
interfere with the information
signals.
 Process of putting high frequency carrier for
transmission by changing properties of the
analog carrier in proportion with the
information signal
 Carrier
◦ carries the information through the system
 The low frequency information that
modulates the carrier
 Process of removing intelligence from the
high frequency career in a receiver
 v = Vp sin (wt + Φ), where,
◦ v = instantaneous value
◦ Vp = peak value
◦ w = angular velocity = 2πf
◦ Φ = phase angle
 Peak value, Vp, could be varied in accordance
with low-frequency information signal to
produce a modulated signal that contains the
intelligence
 Frequency, f, could be varied in accordance
with low-frequency information signal to
produce a modulated signal that contains the
intelligence
 Phase angle, Φ, could be varied in accordance
with low-frequency information signal to
produce a modulated signal that contains the
intelligence
 Device that converts energy from one form to
another
 Simplified block diagram of an electronic
communications system
 Simplified block diagram of an analog
communications system
 Electromagnetic frequency spectrum
 International Telecommunications Union
(ITU) Band Designations
 Describe the wavelength in meters for the
following frequencies: 1kHz, 100 kHz, and 10
MHz
 Electromagnetic wavelength spectrum
 Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Emission Classifications
 For a standard telephone circuit with a signal
to noise power ratio 1000 (3dB) and a
bandwidth of 2.7 kHz, determine the
Shannon limit for information capacity.
Noise Drivers and Charateristics

25
 Electrical Noise
◦ Any undesired voltages or currents that end up
appearing in a circuit
 Static
◦ Electrical noise that may occur in the output of a
receiver
 External Noise
◦ Noise in a received radio signal that has been
introduced by the transmitting medium
 Internal Noise
◦ Noise in a radio signal that has been introduced by
the receiver
 Human-Made Noise
◦ Wave propagation: Spark producing
mechanism radiated through atmosphere
 Engine ignition system
 Fluorescent lights
 Commutators in electric motor
 Atmospheric Noise
◦ External noise caused by naturally occurring
disturbances in the earth’s atmosphere
◦ Lightning discharge
 Higher the frequency lower the intensity
 Lower frequencies == more troublesome
◦ Additive effect of the distant disturbances
 Apparent when listening to a distant station on AM
receiver
 Space Noise
◦ External noise produced outside the earth’s
atmosphere
◦ Solar Noise: space noise originating from the sun
◦ Cosmic Noise: space noise originating from the
stars other than the sun (8MHz -1.5GHz)
◦ When < 8 MHz: Absorbed by earth’s ionosphere
before they can reach atmosphere
◦ Ionosphere: 60 to several hundred miles above
earth where ions and free electrons exist in
sufficient quantity
 Effects of noise on a signal: (a) signal without
noise; (b) signal with noise
 Thermal / Johnson / White Noise
◦ Internal noise caused by thermal interaction b/w
free electrons and vibrating ions in a conductor
 White noise
◦ Another name for thermal noise b/c its frequency
content is uniform across the spectrum
 Thermal / Johnson / White Noise
◦ N = KTB Where,
 N = noise power (watts)
 K = Boltzmann’s proportionality constant 1.38x10^(-
23) (Joules / Kelvin)
 T = absolute resistor temperature (Kelvin) room
temperature =17oC, or 290 K
 B= frequency bandwidth of the system (hertz)
 convert the following temperatures
to kelvin: 100oC, 0oC, and -10oC
 Noise source equivalent circuit
 Low-Noise Resistor
◦ A resistor that exhibits low levels of thermal noise
 Transistor Noise
◦ Shot Noise: a major contributor of transistor noise
introduced by carriers in the pn junctions of
semiconductor
 Frequency Noise Effects
◦ Excess Noise
◦ Transit-Time Noise
 For an electronic device operating at a
temperature of 17oC with a bandwidth of 10
kHz, determine:
a. thermal noise in watts and dBm
b. rms noise voltagefor a 100 ohm internal
resistance and a 100 ohm load resistance
 Correlated Noise
◦ A form of internal noise that is that is mutually
related to the signal and can not be present in a
circuit unless there is a signal  No signal – no
noise
◦ It is produced by non-linear amplification and
includes harmonic and intermodulation distortion
 Both nonlinear
 Occurs when unwanted harmonics of a signal are produced through
nonlinear amplification.
 Also called Amplitude distortion
 Original signal with fundamental frequency
 Also called Amplitude distortion
 A frequency two times the original (fundamental) signal frequency
 Ratio of the rms amplitude of second harmonic to rms amplitude of
the fundamental.
 A third-order harmonic distortion is the ratio of the rms amplitude
of the third harmonic to rms amplitude of the fundamental.
 So on ….
 Ratio of the quadratic sum of the rms values of all the higher
harmonics to the rms value of the fundamental.
 % THD = vhigher / vfundamental x 100%
◦ Where
 %THD = percent total harmonic distortion

 Vhigher = √(v22 +v32+v42+ …vn2)


 Vfundamental = rms voltage of the fundamental frequency
 Correlated noise: (a) Harmonic distortion;
(b) Intermodulation distortion
 The generation of unwanted sum and
difference frequencies (cross product)
produced when two or more signals mix in a
nonlinear device
• Cross product = mf1 +nf2
 Determine
a) 2nd, 3rd and 12th harmonics for a 1- kHz
receptive wave
b) Percent 2nd order, 3rd order and THD for a
fundamental frequency with an amplitude of
8Vrms, a 2nd harmonic amplitude of 0.2
Vrms, and a 3rd harmonic amplitude of 0.1
Vrms
 For a nonlinear amplifier with two input
frequencies, 3 kHz and 8 kHz, determine
a) First 3 harmonics present in the output for
each input frequency
b) Cross-product frequencies product for values
of m and n of 1 and 2.
 Electrical Noise Sources Summary
 Relative measure of desired signal power to
 noise power.
 For an amplifier with an output signal power
of 10 W and an output noise power of 0.01
W, determine the signal to noise power ratio.
 For an amplifier with an output signal voltage
of 4 V, an output noise voltage of 0.005 V,
and an input and output resistance of 50 Ω,
determine the signal-to-noise power ratio.
 Noise figure: (a) ideal, noiseless device; (b)
amplifier with internally generated noise
 A figure describing how noisy a
 device is as a ratio having no units.
 S/N = Ps / Pn
 S/N(dB) = 10 log (Ps / Pn)
 or
 S/N(dB) = 20 log (Vs / Vn)
 A figure describing how noisy a device is in
unitless ratio.

 Noise Factor
◦ F = (Input S/N power ratio)/(Output S/N power
ratio)
 A figure describing how noisy a device is in
decibels.
 Noise Factor
◦ NF = 10 log F
◦ Where F is the Noise Factor
 For a non-ideal amplifier and the following
parameters, determine
a) Input S/N ratio (dB)
b) Output S/N ratio (dB)
c) Noise factor and noise figure
i. Input signal power = 2 x 10-10 W
ii. Input noise power = 2 x 10-18 W
iii. Power gain = 1000000
iv. Internal Noise (Nd) = 6x 10-12 W
 Noise figure of cascaded amplifiers
 Method of determining the total
 noise produced by amplifier stages
 in cascade.
 FT = F1 +(F2 - 1) / A1 + (F3 - 1) / A1A2 + ….
(Fn - 1) / A1A2An-1
 For Three cascaded amplifier stages, each
with noise figure of 3 dB and power gain of
10 dB, determine the total noise figure.
 Noise figure degradation in cascaded
amplifiers
 Because noise produced from thermal
agitation is directly proportional to
temperature
 T = N / KB
 Where,
 N = noise power (watts)
 K = Boltzmann’s proportionality constant 1.38x10^(-
23) (Joules / Kelvin)
 T = absolute resistor temperature (Kelvin) room
temperature =17oC, or 290 K
 B= frequency bandwidth of the system (hertz)
 Te = T(F-1)
 Where
◦ Te = equivalent noise temperature
◦ T = environmental temperature (reference value
of 290 K)
◦ F = Noise Factor
 Conversely,
◦ F = 1 + Te / T
 Determine:
a) Noise figure for an equivalent noise temp of
75 K temperature (use 290 K for reference
temp)

b) Equivalent noise temperature for a noise


figure of 6 dB
Signal Composition and
Characteristics

68
 even symmetry
◦ f(t) = f(-t)
 odd symmetry
◦ f(t) = -f(-t)
 half-wave symmetry
◦ f(t) = - f(t + (T/2))
 Wave symmetries: (a) even symmetry; (b)
odd symmetry; (c) half-wave symmetry
 Fourier Series Summary
 BW of a communications channel must be 
bandwidth of the information signal
◦ Fundamental freq. of human voice ≈ 5 kHz
◦ BW for standard telephone circuit is (3000-300)Hz
= 2700 Hz
 Approx. BW
◦ For analog voice = 3 kHz
◦ For digital voice = 32 kHz
◦ For commercial FM (music) = 200 kHz
◦ For television signal = 6 MHz
 Voice-frequency spectrum and telephone
circuit bandwidth
 If a non-sinusoidal periodic wave form passes
through an ideal low pass filter, harmonic
frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency
of the filter are removed. Consequently
frequency components and the shape of the
waveform are changed
 Mixing is the process of combining two or
more signals and is essential process in
electronic communications systems
 Linear summing / mixing
◦ Single input frequency
◦ Multiple input frequency
 Nonlinear mixing
◦ Single input frequency
◦ Multiple input frequency
 Signals are combined in a linear device
◦ Passive network
◦ Small signal amplifier
 No new frequencies are produced
 Linear addition of individual signals
 Single-input frequency
 Multiple-input frequency

 Linear amplification of a single-input frequency: (a)
linear amplification; (b) time domain; (c) frequency
domain

 Linear mixing of multiple input frequency: (a) linear
amplification (b) time domain; (c) frequency domain
 Occurs when two or more signals are
combined in a non linear device
◦ Diode
◦ Large signal amplifier
 Input signals combine in a non linear fashion
and produce additional (multiple) frequency
components
 Single-input frequency
 Multiple-input frequency


 Harmonic Distortion
 Generated undesired harmonics
 Frequency multiplication
 Desired harmonics

 Nonlinear amplification of a single-input frequency: (a)
nonlinear amplification; (b) time domain; (c) frequency
domain


 Cross products = mfa ± nfb
 Where
◦ m and n are positive integers
 Nonlinear amplification of two sine waves: (a) nonlinear
amplification; (b) time domain; (c) frequency domain
 Output spectrum from a nonlinear amplifier with two input
frequencies: (a) harmonic distortion; (b) intermodulation
distortion
 For a nonlinear amplifier with two input
frequencies, 5 kHz, and 7 kHz,
a. Determine the first 3 harmonics present in the
output for each input frequency.
b. Determine the cross products produced in the
output for values of m and n of 1 and 2.
c. Draw the output frequency spectrum for the
harmonics and cross-product frequencies
determined in steps (a) and (b).
 Output spectrum for Example 2-3
Oscillators for Communications
Circuits

96
 To fluctuate between two states or conditions
 Circuit capable of converting electrical energy
from DC to AC
 A device that produces oscillations
 Generate a repetitive waveform
 Applications in electronic communications
◦ High frequency carrier supplies
◦ Pilot supplies
◦ Clock
◦ Timing circuits
 Self sustaining or free running
◦ Changes in the waveform are continuous and
repetitive
 Triggered or one-shot
◦ Require external input or trigger
 An amplifier with feedback loop
◦ Free running oscillator
 Once started it generates an ac output of
which a small portion of the signal is fed back
to the input, where it is amplified and
appears at the output
 A regenerative process
 To sustain oscillation feedback loop gain
must be at least unity and loop phase shift
around the loop must be zero degrees or a
positive integer multiple of 3600.
 Four requirements:
◦ Amplification
 At least one active device capable of voltage amplification
◦ Positive feedback
 Portion of output returned to input and it must be
regenerative (correct phase and amplitude)
 Degenerative feedback has negative feedback and inhibits
oscillations from occurring
◦ Frequency determining components
 To be able to set or change the frequency of peration:
Resistor, capacitor, inductor, & crystal etc.
◦ Power Source
 dc power supply
 Model of an amplifier with feedback
 Aol = open loop voltage gain
 Acl = closed loop voltage gain
◦ Where, Acl = Aol / (1 + Aol)
◦ If for any frequency Aol = -1 , then Acl = Vout / Vin
= infinity  self sustained
 Untuned RC phase shift oscillator
◦ Uses both positive and negetive feedback
◦ Relatively stable
◦ Low frequency
◦ Easy to tune
◦ Generate signals between 5 Hz to 1 MHz
 Lead-lag network (a reactive voltage divider): (a) circuit
configuration; (b) input-versus-output transfer curver (ß)
Z1 has -450 and Z2 has +450 phase shift, f0 = 1/2πRC
at f = low, C1 is open, at f = high, C2 is short no output
 Wien-bridge oscillator
 Balanced condition between the inductive and
capacitive reactance of a circuit
 Parallel LC circuit
 Repetitive exchange of energy in an LC circuit
from the inductor to the capacitor and back
 Tank circuit flywheel effect
 The gradual reduction of a repetitive
signal due to resistive loss
 Undamped sinusoidal waveform produced by
an oscillator in a radio transmitter
 LC tank circuit; (a) oscillator action and flywheel
effect; (b) output waveform
 Hartley oscillator: (a) schematic diagram; (b) dc
equivalent circuit; (c) ac equivalent circuit
 Colpitts oscillator: (a) schematic diagram; (b) dc
equivalent circuit; (c) ac equivalent circuit