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Kaur et al Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 550-561 (2018) ISSN: 2320 – 7051
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.6381 ISSN: 2320 – 7051
Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 550-561 (2018)
Review Article

Trends in Minimal Processing of Lettuce


Manpreet Kaur1*, Sangram S. Dhumal2 and Manish Kumar1
1
Division of Vegetable Sciences, ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India
2
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture (Kolhapur),
Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth, Rahuri, India
*Corresponding Author E-mail: mkaur89096@gmail.com
Received: 21.03.2018 | Revised: 22.04.2018 | Accepted: 26.04.2018

ABSTRACT
Lettuce is an expanding salad vegetable for supermarket in India and abroad. It has been
emerged as a valued salad alternative in minimally processed food products. Minimal processing
gives an additional value to lettuce in terms of convenience and time saving. Mechanical damage
to the cells during processing, however, is a major limitation to shelf life of minimally processed
lettuce which enhances the microbial growth, enzymatic browning and moisture loss. Different
minimal processing techniques such as use of post harvest chemicals, irradiations and modified
atmosphere packagings (MAP) have been employed for different category of lettuce. These
techniques can be adopted either individually or in combination which extends the shelf life of
the products through suppression of respiration, ripening and subsequent senescence and
microbial activity. MAP inhibits the ethylene induced effects, balances the O2 and CO2
concentrations and reduces the moisture loss due to the moisture barrier properties of the
packaging. This review paper aims to supply information about different approaches being
employed to extend shelf-life and quality of minimally processed lettuce. A brief description of
the MAP technology is also given.
Key words: Lettuce, Minimal processing, Shelf-life, Quality, Enzymatic browning

INTRODUCTION producer of lettuce with a production of 1.08


The minimal processing techniques have lakh MT followed by China and USA3.
emerged to meet the challenges of replacing Among the three main type viz; leaf, head and
traditional methods of preservation by cos or romaine, leaf lettuce is commonly
retaining nutritional and sensory quality1. grown in India and used as minimal processed
Demand for minimally processed fruits and form. It perceived as a maintained and high
vegetables has increased rapidly in Europe and valued product since it provides naturally
USA and in developing countries like India, maintained quality with the true effects of
demand is expected to represent 25% of the freshness, high content of water, vitamins,
total food market 2. Lettuce is an expanding minerals, fibers and low energetic food. It is
salad category for supermarket in minimally highly requested commodity by salad bars and
processed food sector. India is the 3rd largest fast food centers in India and abroad.

Cite this article: Kaur, M., Dhumal, S.S. and Kumar, M., Trends in Minimal Processing of Lettuce, Int. J.
Pure App. Biosci. 6(2): 550-561 (2018). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.18782/2320-7051.6381

Copyright © March-April, 2018; IJPAB 550


Kaur et al Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 550-561 (2018) ISSN: 2320 – 7051
The marketing period of lettuce is limited to for use in washing fruits and vegetables and
about 3 to 4 days for whole leaves tissues. In many studies have demonstrated its
the processing of vegetables like lettuce, antimicrobialactivity14, 15. Chlorine dioxide (3
physiological deterioration, biochemical ppm) and ozone (0.34 ppm) treatments alone
changes and microbial degradation is at faster or in combination to Iceberg lettuce effectively
rate4 which lowers the shelf life due to influenced the microbial population (1.17 log
disruption of tissue and cell integrity and thus cfu/g) after 6 hrs with increase in phenolic
require special attention for quality and compound16. Chlorine dioxide (60mgL-1/10
safety5. Storage temperature is the single most min), per acetic acid (100mgL-1 for15 min)
important factor affecting spoilage of fresh-cut and ozonated water (1.2mgL-1/ min) are
products. However, numbers of many other effective alternative sanitizers to sodium
preservation techniques are currently being hypochlorite (150mgL-1 for 15 min as they
used by the fresh-cut industry such as promoted reduction of 2.5, 1.1, and 0.7 log
antioxidants, chlorines and modified cycle respectively on count of microbial load
atmosphere packaging (MAP)6 different of minimally processed product and increased
packaging material and cold storage, MAP, shelf life by 6 days as compared to sodium
controlled atmospheric storage, UV-C hypochlorite treatment which had 12 days
illumination, ozone bubbling as antimicrobial shelf life17. The maximum reduction of more
and antibrowning agents, calcium as firming than 3 log cfug-1and 2 log cfug-1 were observed
agent and allicin as antimicrobial agent, which after washing with acidified sodium chlorite at
could be a solution to delay quality losses and concentration of 1gL-1 and 0.25 to 0.5gL-1
extend shelf life and freshness of minimally respectively8. In contrast, Lopez-Galvez et
processed lettuce7, 8,9,10. The new alternative al.18 evaluated the efficacy of chlorine dioxide
processing and preservation techniques to (3mgL-1) and sodium hypochlorite (100mgL-1)
improve the quality and shelf life of fresh-cut sanitation solution on prevention of cross
fruits and vegetables are reviewed below in contamination of fresh-cut lettuce by E. coli
this chapter. and found no significant reduction in E. coli
PROCESSING TECHNIQUES AND content in both inoculated and cross
METHODS contaminated lettuce. However, sanitizers used
Post-harvest chemicals inactivated most E. coli cells that passed from
The minimal processing induces surface inoculated product to wash water.
damage increasing the tissue respiration which Calcium lactate has been reported to
leads to biochemical deterioration of the fresh- be a good alternative to calcium chloride
cut fruits and vegetables11. Many chemical because it avoids the bitterness or off flavors
treatments which include antioxidant like associated with this salt19. Calcium lactate was
ascorbic acid, citric acid and surfactants like tested as fresh-cut lettuce and carrots sanitizer
sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorinated and compared with chlorine20. The use of
water showing broad biocidal effectiveness calcium-based treatments presented a further
due to high antimicrobial action have been advantage; in some cases the final product can
tested in ready to eat food products in recent significantly increase the calcium content21,
years. Chlorine-based chemicals, especially which might enhance the appreciation of these
liquid chlorine and hypochlorite, are most products, due to the fact that the awareness of
widely used at the level of 50-200 ppm free consumers on the benefits of calcium is
chlorine and contact time less than 5 minutes relatively high. The shelf- life of fruits and
as a sanitizers for decontaminating fresh vegetables can be extended by calcium
produce12, 13. treatments by maintaining the cell wall
Washing with chlorinated water has integrity and firmness by cross-linking with
been traditionally applied to decontaminate cell wall and middle lamina pectin to form
vegetables Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is accepted calcium pectate22 The wide use of calcium
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lactate for delicate fruit and products having Fresh-cut lettuce treated with 1% allicin and
high senescence index is reported by Luna- stored at 40C with >90% relative humidity
Guzman and Barett19 in fresh-cut cantaloupes retained its color and maintained visual quality
and Anino et al.21 in apples. Rico et al.7 without impairing flavor with maximum
observed reduction in enzyme activity(~300 antioxidant activity after 6 days of storage.
units g-1), higher oxygen decline(~6%) and Allicin (1%) treatment lowered total viable
reduced enzymatic browning in ozone (1mgL- count by 2.52 log cfu/g and yeast and mold
1
) treated fresh-cut lettuce and recorded count by 1.59 log/g as compared to control
maximum polyphenol oxidase activity with with prevention of tissue browning. 5% citric
best quality markers in fresh-cut lettuce treated acid or 100% sugar syrup dipping treatment
with calcium lactate (15gL-1) after 10 days of inhibit the browning and polyphenol oxidation
storage at 500C. The calcium lactate at high in fresh-cut lettuce with good sensorial
temperature (500C) recorded higher value of attributes up to 12 days when stored at 00C and
crispness coefficient and maintained qualities 95% relative humidity30.
upto storage period of 12 days20. UV-C Irradiations
The use of ozonated water has been Low dose gamma irradiation is very effective
applied to fresh-cut vegetables for sanitation in reducing bacterial, parasitic, and protozoan
purposes reducing microbial populations and pathogens in raw foods. Irradiation was
extending the shelf-life of some of these approved by the FDA for use on fruits and
products23. Many researchers,24, 25 have opined vegetables at a maximum level of 1.0 kGy31.
that ozone treatment have a beneficial effect in The use of Ultraviolet- C (254 nm, UV-C) on
extension of storage life of different minimally processed lettuce, showed that this
commodities such as lettuce, broccoli, technique can reduce deterioration of the
cucumber, apples, grapes, oranges, pears, produce by effectively reducing microbial
raspberries and strawberries by reduction of populations (Fan et al.)32. Fresh-like quality of
microbial populations and by oxidation of minimally processed lettuce was retained
ethylene. Grass et al.26 reported ozone as a better during storage when irradiated with
strong antimicrobial agent with high reactivity, 0.5kGy dose as compared to irradiation levels
penetrability and had spontaneous of 0.81 and 1.1kGy Fan et al.33 reported that
decomposition to a non-toxic product. the fresh cut iceberg lettuce samples treated
Modified atmosphere packed fresh-cut green with warm water (470C) and irradiated at 0.5
asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis) treated with and 1 kGy had best sensory quality without
aqueous ozone treatment (1mgL-1) at 30C for significant loss in texture, vitamin C, or total
25 days inhibited the enzymatic activities antioxidants. Fan and Sokorai34 found that the
including phenylalanine ammonia lyase overall visual appearance was best for fresh-
(PAL), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate cut iceberg lettuce irradiated at 1 or 2 kGy.
peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase However, lettuce samples irradiated at 4 kGy
(GR)27. were much less firm than non irradiated
Immersion solution (2gL-1 citric acid, samples after 3 and 7 days of storage at 3°C.
1 gL-1 calcium chloride and 250gL-1 garlic Further, in 2003 they reported that Irradiation
extract) is the best mixed immersion solution at 1, 2, 3 and 4 kGy reduced the ascorbic acid
as they controlled enzymatic browning, (AA) of fresh-cut lettuce but did not affect the
chlorophyllase activity and had minimum total ascorbic acid content (TAA) 33.
weight loss up to 9th day of storage of fresh- Furthermore, total ascorbic acid levels
cut lettuce. However microorganism growth decreased during storage for both non
was not significantly controlled28,29 for the first irradiated and irradiated lettuce.
time reported that natural additive, allicin (0.2 Shredded iceberg lettuce irradiated at
and 1%) could be used in prolonging the shelf 0.55 kGy dose reduced inoculated E. coli
life of fresh lettuce var. Angustana Irish. 0157: H7 population by5 log without causing
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adverse effects on sensory attributes. Low to decreased the fermentative volatile production,
medium dose irradiation of shredded iceberg off-odor development and alleviating CO2
lettuce could improve safety and injury and increased browning44.
microbiological shelf-life of lettuce for retail Mattos et al.45 studied the effects of
or food service35 Niemira et al.36 opined that two active modified atmosphere packaging
low irradiation doses (0.3 or 0.6 kGy) and (5% O2, 5% CO2 and 2% O2, 10% CO2-
modified atmosphere packaging could be balance N2) and one passive modified
combined to reduce the level of L. atmosphere as control on quality attributes and
monocytogenes in minimally processed physiological responses of fresh-cut crisp head
endive, thereby serving to protect the lettuce stored at 50C and 85% relative
consumers. Also the exposure of minimally humidity for 14 days. They observed no
processed (shredded) ice-berg lettuce to 0.7 significant difference among treatments for
kGy gamma irradiation reduced the population chlorophyll degradation. Mechanical stresses
of Salmonella spp. by 4 logs and E. coli by 6.8 induced by processing increased CO2 and
logs without impairing the sensory attributes ethylene evolution and O2 consumption.
as reported by Goularte et al.37. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase activity
Modified atmosphere packaging on Lettuce recorded slight increase on processing but
Modified atmosphere packaging, a novel reduced over storage period. The active
technology has been extensively used to modified atmosphere has no significant effect
achieve safety and/or to prolong the shelf life on quality attributes and physiological
of fruit and vegetables products. MAP replaces behavior of fresh-cut lettuce for storage period
original atmosphere gas partial pressure with of 14 days. Fresh-cut Romaine lettuce
nobles gases, such as helium(He), argon (Ar), packaged in 60 µm thick LDPE (Low Density
xenon (Xe), nitrous oxide (N2O ) or super Poly and MDPE (medium-density
atmospheric oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide polyethylene) film bags and stored at 00C had
(CO2)38 MAP could be adopted for different very low quality deterioration in terms of
type of raw or processed fruits and vegetables firmness, color, ascorbic acid and sensory
produce such as lettuce, broccoli, spinach, evaluation concerns with reduced browning.
melon, apple, cucumber, carrot and some Hamza et al.46 opined that modified
other, either individually or in combination atmosphere of 10% CO2 plus 1% O2 could
which extends the shelf life of the products maintain the fresh like quality of minimally
through suppression of respiration, ripening processed Romaine lettuce stored at 40C upto
and subsequent senescence, microbial activity 16 days. The increase CO2 content in the
due to diversity of effect by low O2, elevated package atmosphere to 10% or more reduced
CO2, by inhibition of ethylene induced effects enzymatic browning due to wounding and
and by reduction of moisture loss due to the improved visual quality. After packaging the
moisture barrier properties of the packaging shredded lettuce in sealed bag of monooriented
film39. Fresh vegetables continue to respire, polypropylene (OPP) film and in polyethylene
consuming oxygen and producing carbon (PE) trays overwrapped with a multilayer
dioxide and water vapor. Very successful polyolefin (RD 106) or plasticized polyvinyl
applications of MAP are reported for fresh-cut chloride (PVC) film; Pirovani et al.47 reported
pineapple40, kiwifruit41 and Honeydew42. that modified atmosphere within the package
Beneficial modified atmosphere within fresh- changed from normal air composition to about
cut fruits and vegetables packages are attained 1.5% O2 and 12% CO2 for OPP bags and to
by correctly choosing packaging material that about 17-18% O2 and 1-2% CO2 for PVC-PE
will provide the appropriate levels of oxygen trays and RD106-PE trays after 8 days of
and carbon dioxide into packets43. Delaying in storage. The visual sensory quality of the
the packaging of fresh-cut Romaine lettuce for product was retained better in OPP bags than
12 hrs at 50C in ambient air before packaging in the other ones. Gloria Lopez et al.45
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assessed quality changes in packaged ascorbic acid content over the initial,
commercial salad products stored at 50C upto especially in MAP-stored Swiss chard, after 8
20 days. They opined that browning of cut days of cold storage was noted. Peiser et al.54
lettuce pieces was minimal and the quality of observed that food service garden salad
commercial salads decreased with time. The packages (containing commercially processed
concentrations of O2 and CO2 in package were iceberg lettuce, carrot and red cabbage)
at 0.2-1.5% and 5-30% respectively. They obtained from 5 California processors had 0.2-
further stated that the concentrations of 1.0% O2 and 5-20% CO2 after over 15 days of
fermentative volatiles compound like ethanol storage at 50C.Acetaldehyde and ethanol
and acetaldehyde in lettuce tissues were developed in the tissues at concentrations of 2-
significantly correlated with off odour and 22 μl/kg and 50-1500 μl/kg, respectively, by
aroma score with decrease in sugar content the 'Best if used by Date' (BIUD). Packages
from 12% to 20%. Castaner et al.49 stored from all processors were above the limit of
white, green and red section of Lollo Rosso salability for overall visual quality by the
lettuce in perforated or non-perforated PE film BIUD, although off odors were detected.
with active atmosphere modification at 50C for Two plastic films maintained the
7 or 14 days. The quality of white and green nitrous oxide concentration within the bags,
tissues was best maintained in modified with some slight differences in O2 and CO2
atmosphere storage whilst red tissue was better concentration when packaged fresh in two
preserved in air. Segall and Scanlon50 stored different non-micro perforated plastic film
minimally Romaine lettuce under three bags (polypropylene+polyamide, PP+PA and
modified atmosphere viz. 3% O2 combined polypropylene+polyethylene tetraphthalate,
with either 6%, 10%, or 14% CO2 for 20 days. PP+PET) with three modified atmospheres
They found that O2 consumption rate deceased (97%N2O+3%O2; 50%N2O+47%N2 and
with increased CO2 levels. The O2 levels in 97%N2+3%O2). They found that that the two
packaging equilibrated at 7% to 11%. They plastic films maintained the nitrous oxide
further observed that MAP delayed the concentration within the bags, with some
development of tissue discoloration but had no slight differences in O2 and CO2 concentration.
effect on microbial growth. Out of three levels No significant differences were observed in
of CO2 tried, 10% CO2 was found to be texture, colour and sensory quality (off odour,
effective and thereby increased shelf life by off-flavor, texture and overall acceptability) of
50%. Hemidal et al.51 observed that use of an lettuce. All treatments delayed microbial
atmosphere of 80 kPa O2 plus 20 kPa CO2 growth (mesophiles, yeast and mold,
delayed browning of shredded lettuce under psychrophiles and enterobacteria) and
MAP for 10 days as compared to air. MAP compared to control in air, reduced weight loss
Treatments of 6kPa O2+7kPa CO2 in oriented in lettuce. MAP treatments maintained very
polypropylene (OPP) and polyethylene- good quality and freshness of „Iceberg‟ lettuce
perforated bags improved the sensory quality, for 4 days. Slight increase in off odour and off-
avoided the loss of green colour, decreased the flavor observed during storage were below the
development of pithiness and retarded the moderately acceptable limit even after 9
growth of microorganisms in celery sticks days55. A high variability in growth of E. coli
stored at 40C for 15 days than compared to the O157:H7 under low temperature conditions
control (air)52 . In another experiment, Gil et with maximum growth rates (log cfu/day)
al.53 observed no effect on total flavonoid corresponded to 0.14 (95% Cl: 0.06-0.31),
content of Swiss chard spinach beets leaves 0.55(95% Cl: 0.17-1.20) and 1.43 (95% Cl:
(cv. Green) packed with 7%O2+10%CO2 upto 0.82-2.15) for 8, 13 and 160C respectively56.
8 days of storage, although increased Sharma et al.57 reported that leafy green
flavonoid extraction during cooking in boiling lettuce packaged with commercial modified
water was noted. However, 50% decrease in atmosphere conditions in gas permeable film
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with N2 and stored at 40C decreased E. coli total aerobic and coliform bacteria in cut
O157:H7 populations on lettuce. However, chinese cabbage, irradiated at dose up to 2kGy
storage of leaf lettuce under near ambient air with air CO2 or CO2 /N2 packaging during
atmospheric conditions promoted higher refrigerated storage for 3 weeks. Izumi et al.62
expression levels of O157:H7 virulence factors monitored the physiological and quality of
in lettuce. A combination of high O2 (75kPa) spinach (cv. Sunbest) leaves during storage in
and low CO2 (15kPa) in packaging of fresh-cut air and controlled atmospheres (0.5, 1 and 2%
lettuce caused reduction in the aerobic O2) at 00C (for 28 days), 100C (for 9 days) and
mesophilic bacterial count, avoiding anaerobic 200C (for 5 days) and observed that low-O2
fermentation, and delayed color change up to atmospheres did not affect the development of
10 days for fresh-cut lettuce stored at 70C10. decay, or populations of aerobic mesophilic
Further they observed that number of and lactic acid bacteria at any of the storage
psychrotrophic bacteria, Coliform and Lactic temperatures tested. However, Barriga et al.63
acid bacteria (LAB) were influenced by found no effect of controlled atmosphere
packaging of fresh-cut lettuce in PP bags with (3%O2, 3%O2+5%CO2 or 3%O2+10%CO2) on
MAP ( 3kPa O2 and 5kPa CO2)58. No growth the studied microbiological population in
of microorganisms in the fresh-cut salad mixes fresh-cut lettuce samples. However, a 3% O2 +
containing lettuce, packaged in a low or a high 10% CO2 atmosphere maintained acceptable
barrier film with an initial oxygen level of visual quality of lettuce, without appreciably
95kPa and stored at 40C was reported. Gil et affecting microbial environment for 12 days at
al.59 found no browning and no increase in the 40C. ). Koseki and Itoh64 concluded that 100%
amount of soluble phenyl propaniods in the N2 gas packaging delayed degradation of
mid ribs of minimally processed Lollo Rosso fresh-cut lettuce and cabbage stored at 1, 5 and
lettuce during storage in 2-3% O2 and 12-14% 100C for 5 days but did not significantly affect
CO2 at 50C. the growth of microbial population of total
On investigated the effect of chemical aerobic bacteria (TAB), coliform bacteria and
sanitizers (100ppm chlorine dioxide, or 100 psychotrophic bacteria in or on fresh-cut
ppm sodium hypochlorite) alone or in lettuce and cabbage. They also found that
combination with packaging methods (air, microbial growth in or on the fresh-cut lettuce
vacuum, N2 and CO2 gas packaging) on and cabbage was inhibited at 10C storage
inactivating E. coli O157:H7 in spinach at regardless of packaged atmospheric
7±20C, Lee et al.60 found that treatment with conditions.
chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite Storage
significantly decreased levels of E. coli Lou et al.65 investigated the impact of storage
O157:H7 by 2.6 and 1.1 log cfu/g respectively. temperature and duration on the fate of
In addition to this, significant difference of Escherichia coli on packaged salads of iceberg
about 3-4 log cfu/g of E. coli O157:H7 and fresh-cut Romaine lettuce stored at 50C
populations between samples packed in air and and 120C. The storage of fresh-cut Romaine
other packaging methods following treatment lettuce at 50C allowed E. coli to survive but
with chemical sanitizers was observed after 7 limited its growth while 120C storage facilitate
days of storage at 7±20C. Radziejewska- proliferation of it more than 2.0 log cfu /g
Kubzdela et al.61 reported that modified with significant decline in visual quality after
atmosphere with the content of 5% or 10% 3 days. Spinardi and Ferrante66 studied the
CO2, 2% O2 and balanced N2 in the packaging effect of storage temperature (40C and 100C)
of celeriac flakes during storage at 4 and 150C on quality changes of fresh-cut baby lettuce.
for 12 days, inhibited growth of mesophilic, They observed increase in lipid peroxidation
psychrophilic and coliform bacteria. Also in from 0.27 µmol/g to 0.36 and 0.49 µmol/g in
cut Chinese cabbage, modified atmosphere leaves stored at 4 and 100C respectively. Total
packaging (MAP) enhanced the reduction of ascorbic acid slightly decreased initially and
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increased again after 7 days of storage. preservation strategy. The most important
Grzegorzewska67 compared the influence of hurdles commonly used in food preservation
three storage temperatures viz. 00C, 6-80C and are based on controlling temperature, water
18-200C on storage ability of fresh-cut crisp activity, acidity, redox potential and use of
lettuce. He observed good quality was preservatives, modified atmosphere and
maintained the longest time for 6 days at 00C competitive microorganisms (e.g. lactic acid
and shortest time at 18-200C. After 2 days at bacteria)72. Lee et al.73 reported that aqueous
18-200C browning was visible and after 4 days ClO2 (50LL -1) combined with UV-C
there was symptoms of rotting. Serea et al.68 radiations (10 KJm-2) reduced the initial
determined that ascorbic acid, total phenolic population of total aerobic bacteria in
content and antioxidant activity of the cultivars Romaine lettuce by 1.07 logcfug-1 compared to
(Roderick, Markies and Locarno) of lettuce 6.36 logcfug-1 for control; it also reduced the
were depended not only temperature, but were population of yeast and mold in the sample of
also significantly affected by the duration of 1.85 log cfug-1. Beltran et al.23 studied the
storage. Major loss were recorded after 6 days effect of UV-C activated ozonated water (10
and for temperature above 20C for all cultivars and 20 mgL-1) on fresh-cut lettuce and opined
when stored for different time periods that respiratory activity of fresh-cut lettuce
(0,3,6,9,12 and 15) at storage temperatures was delayed which maintained visual
(0,2,4, and 60C). Moreira et al.69 studied the appearance and helped in controlling browning
changes in lettuce leaf quality at two abusive during storage in air. The active MAP (4 kPa
temperature (8 and 150C) and compared with O2+ 12 kPa CO2) helped in controlling total
optimal storage temperature of 00C. They microbial growth as well as reduction in count
observed that degradation rate of ascorbic acid by 2.0 log in relation to sample stored in air at
in lettuce leaves stored at abusive temperatures the end of storage for 13 days at 40C. Diaz and
was from 2.7 to 2.9 times faster than at 00C. Hotchkiss74 studied the effect of gas mixtures
The microbial quality was retained 1-6 and 4 of 0/10/90, 3/0/97, 5/30/65, 20/0/80
times longer at 00C with respect to 8 and 150C (O2/CO2/N2, v/v) on shredded lettuce
storage respectively. Manolopoulou et al.70 inoculated with nalidixic acid-resistant E. coli
investigated that fresh-cut cabbage could be (ATCC 35150) and placed at 13 or 22°C and
stored upto 14 days and 7 days respectively at observed that the aerobic plate count (APC)
00C and 50C when treated with ascorbic acid growth was inhibited in 5%
while citric acid (1%) combined with low O2/30%CO2/65%N2 at 130C compared to all
temperature storage prolong the shelf life of other atmospheres. Further, they opined that
minimally processed cabbage for 22 days and the extended shelf-life in Modified atmosphere
retained its color as well as overall acceptance allowed E. coli to grow to higher numbers
than conventional chlorine treatment. Lu et compared to air-held lettuce.
al.71 concluded that the growth rate and
maximum permissible limit of bacteria in fresh CONCLUSION
cut lettuce samples stored at 00C are lower In India, the ready-to-eat fruit and vegetable
with longer lag time as compared to that of market is under developmental stage even
samples stored at 4 and 250C. They also though it is having number of health
opined that the efficacy of preservation of associated benefits. The awareness needs to be
fresh-cut lettuce treated with chlorinated water heightened for the newly developed novel
was significantly better than that of non- products like fresh cut salads. There is need to
treated lettuce under the same storage develop the simple and cost effective
temperature. processing line for fresh cut vegetables like
Hurdle technology lettuce. Due to stricter regulations on the use
Hurdle technology is the combination of of chlorine urge to find the new alternatives
different preservation techniques as a which satisfies consumers and maintains a
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Kaur et al Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 550-561 (2018) ISSN: 2320 – 7051
balance between sensory and quality. The properties of fresh-cut lettuce. J. Food Sci.
intelligent packaging systems like MAP and Agric., 86: 2179-2188 (2006).
SMART packaging with nano based food 8. Allende, A., McEvoy, Tao, Y. and Luo,
products and nano biosensors should be Y., Antimicrobial effect of acidified
evaluated with combination of novel methods sodium chlorite, sodium chlorite, sodium
of packagings and storage, edible as well as hypochlorite and citric acid on Escherichia
antimicrobial films. There is need to coli O157:H7 and natural microflora of
investigate the antimicrobial effect of super fresh-cut cilantro. Food Control, 20: 230-
atmospheric oxygen in fresh-cut product 234 (2009).
safety. Optimization of wide variety of 9. Karaca, H. and Velloglu, Y. S., Effect of
polymers and gas mixtures available for ozone treatment on microbial quality and
packaging of individual commodity is some chemical properties of lettuce,
necessary and should be given more focus in spinach, and parsley. Postharvest Biol.
regard with MAP in future. Technol., 88: 46-53 (2014).
10. Escalona, V. H., Geysen, S., Verlinden, B.
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