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GOVERNMENT OF THE PUNJAB

IRRIGATION DEPARTMENT

PUNJAB IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE INVESTMENT PROGRAM (PIAIP)

RECLAMATION OF WATERLOGGED AGRICULTURE


LAND IN BORDER AREA ALONG HAKRA CANAL

FEASIBILITY STUDY REPORT

August, 2017

NESPAK-AAB-DMC JOINT VENTURE CONSULTANTS


National Engineering
Services Pakistan AAB (Pvt.) Development And
(Pvt.) Limited Limited Management Consultants
Reclamation of Water Logged Agriculture Land in Border Area along Hakra Canal Feasibility Report

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA..........................................................................1-1


1.1 GENERAL 1-1
1.2 EXTENT OF DRAINAGE PROBLRM IN BAHAWALNAGAR 1-1
1.3 DISTRICT BAHAWALNAGAR 1-4
1.3.1 Population.............................................................................................................1-4
1.3.2 Topography............................................................................................................1-4
1.3.3 Soils.......................................................................................................................1-4
1.3.4 Climate..................................................................................................................1-5
1.3.5 Rainfall Pattern......................................................................................................1-5
1.3.6 Geology.................................................................................................................1-5
1.3.7 Hydrogeology........................................................................................................1-5
1.3.8 Water Resources....................................................................................................1-6
1.3.9 Drainage................................................................................................................1-6
1.3.10 Surface Water......................................................................................................1-12
1.4 Hakra Branch Canal 1-12
1.4.1 Operation of Hakra Branch Canal........................................................................1-13
1.4.2 Discharge Hydrographs of Hakra Branch Canal....................................................1-15
1.4.3 Influence of Full Supply Level on Seepage of Hakra Canal along Adjoining Area. 1-18
2 SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION.................................................................................2-1
2.1 introduction 2-1
2.2 GROUND WATER STUDY 2-2
2.2.1 Ground Water Quality (Previous Studies)..............................................................2-2
2.2.2 Ground Water Quality by PIAIP Consultants..........................................................2-4
2.2.3 Ground Water Levels by DLR.................................................................................2-4
2.2.4 Ground Water Levels by PIAIP CONSULTANTS.......................................................2-4
2.3 AQUIFER TESTS IN DISTRICT BAHAWALNAGAR 2-9
2.4 AQUIFER TESTS IN DISTRICT GANGANAGAR (INDIA) 2-10
2.5 At Site Discharge Measurement by PIAIP Consultants 2-10
2.6 SEEPAGE ANALYSIS 2-11
2.6.1 Seep/W Introduction...........................................................................................2-11
2.6.2 Governing Equation.............................................................................................2-12
2.6.3 Seepage Conditions.............................................................................................2-12
2.6.4 Finite Element Analysis........................................................................................2-12
2.6.5 Seepage Analysis In Project Area Using Seep/W.................................................2-13
2.6.6 Analysis Results...................................................................................................2-13
2.6.7 Comparison Between Results:.............................................................................2-20
2.7 MODFLOW ANALYSIS 2-20
2.7.1 Introduction.........................................................................................................2-20
2.7.2 Initial Conditions of Project Area.........................................................................2-21
2.7.3 Model Calibration................................................................................................2-23
2.7.4 Model Results......................................................................................................2-24
2.7.5 Conclusions.........................................................................................................2-26

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2.8 Strip Survey of Proposed Drains 2-27


2.8.1 Reference Bench Mark........................................................................................2-27
2.8.2 Establishment of Horizontal and Vertical Control Network.................................2-27
2.8.3 System of Coordinates and Survey Datum...........................................................2-27
2.8.4 Instruments Used................................................................................................2-28
2.8.5 Software Used.....................................................................................................2-28
2.8.6 Measurement Units.............................................................................................2-28
2.8.7 Field Data Processing...........................................................................................2-28
2.8.8 Cross-sectional Survey Data Collection................................................................2-28
2.8.9 Survey Using GNSS Equipment............................................................................2-28
2.8.10 Survey Using Total Station...................................................................................2-29
2.8.11 Data Post Processing and Layout Preparation......................................................2-29
2.9 Geotechnical Investigations 2-29
2.9.1 Scope Of Work.....................................................................................................2-29
2.9.2 Geotechnical Foundation Design Criteria............................................................2-30
2.9.3 Field Exploration..................................................................................................2-30
Sub-Surface Stratification 2-35
2.9.4 Analysis of Field and Laboratory Investigation........................................................37
2.9.5 RECOMMENDATION OF TYPE OF CEMENT FOR CONCRETE STRUCTURES...............47
2.9.6 RECOMMENDATION DESIGN PARAMETERS............................................................47
2.9.7 BEARING CAPACITY CURVES FOR SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS...................................47
2.9.8 COEFFICIENTS OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE.........................................................50
2.9.9 SEISMICITY..............................................................................................................50
2.9.10 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................2-52
3 PROBLEM ANALYSIS................................................................................................3-1
3.1 INTRODUCTION 3-1
3.2 INFLUENCE OF SEEPAGE FROM HAKRA BRANCH CANAL 3-1
3.3 INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL GROUND WATER INFLOW FROM INDIAN SIDE 3-3
3.3.1 General..................................................................................................................3-3
3.3.2 Indira Gandhi Canal Project...................................................................................3-3
3.3.3 Gang Canal............................................................................................................3-4
3.3.4 Spread of Waterlogging and Soil Salinity...............................................................3-5
3.3.5 Ganganagar District...............................................................................................3-6
3.3.6 Water Table Rise in Hakra Branch Command due to the Rise of Water Table in
Ganganagar District...............................................................................................................3-6
3.4 Flood Estimation by Rational Method 3-8
3.5 Preparation of Geometric Data 3-9
3.6 Development of Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship 3-9
3.7 Relationship Between Time of Concentration and Rainfall Intensity 3-14
3.8 Estimation of C Value 3-15
3.9 Peak Flood Estimation 3-16
4 OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING.............................................................4-1
4.1 GENERAL 4-1
4.2 OPTION-1: LINING OF HAKRA BRANCH CANAL 4-1

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4.2.1 General..................................................................................................................4-1
4.3 OPTION-2: CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE INTERCEPTOR DRAINS PARALLEL TO HAKRA
BRANCH CANAL WITH OUTFALL IN OLD HAKRA RIVER BED 4-7
4.3.1 Open Ditch/Surface Interceptor Drain System.....................................................4-11
4.3.2 Location of Surface Interceptor Drains................................................................4-11
4.4 Cost of Surface Interceptor Drains 4-11
4.5 OPTION-3: CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE INTERCEPTOR DRAINS, PARALLEL TO HB CANAL
AND SURFACE/SEEPAGE DRAINS IN THE COMMAND AREA WITH COMBINED OUTFALL IN OLD
HAKRA RIVER BED 4-12
4.5.1 Cost Estimate.......................................................................................................4-12
4.6 OPTION-4: CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE INTERCEPTOR DRAINS, PARALLEL TO HB CANAL
AND SURFACE DRAINS IN THE COMMAND AREA WITH LIFTED OUTFALL IN HAKRA BRANCH
4-15
4.6.1 Cost Estimate.......................................................................................................4-15
4.7 TUBEWELLS ON COMMAND AREA DRAINS 4-18
4.7.1 General................................................................................................................4-18
4.7.2 Optimum Size of Tube well..................................................................................4-18
4.7.3 Drainable Surplus................................................................................................4-18
4.7.4 Number of Tube Wells.........................................................................................4-19
4.7.5 Design of a New Tube Well..................................................................................4-19
4.7.6 Spacing between Tube wells................................................................................4-21
4.7.7 Appurtenant and Disposal Works........................................................................4-21
4.7.8 Electrification of Tubewells..................................................................................4-21
4.8 Extension of existing drainage system 4-21
5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................................................5-1
5.1 EVALUTATION OF OPTIONS 5-1
5.2 COMPARISON OF OPTIONS 5-3
5.3 RECOMMENDE PLAN 5-4
6 AGRICULTURE STUDIES (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)............................................6-1
6.1 General6-1
6.2 Extent of Water logging 6-1
6.3 Status of Water logging Control through Groundwater Abstraction 6-3
6.3.1 Status of Tubewells in the Project Area.................................................................6-3
6.4 Existing Agriculture 6-3
6.4.1 Land Use Pattern...................................................................................................6-3
6.4.2 Farm Size and Farm Number:................................................................................6-4
6.4.3 Land Tenure System:..............................................................................................6-4
6.4.4 Farms Fragmentation:............................................................................................6-4
6.4.5 Present Cropping Pattern and Intensities..............................................................6-5
6.4.6 Existing Crop Yields & Productions........................................................................6-5
6.5 Farm Practices 6-6
6.6 Farm Inputs 6-6
6.7 Farm Labour 6-6
6.8 Future Development “Without” Project 6-7

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6.9 Future Agriculture Development “With” Project 6-7


6.9.1 Development Approach.........................................................................................6-7
6.9.2 Cropping Pattern and Intensities...........................................................................6-7
6.9.3 Justification for Selection of Crops.........................................................................6-8
6.9.4 Area Build-up and Development of Cropping Intensities.....................................6-10
6.10 Crop Yield and Production “With” Project 6-10
6.10.1 Incremental Crop Production “With” Project......................................................6-10
6.10.2 Intangible Benefits...............................................................................................6-10
7 ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)....................7-1
7.1 GENERAL 7-1
7.1.1 Approach and Methodology..................................................................................7-1
7.1.2 Economic Analysis.................................................................................................7-2
7.2 Financial Analysis 7-7
7.2.1 Project Financial Benefits......................................................................................7-7
7.2.2 Project Financial Costs...........................................................................................7-7
7.2.3 Results of Financial Analysis..................................................................................7-7
7.2.4 Sensitivity Risk Analysis.........................................................................................7-8
8 SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)..........................................................8-1
8.1 General8-1
8.2 Location of the Project Area 8-1
8.3 Brief Description of the District 8-1
8.3.1 Culture and Language............................................................................................8-1
8.3.2 Agriculture and Industry........................................................................................8-3
8.4 Necessity of the Project 8-3
8.5 Work Proposed 8-4
8.6 Objectives of the Study 8-4
8.7 SOCIO–ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE PROJECT AREA 8-4
8.7.1 Methodology.........................................................................................................8-4
8.7.2 Data Collection......................................................................................................8-5
8.7.3 Findings of the Survey...........................................................................................8-5
8.7.4 Mechanism of Conflict Resolution.........................................................................8-8
8.8 Public Consultations 8-8
8.8.1 Meeting with officials of Punjab Irrigation Drainage Authority (PIDA)...................8-9
8.8.2 Meeting with local Communities...........................................................................8-9
8.9 Overall Impacts of Water logging and Salinity 8-15
8.9.1 On Land and Crops..............................................................................................8-16
8.9.2 On Buildings/ Infrastructures...............................................................................8-16
8.9.3 On Human Health................................................................................................8-17
8.9.4 On Quality of Drinking Water:.............................................................................8-18
8.10 Women of the Project Area 8-18
8.11 General Opinion of Consulted Communities 8-23
8.12 Conclusion & Recommendations 8-23
8.13 Need of Land Acquisition and Resettlement Survey 8-24
8.13.1 Minimizing Resettlement Impact.........................................................................8-24

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8.13.2 Legal Policy Framework.......................................................................................8-25


8.13.3 Pakistan’s Law and Regulations on Land Acquisition and Resettlement..............8-25
8.13.4 Punjab Land Acquisition Rules 1983....................................................................8-26
8.13.5 Impact on Land....................................................................................................8-27
8.13.6 Impact on Building and Structure........................................................................8-27
8.13.7 Budget for Land Acquisition.................................................................................8-27
8.13.8 Meetings With landowners.................................................................................8-27
8.13.9 Issue Raised.........................................................................................................8-32
8.13.10 General Opinion of Consulted Landowners.........................................................8-33
8.13.11 Conclusion & Recommendations.........................................................................8-34
9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)................9-1
9.1 Positive Impacts 9-1
9.2 Negative Impacts 9-2
9.3 Environmental Management Plan 9-2
9.4 Environmental Monitoring 9-3
9.5 Environmental Management Cost 9-3
9.6 Recommendations 9-4
9.7 Conclusion 9-4

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1-1 Project Area Location Map....................................................................1-2


Figure 1-2 Depths to Water Table Map by DLR (at present)..................................1-3
Figure 1-3 Layout Plan of Existing Drainage Network in Bahawal Nagar District 1-11
Figure 1-4 Line Diagram of Hakra Canal system.................................................1-13
Figure 1-5 Flow duration curve for Hakra Branch Canal......................................1-17
Figure 1-6 L-Section Hakra Branch Canal............................................................1-18
Figure 2-1 Depths to Water Table Map for Area Adjoining Hakra Branch Canal
(October 2014)..........................................................................................................2-1
Figure 2-2 Water Quality Trends in Bahawal Nagar District (EC in dS/m).............2-3
Figure 2-3 Groundwater Levels for Pre-Monsoon-2015.........................................2-5
Figure 2-4 Groundwater Levels for Post-Monsoon-2015.......................................2-6
Figure 2-5 Groundwater Levels for Pre-Monsoon-2016.........................................2-7
Figure 2-6 Groundwater Levels for Post-Monsoon-2016 by PIAIP Consultants....2-8
Figure 2-7 Seepage Analysis of Hakra Canal.......................................................2-16
Figure 2-8 Hakra Canal with Proposed Surface Drains (Drains @50ft from Canal
Bank Toe) 2-17
Figure 2-9 Hakra Canal with Proposed Surface Drains (Drains @100ft from Canal
Bank Toe) 2-18
Figure 2-10 Hakra Canal with Proposed Interceptor Drains (Drains @50ft from
Canal Bank Toe)......................................................................................................2-19
Figure 2-11 Model area with proposed drains.....................................................2-21
Figure 2-12 Drains and canals assigned to the model........................................2-22
Figure 2-13 Elevations and Hydraulic properties assigned to the model............2-23
Figure 2-14 Head Vs Time Graph........................................................................2-23
Figure 2-15 Water table elevations after 1 year with Scenario-I.........................2-25
Figure 2-16 Water table elevations after 9 months with Scenario-II...................2-26
Figure 2-17 Location Map of Geotechnical Investigation Points in Project Area 2-31
Figure 3-1 Hydrograph showing ground water depth changes (Year 1952 to 2003).
3-5
Figure 3-2 Depth to Water Level (May, 2011).........................................................3-7
Figure 3-3 Hydrogeology of Ganganagar district....................................................3-8
Figure 3-4 Intensity Duration Frequency Curve for Bahawalnagar......................3-14
Figure 4-1 Lining of Proposed reach of Hakra Branch Canal.................................4-6
Figure 4-2 Surface Interceptor Drains Parallel To Hakra Branch Canal.................4-9
Figure 4-3 Construction of Surface Interceptor Drain and Surface/seepage drains in
the command area...................................................................................................4-14
Figure 4-4 Construction of Surface Interceptor Drain and Surface drains in the
command area.........................................................................................................4-17
Figure 4-5 Layout Plan for Extension of existing drainage system......................4-22
Figure 5-1 Recommended Option-4; Construction of Surface Interceptor Drain and
Surface drains in the command area with Tubewells................................................5-7
Figure 8-1 Location Map of the Project area..........................................................8-2

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Figure 8-2 A view of discussion with Field Officer – PIDA......................................8-9


Figure 8-3 A view of discussions with local farmers.............................................8-11
Figure 8-4 Adverse impacts on land and crops....................................................8-16
Figure 8-5 Adverse impacts on buildings and Structures.....................................8-17
Figure 8-6 Literacy levels of Female participants.................................................8-19
Figure 8-7 A view of discussions with females.....................................................8-20

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1-1 Mean Monthly Temperatures and Rainfall for Bahawalnagar


Climatological Station................................................................................................1-5
Table 1-2 Discharges and commanded areas of Irrigation channels off-taking from
Hakra Canal...............................................................................................................1-6
Table 1-3 Salient Feature of Drainage Network in District Bahawalnagar............1-8
Table 1-4 Discharges and Commanded Areas of Hakra Canal..........................1-12
Table 1-5 Hakra Canal 10 Daily Discharge (2007-2015)....................................1-14
Table 2-1 Summary of Aquifer Test Carried out in Bahawalnagar Area...............2-10
Table 2-2 Summary of Aquifer Tests Carried out in Ganganagar District............2-10
Table 2-3 Summary of Discharge Measurement.................................................2-11
Table 2-4 Input Parameters & Results of Seepage Analysis for Proposed Surface
Drains 2-15
Table 2-5 Input Parameters & Results of Seepage Analysis for Proposed
Interceptor Drains....................................................................................................2-15
Table 2-6 Head vs. Time......................................................................................2-24
Table 2-7 Details of Samples Collected..............................................................2-32
Table 2-8 Results of Field Permeability Test Results..........................................2-33
Table 2-9 Ground Water Table Record................................................................2-34
Table 3-1 Conveyance Loss of Hakra Branch Canal............................................3-1
Table 3-2 Recharge to Groundwater from Hakra Branch Canal System..............3-2
Table 3-3 1-Day Annual Maximum Rainfall Data................................................3-10
Table 3-4 Results of Frequency Analysis of 1-Day Annual Maximum Rainfall....3-11
Table 3-5 Hourly Rainfall Pattern from Selected Storms at Bahawalnagar........3-12
Table 3-6 Hourly Rainfall at Selected Stations for Different Return Periods.......3-12
Table 3-7 Rainfall Distribution for upto one Hour duration..................................3-13
Table 3-8 Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship at Bahawalnagar.............3-13
Table 3-9 Regression Equations Between Intensity of Time for various Return
Periods 3-15
Table 3-10 C Value of Basin’s Physical Conditions...........................................3-15
Table 3-11 Runoff Coefficients for a Typical Developed Catchment in
Bahawalnagar Area.................................................................................................3-16
Table 3-12 Peak Discharges for a Typical Catchment and Assumed Area in
Bahawalnagar Area.................................................................................................3-17
Table 4-1 Seepage Rated from Canals.................................................................4-2
Table-4-2 Thickness of Canal Lining for Different Discharges..............................4-3
Table 4-3 Option-1: Lining of Hakra Branch Canal – Cost Estimate....................4-4
Table 4-4 Design Features of the Proposed Hakra Branch Canal........................4-7
Table 4-5 Cost of Surface Interceptor Drains Parallel To Hakra Branch Canal. .4-11
Table 4-6 Construction of Surface Interceptor Drain and Surface/seepage drains in
the command area...................................................................................................4-13
Table 4-7 Construction of Surface Interceptor Drain and Surface drains in the
command area.........................................................................................................4-15

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Table 4-8 -Grain Size Distribution of the Recommended Gravel Pack...............4-21


Table 6-1 Classification of Command Area with respect to Impact of Water logging
6-2
Table 8-1 Details of Proposed Drains....................................................................8-4
Table 8-2 Detail of Sample Villages.......................................................................8-5
Table 8-3 Population of Sample Villages...............................................................8-6
Table 8-4 Availability of Civic Facilities..................................................................8-8
Table 8-5 List of Male Participants.......................................................................8-11
Table 8-6 List of Female Participants..................................................................8-21
Table 9-1 Environmental Management Cost.........................................................9-3

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LIST OF ANNEXURES
Annex -A: Summary of Works
Annex -B: Cost Estimate of Recommended Plan
Annex -C: Drawings
Annex -D: Economic and Financial Analysis
Annex -E: Agriculture Studies
Annex -F: Ground Water Quality Survey by (PIAIP)
Annex -G: Ground Water Depth Measurement
Annex -H: Discharge Measurement (At Site)
Annex -I: List of Structures on Hakra Branch Canal

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1 DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA

1.1 GENERAL
The proposed project is located in the south-eastern part of Punjab Province. It covers part
of the tehsils of Bahawalnagar, Haroonabad and Chishtian in Bahawalnagar District. The
area is bordered on the northwest by the Malik Branch canal, on the south by lands served
by the Hakra canal and on the east by India.

Gross command area (GCA) under the project is 670,665 acres and Cultivable commanded
Area (CCA) is about 547,444 acres. There are approximately 242,000 inhabitants, living in a
rural setting with many villages. Major town in the area is Haroonabad. Two other small
towns Dunga Bunga and Dahranwala also fall into project area. The study area is located in
the Hakra command area, between latitude 29°3′35″ N to 29°56′3″ N and longitude
72°14′35″ E to 73°26′17″ E. Detailed location map of the Hakra Canal is shown in Figure 1-1.

1.2 EXTENT OF DRAINAGE PROBLRM IN BAHAWALNAGAR


Water table depth along Hakra Canal, RD 20+000 to RD 50+000 and RD 165+000 to RD
285+920 is shallow due to seepage from the unlined canal. Agricultural lands have become
waterlogged and have gone out of production.

The problem of people regarding seepage around Hakra Canal is very much grave which
needs immediate attention. Due to seepage water, a considerable area along canal has
become barren/ turned into thick bush-land.

Local inhabitant of Tehsil Haroonabad and Tehsil Fort-Abbas are making hue and cry over
the grossly reduced yield of their agriculture land owing to aggravated water logging
problem. Issue has been highlighted from time to time; Roznama Dunya on 06-03-2013,
Naw-e-waqat on 06-03-2013, Roznama Aosaf on 07-03-2013, Roznama Pakistan on 11-03-
2015 and Daily Dawn on 06-05-2015. Issue is also been highlighted on electronic media. Mr.
Sohail Warriach highlighted the issue in his program “Meray Mutabiq” on 21-03-2015 at Geo
TV. Mr. Mujeeb-ur-Rehman Shami highlighted the issue on 26-03-2015 in his program
“Nuqta Nazar” at Dunya TV. Local inhabitants have highlighted their problem before CM
Secretariat, Secretary Irrigation, Chief Engineer Irrigation Bahawalpur and District
Administration level.

The Consultants own inspection of the canal also confirms the existence of severe seepage
problem in the canal reach between RD RD 20+000 to RD 50+000 and RD 165+000 to
260+000 on left side of HB canal and RD 185+000 to 275+000 on right side of HB canal, as
shown in Figure 1-2.

PIAIP Consultants studied the depth to water table maps along Hakra Canal by Directorate of
Land Reclamation (DLR) of Punjab Irrigation Department. A total of 53,000 acres of area is
affected by waterlogging including about 15,000 acres of severely waterlogged agricultural
land. The same has been confirmed by the consultants during their site visit along with the
client.

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Figure DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-1 Project Area Location Map

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Figure DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-2 Depths to Water Table Map by DLR (at present)

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1.3 DISTRICT BAHAWALNAGAR


District Bahawalnagar is spread over an area of 8878.Sq.km located in south east of Punjab
between 20-51 to 30-20 North latitude and 72-17 to 73-58 east longitude, about 479 ft above
the sea level.

1.3.1 Population
1998 census of Pakistan, the population of Bahawalnagar District was 2,061,447 of
which 19.10% were urban. Average annual growth rate was 3.2 percent. Total area of
the district is 8,878 square kilometers which gives population density of 232 persons per
square kilometer. Urban population was 391,674 or 19.10 percent of the total population
of the district which grew at an average rate of 4.3 percent during 1981-98. The
population of the district is predominantly Muslims i.e. 96.7 percent, while minorities are
very small in numbers.

1.3.2 Topography
The area consists of both, alluvial and Aeolian plains. The Sutlej River and former Hakra
River constituted the active and abandoned alluvial flood plains. The rolling dune-
covered Aeolian plains are constituted by the Cholistan Desert. The topography of the
area is generally flat with outcropping sand dunes. Natural drainage is lacking in the area.
The natural surface level varies from 479 ft to 535 ft above mean sea level. The lands are
sloping in the southwest direction. The topsoil is medium-textured and is underlain by thick
sand and silt of several hundred meters. The occurrence of compact and calcareous
silty/clay non-continuous layers at varying depths that restrict the groundwater flow to
deeper layers and act as barriers is reported. The alluvial deposits are formed during
recent and Pleistocene ages.

1.3.3 Soils
The soils of the Project area have formed in mixed calcareous alluvium derived mainly from
the Himalayan Mountains during Pleistocene and Sub-recent periods. Two landforms
namely, the Dissected Pleistocene sand plain (78.8%) and Subrecent flood plain (21.3%) of
Hakra-Sutlej river systems have been recognized in the Project area.

The fine textured soils consisting of silty clays/clays occupy interdunal flats which cover
23.9% of the total Project area. The moderately fine and medium textured soils occupy 2.8%
and 2.4% of area and comprise of silty clay loams/clay loams and silt loams/very fine sandy
loams/loams, respectively.

The coarse to moderately coarse textured soils comprise nearly level loamy fine sands
which occupy 22.1%, gently undulating stable sands 10.0% and undulating to rolling shifting
sands 38.8% of the Project area.

Based on genetic age and geomorphologic characteristics of the soils, the survey area
comprises two distinct terraces: (1) Pleistocene Terrace and (2) Sub-recent Terrace. The
parent material of both terraces is river alluvium, deposited in different periods. Pleistocene
terrace (an oldest terrace) and Sub-recent flood plain occupy 17.6 percent and 82.4 percent,
respectively.

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The former terrace lies at a relatively higher elevation than the latter. The soils of the
Pleistocene terrace ate deeply developed and are of brighter colors (brown to yellowish-
brown), while those of the Sub-recent flood plain are less deeply homogenized and of darker
colors (brown to dark-brown). The soils of both terraces are predominantly coarse-loamy to
loamy (sandy loams, fine sandy loams and loams) and are moderately calcareous.
Secondary lime accumulation in the form of lime cankers (nodules) are also encountered in
sub-strata of some Pleistocene terrace soils. The pH values of normal soils range from 8.0 to
8.2, while those of saline-sodic are around 8.8, The present configuration is due to wind-
water action that has partly modified it and gives rise to high sandy ridges / dunes
associated with interdunal hollows locally called "dahar", and nearly level plains. The other
contrasting features of the landscape are the abandoned, extremely saline, but moderately
sodic, low-lying areas subject to accumulation of run-off and seepage water from the
adjoining high, very permeable sandy areas, generally sown to high-delta crops.

1.3.4 Climate
The climate of the study area is hot and dry. The area has arid climate except during the
July-September monsoon season. Average annual rainfall is about 13 inches (339 mm).
With pan evaporation in excess of 29 inches (730mm), irrigation is essential for agriculture.
The hottest month is June with average maximum temperature of 46 o C while the average
mean monthly temperature for June is 35o C. January is the coolest month with average
maximum temperature of 24o C and minimum of 0o C whereas, average mean monthly
temperature is 13o C. A summary of the monthly temperatures and rainfall for BahawalNagar
is given in Table 1-1.

Table DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-1 Mean Monthly Temperatures and Rainfall for
Bahawalnagar Climatological Station

Climate data for Bahawalnagar


Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Daily mean
13 16 21 28 33 35 32 30 30 25 20 14 25
°C
Precipitation
13 23 29 14 11 17 122 75 31 1 2 1 339
mm

1.3.5 Rainfall Pattern

1.3.6 Geology
Geologically, the area is located within the flat Indo-Gangetic plain that forms the surface of
an alleviated basin. The alluvial sediments in the basin were deposited in a structural
depression from the Bay of Bengal to the Arabian Sea. The Himalayan Mountains on the
North, the Suleiman Hills on the West and the Aravali Hills on the East bound the present
and ancestral flood plain of the Indus River and its principal tributaries. The alluvial
material transported by the stream from uplands has accumulated in the subsiding basin to
depths of several thousand feet. The floor of the basin is inferred as a highly irregular
surface, suggesting that the relief on the bed rock surface may be several thousand feet
deep and the alluvial deposits that fill the basin may vary considerably in thickness.

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1.3.7 Hydrogeology
The hydrogeological investigation indicated that highly porous to medium-grained sand
saturated with water to within a few to a few tens of feet constituted the unconsolidated
alluvial deposits underlying the Indus Plain. The thick sequence of unconsolidated sand,
silt and clay deposits forming the alluvium range date from the Pleistocene to recent, and
form a heterogeneous complex of discontinuous beds and lenses with limited vertical and
horizontal extents. The alluvial deposits bounded by less permeable rocks of the structural
basin form a huge groundwater reservoir (Kamal and Shamsi, 1965).

1.3.8 Water Resources


Hakra branch canal off-takes from the tail of Eastern Sadiqia canal. Eastern Sadiqia canal is
perennial channel off-taking from Sulemanki Barrage located on Sultej River. Hakra branch
system nearly feeds 547,444 acres of culture able land. Hakra branch consist of 17
distributaries with seven distributaries on left and ten on right side of branch canal. Design
discharges of these distributaries along with their length and Gross command area (GCA) &
Culturable command area (CCA) are given in Table 1-2.

Table DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-2 Discharges and commanded areas of Irrigation


channels off-taking from Hakra Canal

Structures Offtaking RD Q (cusecs) Length (ft) GCA (Acres) CCA (Acres)


Hakra Branch 0+000 2897 285920 670665 547444
Bakhu Shah Disty 32+900 6 2740 1518 1505
1-R Disty 61+200 20 12150 5093 4965
2-R Disty 74+400 22 33720 5309 5306
3-R Disty 89+750 353 162378 113484 72753
4-R Disty 89+750 226 112050 69776 43454
1-L Disty 89+750 83 77750 18570 17093
5-R Disty 149+377 37 34215 10550 9176
6-R Disty 164+700 546 148360 123058 101818
2-L Disty 164+700 19 21438 4852 4371
3-L Disty 195+790 10 12900 1784 1737
7-R Disty 196+800 273 132519 66123 53855
4-L Disty 225+000 10 10594 2113 1685
8-R Disty 229+250 31 38711 7193 6357
9-R Disty 254+300 240 116835 49908 49195
Hakra Left Disty 285+920 23 23463 6070 5976
Flood Channel Disty 285+920 93 69159 22578 16516
Hakra Right Disty 285+920 553 247850 112349 105991

1.3.9 Drainage
Natural drainage of the area under study has been obstructed by the construction of
irrigation channels, roads and other obstructions with the result that runoff due to rain water
cannot find its way towards the rivers and accumulates in depressions located within the
study area. To evacuate the accumulated rainwater a surface drain i.e. FESS Drainage
system and 6-R Hakra system, has been constructed which provides relief to a part of the

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study area. FESS Drainage system 6R Hakra system outfalls in the Chamruwala toba in
smaller Cholistan.

The FESS Drainage system and 6R Hakra Drainage system runs in Tehsils of Haroonabad
and Fort Abbas, from different RD FESS and 6R drainage systems crossing from Hakra
Branch Canal Irrigation system. Shaheedwala, Dharanwala and Bhagsar Drains falls into
Main Haroonabad drain which falls into Outlet Drain .6-R Hakra Drainage system falls into
the same outfall drains which then lead to main outfall structure at Chamruwala Toba in
smaller Cholistan. .List of existing surface drains in Bahawalnagar District is given in Table
1-3.

Reconnaissance survey of FESS and 6-R Hakra drainage system was conducted to
evaluate the existing condition of drain and make discharge measurements to know the
quantum of flowing water in the drain. Survey revealed that existing Drainage systems are
non-operative almost throughout the Outfall structure, either due to thick aquatic growth or
construction of earthen dikes across the drain by the farmers to use the drain water for
irrigation purposes.

The drainage system in the entire District Bahawalnagar is not properly working due to plug
bunds, weed growth, mushroom etc. After execution of bed clearance, the ground water will
be depleted from the water logged area into drains and as a result the crops will be
cultivated to give more yield as well as the adjoining abadies will be safe and sound.

The following observations have come to light.

1. Bed of Drains is at high level from their designed bed level and not executed properly
up to designed level.
2. Slush and garbage exist in the regime with Mushroom growth of Sarkanda / Wild
Grass, bushes etc.
3. Residents of adjoining abadies have made unauthorized crossing bunds for crossing
the vehicles etc and seepage water is not smoothly running in the existing regime.

The other surface drainage system which exists are Fordwah Sadiqia Remaining System
and Upper Drainage System of the District Bahawalnagar. These drainage systems were
designed and constructed in 2004 with a design discharge of 232 cusecs. This surface
drainage network has been choked with weeds and expected efficiency is about 40% with
certain parts of sub drains, is completely non-operative.

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Table DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-3 Salient Feature of Drainage Network in District Bahawalnagar

Length Bed Width(Ft.) F.C Depth (Ft.) Catchment Location of outfall RD


Out fall
Area (Sq. District
capacity At At At At Side Name of outfall
RD Mile mile) RD
outfall source outfall source (L/R) River/Drain
UPPER DRAINAGE SYSTEM

1 Sohail Drain 60000 12.00 57 Cs 11.00' 10.50' 3.0' 2.90' 16 Bahawalnagar L Sutlej River

2 Sadiqia Drain 120000 24.00 263 Cs 30.00' 4.0' 4.55' 2.10' 150 Bahawalnagar L Sutlej River
Bahawalnagar
3 72183 14.44 40 Cs 10.00' 6.0' 2.42' 1.0' 36 Bahawalnagar 33+100 R Sadiqia Drain
Lower Drain
Bahawalnagar Lower
4 1-R Drain 15800 3.16 05 Cs 6.00' 6.0' 0.90' 0.90' 7 Bahawalnagar 55+700 R
Drain
Kali Budhi Outfall
5 14000 2.80 300 Cs 20.00' 20.0' 5.60' 5.60' 175 Bahawalnagar L Sutlej River
Drain
Kali Budhi Existing Kali Bhuddi outfall
6 85000 17.00 300 Cs 20.00' 6.0' 5.80' 1.50' 175 Bahawalnagar 14+223 L
Drain Drain
Kali Bhuddi Existing
7 Bahawalgarh Drain 20000 4.00 14 Cs 7.25' 6.0' 1.50' 1.0' 14 Bahawalnagar 39+827 R
Drain
Kali Bhuddi Existing
8 Mirza Drain 19000 3.80 10 Cs 7.40' 7.0' 1.20' 0.90' 9 Bahawalnagar 66+260 R
Drain
Kali Budhi Link Kali Bhuddi Existing
9 24859 4.97 300 Cs 20.00' 10.0' 5.80' 5.20' 166 Bahawalnagar 35+360 L
Drain Drain
Bahawalnagar Kali Bhuddi Link
10 121000 24.20 160 Cs 16.00' 4.0' 4.40' 1.40' 109 Bahawalnagar 13+450 R
Upper Drain Drain
Bahawalnagar Upper
11 1-L Drain 28000 5.60 33 Cs 8.00' 4.0' 2.25' 1.50' 28 Bahawalnagar 4+745 L
Drain
Bahawalnagar Upper
12 2-L Drain 40000 8.00 57 Cs 12.00' 4.0' 2.60' 1.50' 45 Bahawalnagar 9+093 L
Drain
Kali Bhuddi Link
13 3-L Drain 118000 23.60 140 Cs 10.00' 6.0' 5.20' 4.0' 93 Bahawalnagar 24+859 R
Drain

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Bahawalnagar Upper
14 Peergarh Drain 22500 4.46 15 Cs 7.25' 6.0' 1.50' 1.0' 15 Bahawalnagar 49+745 L
Drain
6-R HAKRA COMMAND DRAINAGE SYSTEM
30+000
15 Outfall Drain to 9.77 552 Cs 41.00' 36.0' 5.50' 5.30' 184 Bahawalnagar 14+000 L Out fall Drain (FESS)
78+850
0+000 to
16 Drain A 109+65 21.93 228 Cs 21.00' 4.0' 4.40' 1.65' 76 Bahawalnagar 78+850 R Out fall Drain RD
0
0+000 to
17 Drain B 5.97 42 Cs 6.00' 5.0' 3.0' 2.30' 13 Bahawalnagar 64+300 L Drain A
29+850

0+000 to
18 Drain C 8.01 54 Cs 7.00' 6.0' 3.40' 3.0' 18 Bahawalnagar 25+160 L Drain A
40+040

19 Drain D 116000 23.2 156 Cs 12.00' 4.0' 4.50' 2.0' 52 Bahawalnagar 78+850 L Out fall Drain

FESS DRAINAGE SYSTEM


Avaporation Pond
20 Outfall Drain 79159 15.83 1268 Cs 45 35.0' 8.9 8.0' 41 Bahawalnagar L
Chimrowala Toba
21 Dahran Wala Drain 36841 7.37 110 Cs 6.00' 6.0' 4.30' 3.0' 22 Bahawalnagar 79+159 L Out fall Drain (Fess )
159+76
22 Haroonabad Drain 266066 53.21 823 Cs 30.00' 4.0' 8.30' 1.50' 15 Bahawalnagar L Haroonabad Drain
1
1-L Haroonabad 185+61
23 3000 0.60 37 Cs 6.50' 4.0' 3.85' 2.55' 8 Bahawalnagar L Haroonabad Drain
Drain 2
2-L Haroonabad 143+81
24 26495 5.30 77 Cs 6.50' 4.0' 3.85' 2.45' 15 Bahawalnagar L Haroonabad Drain
Drain 9
3-L Haroonabad 143+81
25 9000 1.80 74 Cs 6.50' 4.0' 3.85' 2.60' 15 Bahawalnagar L Haroonabad Drain
Drain 9
4-L Haroonabad
26 21882 4.38 74 Cs 5.00' 5.0' 4.05' 2.80' 1 Bahawalnagar 93+529 L Haroonabaad Drain
Drain
5-L Haroonabad 122+95
27 5000 1.00 7 Cs 5.00' 4.0' 4.05' 1.10' 15 Bahawalnagar L Haroonabaad Drain
Drain 3
28 Shaheed Drain 43617 8.72 442 Cs 20.00' 4.20' 6.90' 6.70' 20 Bahawalnagar 43692 L Shaheed Drain

29 Qaziwala Drain 31996 6.40 118 Cs 6.0' 6.0' 5.01' 4.54 35 Bahawalnagar 27+380 R Haroonabad Drain

30 Jandwala Drain 199800 39.96 243 Cs 20.00' 4.0' 4.83' 3.94' 136 Bahawalnagar 43+692 R Shaeed Drain

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31 AD 6 Drain 5238 1.05 10 Cs 4.00' 4.0' 1.80' 1.80' 7 Bahawalnagar 43+540 L Jandwala Drain

32 AD 3 Drain 7932 1.59 9 Cs 4.00' 4.0' 1.70' 1.70' 3 Bahawalnagar 88+506 R Jandwal Drain

33 Bhagsar Drain 132000 26.40 170 Cs 12.00' 6.0' 5.05' 2.85' 50 Bahawalnagar 39+681 L Haroonabad Drain

34 AD-8 and 1-L Drain 20727 4.15 18 Cs 5.00' 4.0' 2.0' 2.0' 3 Bahawalnagar 132115 L Baghsar Drain

35 Badruwala Drain 17110 3.42 17 Cs 4.00' 4.0' 2.20' 2.15' 3 Bahawalnagar 48+662 R Baghsar Drain

FSR DRAINAGE SYSTEM

Chishtian Main Bahawalnagar/ Sutlej River D/S


36 272119 54.42 524 Cs 30.00' 4.0' 7.36' 3.33' 966 L
Drain Bahawalpur Head Islam

37 Noor Sar Drain 124000 24.80 184 Cs 10.00' 4.0' 4.45' 3.32' 70 Bahawalnagar 115+000 L Chishtian Main Drain

38 1-L Noor Sar Drain 11500 2.30 24 Cs 4.00' 4.0' 2.17' 2.17' 25 Bahawalnagar 56+616 L Noorsar Drain
156+10
39 Kokni Drain 56250 11.25 110 Cs 6.00' 4.0' 2.85' 2.17' 26 Bahawalnagar L Chishtian Main Drain
8
200+00
40 Madrasa Drain 16300 3.26 36 Cs 4.00' 4.0' 2.89' 2.89' 6 Bahawalnagar L Chishtian Main Drain
0
220+90
41 Takhat Mahal Drain 25000 5.00 84 Cs 4.00' 4.0' 3.91' 2.55' 19 Bahawalnagar L Chishtian Main Drain
0
235+49
42 Hafiz Wala Drain 89000 17.80 271 Cs 12.00' 4.0' 5.35' 2.95' 80 Bahawalnagar L Chishtian Main Drain
1
43 Yarwah Drain 47000 9.40 108 Cs 6.00' 4.0' 4.62' 3.14' 22 Bahawalnagar 11+132 R Taliwala Drain

44 1-R Yarwah Drain 11000 2.20 25 Cs 4.00' 4.0' 2.20' 2.20' 8 Bahawalnagar 19+054 R Yarwah Drain

45 Taliwala Drain 29000 5.80 133 Cs 7.00' 4.0' 4.92' 2.98' 13 Bahawalnagar 14+833 L Hafizwala Drain

46 Shera Drain 21000 4.20 40 Cs 4.00' 4.0' 3.26' 2.39' 15 Bahawalnagar 46+972 R Hafizwala Drain

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Figure DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-3 Layout Plan of Existing Drainage Network in Bahawal Nagar District

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1.3.10 Surface Water


Hakra branch canal off-takes from the tail of Eastern Sadiqia canal. Eastern Sadiqia canal is
perennial channel off-taking from Sulemanki Barrage located on Sultej River. Hakra branch
system nearly feeds 547,444 acres of culture able land. Hakra branch consist of 17
distributaries with seven distributaries on left and ten on right side of branch canal. Design
discharges of these distributaries along with their length and Gross command area (GCA)
and Culturable command area (CCA) are given in Table 1-4.

Table DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-4 Discharges and Commanded Areas of Hakra Canal

Offtaking Length GCA CCA


Structures Q (cusecs)
RD (ft) (Acres) (Acres)
Hakra Branch 0+000 2897 285920 670665 547444
Bakhu Shah Disty 32+900 6 2740 1518 1505
1-R Disty 61+200 20 12150 5093 4965
2-R Disty 74+400 22 33720 5309 5306
3-R Disty 89+750 353 162378 113484 72753
4-R Disty 89+750 226 112050 69776 43454
1-L Disty 89+750 83 77750 18570 17093
5-R Disty 149+377 37 34215 10550 9176
6-R Disty 164+700 546 148360 123058 101818
2-L Disty 164+700 19 21438 4852 4371
3-L Disty 195+790 10 12900 1784 1737
7-R Disty 196+800 273 132519 66123 53855
4-L Disty 225+000 10 10594 2113 1685
8-R Disty 229+250 31 38711 7193 6357
9-R Disty 254+300 240 116835 49908 49195
Hakra Left Disty 285+920 23 23463 6070 5976
Flood Channel Disty 285+920 93 69159 22578 16516
Hakra Right Disty 285+920 553 247850 112349 105991

1.4 HAKRA BRANCH CANAL


The Hakra Canal offtakes from Eastern Sadiqia Canal and extends some 54 miles to
trifurcates into the Hakra Right distributary, Hakra left distributary and flood channel. Total
number of structures on Hakra is 105 that include outlet pipes, Head regulators, Cross-
regulators and fall structures. Line diagram of Hakra canal is shown in Figure 2-8 featuring
distributaries off taking from canal on right and left side of system.

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Figure DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-4 Line Diagram of Hakra Canal system

Source: http://irrigation.punjab.gov.pk

Main features of the Hakra Canal are:


 Bed-width = varies 130 ft to 60 ft.
 F.S Depth = varies 7.6 ft to 4.8 ft.,
 Tail R.D = 285+920
 Bed Level = varies 533.70 ft to 489 ft.,
 F.S. Discharge = 2,897 cusec

Almost all the length of canal bed is below natural surface level (NSL). The canal is 57 miles
long; there are twelve (12) intermediate regulators for control of water surface levels as there
are number of off-takes or other works which require such control. Hakra branch canal
trifurcates into Hakra left distributary, Flood channel and Hakra right distributary.

1.4.1 Operation of Hakra Branch Canal


The operation of Hakra Canal also varies some time from the designed pattern as well as
year to year, depending upon available supplies at Sulemanki Barrage. Hydrographs of
actual operation of the canal for the last 5 years are given in Figure 2-9. The ten-daily
discharges for 2007 to 2015 are shown in Table 2-5. The canal closure period of about one
month falls during January month. As the canal has to feed perennial and non-perennial
irrigation distributaries and minors, it flows with its full capacity in Kharif Crop season as

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sufficient flows are available. However, high water demands are in early Rabi for Wheat
sowing also met by the enhanced canal flows. The flow duration relationship curve of the
canal is depicted in Figure 2-10.

The discharge analysis (March, 2006 to January, 2016) shows that on average 55% of the
time, the Canal has been flowing with discharge ranging from 2,200 to 2,800 Cs. The canal
remained closed for 10% of the time. For the remaining 35% of the time, the flow remained
in the range of 2,100 to 1,100 Cs. Weighted average discharge of Hakra canal was 1,960
Cs.

Table DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-5 Hakra Canal 10 Daily Discharge (2007-2015)

10 Daily Period 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 AVG
1 0 0 668 0 0 0 0 0 0 74
January 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
3 0 0 0 0 555 1153 0 0 0 190
1 419 1466 1457 582 2326 2007 1257 759 980 1250
February 2 2223 2317 2404 1938 2525 2167 1361 2235 2472 2182
3 2355 2049 2449 1549 2552 2142 819 2353 2550 2091
1 2258 1819 2100 2000 2386 2066 1929 2264 1408 2026
March 2 2032 1518 1714 1725 2533 1583 2199 2034 1068 1823
3 2418 1287 132 1806 2600 1677 1677 1713 1639 1661
1 2198 1760 1852 1783 2404 2064 1338 1866 1297 1840
April 2 2357 2310 2497 1542 2257 1819 1945 2134 1502 2040
3 2341 2069 2524 1979 2461 1260 2180 2364 2453 2181
1 2491 1916 2451 2219 2637 1761 2154 1655 2590 2208
May 2 2659 1871 2418 1819 2677 1569 2192 2414 2605 2247
3 2638 2328 2584 1816 2773 821 2295 2555 2650 2273
1 2279 2207 2600 2650 2789 1667 2350 1920 2700 2351
June 2 2226 2538 2576 2577 2800 1601 2320 2589 2741 2441
3 2423 2538 2424 2684 2800 2150 2400 2618 2750 2532
1 2180 2542 2600 2700 2878 2305 2405 2710 2100 2491
July 2 2535 2449 2676 2700 2726 2306 2485 2766 1943 2510
3 2614 2582 2683 2743 2473 2332 2473 2732 1931 2507
1 2633 2530 2599 2634 1501 2306 2450 2730 357 2193
August 2 2641 2351 2631 2650 2423 2365 1468 2730 1979 2360
3 2664 1698 2671 2651 1895 2292 1149 2809 2468 2255
1 2700 2523 2624 2658 60 2146 2447 2132 1817 2123
September 2 2473 2376 1817 2589 273 887 2376 2617 2421 1981
3 2388 2493 1544 2549 1817 2086 1918 2724 1349 2096
1 1651 1738 1595 1837 1872 1918 1801 2609 2077 1900
October 2 2070 1813 1402 1230 2088 2018 2074 2756 2390 1982
3 138 933 1730 2032 1499 2175 1817 2190 2301 1646
1 1835 2433 2446 2009 2017 2079 1945 2461 2297 2169
November 2 2122 2557 2192 2338 2165 2322 2081 2635 2305 2302
3 2188 2502 2292 2519 2298 2295 2098 2706 2395 2366
1 2211 2356 2016 2245 2284 2350 2262 2482 2330 2282
December 2 2272 2396 2124 2519 2214 2193 1851 1972 2402 2216
3 1403 1897 1543 1894 1802 1768 1703 1652 2132 1755
No. of Days with 48 39 39 36 40 31 38 38 43 39
Zero Discharge

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1.4.2 Discharge Hydrographs of Hakra Branch Canal

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Figure DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-5 Flow duration curve for Hakra Branch Canal

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1.4.3 Influence of Full Supply Level on Seepage of Hakra Canal along Adjoining Area
L-section of Hakra canal shows that in many reaches of the canal, its full supply levels are
higher than the natural ground surface and as we travel downstream, difference between full
supply level and ground surface level increases. In other words ground surface is much
lower than the canal full supply level. Where there is ground surface much lower than the
canal full supply level, drainage problem along the canal also increases. The L-Section of
Hakra Canal is given in Figure 1-6 depicting natural ground surface levels, bed levels and
full supply levels of Hakra Canal.

Figure DESCRIPTION OF PROJECT AREA-6 L-Section Hakra Branch Canal

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2 SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION

2.1 INTRODUCTION
Water table depth along Hakra Branch (HB) Canal RD 20+000 to 50+000 on left side, RD
165+000 to 260+000 on left side of HB canal and RD 185+000 to 275+000 on right side of
HB canal, is shallow due to seepage from the unlined canal. Agricultural lands have become
waterlogged and have gone out of production. The problem of people regarding seepage
around Hakra Canal is very much grave which needs immediate attention. Due to seepage
water a considerable area along canal has become barren/ turned into thick bush-land. Local
inhabitant of Tehsil Haroonabad and Tehsil Fort-Abbas are making hue and cry over the
grossly reduced yield of their agriculture land owing to aggravated water logging problem.

The Consultants own inspection of the canal also confirms the existence of severe seepage
problem in the said reaches, as shown in Figure 2-1.

For the analysis and causes of the waterlogging problem, the Consultant has considered the
following:

 Influence of seepage from Hakra Branch Canal;


 Influence of regional groundwater inflow from Indian side; and
 Effect of excessive rainfall.

Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-7 Depths to Water Table Map for Area Adjoining Hakra
Branch Canal (October 2014)

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2.2 GROUND WATER STUDY


In the study area, groundwater investigations were first carried out by the Water and
Soils Investigation Division (WASID) of WAPDA in 1958-59, by drilling six test holes to the
depths of 600 to 900 ft. The investigation consisted of drilling bore holes, conducting
aquifer tests, measuring water levels, collecting shallow and deep groundwater samples for
chemical analyses, and collecting lithologic samples for physical and mechanical analyses
and establishing the nature and extent of various lithological units. Based on these
investigations, Kamal and Shamsi (1965) described the groundwater reservoir of the
Bahawalpur Division, which include the study area, as comprising alluvial deposits consisting
predominantly of fine to medium sand with rare silt, clay and gravel. The coarse sand and
thick beds of clay are uncommon. Individual strata have limited the lateral and vertical extent.
They characterized the alluvium as forming a single aquifer under water table conditions,
despite the heterogeneous composition.

During the feasibility study of the SCARP-VIII in 1976, two test holes to the depth of 300 ft
and thirty-two shallow test holes of 50 to 100 ft were drilled by NESPAK to supplement the
WASID data for Ethological information. The WAPDA obtained additional lithological
information during 1985-86 by drilling twenty-two shallow test holes to depths of 100 to 150
feet while redefining the SCARP-VIII. All the lithological information is closely studied in this
report for characterizing the subsurface to estimate the net recharge to the water table.

2.2.1 Ground Water Quality (Previous Studies)


The groundwater quality in both, the shallow and the deep horizons tested during
various lithological studies was found to be poor. The deep groundwater quality analysis
for samples obtained from depths varying between 120 to 270 ft indicated the electrical
conductivity of 19,000 mmhos/cm. The shallow groundwater quality analysis for samples
from depths of 55 to 150 ft indicated an average electrical conductivity value of 12,900
mmhos/cm (NESPAK 1992).

Only along distributaries, minors and watercourses, groundwater tapped at very shallow
depths by hand pumps and tubewells is of less saline quality, and can be used for
irrigation purposes (NESPAK, 1992). The International Irrigation Management Institute
Pakistan, also collected groundwater samples from pits, tube wells and hand pumps and
analyzed for electrical conductivity as well (Aslam et al., 1999). They reported the quality of
groundwater at varying depths range from 0.44 to 8.23 mmhos/cm. The groundwater
development is very limited in the area, and only recently have some small tube wells been
installed close to irrigation channels to Land Reclamation Directorate, Punjab Irrigation
Department has installed groundwater level and quality monitoring network in Punjab
including Bahawalpur Irrigation Zone.

Ground water levels are reported as depth to water table below the ground surface (in feet
for the convenience of understanding by the farming community). Water quality parameters
reported are:

 Electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater indicating groundwater salinity in terms of


dS/m.
 Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR); and

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 Residual sodium carbonate (RSC)

These parameters define the quality of groundwater mainly from agricultural use point of
view. Data on the other parameters tested during the detailed chemical analysis (cations and
anions) are also available with DLR and may be compiled in due course of time. Field data
on groundwater levels and quality are compiled and analyzed for mapping various zones
indicating Depth to water table conditions and the suitability of groundwater for irrigated
agriculture.

Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-8 Water Quality Trends in Bahawal Nagar District
(EC in dS/m)

Groundwater quality in the district ranges from fresh to brackish from salinity point of view;
and• Mean value of EC shows a slightly increasing trend after 2005.

Regular monitoring of the water table is not being carried out in the project area. WAPDA
had prepared a depth to water table map in June 1987. According to the information
provided in the World Bank Staff Appraisal Report for the project, about 50 percent of the
project area is presently considered waterlogged with a permanent water table within 5 R.
(4.95 ft) of the surface. The estimate is that more than 45 percent of the supply from the
canal head up to farms percolates to the groundwater. Water logging first appeared on lands
in the upper reaches of the Hakra Branch and is gradually moving down stream channel
affecting an additional 15,000 acres (6,000 ha) each year. Currently, 11 percent of the area
has a groundwater table of less than 2.5 ft (0.76 m), 17 percent of 2.5-4 ft (0.76- 1.22 m) and
2 1 percent of 4-5 ft (1.22- 1.52 m).

In the project area, the average EC of the deep groundwater is about 19000 micromhos/cm.
The shallow water quality is also of a highly hazardous nature and the average electrical
conductivity of the project area is 12900 micromhos/cm. However, water quality at a very
shallow depth, tapped by hand pumps and along canals, is comparatively much better.
Some water samples from hand pumps and tube wells located along canals were collected

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by NESPAK during December 1991. Results of these sampling indicate that water from
these tube wells along the canals could be used for irrigation purposes.

Because of poor aquifer conditions and marginal to hazardous quality groundwater


(generally above 1500 micromhos/cm), only limited groundwater development has taken
place. Some small private tube wells (one cusec or less) have been installed to provide
supplemental irrigation water during periods of peak crop water requirements. These tube
wells are mostly located close to irrigation channels because the groundwater quality around
these channels is relatively better due to excessive seepage.

2.2.2 Ground Water Quality by PIAIP Consultants


A team of PIAIP Consultants visited the water logged project area and tested the water
samples, inorder to evaluate the previous studies. The findings confirmed the results of
previous studies and majority of the area is having brackish ground water. The detailed
report is also annexed. Detailed report is attached as Annex-F.

2.2.3 Ground Water Levels by DLR


Groundwater level observed by DLR for Bahawalpur Irrigation Zone area has been
processed to develop a clear picture of extent of water logging in the project area. Figures 2-
3 and 2-5 give groundwater level maps for Pre Monsoon for 2015 and Post Monsoon 2016
periods. The area covered by 0-5 ft depth to water table has been increased from 153 095
acres to 224,209 acres due to the Monsoon season.

2.2.4 Ground Water Levels by PIAIP CONSULTANTS


The consultants surveyed the area and determined ground water levels, not only along the
canal but also in the command area. The data obtained revealed that the water table has
risen in the Post-Monsoon season 2016, as shown in Figure 2-6. Detailed report is attached
as Annex-G.

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-9 Groundwater Levels for Pre-Monsoon-2015

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-10 Groundwater Levels for Post-Monsoon-2015

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-11 Groundwater Levels for Pre-Monsoon-2016

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-12 Groundwater Levels for Post-Monsoon-2016 by PIAIP Consultants

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2.3 AQUIFER TESTS IN DISTRICT BAHAWALNAGAR


The characteristics of the alluvial aquifer in the study area have also been determined by
conducting aquifer/pumping tests since the first hydro geologic study by WASID. The
values of aquifer constants were found commensurate with the observed lithology of the
alluvium and were found suitable for installing tube wells of two to three cusec (Kamal and
Shamsi, 1965). The average porosity and specific yield during the laboratory analyses of
sand samples from bore holes calculated values of 39 and 32 percent, respectively. The
values of 43 and 18 percent, respectively, were calculated for silty clay samples (Kamal and
Shamsi 1965).

The aquifer constants are subject to spatial variability; a series of aquifer tests to ascertain
the alluvium characteristics of the study area for planning the drainage infrastructure
developments has been carried out in 1988, 1991, 1992, and 1997. The results of two
aquifer tests conducted by NESPAK-NDC in 1988 suggested the occurrence of an unconfined
aquifer system with transmissivity values ranging from 1,2911 to 16138 square ft per day.
Three additional aquifer tests in 1991 by NESPAK also suggested an unconfined aquifer
with transmissivity values varying between 7531 and 10221 square ft per day (Javed, 1998).
The preliminary results of two aquifer tests in 1992 by the Hydrogeology Directorate, WAPDA,
indicated a semi-confined aquifer system with a transmissivity value of 4842 square ft per day
and storativity value of 0.0001 (Javed, 1998).

The Hydrogeology Directorate carried out five tests in the study area in 1997. These
tests characterized the aquifer as consisting of unconsolidated alluvial deposits, with
groundwater under water table conditions, and with the upper ten-meter layer
composed of less permeable clay and silty clay. The aquifer test data were analyzed
using the United Nations' Groundwater Software for Windows (GWW); the transmissivity
values estimated vary between 5563 to 35084 square ft per day, and the coefficient of
storage ranges between 3.8E-7 and 6.5E-4 (Ismail and Mohiuddin, 1997).

Boonstra and Javed (1999) reanalyzed the aquifer test data of all the above-mentioned
tests using SATEM: Selected Aquifer Test Evaluation Methods, a microcomputer
program, to update the transmissivity map and to estimate the thickness and specific
yield values of the aquifer for the groundwater modeling of the study area. They discarded
the test data of one site each from the aquifer test sites in 1988, 1992 and 1997 because
large variations of transimissivity values resulted from time-drawdown, time-recovery
and residual-drawdown analyses of data. The lack of time-recovery data in one case
caused concern regarding the accuracy of data. They summarized the results of nine
aquifer tests suggesting the unconfined aquifer of 328-ft thickness, with transmissivity
values ranging from 7359 to 20 square ft per day for the study area. The specific yield
values are estimated on the lower side. They suggested adjusting and adopting a
single value of specific yield for the study area during the calibration of the groundwater
model. Summary of results is given in Table 2-1.

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Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-6 Summary of Aquifer Test Carried out in Bahawalnagar Area

Serial New Test Site Transmissibility


Number (m2/day) (m2/sec) (ft2/day) (ft2/sec)
1 Aquifer Test-1 684 0.0079 7,363 0.0852
2 Aquifer Test-3 1806 0.0209 19,440 0.2250
3 Aquifer Test-4 840 0.0097 9,042 0.1046
4 Aquifer Test-5 972 0.0113 10,463 0.1211
5 HA-1 1270 0.0147 13,670 0.1582
6 HRN-1 1350 0.0156 14,531 0.1682
7 T/W-1 948 0.0110 10,204 0.1181
8 T/W-2 980 0.0113 10,549 0.1221
9 T/W-3 1088 0.0126 11,711 0.1355
Test sites as used in (Javed, 1998)

2.4 AQUIFER TESTS IN DISTRICT GANGANAGAR (INDIA)


District Ganganagar is located on the Indian side of the project area. Groundwater report of
this report is available and it has provided status of groundwater and aquifer properties. They
summarized the results of four aquifer tests with transmissivity values ranging from
4035 to7780 square feet per day. Summary of results are given in Table 2-2.

Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-7 Summary of Aquifer Tests Carried out in Ganganagar District

Serial Test Site Transmissibility


Number (m2/day) (m2/sec) (ft2/day) (ft2/sec)
1 Annupgarh-1 535 0.0062 3,510 0.0406
2 Annupgarh-2 555 0.0064 3,642 0.0421
3 Padampur 375 0.0043 2,461 0.0285
Rai
723
4 Singhnagar 0.0084 4,744 0.0549

2.5 AT SITE DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT BY PIAIP CONSULTANTS


In order to estimate the conveyance/seepage loss in Hakra Branch Canal, inflow- outflow
measurements were made in the canal reach from RD 185+000 to RD 255+000
(13.33miles/21.33 Km.). This canal reach has almost uniform shape of channel prism and
there is no intake from this reach and it is an ideal canal reach for inflow-outflow
measurement.

The Inflow- outflow measurements in the selected channel reach were carried out by the
same observer using the same current meter at upper and lower ends of the study reach.
The conveyance loss measurements were carried out with due care and under steady flow

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conditions. Conveyance loss with inflow-outflow method has been computed as the
difference of measured discharges at the upstream end ,offtakes and downstream end of the
study reach. The results of the conveyance/seepage loss measurements are given in detail
below.

2.5.1.1 Methodology of Discharge Measurement


Discharge measurement was made at a stable section with straight canal banks. Velocity
measurements were made by using standard ‘AA’ type vertical axis current meter. For
accurate discharge measurement, special attention was given to the following:

 For depth and velocity observations, Maximum verticals on the discharge


measurement section were selected.
 To find the average velocity in each vertical, the two point method (0.2 and 0.8 of flow
depth) was used in case the depth was more than 2.5 ft and at 0.6 of flow depth in
case the depth was less than 2.5 ft. The velocity on each point was observed with an
exposure time of 40- 70 seconds.
 Discharge was computed by using the Mid-Section method which has smaller
procedural error than the mean section method.

Measurements in each study reach are made during the time when stage of the canal
remained constant. (Detailed report is attached as Annex-H.)

Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-8 Summary of Discharge Measurement

2.6 SEEPAGE ANALYSIS

2.6.1 Seep/W Introduction


SEEP/W (Geo-Slope) is a 2-D, finite element software program for analyzing groundwater
seepage and excessive pore water pressure problems within the porous media such as soil
and rock.

This program is able to work with multiple soil types having anisotropic hydraulic conductivity
characteristics. The comprehensive nature of the program enables analyses ranging from
simple, saturated, steady state problems to sophisticated, saturated and unsaturated, time
dependent problems. Good quality output graphics allow a visual display of equipotential
lines and flow paths, and contours can be plotted for a number of properties/results such as
pore pressures, seepage velocities, and gradients. The software is capable enough to
employ for analysis and design of geotechnical, civil, hydrogeological, and mining
engineering problems.

2.6.2 Governing Equation


Following partial differential equation (PDE) is the governing equation used for modeling of
SEEP/W program:

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where:
H = Hydraulic head, = Hydraulic conductivity in the x-direction,

= Hydraulic conductivity in the y-direction, Q = Applied boundary flux,

θ = Volumetric water content, t = Time.

It is a two-dimensional non-linear second order PDE and caters for transient flow conditions;
its derivation involves the basic constitutive Darcy law for groundwater flow, given as below:

v = -k H

where:
v = Average velocity through soil media known as Darcian velocity
k = Hydraulic conductivity of soil material

H = Gradient of hydraulic head in x- & y- directions =

Above mentioned partial differential equation (PDE) is time variant and states that ‘the
difference between the flow entering an elemental volume and leaving an elemental volume
at a point is equal to the change in the volumetric water content in a particular time’. If the
volume of influx equals to the volume of out flux then the equation caters for steady state
conditions, thus the right hand of the equation changes to zero.

2.6.3 Seepage Conditions


Two types of condition can be analyzed using the SEEP/W program: steady state and
transient analyses. A steady state condition is independent of time; a situation where the
state of the model is steady and not changing. A transient analysis is a condition that is
always changing and is time-dependent.

2.6.4 Finite Element Analysis


SEEP/W is a finite element software product. Creating the finite element model includes
selecting an appropriate geometry, dividing the model into appropriate regions, and creating
the discretized mesh. The required input data include the specification of material properties
to various sub-regions of domain, and the specification of appropriate boundary conditions.

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2.6.5 Seepage Analysis In Project Area Using Seep/W

2.6.5.1 Problem Statement


The current water table in the most affected area of District Bahawalnagar under the project
varies from 0-2 ft from natural surface level. Area along 100,000 ft length of Hakra Canal is
under sever effect of seepage & water logging.

2.6.5.2 Purpose of Model Study


Model study is carried out:

i. To compute the seepage of Hakra Canal


ii. To assess the effectiveness of proposed seepage drains i.e. surface drains and
interceptor drains.

2.6.5.3 Model Inputs


The input parameters to the model are:

 Canal/Drain Geometry
 Material Properties
 Boundary Conditions

2.6.5.4 Material Properties


Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Anisotropy Ratio

Hydraulic conductivity K (also known as coefficient of permeability or simply permeability) of


soil for the analysis is used as 0.00032 ft/sec while conductivity ratio (Ky/Kx) is kept 0.25.

2.6.5.5 Boundary Conditions


Head, ground water table & potential seepage face are assigned as boundary conditions to
the model. To carry out steady state analysis, canal head & ground water table are kept
constant.

2.6.6 Analysis Results

2.6.6.1 Computation of seepage from Hakra Canal


Seepage analysis is carried out to determine the seepage of Hakra Canal in existing
condition. Keeping the existing boundary conditions and material properties, value of
seepage comes out 1.1 Cs/RD.

Graphical result is depicted in Figure 6-1.

2.6.6.2 Efficiency Evaluation of Proposed Seepage Drains


Seepage analysis is carried out to evaluate the efficiency of proposed;

1. Surface Drains

Two different cases are analyzed for proposed surface drains

i. Drains at 50 ft from bank of Hakra Canal


ii. Drains at 100 ft from bank of Hakra Canal

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Results depict that provision of proposed surface drains at 50 ft from bank of Hakra
canal would intercept 80% of Hakra canal seepage. Effectiveness of surface drains
reduce to 65% when proposed drains are analyzed at 100 ft distance from bank of
Hakra canal.

The results of seepage study are compiled in the Table 2-4 to Table 2-5. Graphical
results are shown in Figure 2-7 to Figure 2-10.

2. Tile Drains

Tile drains intercept about 90% of Hakra canal seepage, though Interceptor drains
causes to induce seepage from Hakra canal, as well.

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Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-9 Input Parameters & Results of Seepage Analysis for Proposed Surface Drains

Seepage
Soil Conductivity Depth to Seepage From Percentage
Case intercepted by
Conductivity Ratio GWT Hakra Canal Effectiveness
Drain
Kx (Ky/Kx) (ft) Cusec/RD (ft^3/sec) (%)
Left Right
Drain Drain
Drains @ 50ft from
0.00032 0.25 0 1.318 0.616 0.449 80.8
Canal Bank Hakra Canal
Drains @ 100ft from
0.00032 0.25 0 1.241 0.464 0.341 64.9
Canal Bank
Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-10 Input Parameters & Results of Seepage Analysis for Proposed Interceptor Drains

Seepage
Soil Conductivity Depth to Seepage From Percentage
Case intercepted by
Conductivity Ratio GWT Hakra Canal Effectiveness
Drain
Kx (Ky/Kx) (ft) Cusec/RD (ft^3/sec) (%)
Left Right
Drain Drain
Drains @ 50ft from
0.00032 0.25 0 1.735 0.846 0.776 90
Canal Bank

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-13 Seepage Analysis of Hakra Canal

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Surface Drain Surface Drain


Hakra Canal

Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-14 Hakra Canal with Proposed Surface Drains (Drains @50ft from Canal Bank Toe)

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Surface Drain Hakra Canal Surface Drain

Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-15 Hakra Canal with Proposed Surface Drains (Drains @100ft from Canal Bank Toe)

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Interceptor Drain Interceptor Drain


Hakra Canal

Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-16 Hakra Canal with Proposed Interceptor Drains (Drains @50ft from Canal Bank Toe)

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2.6.7 Comparison Between Results:


A comparison need to be done for seepage losses from Hakra Branch canal between:-

 Seepage calculated by PIAIP Team


 Seepage calculated by SEEP/W
 Seepage calculated by MIP
Following is the comparison which proves the authenticity of SEEP/W Model:

2.7 MODFLOW ANALYSIS

2.7.1 Introduction
The project area under the consideration lies in the district Bahawalnagar. Hakra canal
offtakes from Eastern Sadqia canal at Jalwala head works and passes through the
Bahawalnagar. The irrigation system of Hakra canal is perennial. The seepage from these
perennial channels and continues field irrigations resulted in water logging problem in the
project areas. The area is shown in Figure 2-11.

To overcome the water logging problem in the project area, two options are proposed. Two
scenarios of the proposed options have been studied using Visual MODFLOW software to
examine the flow conditions in the water logged area of project Area-A.

 Scenario I – Contribution of proposed surface drains as D Sub drain, 7R, 8R, 9R


main drain, left and right parallel drains along Hakra Canal, left sub drain and 1L
drain of left sub drain in the problematic area
 Scenario II – With Installation of 43 No. of tubewells with 2 cusec capacity each
along the new proposed surface drains

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-17 Model area with proposed drains

2.7.2 Initial Conditions of Project Area


Model is developed at existing conditions by assigning the surface elevations and ground
water table elevations to the problematic area. Surface elevations are obtained from the
SRTM based data of the area and the initial ground water table heads are obtained from the
observed values of water table elevation in the already installed piezometers. Recharge
calculated from the rainfall data of the Bahawalnagar as 30 mm/year is assigned to the
project area as a boundary condition.

Four irrigation Channels, Hakra Canal, 7R disty, 8R disty and 9R disty are assigned as
seepage channels at their appropriate location in the project Area shown in Figure 2-12.
Observation piezometers are assigned at their existing location. The hydraulic properties
and dimensions of the model are shown in Figure 2-13.

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-18 Drains and canals assigned to the model

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-19 Elevations and Hydraulic properties assigned to


the model

2.7.3 Model Calibration


In consideration to initial conditions, a conceptual model was developed. The model was
calibrated using the piezometric data observed by the PIAIP team during a survey of the
project area. Model results indicate fluctuation less than 10% by comparing observed and
computed piezometric heads which are within permissible limits. Thus the model is
considered calibrated. Head difference of observed head and calculated head at
piezometers is shown in Figure 2-14.

Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-20 Head Vs Time Graph

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Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-11 Head vs. Time

Piezometer 6/A Piezometer 5/A


Time Observed Interpolated Observed Interpolated
Head Head Head Head
Pre monsoon 149.36 149.57 149.18 149.67
Post monsoon 149.44 149.32 149.07 149.86

Inflows Calculated in MOD FLOW:

Inflows in Bahawalnagar Water Logged Area


Storage 141313280 [m^3]/year
Canal Leakage 279616352 [m^3]/year
Rainfall Recharge 10374199 [m^3]/year
Total INFLOW 431303831 [m^3]/year
15219656364 [Ft^3]/year
349395.2333 [AFT]/year

2.7.4 Model Results


Scenario I Contribution of proposed surface drains as D Sub drain, 7R, 8R, 9R
main drain, left and right parallel drains along Hakra Canal, left sub
drain and 1L drain of left sub drain in the problematic area

Scenario-I is developed by assigning the proposed surface drains which are two parallel
drains along the left and right side of Hakra Canal and five other drains in the problematic
area. The proposed drains are designed on the basis of center line survey based data of
the project area. The designed discharges and bed levels of proposed drains are assigned
in the model at their specified locations.

The model results show that the depth to water table lowers upto 3.5ft in the most adjacent
areas of the drains as shown in figure-5. It will take 11-12 months to clear root zone in 15 %
of the water logged area and will lower the water table in the further nearest areas upto 1.5
ft. The intercepted drain will catch the seepage from the Hakra canal and reclaim their
nearest areas in the lower part of the Hakra canal. Results show that with the passage of
time drains will reclaim more area but it required a considerable time period to clear the rote
zone in the whole problematic areas. The results are shown in Figure 2-15.

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-21 Water table elevations after 1 year with Scenario-I

Scenario II With Installation of 43 No. of tubewells with 2 cusec capacity each along
the new proposed surface drains

The scenario-II is developed by assigning proposed tubewells of 2 cusecs capacity each in


the model along the proposed drains in the water logged area at their specified locations.
Model is simulated with 43 No. of tubewells and operating hours per day for each tubewell
are taken as 8 hours.

The model results show that the water table depth lowers upto 5ft in the nearest areas of
tubewells as shown in figure-3. It will take 6 months to clear root zone in 30% of the nearest
water logged areas and lowers water table upto 2.5ft in the further more areas. 70 % of the
problematic area will get reclaimed within 9 months and after a year’s time, water table in
75 % of waterlogged area will get lower upto 5ft. But it is clear from the results that the

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proposed drains will reclaim only 15 to 20% of waterlogged area adjacent to the drain,
without tubewells, even after 12 months. The effectiveness of drains increases manifolds
with the installation of tubewells. The results are shown in Figure 2-16.

Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-22 Water table elevations after 9 months with
Scenario-II

2.7.5 Conclusions
 Comparison of results of two scenarios:

Depth to Water Area Reclaimed Time Log


Table (%) (Months)
Scenario-I 2.5ft 15-20 12
Scenario-II 5ft 70 9
Scenario-II 5ft 75 12

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Considering the results of two options, option-II is recommended in which 6 surface drains
with two additional parallel drains along the Hakra canal and 43 No. tubewells along the
drains are proposed. They will lower the water table upto 5ft in more areal extent in shorter
period of time and stop further water logging problems due to continuous seepage from the
water channels.

2.8 STRIP SURVEY OF PROPOSED DRAINS


A comprehensive work plan was prepared and executed in the field by qualified survey team,
under guidance and supervision of the Survey Engineer. The purpose was to confirm the
actual Elevations in the field, along the alignment of proposed alinment of surface drains.

Site reconnaissance survey of the project area was carried out to access the field conditions,
general topography and finalization of project execution. The raw survey data has been
processed in state of the art Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) processing software
having accuracy in millimetres. The results have been compiled in the tabular format. The
brief methodology to establish the Bench Mark and carrying out the topographical survey in
the project vicinity is described in the following sub-sections.

2.8.1 Reference Bench Mark


In order to establish horizontal and vertical control network in the project area, the Reference
Point is required to carry out the topographical survey. The survey team identified a
Reference Points at Cross Regulators of Hakra Branch canal, at pier tops and crest levels.

2.8.2 Establishment of Horizontal and Vertical Control Network


In order to carry out cross-sectional survey with maximum possible accuracy and minimal
spatial variations in both horizontal and vertical planes, Control Network was required. These
Bench Marks (BMs) has been established in the project area using GNSS equipment with
respect to the location of Reference Point.

2.8.3 System of Coordinates and Survey Datum


The Bench Mark has been established in WGS 1984 (default coordinate system) and was
transformed into UTM coordinate system.

Three GNSS instruments GS 15 manufactured by Leica of Switzerland were used to transfer


control network. Computer software Leica Geo Office (LGO) was used to process the data
and to achieve the corresponding results at desired level. The observations made at any
point were processed on computer in the field in order to check the accuracy of results.

GPS network have been established by GPS control points covering the entire project area.
To receive the signals from satellite, the receiver should have minimum obstructions like
building, trees, power lines etc, around it. The signals were received at cut-off angle of 15 or
more. The signal can be weak due to unfavourable weather conditions like rainfall, clouds
and vehicle noise. The observations have to be repeated till found satisfactory. For all time
observations, at least 4 satellites should be available with GDOP/PDOP value equal to or
less than 5. The availability of satellites and GDOP value can be known in advance with the
help of computer software for given time, date and point of observations.

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2.8.4 Instruments Used


The Leica GS15 was used for this activity with one base station and three rovers for
transferring the control points in the control network. The GNSS and Total Station Leica TS
06 were also used for collection of topographic details within the project area.

2.8.5 Software Used


All the collected field data has been processed in Leica Geo Office (LGO) software. The
AutoCAD, Arc GIS and Eagle Point computer softwares have been used for development of
layouts.

2.8.6 Measurement Units


The units are measurement for the survey is “feet”.

2.8.7 Field Data Processing


To mitigate errors and to increase accuracy, the control network was planned and designed
by forming triangles wherever possible. The GPS baselines were processed by using LGO
software. The default acceptance criteria for baselines used in LGO software are standard
parameters.

Any baseline that did not pass the criteria was repeated. As the GNSS reading is based
upon the WGS 84, there is a need to convert these into desired coordinate and projection
system.

2.8.8 Cross-sectional Survey Data Collection


The topographic survey of proposed drains was carried out in accordance with the
requirements. At every 250 ft interval the cross-sections were observed. The interval is
reduced to 25 ft at the upstream and downstream of existing structures.

As described earlier Leica GS15 was used for cross-sectional survey in Real Time
Kinematics (RTK) mode. The control points already established by GNSS were used to carry
out cross-sectional survey. Spot heights have been measured generally at close interval
particularly at abrupt changes in ground. The natural slopes existing in the project vicinity
have been surveyed along the canal.

The methods used for the survey are described below;

2.8.9 Survey Using GNSS Equipment


The survey team started the cross-sectional survey work from the known survey control
point which has already been established by GNSS in static mode. This known control point
has been used to set the GNSS on it whereas the rovers have been used to collect the data
on the field.

Real-time kinematic (RTK) survey provides for high accuracy GPS positions to be collected
on-the-fly. This workflow outlines one method for conducting RTK survey through the use of
two GNSS receivers. One receiver is designated as the base and the other as the rover. The
base station is set up over a known or unknown point and continuously collects positional
data about that location from GNSS satellites. A roving receiver is then used to efficiently
acquire GPS data during survey. RTK survey with Leica’s equipment returns an accuracy of
15 mm in vertical and 8 mm in horizontal measurements.

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For RTK to work, the base and the rover must both receive signals from enough of the same
satellites. As long as the RTK data link between base and rover is established and the
minimum accuracy measurements are being met based on the quality of common satellite
signals, the rover will know precisely where it is in relation to the base – even if the ‘real
world” coordinates are not accurate. To achieve accuracy of the coordinates in the real
world, the base station must be left to run for an extended period of time in order to
accurately solve for the coordinates of its position. The longer the base station runs, the
more precise its location measurement becomes.

During survey, the base sends a correction package to the rover over a communication
channel in this case a radio transmitter of frequency around the 461 MHz range is used.

2.8.10 Survey Using Total Station


Cross-sectional Survey details within covered areas were collected using Total station Leica
TS 06 by Electronic Distance Meter (EDM) Method and survey works were stared from
known survey control points which have already been established by GNSS in static mode.
One known control point was used to set the total station on it whereas; the other known
control point was used for back station reading. Change Points (CPs) were established at
appropriate interval so that the curvature factor could not affect the actual elevations of
ground. The accuracy of the instrument is 1.5mm + 2ppm.

2.8.11 Data Post Processing and Layout Preparation


Cross-sectional survey data, electronically recorded in Electronic Total Stations and GNSS
have been downloaded into laptop for further processing. The data was checked at the site
for quality and gaps (if any).

Further, the observed data has been digitized in the AutoCAD in the form of points, lines,
and polygons. The digitization of the features has been done by creating the feature layers in
the AutoCAD. Each feature layer has a unique colour, code and symbol so that they can be
well distinguished from the other features. The cross sectional and longitudinal profiles have
been prepared using the Eagle point software.

2.9 GEOTECHNICAL INVESTIGATIONS


The purpose of these investigations is to determine the surface and sub-surface conditions
at the proposed project and the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the
investigated ground in order to identify the suitable measures against water logging and
further same investigations would provide the structural engineer with sufficient information
for the design of the most suitable and safe foundation.

Following the purpose of the study, Geotechnical Investigations have been carried out to
achieve the following objectives:

i. To determine stratigraphy of the site


ii. To determine the types of subsoil materials at the given investigation points
iii. To evaluate foundation material characteristics at given investigation points
iv. To evaluate ground water level and quality
v. To locate suitable construction material in project area

2.9.1 Scope Of Work


The scope of work consists of the following:

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i. Drilling of Eight (08) boreholes up to a maximum of 100 ft depth below NSL at


specified locations.
ii. Generally performance of standard penetration test (SPTs) 3 ft to 5 ft interval at
different depthsin the boreholes while few are variable as per strata encountered and
collection of SPT samples.
iii. Performance of field permeability tests
iv. Collection of Undisturbed/disturbed soil samples from boreholes.
v. Collection of water samples from boreholes
vi. Performance of laboratory testing for selected disturbed and un-disturbed samples
vii. Location of the boreholes is shown in Figure 2-17.

2.9.2 Geotechnical Foundation Design Criteria


The foundations of all the structures should meet the following design criteria:

i. Foundation should be safe against shear failure of the supporting ground. A factor of
safety of 3.0 is to be adopted for this purpose.
ii. Foundation should not settle excessively under the service loads. A limit of 25 mm
has to be put on the total settlement of individual foundations.

2.9.3 Field Exploration

2.9.3.1 Drilling of Bore Holes


The exploratory boreholes were drilled in the project area by M/s GEOBAND. Straight rotary
method of drilling was employed with bentonite slurry as drilling fluid. A total of 800 feet
drilling was carried out in the zone of Bahawalnagar. Breakup of the drilling depths of eight
boreholes is given below in Table 2-7.

Visual inspection and logging of in-situ substrata was carried out at site by experienced
geologists of the M/s GEOBAND. The boreholes, detailing reference number of boreholes,
the lithological description of the material encountered with depth, structural details of each

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Figure SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-23 Location Map of Geotechnical Investigation Points in Project Area

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layer, method of drilling, the results of in-situ testing, the depth and elevation of the borehole
and the depth of ground water table are to be presented in borehole logs and are to be
appended in final report.

2.9.3.2 Collection Of Soil And Water Samples


Disturbed and split spoon samples were obtained from the boreholes. Disturbed samples
using a split barrel tube sampler were obtained where SPT was performed in the soil.

The samples recovered were immediately examined, described, classified, identified,


wrapped in water proof plastic sheets, placed in proper sequence in heavy duty wooden
boxes and taken to laboratory for testing and storage on the same day as soon as the field
work was completed.

All the samples were protected against the weather condition, until they had been
transported to the laboratory for testing. Care was taken during handling, packing,
transportation and storing of samples to protect them against all structural and moisture
alterations.

Details of samples collected during drilling of bore holes are given in the following Table 2-7.

Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-12 Details of Samples Collected

No of
No. of No of Water
Borehole No. UDS depths Disturbed
UDS Samples
Samples

GIP-01 BWP 12 and 42 ft 2 20 1

GIP-02 BWP 07 and 32 ft 2 20 1

GIP-03 BWP 12 and 37 ft 2 20 1

GIP-04 BWP 27 ft 1 20 1

GIP-05 BWP 7 and 32 ft 2 20 1

GIP-06 BWP 7.5 and 22 ft 2 20 1

GIP-07 BWP 14 and 32 ft 2 20 1

GIP-08 BWP 7.5 and 32 ft 2 20 1

Total 20 200 8

2.9.3.3 Field Testing In Boreholes

2.9.3.3.1 Standard Penetration Tests (Spt’s)

Total 160 nos Standard Penetration Test (SPT) were performed at different depths in all
boreholes to obtain approximate consistencies and relative densities of the ground material.
38 out of 160 SPTs were found refusal due to hard strata. The tests were performed in

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accordance with B.S. 1377 Part-9:1990 (Amd. 8264-95) “Determination of Penetration


Resistance Using Split-Barrel Sampler (SPT)”

The SPT consists of driving a Standard 50 mm outside diameter split spoon sampler into soil
at the bottom of boreholes, using repeated blows of a 635 Kg hammer failing through 760
mm. The SPT N values are the number of blows required to achieve a penetration of
300mm, after an initial seating at the depths of the tests. The Standard Penetration Test is
defined in the legend to bore logs, attached. SPT N values have been recorded and plotted
along the depth of boreholes and mentioned in the respective boreholes logs.

2.9.3.3.2 Field Permeability Tests

Total eight (o8) constant head permeability tests were performed in boreholes. Test results
sheets are given in Table-3.3.

Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-13 Results of Field Permeability Test Results

Field Permeability
Borehole No. Soil Type Values

cm/sec

GIP-01 (BWN) Silty Clay 6.5 E-3

GIP-02 (BWN) Silty Clay 2.9 E-3

Clayey Silty
GIP-03 (BWN) Sand/Clayey Sandy 2.3 E-3
Silt

Sandy/Clayey
GIP-04 (BWN) 5.9 E-3
Silt/Sandy Silty

GIP-05 (BWN) Silty Clay/ Clayey Silt 6.8 E-4

GIP-06 (BWN) Sandy Silt/Silty Sand 5.6 E-4

GIP-07 (BWN) Silty Clay/Clayey Silt 6.6 E-3

GIP-08 (BWN) Sandy Silty Clay 1.4 E-3

2.9.3.3.3 Compaction Test


Eight (08) representative soil samples were collected from test Pits for required test of
Proctor (Compaction Test). The values of maximum dry density and optimum moisture would
be found during ongoing testing in laboratory.

Eight numbers (08) of field density tests were performed in the field at the same places of
test Pits for insitu bulk density which results are to be included in separate Annexure of the
final report for future reference. Consideration of field bulk density has also been worked out

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in design calculation for safe bearing capacities.

2.9.3.3.4 Groundwater Table Records

During drilling of boreholes, ground water tables were encountered in all boreholes.
Summary of recorded water table depth for all boreholes is given in the following Table 2-9.

Table SURVEY AND INVESTIGATION-14 Ground Water Table Record

G-Water Table (Ft) G-Elevation


Borehole No.
(Ft)

GIP-01 (BWN) 2.96 512

GIP-02 (BWN) 3.12 499

GIP-03 (BWN) 6.5 499

GIP-04 (BWN) 2 482

GIP-05 (BWN) 9 456

GIP-06 (BWN) 20 456

GIP-07 (BWN) 1.10 499

GIP-08 (BWN) 07 459

2.9.3.3.5 Laboratory Testing

In order to determine the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the ground
material, laboratory tests are being performed on selected samples from boreholes. Tests
are to be performed according to ASTM and/or British Standard (BS). And all of the required
laboratory tests would be carried out as per BOQ and technical requirements.

Following laboratory tests are to be performed to establish the geotechnical design


parameters:

- Grain size analysis


- Atterberg Limits
- Specific Gravity
- Bulk Density
- Direct Shear Tests
- Unconfined compression test
- Permeability Tests (Falling Head and Constant Head)
- Natural Moisture Content
- Standard Proctor Compaction test
- Sulphate content soil/water

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- Permeability Tests
- Electrical conductivity of water
- Complete range of chemical testing for water samples
- pH values of soil/water
- Organic matter content of soil/water

- Total Dissolved Salts in soil/water

2.9.3.3.6 ANALYSIS OF FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATION

Sub-Surface Stratification

Following the results of gradation analyses and field description of material from all
boreholes, sub-surface stratification of the project area generally consists of:
1. Silty clay / clayey silt in the upper horizon (0 to 25 to 30 ft) except in borehole no GIP-03
and 4 BWN where fine soil is encountered from 10 to 25 ft depth from NSL.
2. Silty sand / sandy silt in the lower horizon from 30 ft to the drilling depth with few lenses
of silty clay / clayey silt at different vertical horizons
Soil Profile extracted from field boreholes logs is given below:

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2.9.4 Analysis of Field and Laboratory Investigation

2.9.4.1 Sub-Surface Stratification


Total Eight (08) boreholes, with total boring depth of 800 feet, were planned and executed in
the field which are scattered over the entire Project Area of Bahawalnagar. Borehole logs
were prepared as a result of subsurface investigations in the field which were analyzed to
interpret the sub-surface stratification of the Project Area as briefed hereunder:

In general, top 5 to 7 feet thick stratum from NSL consists of Clayey Silt/Sandy Clayey Silt /
Silty Clay. In few boreholes, this thickness is observed even up to10 feet and few layers of
Silty Clay/Clayey Silt encountered in deeper depths while major soil stratification of the area
varying 5 feet to 100 feet is Silty fine sand. Final fixation of the soil classification would be
ultimately finalized after receiving of laboratory testing results.

Ground Water Table (GWT) in all boreholes was encountered between 2 to 5 ft boring
depths from NSL. Final would be appended in final logs and would be the part of final report.

Soil profile would also be established after collection of all field and laboratory testing results.

Range of laboratory testing results would also be the part of final geotechnical investigation
report shortly.

Safe bearing capacities for shallow as well as deep foundation analysis would also be the
part of final report after receiving final field and laboratory testing results.

Conclusions and recommendations of the investigations would also be the part of final
geotechnical investigation report.

2.9.4.2 SPT “N” VALUES

Graphical presentations of variation of SPT blow counts (field “N” and corrected “N60”)”
values for both silty clay/clayey silt and silty sand encountered during drilling of boreholes
have been plotted as Fig- 5.2 which shows that:

1. Fine soil (Clayey Silt / Silty Clay) is very soft to firm (range of minimum values)

2. Coarse soils in lower horizon (Silty Sand) is very loose to medium dense (range of
minimum values)

SPT-N values have been used to determine empirically shear strength parameters i.e.
unconfined shear strength (UCS), angle of internal friction. Detailed calculation sheet for
shear strength parameters calculation is given in Tables below.

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Minimum estimated UCS and angle of Internal Friction on the basis of SPT-N values are
given below.

Minimum Estimated Shear Strength Parameters for Each


Boreholes

Unconfined Shear Angle of Internal


Borehole No. Strength (UCS) Friction

Kpa Degree

GIP-01 (BWN) 6 28

GIP-02 (BWN) 10 30

GIP-03 (BWN) 27 27

GIP-04 (BWN) 35 27

GIP-05 (BWN) 23 31

GIP-06 (BWN) 33 29

GIP-07 (BWN) 29 30

GIP-08 (BWN) 21 30

2.9.4.3 5.3 GRADATION ANALYSIS


Thirty Five (35) sieve analysis test were performed on samples collected from all the
boreholes. According to the results of sieve analysis test, general finding is given below:

 Upper Horizon (0 to 25ft)

%age of Sand 3% to 39% and clay fraction (60% to 93%).

 Lower Horizon (25 ft to drilling depth)

%age of Sand 11% to 62% and clay fraction (36% to 99%).

2.9.4.4 5.4 ATTERBERG’S LIMITS


To find out the plasticity of fine grained materials, eight (08) samples for which percentage
fine passing sieve no 200 is greater than 60%, were tested for Atterberg’s limits. Results
have been tested, which also shows that Liquid Limit (LL) varies from 23 to 33, Plastic Limit
varied from 19 to 22 and Plastic Index varied from 5 to 11

Since mostly value of Plasticity Index is less than 10, therefore there is low inherent swelling
potential.

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2.9.4.5 5.5 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Sixteen (16) samples from boreholes were tested for determination of specific gravity. The
values of specific gravity were found in the range of 2.65 to 2.69. Average value of 2.67 can
be used for design calculation.

2.9.4.6 5.6 BULK DENSITY AND NATURAL MOISTURE CONTENT


Twelev (12) samples from boreholes were tested for determination of bulk density and
natural moisture content. The values of bulk density and natural moisture content for Silty
Clay and Silty Sand found as 16 Kn/m 3. Natural moisture content varies from 4.75 to 112.9,
showing great variation due to ground water table.

2.9.4.7 5.7 DIRECT SHEAR TEST


Thirteen (13) direct shear tests were performed on soil samples from boreholes. The values
of angle of internal friction and cohesion found are following:

Cohesion (Kpa) = 0.8 to 2.8 Kpa (Average Value: 1.8 Kpa)

Angle of Internal friction = 27° to 31° (Average Value: 29o)

2.9.4.8 5.8 UNCONFINED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (UCS)


Six (06) unconfined compressive strength tests were performed on soil samples from
boreholes. The values of UCS are follow:

Unconfined Compressive Strength (Kpa) = 28 to 204 Kpa (Average Value: 94.0 Kpa)

2.9.4.9 5.9 COMPACTION TEST


Eight (08) representative soil samples were collected from borehole. The values of maximum
dry density found are as follow:

Maximum Dry Density = 16.98 to 17.29 Kn/m3.

Optimum Moisture Content = 11.8 % to 13.2%

Eight numbers (8) of Field Density Tests (FDT) were performed in the field at the same
places of test Pits. Consideration of field bulk density has also been worked out in design
calculation for safe bearing capacities.

2.9.4.10 5.10 PERMEABILITY TESTS


Nine (09) constant head permeability tests were performed on representative soil samples
collected from borehole. The values of permeability values given as under:

K value for silty clay / clayey silt = 2.61 x 10-6 cm/sec to 1.95 x 10-5 cm/sec

= 9.35 x 10-6 cm/sec (Average Value)

K value for silty sand / sandy silt = 1.12 x 10-3 cm/sec to 1.6 x 10-3 cm/sec

= 1.35 x 10-3 cm/sec (Average Value)

2.9.4.11 5.11 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL


Seventeen (17) Chemical tests, carried out on soil samples extracted from boreholes.
Results show that:
 Sulphate Contents = of 0.02% to 0.11 %
 Organic Matter Content = 0.08% to 0.22 %
 Chloride Content = 0.04% to 0.12%

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2.9.4.12 5.12 CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER
112 Chemical tests, carried out on water samples extracted from boreholes. Results are
shown in Table-5.2. While testing result sheets are attached in Tables below.

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2.9.5 RECOMMENDATION OF TYPE OF CEMENT FOR CONCRETE


STRUCTURES
Due to low concentration of sulphate in soil samples, it is suggested to use Ordinary Port
Land Cement (OPC). Groundwater of the Project area is unfit as per above attached table.
Accordingly project area water cannot be used for construction activities.

2.9.6 RECOMMENDATION DESIGN PARAMETERS


On the basis of laboratory tests and vast experience on similar ground condition following strength
parameters and index properties has been recommended for the foundation depth of 1.5 m below
NSL:
Silty Clay / Clayey Silt in the Upper Horizon (0 to 125 ft)
Ɣsat = 16 KN/m3
Gs = 2.65
Cohesion (C) = 0 Kpa
Angle of Internal Friction (ǿ) = 27o
Silty Sand / Sandy Silt in the Lower Horizon from 25 ft to the Drilling Depth
Ɣsat = 18 KN/m3
Gs = 2.69’’
Cohesion (C) = 0 Kpa
Angle of Internal Friction (ǿ) = 29o

2.9.7 BEARING CAPACITY CURVES FOR SHALLOW FOUNDATIONS


Keeping view the types of structures and sub-soil strata following three types of shallow
foundation have been recommended:

 Spread Footing

 Strip Footing

 Mat Footing

 Pile Foundation
Bearing capacity curves for each footing type and different footing sizes and depth were
estimated and graphically plotted in Figures below. Structure engineer can use this graph for
fixing the size of foundation for each foundation type.

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2.9.8 COEFFICIENTS OF LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE


The cohesive material identified below NSL at the project site should not be used as the
backfill material behind the retaining walls (if required). It is recommended to use granular
material as the backfill material behind the retaining walls. The sands should be compacted
to at least 90 % Modified Proctor density.

The lateral earth pressure coefficients for active (Ka), at rest (Ko) and passive (Kp)
conditions, using sand backfill, are recommended as follows:

Ka = 0.33

Ko = 0.50

Kp = 3.00

The lateral earth pressures to be used in design should be increased for the additional
residual earth pressures to be induced by the effect of compaction, as per provisions of
Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) Design Manual 7.28 (Chapter-3, Section-
2(6)).

2.9.9 SEISMICITY
According Pakistan Building Code - Seismic Provision 2007, project area fall in between
seismic zone 2A (shown in Fig-Below). According peak ground acceleration is as follow:

 Seismic Zone 2A: PGA 0.08 to 0.16g

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Project Area

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2.9.10 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1. The Top layer consists of silty clay / clayey silt at the depth range of 0 ft to 25 ft. This
layer is followed by medium to dense matrix of silt sand / sandy silt.
2. Groundwater table was encountered at variable depths of 2 to 20 ft.
3. Owing to the low concentrations of salts in subsurface soils, it is recommended to use
Ordinary Port Land (OPC) in all the construction below ground.
4. Groundwater of the Project area is unfit and it is recommended that project area water
cannot be used for construction activities.
5. If weak/soft soil is encountered at the excavation base level, further excavation and
replacement with select fill is recommended. This select fill should be compacted in
layers appropriate to the type and size of compaction equipment, to at least 75 % relative
density or 95 % of modified Proctor dry density, as appropriate.
6. During construction of foundations, before pouring lean concrete, the excavation should
be inspected by an experienced Geotechnical Engineer.
7. Bearing capacity of foundation soil at footing depth of 1.5 meter is estimated as 0.42 tsf,
0.7 tsf and 0.75 for square, strip and mat footing respectively. However bearing capacity
for different size of footing is given in Fig-8.1 for square, strip and mat footing and in
Fig-8.2 for pile foundation.
8. Project area fall in Seismic Zone 2A (PGA 0.08 to 0.16g).

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3 PROBLEM ANALYSIS

3.1 INTRODUCTION
The main sources of Seepage, identified in the project area are:-

 Recharge from Main, Branch Canals


 Recharge from Distributary and Minor Canals
 Recharge from Watercourses
 Recharge from Field Application of Irrigation Water

3.2 INFLUENCE OF SEEPAGE FROM HAKRA BRANCH CANAL


Conveyance loss from the Main and Branch canals has been worked by using the following
equation, as adopted by the Irrigation and Power Department:

Conveyance Loss = 0.0000133 x L * Q 0.5625

Where:

L is length of channel in feet; and


Q is discharge of channel in cusec

Total conveyance loss from the Hakra Branch Canal at design capacity is 260.2 Cs.
Assuming seepage to groundwater at 90 percent of conveyance loss, net recharge is 234.2
Cs as given below. Conveyance loss from RD 20+000 to RD 50+000 and RD 50+000 and
RD 165+000 to 285+920 on left side of HB canal and RD 185+000 to 260+000 on right side
of HB canal at design capacity is 106.6 Cs.

Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-15 Conveyance Loss of Hakra Branch Canal

Seepage
From To Reach Discharge Loss Seepage Rate
(ft) (cusec) (cusec) (cusec) (cusec/RD)
0 32,900 32,900 2,897 38.76 34.88 1.06
32,900 73,000 40,100 2,837 46.69 42.02 1.05
73,000 86,400 13,400 2,765 15.38 13.84 1.03
86,400 105,475 19,075 2,713 21.66 19.49 1.02
105,475 149,770 44,295 2,031 42.74 38.46 0.87
149,770 159,915 10,145 1,978 9.64 8.68 0.86
159,915 195,050 35,135 1,892 32.57 29.32 0.83
195,050 196,800 1,750 1,300 1.31 1.18 0.68
196,800 210,500 13,700 963 8.69 7.82 0.57
210,500 229,500 19,000 942 11.90 10.71 0.56
229,500 254,300 24,800 881 14.96 13.46 0.54
254,300 285,920 31,620 641 15.95 14.35 0.45
Total 285,920 260.24 234.22

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Assuming seepage to groundwater at 90 percent of conveyance loss, net recharge is 96


cusec.

Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-16 Recharge to Groundwater from Hakra Branch Canal System

Month Hakra Branch Canal Disty/Minor Head W/C Field Total


Deliveries Losses Seepage Deliveries Losses Seepage W/C Seepage Seepage Seepage
(AF) (AF) (AF) (AF) (AF) (AF) (AF) (AF) (AF) (AF)
Jan 5,613 505 404 5,108 766 404 4,342 217 868 1,894
Feb 101,252 9,113 7,290 92,139 13,821 7,290 78,318 3,916 15,664 34,160
Mar 112,584 10,133 8,106 102,451 15,368 8,106 87,084 4,354 17,417 37,983
Apr 120,218 10,820 8,656 109,398 16,410 8,656 92,989 4,649 18,598 40,559
May 137,956 12,416 9,933 125,540 18,831 9,933 106,709 5,335 21,342 46,543
Jun 145,269 13,074 10,459 132,195 19,829 10,459 112,366 5,618 22,473 49,010
Jul 153,892 13,850 11,080 140,042 21,006 11,080 119,035 5,952 23,807 51,919
Aug 139,507 12,556 10,045 126,951 19,043 10,045 107,909 5,395 21,582 47,066
Sep 122,975 11,068 8,854 111,907 16,786 8,854 95,121 4,756 19,024 41,489
Oct 112,911 10,162 8,130 102,749 15,412 8,130 87,337 4,367 17,467 38,093
Nov 135,610 12,205 9,764 123,405 18,511 9,764 104,894 5,245 20,979 45,751
Dec 127,507 11,476 9,181 116,031 17,405 9,181 98,627 4,931 19,725 43,018
1,094,73
1,415,294
Total 127,376 101,901 1,287,918 193,188 101,901 0 54,736 218,946 477,485

Seepage to groundwater, based on actual canal deliveries, has been worked out from the
entire Hakra Branch Canal System. Summary of results is:

Seepage to groundwater from branch canal = 101,901 AF


Seepage to groundwater from distributaries and minors = 101,901 AF
Seepage to groundwater from watercourses = 54,736 AF
Seepage to groundwater from field application = 218,946 AF

(a) Recharge from Main, Branch Canals

For the design of interceptor drains along problem reaches, canal seepage has been worked
by using the following equation, as adopted by the Irrigation and Power Department:

Conveyance Loss = 0.0000133 x L * Q 0.5625


Where:
L is length of channel in feet; and
Q is discharge of channel in cusec
Total conveyance loss from the Hakra Branch Canal is 260.2 Cs. Assuming seepage to
groundwater at 90 percent of conveyance loss, net recharge at design capacity is 234.2 Cs

Conveyance loss from RD 20+000 to RD 50+000 RD 50+000 and RD 165+000 to 285+920


on left side of HB canal and RD 185+000 to 275+000 on right side of HB canal. at design
capacity is 106.6 Cs. Assuming seepage to groundwater at 90 percent of conveyance loss,
net recharge is 96 Cs.

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Hakra branch canal traverses the project area. Total recharge from this canal, based on
actual deliveries, is 101,901 AF.

(b) Recharge from Distributary and Minor Canals

Distributary and minor canal losses are 15% of the deliveries at head of the channel while
contribution to groundwater is 80% of the losses. Thus seepage contribution to groundwater
from distributaries and minors is 101,901 AF.

(c) Recharge from Watercourses

Conveyance loss from watercourse is estimated at 10% of discharge at head. About half of
the losses recharge the groundwater.Thus seepage from watercourses is 54,736 AF.

(d) Recharge from Field Application of Irrigation Water

Irrigation water losses from field application are assumed at 30% of the deliveries at
watercourse head. However, deep percolation to water table is only 20% of deliveries at
head of watercourse. Thus deep percolation to water table due to field application of
irrigation water is 218,946 AF.

Seepage to groundwater from field application = 218,946 AF

3.3 INFLUENCE OF REGIONAL GROUND WATER INFLOW FROM INDIAN SIDE


3.3.1 General
Width of area between Hakra Branch and Indian border varies between 3 to 6 kilometers.
Area bordering Hakra branch is Ganganagar District of Rajasthan Province of India. An
extensive network of irrigation canals have been constructed in this area by India after 1947
partition. Brief of these projects and their impact on groundwater is discussed in the following
sections.

3.3.2 Indira Gandhi Canal Project


Indira Gandhi Canal Project is a large water infrastructural project designed for transferring
9.36 Bm3 (7.59 million acre feet) of Rajasthan’s share agreed under the Indus Water
Treaty (1960)/and Inter-State Water Agreement (1981). The water from the Harike Barrage
in Punjab is transferred to the western desert region of Rajasthan through a 200 km long
feeder canal. The system is designed to irrigate 2.5 Mha of Thar Desert through an
extensive network of a more than 9,000 km length of distribution system and 450 km length
of main canals. Irrigation in IGNP is developed in stages popularly known as Stage-I and
Stage-II. The IGNP Stage-I consists of a head feeder reach of 204 km offtaking from the
Harike Barrage, a 189 km main canal and a 3,454 km long distribution system with a
culturable command area (CCA) of 541,000 hectares. The IGNP Stage-II, commencing with
a 189 km main canal, consists of the lower reaches of the project comprising a 256 km long
main canal and a 5,606 km long distribution system with a CCA of1,319,000 hectares.

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The canal network is lined and able to bring large quantities of water to irrigate an extensive
area of what was a low-value desert. Land brought into the scheme is allotted to persons
applying for land, with a carefully developed system of prioritization of applications to identify
the most deserving applicants. Each allotment is 25 bigh as (6.32 ha) in area. The applicants
with the highest priority are from the region being developed; nevertheless, there have been
extensive population shifts into the project area to take advantage of the potential created.
Stage-I started receiving irrigation since October 1961 and Stage-II is still under-
construction.

By 2004-05, 559,000 ha irrigation potential was created under Stage I and 510,000
ha under Stage II. Irrigation potential is deemed to be created only when watercourses are
constructed, and water is provided through outlets for a murabba of 6.32 ha. Irrigation
potential created and utilized for some selected years for Stage-I and Stage-II of IGNP is
given in Table-1. The development activities of the command area for the IGNP command,
which included, among others, the construction of lined watercourses to the outlets, land
leveling and shaping and soil conservation, started in 1974.

Detailed description of Indira Gandhi Canal System is given in Annex-5B. Salient features of
Indira Gandhi Canal is given below:

1) Rajasthan Canal takes off from Harika Barrage (capacity at the head is 18485 ft3/s)
in Punjab.
2) Total length 426 canal miles.
a. Rajasthan Feeder Canal in Punjab and Haryana 134 canal miles.
b. Rajasthan Canal 292 canal miles up to Mohanagarh in Jaislmer district.
i) Stage-I 258 canal miles ,
ii) Stage-II 168 canal miles .
3) Q = 18475 ft3/s.
4) Top width 140 ft.
5) Bottom width: 120 ft .
6) S0 = 1: 12000
7) Depth of flow = 21 ft
8) Total length of distribution system 5758 canal mile . Field Canal 42640 canal mile.
9) Total length of canal system including second phase from Harrika barrage to Gadra
Road in Barmer would be 6183 canal mile. (distribution system)
10) Tile lining: Single tile lining 30.5 cm x 15.2 cm x 5.1 cm, on 1.0 cm thick cement
mortar layer of 1: 5.

3.3.3 Gang Canal


The Bikaner state was affected by the worst famine in 1899–1900. In order to get rid of this
problem permanently, in 1903 Maharaja Sri Ganga Singh obtained the services of A. W. E.

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Standly, Chief Engineer, who demonstrated the feasibility of the western area of the Bikaner
State being brought under irrigation from River Sutlej water. The plan of the Sutlej Valley
Project was drawn by then Chief Engineer of Punjab Mr. R. G. Kennedy according to which
the vast area of erstwhile Bikaner state could be brought under irrigation. Because of
objections by the erstwhile State of Bahawalpur, the project got delayed and finally with
intervention of then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon, in 1906, a Tripartite Conference was held
and an agreement was reached and signed on 4 September 1920. The foundation stone of
the Canal Head Works at Ferozepur was laid on 5 December 1925 and the work completed
in 1927 by constructing 89 miles of lined canal. The opening ceremony was performed on 26
October 1927 by Lord Irwin, the then Viceroy of India. The plan for Sri Ganganagar was
drawn at this time. And irrigated parts of Bikaner state came under Sri Ganganagar district
and now parted Hanumangargh District.

3.3.4 Spread of Waterlogging and Soil Salinity


Rise of Water Levels: With the expansion of area under irrigation, the command area
witnessed an alarming expansion of waterlogging and soil salinity. Before the advent of
irrigation in 1952, the groundwater table was at a depth of about 132 to 164 ft. With the
commissioning of IGNP and flow of canals and return flows for the period, an average rise of
groundwater of 1.42 ft/annum was observed for the two-decade period of 1952-72 (Figure
3-1).

Figure PROBLEM ANALYSIS-24 Hydrograph showing ground water depth changes (Year
1952 to 2003).

An abrupt rise in water levels was also recorded in Lakhuwali, Naurangdesar, Rampura,
Jorawarpura, Bherusari, Manaktheri and Jakharawali. The maximum and minimum rise of
water levels was observed as 4.26 and 1.96 ft per year in the areas of Suratgarh and Dabli
Kalan, respectfully, during the period 1973-93.

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During a decadal period of 1972-88, there was a substantial rise in water levels up to 3.85 ft
per year, which could be attributed to return flow of irrigation, high water allowances of 176.5
ft3/sec./1,000 acres, excess irrigation applications (Table 6) and filling up of depressions.

By 1994/95, the rate of rise was found to be 2.64 ft in Stage I and 1.08 ft in Stage II.
Fortunately, after 2000 a declining trend of groundwater depths is noticed, attributed to less
than normal rainfall and poor availability of water supply in canals. Even during normal
years, supplies to Rajasthan have been lesser than the agreed quota, but recent years have
witnessed a marked reduction (Figure 3-2). This was also aided by some additional
groundwater development by the farmers in Hanumangarh and Bikaner districts under
Stage-I and to a lesser extent in Stage-II.

3.3.5 Ganganagar District


Ganganagar district is located in the northernmost part of Rajasthan State and extends
between latitudes 28o42’30’’ and 30o12’00” N and longitudes 72o39’15” and 74o18’30”E.
Occupying an area of around 11154.66 sq. km, the district is surrounded by Bikaner and
Hanumangarh districts of Rajasthan, Ferozpur district of Punjab and International border of
Pakistan in the south, east, north and west respectively.

Although Ganganagar District lies in the great Thar Desert, irrigation via the Gang canal and
Ignp canal has changed the flora and fauna. The district can be classified into five
geographical regions:

i) The region irrigated by the Gang canal and the Bhakhra canal tributaries: the
northern region, which is 3/4 of the district, resembles the fertile plains of Punjab, but
some areas, like the area between the towns of Raisinghnagar and Vijaynagar, have
desert like conditions.
ii) Area irrigated by the Suratgarh branch of the IGNP canal
iii) Area irrigated by Anoopgarh branch of IGNP canal: it comprises Anoopgarh and
Gharsana tehsils. It is the southernmost region of the district, of which much has
been converted into plains, but sandy dunes can still be seen.
iv) The Naali belt: this is a narrow basin of the Ghaggar River. It is the only major river of
the district. It is a seasonal river, which flows in the rainy season. It enters the district
near Suratgarh and then flows in areas of Jaitsar, Vijaynagar, Anoopgarh and then
crosses the Indo-Pakistani border.
v) The 'Uncha Tibba' (high sandy dunes) area of Suratgarh tehsil: large sandy dunes
and lack of water predominate here. This area can be said to be a 'real desert'.
People of this area face harsh conditions in the desert.

3.3.6 Water Table Rise in Hakra Branch Command due to the Rise of Water Table in
Ganganagar District
Figures 5-3 and 5-4 present the depth to water table conditions and water table elevation
contours in Ganganagar District.

Figure-5-3 shows that depth to water table close to the Pakistan-India border ranges from 17
to 66 ft below ground surface. Before the introduction of canal system in Rajhastan the water

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was very deep and regional groundwater flow was from Hakra cmmand areas towards Thar
Desert. Due to the rise of water table in Ganganagar District, the regional groundwater flow
has changed with the result waterlogging has developed on Hakra command area.

Figure 5-4 shows water table elevation contours in Ganganagar District. The regional ground
water flow is from north to south and some ground water enters into the Cholistan side of
Pakistan.

Figure PROBLEM ANALYSIS-25 Depth to Water Level (May, 2011)

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Figure PROBLEM ANALYSIS-26 Hydrogeology of Ganganagar district

3.4 FLOOD ESTIMATION BY RATIONAL METHOD


For hydraulic designs of very small watersheds, such as that for rainwater harvesting
systems a complete analysis of runoff hydrograph is not always required. The design of
conveyance channels or energy dissipation arrangements for a storage pond requires the
estimation of design discharge. For this purpose, the maximum, or peak, of the hydrograph
is sufficient for design of the structure in question. The rational method is a simple technique

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for estimating a design discharge from a small watershed. This method is applicable for
catchment areas less than 1 square kilometers.

The required input data for peak discharge estimation is catchment geometry, runoff
coefficient and intensity of design rainfall. The runoff coefficient is estimated for a basin by
considering the physical conditions of the basin. The rational formula is given below;

Q = CIA‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒‒(1)

Where,
Q=Peak Discharge (Cusecs)
C= Runoff Coefficient
I = Rainfall Intensity (Inch/hour)
A = Catchment Area (Acres)

A computer worksheet is developed for the estimation of design flood with rational formula
by the consultants. Steps involved in the estimation of peak floods with rational formula by
using work sheet are given below.

3.5 PREPARATION OF GEOMETRIC DATA


The catchment area and longitudinal profile of longest stream are the basic geometric
information required for flood estimation. The baseline information for demarcation of
geometric data is following;
i) SOP maps of 1:50,000 scale
ii) Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
iii) Satellite imagery of Google Earth
iv) Topographic Survey of the Basin

By using aforementioned baseline information catchment area and L-profile are derived for
further use. The area of the catchment is directly used in the rational formula; time of
concentration of the basin is estimated by using L-profile which is further utilized in the
estimation of the appropriate duration of rainfall intensity and appropriate value of the runoff
coefficient.

3.6 DEVELOPMENT OF INTENSITY-DURATION-FREQUENCY RELATIONSHIP


The rational method is recommended for small areas less than 1km2 and recommended
duration of rainfall intensity for a particular catchment is equal to time of concentration.

The intensity-duration-frequency-relationship for 1 minute to 60 minutes can be developed


with sufficient length (30-50 years) of real time data by conducting frequency analyses of
annual maximum values of the rainfall for any required duration range from 1 minute to 60
minutes. In the areas where real time data of shorter durations is not available, synthetic
storm patterns are applied over the daily or hourly rainfall frequency results. In Pakistan, the
data less than one hour is not recorded and one hour data is recorded very rarely and also
practiced at few stations.

Due to non-availability of shorter duration data, a technique for development the IDF
relationship has been developed by NESPAK, which is combination of methodology

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prescribed by V.T chow in the handbook of hydrology. The intensity calculation for various
return periods and time durations has been carried out for the Bahawalnagar is described in
following steps;

i) Frequency Analyses of One day Annual Maximum Rainfall Data


One day Annual maximum rainfall data for Bahawalnagar zone is given in Table 3-3.
Frequency analysis of one-day annual maximum rainfall data of these has been carried out
using Gumbel’s Extreme Value Type-1 Distribution. The results of analysis are given in Table
3-4.

Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-17 1-Day Annual Maximum Rainfall Data

One Day Annual Maximum


Year Rainfall (inches)
Bahawalnagar
1963 1.310
1964 1.800
1965 0.000
1966 1.040
1967 4.920
1968 0.000
1969 0.000
1970 0.000
1971 1.600
1972 4.300
1973 2.180
1974 0.990
1975 1.890
1976 2.087
1977 0.906
1978 2.728
1979 0.764
1980 1.744
1981 0.610
1982 1.346
1983 1.870
1984 0.846
1985 0.756
1986 1.732
1987 0.787
1988 2.441
1989 2.165
1990 3.661
1991 1.417
1992 4.291
1993 4.035
1994 2.087
1995 5.118
1996 2.756
1997 2.953
1998 2.362
1999 0.752

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One Day Annual Maximum


Year Rainfall (inches)
Bahawalnagar
2000 1.181
2001 1.602
2002 0.787
2003 2.606
2004 1.378
2005 0.906
2006 1.181
2007 2.559
2008 0.984
2009 1.850
2010 1.102
2011 3.701
2012 1.457
2013 2.402
2014 2.362
2015 3.071
STD 1.233
Mean 1.875
C.V 0.658

Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-18 Results of Frequency Analysis of 1-Day Annual Maximum Rainfall

Return Period Rainfall (inches)


(Years) Bahawalnagar
5 2.85
10 3.62
25 4.58
50 5.30
100 6.01

It may be observed that the mean annual rainfall at Bahawalnagar station is 1.875. This is
not the case with annual maximum of 24-hr rainfall for Bahawalnagar which has higher mean
and standard deviation values. These features of Bahawalnagar rainfall has resulted in
higher values of rainfall intensity for different return periods.

ii) Time Distribution for one hour Rainfall


The storm rainfall has been developed to assemble the hourly rainfall from daily rainfall
which has been estimated by frequency analyses, as given in Table 3-5. Rainfall storm
pattern has been developed by using the hourly rainfall data of Bahawalnagar after
analyzing some intense storms at station and are given in Table 3-6.

The estimated rainfall by frequency analysis is daily rainfall for various return periods. So to
convert the daily rainfall into 24 hours, a conversion factor has also been estimated with
hourly data as given in Table 3-6.

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Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-19 Hourly Rainfall Pattern from Selected Storms at


Bahawalnagar

Hours / Cumulative Rainfall Depth (inches)


Years 1-day
1 2 3 6 24 Annual Fraction
Max
1969 1.73 2.04 2.07 2.07 2.14 2.14 1.00
1970 1.17 1.24 1.26 1.26 1.42 1.26 1.13
1971 1.31 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.8 1.00
1972 1.31 1.80 1.98 2.02 2.02 2.02 1.00
1973 1.65 2.55 3.46 4.41 5.38 4.66 1.15
1974 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.81 0.81 1.00
1975 0.80 1.10 1.20 1.32 2.68 1.86 1.44
1979 0.55 0.85 0.87 0.89 1.19 1.15 1.03
Average 1.20 1.57 1.75 1.90 2.32 2.08 1.10
%age of 24-
52% 67% 75% 81% 100%
hr

Initially, the one day rainfall has been converted into 24 hours rainfall by application of
estimated conversion factor 1.10 which corrects the data for a fixed time observation. The
storm pattern of rainfall is used as a relationship between time and rainfall which is stated as
below;

n
 t 
Pt                 (2)
 24 

Where Pt is ratio of rainfall at time ‘t’ with 24-hr rainfall, ‘t’ is time in hours and ‘n’ is an
exponent depending on hourly rainfall pattern, calculated as 0.21.For conversion of 24 hours
rainfall into hourly rainfall, the estimated rainfall patterns have been applied over daily rainfall
of various return periods of Bahawalnagar station.

The hourly rainfall for various return periods at selected stations are estimated by using
equation II and given in Table 3-6.

Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-20 Hourly Rainfall at Selected Stations for Different Return Periods

Return Period Rainfall (inches)


Bahawalnagar
5 1.61
10 2.04
25 2.59
50 2.99
100 3.39

iii) Time Distribution of Less Than one hour Rainfall


It has been observed from experience rainfall magnitudes for shorter durations are often
required especially in small catchments. However, In Pakistan, the shorter duration data less
than one hour is not available. To estimate realistic rainfall magnitudes for 5 minutes to 30
minutes durations, the methodology prescribed by V.T Chow has been adopted, which

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utilizes the rainfall distribution less than one hour duration in six U.S cities. The maximum
rainfall for each duration in six cities has been given in the Table 3-7 separately and its
fraction corresponding to 60 min rainfall has been estimated in the last row of Table 2.8

Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-21 Rainfall Distribution for upto one Hour duration

Time (minutes)
City
5 15 30 60
Bostan 0.56 1.12 1.45 1.8
Chicago 0.64 1.31 2.03 2.81
Atlanta 0.88 1.64 2.43 3.23
Davor 0.91 1.54 1.72 2.2
Ciattal 0.29 0.52 0.61 0.8
Los Anglos 0.44 0.81 1.12 1.51
Maximum 0.91 1.64 2.43 3.23
Fraction of 60 min 0.28 0.51 0.75 1.00

iv) Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship


The fraction of each duration has been used to convert the 60 minutes synthetic rainfall
magnitudes for 5, 10, 15, 25, 50 and 100 years return periods at Bahawalnagar into
intensities for the 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes. The formula for conversion of rainfall into
intensities is given below;

‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ ‒ (3)

Where,
= Rainfall intensity for given return period for specified duration
= Rainfall expressed as a fraction of 1 hour rainfall
= Duration of rainfall expressed

The estimated rainfall intensities at Bahawalnagar for various return periods and time
durations are given in Table 3-8.
Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-22 Intensity-Duration-Frequency Relationship at
Bahawalnagar

Rainfall Duration in Minutes (t)


Return Period
5 15 30 60
T
Bahawalnagar Rainfall Intensity (in/hr)
5 5.22 3.70 2.13 1.57
10 6.65 4.71 2.70 1.93
25 8.42 5.98 3.47 2.65
50 9.77 6.91 3.94 2.74
100 11.08 7.85 4.50 3.21

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Figure PROBLEM ANALYSIS-27 Intensity Duration Frequency Curve for Bahawalnagar

3.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TIME OF CONCENTRATION AND RAINFALL


INTENSITY
i) Selection of Appropriate Intensity Duration
The time of concentration ‘Tc’ of a watershed is often defined to be the time required for a
parcel of runoff to travel from the most hydraulically distant part of a watershed to the outlet.
‘Tc’ represents the time at which all areas of the watershed that will contribute runoff are just
contributing runoff to the outlet.
So, time is taken to select the duration of rainfall intensity for application of the rational
method. If the selected storm duration is larger than ‘Tc’, then the rainfall intensity will be less
than that for a duration at ‘Tc’. Therefore, the peak discharge estimated using the rational
method will be less than the optimal value. If the selected storm duration is less than ‘Tc’,
then the watershed is not fully contributing runoff to the outlet for that storm length, and the
optimal value will not be realized. Therefore, we choose the storm length to be equal to ‘Tc’
for use in estimating peak discharges using the rational method.
ii) Time of Concentration
The Kripich’s formula is used for calculation of the time of concentration. The formula for
estimation of the ‘Tc’ is given below:

L0.77
Tc  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - (4)
7700xS0.385

Where,
Tc = Time of Concentration (hours)
L = Length of the longest stream (feet)
S = Average slope of channel from farthest point to point under consideration

iii) Regression Equations


As the rainfall intensities have been estimated for some selected durations but the time of
concentration may varied from estimated duration. So the 2 nd degree polynomial curves have

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been fitted by taking time duration up to 60 minutes on x-axis and corresponding estimated
rainfall intensities on y-axis for all return periods separately*. The estimated equations from
linear regressions for Bahawalnagar station is given in Table 3-9.
Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-23 Regression Equations Between Intensity of Time for various Return
Periods

Station Return Period Equations


5 y = 0.00192x2 - 0.18990x + 6.12294
10 y = 0.00245x2 - 0.24187x + 7.79869
Bahawalnagar (Zone-I) 25 y = 0.00310x2 - 0.30650x + 9.88264
50 y = 0.00359x2 - 0.35514x + 11.45097
100 y = 0.00408x2 - 0.40311x + 12.99782

y = a + b1x2 +b2x - - - - - - - - - - (5)


Where,
y = Rainfall Intensity (inch/hr)
x = Rainfall Duration (minute)
= Time of Concentration

The ‘x’ is the variable in the standard equations given in the Table 3-10. The design intensity
for given return periods can be calculated for a particular catchment falling in particular zone,
by taking ‘x=Tc’ in the equations given in Table 3-10.

3.8 ESTIMATION OF C VALUE


For estimation of weighted average runoff coefficient ‘C’, a standard table is given below
from which the land use, terrain, soil permeability and surface storage can be estimated
separately with judgment based on physical evaluation of the area. By summation of
selected value of parameters a weighted runoff coefficient for particular area can be
estimated. The ‘C’ value calculation for a typical developed catchment in Bahawalnagar area
is provided in the Table 3-11.

Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-24 C Value of Basin’s Physical Conditions

Extreme High Normal Low


Relief 0.28 - 0.35 0.20 - 0.28 0.14 - 0.20 0.08 - 0.14

Steep, rugged hilly, with Rolling, with Relatively flat


terrain average average slopes land, with
With average slopes of 10 % of 5 % to 10 % average slopes
slopes to 30% Of 0 % to 5%
Above 30 %
Soil 0.12 - 0.16 0.08 - 0.12 0.06 - 0.08 0.04 - 0.06
Infiltration
No effective soil Slow to take up Normal; well High; deep sand
Cover, either Water, clay or drained or
rock or Shallow loam light or medium other soil that

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Extreme High Normal Low


Thin soil mantle soils textured soils, takes up water
of Of low infiltration sandy loams, silt readily, very light
Negligible Capacity, and silt loams well drained soils
infiltration imperfectly
Capacity or poorly drained
Vegetal 0.12 - 0.16 0.08 - 0.12 0.06 - 0.08 0.04 - 0.06
Cover
No effective Poor to fair; Fair to good; Good to
plant cover, bare clean cultivation about 50% of excellent; about
or very sparse crops, or poor area in good 90% of drainage
cover natural cover, grassland or area in good
less than 20% of woodland, not grassland,
drainage area more than 50% woodland or
over good cover of area in equivalent cover
cultivated crops
Surface 0.10 - 0.12 0.08 - 0.10 0.06 - 0.08 0.04 - 0.06
Storage
Negligible Low; well defined Normal; High; surface
surface system of small considerable storage, high;
depression few drainage ways; surface drainage system
and shallow; no ponds or depression not sharply
drainage ways marshes storage; lakes defined; large
steep and small, and pond flood plain
no marshes marshes storage or large
number of ponds
or marshes

Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-25 Runoff Coefficients for a Typical Developed Catchment


in Bahawalnagar Area

A developed watershed consisting of; Condition Results


1) Rolling with average slopes of 5 to 10%, Relief 0.20
2) clay type soils, Soil Infiltration 0.12
3) Poor to fair, Vegetal Cover 0.12
4) Negligible surface depression Surface Storage 0.12

The runoff coefficient, C, for the typical 0.56


watershed in Bahawalnagar area

3.9 PEAK FLOOD ESTIMATION


After the estimation of three required input parameters of rational formula, the peak floods
for hydraulic structures for any particular area in Bahawalnagar can be estimated. Here an
example has been produced for three defined zones separately by assuming the time of
concentration as 30 minutes and the catchment area has been assumed as 0.90 km 2 (222
acres). The estimated peak discharges by assumed ‘Tc’ and area for three defined zones for
the 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years return period are given in Table 3-12.

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Table PROBLEM ANALYSIS-26 Peak Discharges for a Typical Catchment and Assumed Area in
Bahawalnagar Area

Intensity
Station Return Period i = in/hr(30- Q (cfs) = CIA =(0.56*i*222)
minutes)
5 2.42 300
Bahawalnagar (Zone-I) 10 3.07 380
25 3.89 485
50 4.50 560
100 5.10 635

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4 OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING

4.1 GENERAL
The project area falls in the jurisdiction of Bahawalpur Irrigation Zone and spreads in
Bahawalnagar District. For this district the project would comprise of two main
components viz construction of additional drainage arrangements from RD 165+000 to
RD 260+000 (Project Component-A) and Extension & efficacy of existing drainage
system (Project Component-B).

Project Component-A
Following options have been studied under the present study:

Option 1: Lining of Hakra Branch Canal (HBC) in the affected reach


Option 2: Construction of Surface drains parallel HBC
Option 3: Construction of Surface drains parallel to HBC and in its command
area with outfall in old Hakra River Bed
Option 4: Construction of Surface drains parallel to HBC and in its command
area with lifted outfall in HBC

Project Component-B
a. Surface/seepage drains along Hakra Branch Canal from RD 20 to 50
b. Lining of 2-L,3-L and 4-L distributaries of HBC

*The works in component-B are obligatory part of the project

4.2 OPTION-1: LINING OF HAKRA BRANCH CANAL

4.2.1 General
One of the options to reduce seepage from Hakra Branch Canal is to line it. Various types
of linings are used to reduce seepage losses from canals. Clay, asphalt, plastic
membranes, cement mortar, gunite, and reinforced concrete have been used effectively.
An effective and inexpensive lining is a buried membrane constructed by spraying asphalt
over the sides and bottom of the channel and then placing a protective cover of about 6
inches of soil. The presence of sediment in the water may help to make the canal self-
sealing. For important canals a concrete lining is usually the most satisfactory because of
its permanency. Reinforced concrete is used for canal linings in thickness of 2 to 8 inches
depending upon the size and importance of the canal. Standard reinforcement is 0.5
percent in the longitudinal direction and 0.2 percent in the transverse direction. Water
tight construction joints are required at regular intervals. Mortar linings for small canals
are often placed by guniting over steel mesh or by use of movable forms. Special paving
machines are used on large canals. For a concrete lining to be successful, the canal
banks and bottom must be stable and well drained. If not, uplift under the lining may
cause serious damage when the canal is empty.

4.2.1.1 Reasons for Canal Lining

Canals are lined for different reasons such as:

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i) To save water (reduce seepage);


ii) To stabilize channel bed and banks (reduce erosion);
iii) To avoid piping through and under channel banks;
iv) To decrease hydraulic roughness (flow resistance);
v) To promote movement, rather than deposition, of sediments;
vi) To avoid weed growth;
vii) To decrease maintenance costs;
viii) To reduce movement of contaminated groundwater plumes.
ix) The most common and (usually) most important reason is to reduce seepage
losses. The assumption that lining will solve seepage problems is often
unfounded, simply because poor maintenance (especially with concrete linings)
will allow cracking and panel failures, and tears and punctures in flexible
membranes.

4.2.1.2 Seepage Rates from Lined and Unlined Canals


Seepage rate from unlined canals depends upon the soil material of the bed and banks
of the channel. Table 4-1 gives seepage rates from unlined canals constructed from
different materials.

Table OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-27 Seepage Rated from Canals

Material Seepage Rate (cusec/MSF) Seepage Rate (cumec/MCM)


From To From To
Clay loam 2.9 8.7 0.9 2.6
Sandy loam 11.6 17.4 3.5 5.2
Loose sandy soils 17.4 23.1 5.2 6.9
Gravelly soils 34.7 69.4 10.4 20.8

Seepage from unlined canals constructed in Indus Basin generally range from 12 to 6
Cs/MSF. Similarly, for cement concrete line canals seepage loss is assumed at 1.2
Cs/MSF of wetted perimeter.

4.2.1.3 Types of Canal Linings

1) Soil
 Lime
 Bentonite clay
 High swell bentonite and coarse clay or other bridging material
 Geosynthetic clay liner (Bentomat)
 Soil mixed with Portland cement
 Thin compacted earth (6 – 12 inches)
 Thick compacted earth (12 – 36 inches)

2) Fly ash
3.) Masonry (stone rock, brick)
4) Concrete (Portland cement)
 Non-reinforced concrete

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 Reinforced concrete (with steel)


 Gunite, shotcrete, cement mortar
5) Plastic
 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
 Oil resistant PVC
 Chlorinated Polyethylene (PE)
 Low density Polyethylene
 High density Polyethylene
 Polyurethane foam with or without coatings
6) Asphalt
 Sprayed (blown) asphalt
 Asphaltic concrete
7) Synthetic Rubber
 Butyl Rubber
 Neoprene Rubber
 Shotcrete over geosynthetic
 Concrete over geosynthetic

4.2.1.4 Comments on Different Lining Materials

Earthen Linings:

i) Earthen linings usually require significant-excavation and transport of suitable


material (in large volumes) from another site.
ii) Many earthen linings are 2 – 3 ft thick. Thin linings are 6 – 12 inches thick.
iii) Clay linings can crack after only a few cycles of wetting and drying, causing
increased seepage loss.

Portland Cement Linings:

i) Small concrete lined canals are usually non-reinforced.


ii) Steel reinforcement is also not commonly used on large canals anymore unless
there are compelling structural reasons.
iii) Concrete panels may have rubber strips to prevent seepage.
iv) Weep holes or flap valves are often installed in cut sections of a concrete lined
canal to relieve back pressures which can cause failure of the lining.
v) Flap valves may be installed both in side slopes and in the canal bed.
vi) Soil mixed with Portland cement, especially sandy soil, can be an acceptable cost-
saving approach to canal lining.
vii) Thickness of different types of concrete linings are given below:

Table-OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-28 Thickness of Canal Lining for Different Discharges

Lining Type Canal Discharge (cusec) Lining Thickness (inches)


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Unreinforced Cement Less than 200 2.00


Concrete
200 to 500 2.50
500 to 1500 3.00
1500 to 3500 3.50
More than 3500 4,00
Asphaltic Concrete Less than 200 2,00
200 to 1500 3.25
More than 1500 4,00
Reinforced Concrete Less than 500 3.50
500 to 2000 4.00
More than 2000 4.50
Gunite Less than 100 1.25
100 to 200 1.50
200 to 400 1.75
More than 400 2.00

Plastic and Rubber Linings:

i) Plastic linings are also referred to as geo-membranes or flexible membrane


linings.
ii) Plastic and rubber canal linings are covered with soil, rock, bricks, concrete, or
other material for protection and anchoring.
iii) Protection is from ozone attack and ultra violet radiation, puncture due to
maintenance machinery and animal feet etc., and vandalism.
iv) Anchoring is required to check floatation of the lining (high water table), resist
gravity force along sideslope and wind loading.
v) Plastic linings are typically 0.25 to 0.5 mm thick.
vi) Rubber linings can have a thickness ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mm.

4.2.1.5 Recommended Lining for the Hakra Branch Canal


As an Option-1, Hakra Branch Canal is proposed to be lined from RD 165+000 to RD
285+920. Total length of the lined canal will be 120,920 ft. Unreinforced cement concrete
is recommended as the lining material. Table 4-3 gives the design features of the
proposed lined canal. Figure 4-1 shows the proposed lined section of the Hakra Branch
Canal.

4.2.1.6 Cost of Lining


Estimated cost for the lining of Hakra Branch Canal is Rs 2,539 million. Details of the
estimated cost are given in the Table given below.

Table OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-29 Option-1: Lining of Hakra Branch


Canal – Cost Estimate

Cost Estimate
Sr. Amount Amount
Description of Components
No. (Rs.) (Rs. Million)

A CIVIL WORKS

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PCC Linning for Hakra Canal Lining RD 165+000 to 1,197.71


1 1,197,715,990
285+920 6
2 Earth Work RD 165+000 to 285+920 (Including Diversion) 669,930,656 669.931

Total Cost - A 1,867,646,646 1,867.647

Physical Contingencies @ 2% 37,352,933 37.353

C Total Cost with physical contingencies 1,904,999,579 1,905.00

D SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL

3 Environmental Management Plan 14,600,000 14.600

4 Land Acquisition 386,144,758 386.145

5 Tree Plantation @ 1% on A 18,676,466 18.676

Total Cost - D 419,421,225 419.421

E PROJECT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

6 Construction Supervision Consultants Cost @ 5% 93,382,332 93.382

7 Price Contingencies @ 6.5% 121,397,032 121.397

Total Cost - E 214,779,364 214.779

Total Cost C, D, and E 2,539,200,168 2,539.199

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Figure OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-28 Lining of Proposed reach of Hakra Branch Canal

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Table OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-30 Design Features of the Proposed Hakra Branch
Canal

Canal RD Distance Type of Bed Depth Design Side Free Bed


Channel Width of Flow Discharge Slope Board Gradient
(ft) (ft) (ft) (cusec) (ft)
0+000 0 Unlined 130 7.6 2897 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
22+500 22500 Unlined 130 7.6 2897 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
31+500 31500 Unlined 130 7.6 2897 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
32+900 32900 Unlined 130 7.6 2897 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
32+900 32900 Unlined 129 7.5 2837 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
47+500 47500 Unlined 129 7.5 2837 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
61+200 61200 Unlined 127 7.5 2837 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
74+400 74400 Unlined 127 7.5 2765 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
75+000 75000 Unlined 125 7.5 2765 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
89+750 89750 Unlined 125 7.5 2713 ½:1 2.5 0.00011
89+750 89750 Unlined 105 7.0 2713 ½:1 2.5 0.00012
126+000 126000 Unlined 105 7.0 2031 ½:1 2.5 0.00012
126+000 126000 Unlined 104 6.9 2031 ½:1 2.5 0.00012
149+820 149820 Unlined 104 6.9 1978 ½:1 2.5 0.00012
149+820 149820 Unlined 104 6.7 1978 ½:1 2.5 0.00012
164+700 164700 Unlined 104 6.7 1892 ½:1 2.5 0.00012
164+700 164700 Unlined 89 5.8 1892 ½:1 2.5 0.00012
185+000 185000 Unlined 89 5.8 1300 ½:1 2.5 0.00012
186+000 186000 Lined 68.77 5.8 1300 1:1 2.5 0.00012
195+790 195790 Lined 68.77 5.8 1300 1:1 2.5 0.00012
196+800 196800 Lined 68.77 5.8 1300 1:1 2.5 0.00012
196+800 196800 Lined 57.37 5.4 963 1:1 2.5 0.00012
210+500 210500 Lined 57.37 5.4 963 1:1 2.5 0.00012
210+500 210500 Lined 54.98 5.4 942 1:1 2.5 0.000125
225+000 225000 Lined 54.98 5.4 942 1:1 2.5 0.000125
229+250 229250 Lined 54.98 5.4 942 1:1 2.5 0.000125
229+250 229250 Lined 54.76 5.2 881 1:1 2.5 0.000125
254+300 254300 Lined 54.76 5.2 881 1:1 2.5 0.000125
254+300 254300 Lined 45.51 4.8 641 1:1 2.5 0.000125
285+920 285920 Lined 45.51 4.8 641 1:1 2.5 0.000125

4.2.1.7 Saving of Canal Water due to Lining


Estimated conveyance loss from unlined Hakra Branch Canal is 258.45 Cs. After lining it
is estimated that conveyance loss will reduce to 212.54 Cs. Thus a saving of 45.92 Cs
canal water is expected due to lining. Similarly, seepage to groundwater from Hakra
Branch Canal will reduce from 232.61 Cs to 191.28 Cs or a reduction of 41.32 Cs.

4.3 OPTION-2: CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE INTERCEPTOR DRAINS


PARALLEL TO HAKRA BRANCH CANAL WITH OUTFALL IN OLD HAKRA
RIVER BED
This study is intended to establish whether interceptor drains can provide satisfactory
drainage solution to problem areas along Hakra Branch Canal. Interceptor drains are
either open or buried. Open interceptor drains are deep surface drains while buried drains
are horizontal, perforated, sub-surface drains constructed close and parallel to a line
source for intercepting seepage from it. Figure-4.2 shows the reach of Hakra Branch
Canal where interceptor drains are considered for construction.

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Figure OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-29 Surface Interceptor Drains Parallel To Hakra Branch Canal

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For the project area, these drains are supposed to be installed on both sides of the Hakra
Branch Canal.

Canal seepage depends upon:

 Hydraulic conductivity of the soil below canal prism;


 Wetted perimeter of the canal prism;
 Depth of canal water; and
 Depth of water table below ground surface, away from the canal, or the
groundwater elevation.

Hydraulic Conductivity: When hydraulic conductivity of the soil is high, canal


seepage is also high and as a result interception by the drain is also high.

Anisotropy: Canal seepage is inversely proportional to anisotropy of the soil. As the


anisotropy ratio increases canal seepage decreases.

Wetted Perimeter: Canal seepage is directly proportional to its wetted perimeter. As


wetted perimeter increases, canal seepage also increases.

Canal Water Depth: Canal seepage is directly proportional to depth of water in the
canal. As depth of water increases, canal seepage also increases.

Depth of Water Table: Canal seepage is directly proportional to depth of water table.
As the depth to water table increases, canal seepage also increases.

Interception of canal seepage by interceptor drains depends upon:

 Distance of the drain from the canal center-line;


 Depth of drains;
 Hydraulic conductivity of the soil where the drain is installed;
 Anisotropy of the soil; and
 Depth of water table below ground surface, away from the canal, or the
groundwater elevation.

Distance of Drain: Drain interception is inversely proportional to distance of drain the


centerline of the canal. As the distance increases, drain interception decreases.

Depth of Drain: Drain interception is directly proportional to the depth of the drain. As
the depth increases, drain interception increases.

Hydraulic Conductivity: Drain interception is directly proportional to hydraulic


conductivity of the soil where the drain is installed. As the hydraulic conductivity
increases, drain interception increases. Interceptor drains shall not be installed at low
hydraulic conductivity reaches.

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Anisotropy: When the soil is anisotropic, more groundwater flows towards the drain
from the upper soil layers as compared to flow from deeper soil layers. Therefore,
interception in anisotropic soils is more. As the anisotropy ratio increases interception
also increases.

Depth to Water Table: Drain interception is inversely proportional to depth of water


table. Under shallow water table conditions, there is more drain interception. When
depth to water table away from the canal is deep then the drain interception reduces
too much and the installation of interceptor drains becomes uneconomical.

4.3.1 Open Ditch/Surface Interceptor Drain System


Interceptor drain may be an open channel parallel and close to the canal. Its distance
shall be about 200 ft away from the outer edge of the canal embankment. The drain will
be more effective when it is relatively deep. A shallow drain will be less effective. Open
interceptor drain is expected to outfall by gravity into Cholistan.

4.3.2 Location of Surface Interceptor Drains


Location and length of surface interceptor drains are:

i) Along left hand side of the Hakra Branch Canal, the interceptor drain starts from
RD 165+000 and deviates towards the Hakra Left Disty at tail RD 285+920 of
Hakra Branch Canal and outfall in the old Hakra rivre . Its total length is 137+300
feet.
ii) Along right hand side of the Hakra Branch Canal, the interceptor drain starts from
RD 200+000 and it is syphoned under Hakra Branch canal at RD 275+000 and
outfall in the Hakra Left drain at RD 27+682 Its total length is 75+235 ft.

4.4 COST OF SURFACE INTERCEPTOR DRAINS


Estimated cost of the proposed Interceptor Drains is Rs 713.5 million. Details of the
estimated cost are given in Tables 4-5.

Table OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-31 Cost of Surface Interceptor Drains Parallel To
Hakra Branch Canal

Sr. Amount Amount


Description of Components
No. (Rs.) (Rs. Million)

A CIVIL WORKS

1 Earthwork of Drainage System 223,033,177 223.033

2 Box Culverts (39 Nos.) detail attatched 13,760,212 13.760

3 Aqueducts ( 4 Nos.) detail attatched 44,381,486 44.381

4 Water Course Crossing 23,961,187 23.961

5 Inlets (80 Nos.) 40,444,005 40.444

6 Out Fall Structures 5,247,288 5.247

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7 Linning of 3-L & 4-L Distys 148,621,978 148.622

8 Drainge Crossing (3 Nos.) 14,259,357 14.259

Total Cost - A 513,708,690 513.709

Physical Contingencies @ 2% 10,274,174 10.274

C Total Cost with physical contingencies 523,982,863 523.98

D SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL

9 Environmental Management Plan 7,300,000 7.300

10 Land Acquisition 118,012,782 118.013

11 Tree Plantation @ 1% on A 5,137,087 5.137

Total Cost - D 130,449,869 130.450

E PROJECT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

12 Construction Supervision Consultants Cost @ 5% 25,685,434 25.685

13 Price Contingencies @ 6.5% 33,391,065 33.391

Total Cost - E 59,076,499 59.076

Total Cost C, D, and E 713,509,232 713.508

4.5 OPTION-3: CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE INTERCEPTOR DRAINS,


PARALLEL TO HB CANAL AND SURFACE/SEEPAGE DRAINS IN THE
COMMAND AREA WITH COMBINED OUTFALL IN OLD HAKRA RIVER BED
This option is an extension of the previous one with the only difference of 8-r, 9-R and
Left Sub drains. The surface/seepage drains need to constructed to provide relief to the
low lying areas in the command areas of 3-L disty, 4-L disty, 7-R disty, 8-R disty and 9-R
disty. These areas are the most affected due to rise in water table. At present there are no
drainage measure available in these command areas.

4.5.1 Cost Estimate


Estimated cost of the proposed Interceptor Drains and Surface drains in the command
area is Rs 1,321.4 million. Details of the estimated cost are given in Tables 4-6.

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Table OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-32 Construction of Surface Interceptor


Drain and Surface/seepage drains in the command area

Sr. Amount Amount


Description of Components
No. (Rs.) (Rs. Million)

A CIVIL WORKS

1 Earthwork of Drainage System 519,951,036 519.951

2 Box Culverts (76 Nos) Detail Attached 23,499,166 23.499

3 Aqueducts (6 Nos) Detail Attached 64,521,304 64.521

4 Water Course Crossing (93 Nos.) Detail Attached 41,975,378 41.975

5 Inlets (149 Nos.) Detail Attached 57,391,969 57.392

6 Out Fall Structures (2 Nos.) 10,494,576 10.495

7 Linning of 3-L & 4-L Distys 248,621,978 248.622

8 Drainge Crossing (3 Nos.) 14,259,357 14.259

Total Cost - A 980,714,764 980.715

Physical Contingencies @ 2% 19,614,295 19.614

B Total Cost with physical contingencies 1,000,329,059 1,000

C SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL

9 Environmental Management Plan 7,300,000 7.300

10 Land Acquisition 191,097,903 191.098

11 Tree Plantation @ 1% 9,807,148 9.807

Total Cost - C 208,205,051 208.205

D PROJECT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

12 Construction Supervision Consultants Cost @ 5% 49,035,738 49.036

13 Price Contingencies @ 6.5% 63,746,460 63.746

Total Cost - D 112,782,198 112.782

Total Cost B, C, and D 1,321,316,307 1,321.316

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Figure OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-30 Construction of Surface Interceptor Drain and Surface/seepage drains in the command area

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4.6 OPTION-4: CONSTRUCTION OF SURFACE INTERCEPTOR DRAINS,


PARALLEL TO HB CANAL AND SURFACE DRAINS IN THE COMMAND AREA
WITH LIFTED OUTFALL IN HAKRA BRANCH
The idea of outfall in old Hara river bed was technically feasible, as shown in Option-3 but
is not viable due to social issues. The waterlogging ends up along Hakra canal at around
RD 260. Onwards it serves as a carrier drain only. Therefore, the farmers refused to
provide their land for the drain construction. The consultants, however, realized that
pumping the drainage effluent back into the canal is also a viable option.

This option, as shown in Figure 4-4, is a modified form of the previous one, i.e. lifted
outfall in Hakra canal. This option includes surface/interceptor drains as well as drains in
the command areas of 2-L, 3-L, 4-L, 7-R, 8-R and 9-R. The surface/seepage drains are
meant to reclaim the canal command areas.

But, in order to have a sustainable solution, tube wells are to be provided along the drains
in command area

4.6.1 Cost Estimate.


Estimated cost of the proposed Interceptor Drains and Surface drains in the command
area is Rs 1,511.62 million. Details of the estimated cost are given in Tables 4-7; Backup
is attached as Annex-B.

Table OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-33 Construction of Surface Interceptor


Drain and Surface drains in the command area

Sr. Amount Amount


Description of Components
No. (Rs.) (Rs. Million)

A CIVIL WORKS

1 Earthwork of Drainage System 363,555,594 363.556

2 Box Culverts (58 Nos) 35,319,029 35.319

3 Aqueducts (7 Nos) 56,019,699 56.020

4 Water Course Crossing (119 Nos) 46,339,335 46.339

5 Inlets (122 Nos) 50,662,818 50.663

6 Tube Well Room (43 Nos) 15,030,220 15.030


Construction of New Quarter for Tube well Operator
7 26,260,216 26.260
(43+4 Nos)
8 Pump House (4 Nos) 62,769,141 62.769

9 Linning of 2-L, 3-L & 4-L Distys 90,864,483 90.864

10 Village Road Bridge (3 Nos) 28,394,264 28.394

Total Cost - A 775,214,799 775.215

B MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL WORKS


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11 Installation of Tube Wells along Drains (43 Nos) 97,262,560 97.263

12 Installation of Pumps in Pump Houses 77,819,331 77.819


Installation of HT/LT network for operation of Tube
13 45,021,785 45.022
Wells & Pump Houses
Total Cost - B 220,103,676 220.104

Total Cost A and B 995,318,475 995.319

Physical Contingencies @ 2% 19,906,370 19.906

C Total Cost with physical contingencies 1,015,224,845 1,015.225

D SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL

14 Environmental Management Plan 7,300,000 7.300

15 Land Acquisition 368,999,750 369.000

16 Tree Plantation @ 1% 9,953,185 9.953

Total Cost - D 386,252,935 386.253

E PROJECT CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

17 Vehicles for Supervisory Consultants Staff 10,000,000 10.000

18 Price Variation @ 6.5% 64,695,701 64.696

19 Add Punjab Sales Tax @ 5% 49,765,924 49.766

20 Design and Drawings @ 1% 9,953,185 9.953

Total Cost - E 134,414,809 134.415

Total Cost C, D, and E 1,535,892,589 1,535.893

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Figure OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-31 Construction of Surface Interceptor Drain and Surface drains in the command area

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4.7 TUBEWELLS ON COMMAND AREA DRAINS

4.7.1 General
Design of drainage tubewells, for the study area, include:

i) Determination of optimum size of the tube well;


ii) Drainable surplus;
iii) Number of tube wells;
iv) Design of a single tube well;
v) Spacing between tube wells; and
vi) Cost of the recommended tube well.

4.7.2 Optimum Size of Tube well


Optimum size of tube well for the study area depends upon the following factors:

 Unit cost of the tube well;


 Source of power (electricity or solar power);
 Maximum size of available solar powered motor.

After considering the factors, tube well of 2 Cs capacity becomes the optimum size as it
gives the lowest installation cost.

4.7.3 Drainable Surplus


Recharges to and discharges from the area are:

Seepage to groundwater from branch canal 101,901 AF


Seepage to groundwater from distributaries and
101,901 AF
minors
Seepage to groundwater from watercourses 54,736 AF
Seepage to groundwater from field application 218,946 AF
Recharge from rainfall 100,800 AF
Total Recharge 578,284 AF
Hakra branch gross area 670,665 acres
Problem area 24,000 acres
Recharge to the problem area 20,694 AF
Evaporation loss 0 AF
Net recharge 20,694 AF
Net recharge for unit area (drainage coefficient) 0.86 ft/year
Operation factor of tubewells 0.33 %
Installed capacity of tubewells per sq.mile 1.78 cusec
Installed capacity of tubewells over 30,600 acres 85.44 cusec

4.7.4 Number of Tube Wells


Under the project all tube wells are proposed to be operated by grid power for 8 hours.
Pumping equipment of tube wells will suit grid power system. Maximum recommended
capacity of a tube well is 2 Cfs.

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Tube Wells
Sr. Proposed
DESCRIPTION OF WORK
No. (2 Cfs
Each)
1. Construction of new drain Hakra left sub 18

2. Construction of new drain 7-R 6

3. Construction of new drain 8-R 4

4. Construction of new drain 9-R Main 15

4.7.5 Design of a New Tube Well


A complete installation of tube well includes tube well, pumping equipment, pump house,
motor control equipment and delivery system. Components of the tube wells are:

 Pump housing casing;


 Slotted casing or screen;
 Reducer;
 Blank casing; and
 Bail plug.

Pump Housing Casing is the topmost pipe, which is blank in nature and accommodates the
pump assembly. It shall have sufficient length so that the pumping water level, under
extreme operating conditions, shall remain within the pump housing casing and proper
submergence is also available for the bowl assembly of the pump. Material of the pump
housing casing will be Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic. Length, diameter and material of the
pump housing casing for 2 Cs tube wells are:

Well Capacity Pump Housing Casing


Wall Thickness
(cusec) Length (ft) Diameter (in) Material
(mm)
1.0 80 12 Fiberglass 6.25
1.5 80 14 Fiberglass 6.25
2.0 80 15 Fiberglass 6.25

Slotted Casing or Screen is slotted/ perforated or continuous slot pipe which is placed
against water yielding formations like medium to sand or gravel. Diameter and length of the
slotted casing is selected in such a way that the velocity of water flowing through the slots is
less than 0.10 ft/sec, preferably close to 0.06 ft/sec. For the project following are slotted
casing requirements:

 Material of the slotted casing will be Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic.

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 Open area of the slotted casing will be at least 10 %.


 Lengths, diameters and material of slotted tube well casing for different capacity tube wells
are:
Well
Slotted Tubewell Casing
Capacity
Wall Thickness
(cusec) Length (ft) Diameter (in) Material
(mm)
1.0 70 10 Fiberglass 6
1.5 100 10 Fiberglass 6
2.0 140 10 Fiberglass 6

Reducer is 30 inches long fitting for the purpose of joining larger diameter pump housing
casing with shorter diameter slotted or blank casing.

Blank Casing: It is the blank pipe which is placed against non-water yielding formations like
clay, silt or very fine sands. Length of blank pipe is site specific and varies from place to
place. Diameter and material of the blank casing will be same as that used for the slotted
casing. Provisional quantity of blank casing for different capacity tube wells is taken at 20 ft.

Bail Plug is a 10 ft long blank pipe and is placed at the bottom of the well. It is provided with
a plug at the bottom.

Apart from the above stated components, the following are also parts of the tube wells:

 Gravel shrouding;
 Cement-slurry seal; and
 Centralizers.

Gravel Shrouding: Properly graded, river-borne gravel is placed in annular spacing


between the bore hole and tube well casing. Its minimum thickness shall be 4 inches. The
grading of the gravel shrouding material and the well screen slot size shall be determined
after the sieve analysis of the aquifer material or as directed by the Site Engineer. The
Contractor shall maintain suitable US Standard sieves on site for determining the grades of
aquifer material and the graded filter (gravel shrouding material). The gradations of
shrouding material for 1.0 mm slot size of screen are given below in Table 4-8.

Centralizers: These are devises to keep the well casing, during installation, in the center of
the bore hole.

4.7.6 Spacing between Tube wells


Well field will comprise of tube wells installed along surface drains. Spacing between tube
wells will be different for each option and similarly for seepage and field drainage wells. Field
drainage wells will be installed in water logged areas where depth to ground water is less
than 5.0 ft. Spacing between tube wells will be at least 1000 ft.

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Table OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-34 -Grain Size Distribution of the Recommended Gravel
Pack

% Gravel passing for


US. Standard Sieve No.
slot size of 1.0 mm
4 100
8 75-91
10 59-75
12 38-54
16 16-32
20 6-12
Pan 3%

4.7.7 Appurtenant and Disposal Works


Appurtenant and Disposal Works will include pump house, discharge box and a short length
of lined disposal channel. Each tube well will be housed in a pump room.

4.7.8 Electrification of Tubewells


For the energizing the tube wells the grid power is proposed to be installed. A new
transmission line will be constructed provide electricity to the tubewells as well as the
proposed pump houses.

4.8 EXTENSION OF EXISTING DRAINAGE SYSTEM


Main items under civil works as shown in the figure are elaborated as follows;

i. Construction of 4,973ft long Kot Abdul Haq Drain, proposed to outfall in


Hassan Chowki Drain at RD 0+500.
ii. Construction of 4,860ft long Hassan Chowki Drain, proposed to outfall in
Hakra Canal.
iii. Construction of 2,763ft long Bakhu Shah Drain, proposed to out fall in
Hassan Chowki Drain at RD 0+500.
iv. Construction of 12,778ft long Korian Wali Main Drain, proposed to out fall in
Hakra Canal.
v. Construction of 3,736ft long Korian Wali Sub Drain, proposed to outfall in
Korian Wali Main Drain at RD 3+000.
vi. Concrete Lining of 2-L, 3-L disty and 4-L disty.
The layout plan of these drains is shown in the Figure 4-5 below

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Figure OPTIONS TO CONTROL WATER LOGGING-32 Layout Plan for Extension of existing
drainage system

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5 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 EVALUTATION OF OPTIONS


Option-1: Lining of Hakra branch canal (RD.165+000 up to Tail RD 285+920) with
drainage system under lining

 Hakra Branch canal (HBC) to be concrete lined in the water logged reach

 Lining to be started at RD 165+000 to RD 260+000.

 Water level to be kept at same level as per existing L-section.

 Temporary land acquisition and resettlement for diversion will be required.

 Under this option, 4” thick concrete lining has to be laid on side slope 1:1.5.
Redesigning of Hakra Branch Canal L-section by improving hydraulic parameters i.e.
velocity and surface roughness Manning ‘n’ 0.016.

 Mechanical part of HBC i.e. gates of cross regulator(s) and head regulator(s) need to
be rehabilitated or replaced as per physical condition observed during condition
survey.

 HBC pass through water logged area, therefore enormous quantum of dewatering
required thus continuous pumping imperative and essential for laying concrete lining.

 After completion of lining proper monitoring to protect the lining from pore pressure is
very important. Therefore it is necessary to take special care for the lining
maintenance. For doing that Weep holes can been constructed in bed as well as on
slopes of the lined channel therefore, proper fund for this operation is required and
special vigilant team is to be deputed for this assignment.

 Lining will only be helpful for future reduction in seepage from Hakra branch canal
but present conditions cannot be addressed, especially in the low lying areas of the
command area.

OPTION 2: Construction of Surface Interceptor drains parallel to HB canal with


outfall in old Hakra river bed

 Left and right Parallel drains move along Hakra branch Canal, from RD 165+000 to
260+000 on left side of HB canal and RD 200+000 to 270+000 on right side of HB
canal.

 At Hakra tail, right parallel drain outfalls into Old hakra river while right parallel drain
siphon through Hakra Branch canal at RD 275+000 and outfall into the Hakra Left
drain at RD 25+000.

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 Advantage of this option is that it will cater canal seepage effectively but on the other
hand, it’s not suitable for reclaiming lower lying areas in canal command area. This
deficiency renders it to be a non suitable option.

 Secondly, construction and maintenance of such a huge siphon is also an avoidable


option. This will create problems for an effective outfall of right main drain and might
prove difficult for maintenance.

OPTION 3: Construction of Surface Interceptor drains, parallel to HB canal and


surface/seepage drains in the command area with combined outfall in
old Hakra River

 These drains can effectively drain out seepage in command area on both Left and
right side of Hakra branch Canal, from RD 165+000 to 260+000 on left side of HB
canal and RD 200+000 to 270+000 on right side of HB canal.

 At Hakra tail, right parallel drain outfalls into Old hakra river while right parallel drain
siphon through Hakra Branch canal at RD 275+000 and outfall into the Hakra Left
drain at RD 25+000.

 Advantage of this option is that it will cater some canal seepage and on the other
hand, it can reclaim majority of waterlogged command area.

 Like option 2, this will also be having problems with the siphon.

 The land along Hakra canal on left side after RD 260+000 are not having water
logging issues. Similarly the land along Hakra canal on right side is also in a fairly
good condition from RD 270 and onwards. From thereon, the drain is acting only as a
carrier drain and not meant for lnd reclamation. Therefore, the farmers of these areas
resisted the proposal of an un-necessary carrier drain and requested to prepare
some suitable option. This lead the Consultants to go for the next option.

OPTION 4: Construction of Surface Interceptor drains, parallel to HB canal and


surface/seepage drains in the command area with lifted outfall in Hakra
Canal + Tubewells in Command

 This option is very similar to option-3 in its layout, the only difference is that it outfalls
in the Hakra canal.

 The left interceptor as well as command area drains join together and then get a
lifted outfall in to the Hakra canal at RD 260+000.

 Similarly, right interceptor as well as command area drains join together and then get
a lifted outfall in to the Hakra canal at RD 270+000.

 This option avoids the complexity of siphon as well as the social issues to construct a
25 RD of a huge size carrier drain.

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 Addition of Tubewells on the drains in command area, including 7-R, 8-R, 9-R and
Left Sub Drain will prove even better to provide an early relief as well as prove it to
be sustainable solution.

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5.2 COMPARISON OF OPTIONS

Comparison of Options
Option - 1 Option - 2 Option - 3 Option - 4
Construction of Surface
Construction of Surface
Interceptor drains, parallel
Construction of Surface Interceptor drains, parallel to
Lining of Hakra branch canal to HB canal and
Consideration Interceptor drains HB canal and
(RD.165+000 up to Tail RD surface/seepage drains in
parallel to HB canal with surface/seepage drains in
285+920) with drainage system the command area with
outfall in old Hakra river the command area with
under lining lifted outfall in Hakra
bed combined outfall in old
Canal + Tubewells in
Hakra River
Command
Technically Feasible but Complex Feasible Feasible Feasible

Constructability Difficult Easy Easy Easy

Sustainability of Solution Not Good Not Good Good Very Good

Reclamation Process Slow Not very Effective Slow Fast; due to Tubewells

O & M Cost Very High Low Reasonable High; with Tubewells

Construction Time Excessive; with diversion channel Less Reasonable Reasonable

Cost (M. PKR) 2,539 713 1,321 1,535.89


Not a favorable solution as it will Not a favorable solution as Will not be a reasonable option Will be a reasonable option
be ineffective to reclaim majority it will be ineffective to to provide suitable relief, but to provide suitable relief.
of low lying command area. reclaim majority of low lying efficiency of siphon and a long Tubewells will provide a
Remarks command area. carrier drain will not be sustainable solution.
Will require a high O & M cost. favorable option. Its effectiveness is high.

Recommendation Not Recommended Not Recommended Not Recommended Recommended

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5.3 RECOMMENDE PLAN


In light of the above discussion the Option-4 is recommended, therefore, for construction in
the project area.

Major works of this project includes:

a. Construction of Drain Kot Abdul haq


New Drain Kot Abdul haq is proposed to be constructed to reclaim
waterlogged area in chak Gurusir and Kot Abdul haq. Kot Abdul haq Drain is
proposed to be outfall at RD 26+770 of Hakra Branch Canal by means of
pumping arrangement. It will be 4,971 ft long with proposed design discharge
of 10 cusec.

b. Construction of Drain Hassan Chowki


New Drain Hassan Chowki is proposed to be constructed to reclaim
waterlogged area in chak Kot Abdul haq and Bakhushah. Hassan Chowki
Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD 26+770 of Hakra Branch Canal by
means of pumping arrangement. It will be 4,297 ft long with proposed design
discharge of 10 cusec.

c. Construction of Drain Bakhu Shah


New Drain Bakhu Shah is proposed to be constructed to reclaim waterlogged
area in chak Bakhu Shah. Bakhu Shah Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD
26+770 of Hakra Branch Canal by means of pumping arrangement. It will be
2,767 ft long with proposed design discharge of 10 cusec.

d. Construction of Drain Korianwali


New Drain Korianwali is proposed to be constructed to reclaim waterlogged
area in chak Korianwali. Korianwali Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD
42+660 of Hakra Branch Canal by means of pumping arrangement. It will be
7,508ft long with proposed design discharge of 10 cusec.

e. Construction of Drain Korianwali Sub


New Drain Korianwali Sub is proposed to be constructed to reclaim
waterlogged area in chak Korianwali. Korianwali Sub Drain is proposed to be
outfall at RD 42+660 of Hakra Branch Canal by means of pumping
arrangement. It will be 3,720 ft long with design discharge of 10 cusec.

f. Construction of Hakra Left Main Drain


New Drain Hakra Left Main is proposed to be constructed along left side of
Hakra Branch Canal from RD 175+000 to 260+000 to reclaim waterlogged
area in chak Nos. 153-2L, 152-2L, 154-3L, 204-HB and 239-A9R. Hakra Left
Main Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD 260+000 of Hakra Branch Canal
by means of pumping arrangement. It will be 84,900ft long with proposed
design discharge of 90 cusec.

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g. Construction of Hakra Right Main Drain


New Drain Hakra Right Main is proposed to be constructed along Right side
of Hakra Branch Canal from RD 200+000 to 260+510 to reclaim waterlogged
area in chak Nos.194-7R, 198-8R, 204-9R, 236-9R and 237-9R. Hakra Right
Main Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD 260+510 of Hakra Branch Canal
by means of pumping arrangement. It will be 60+618 ft long with proposed
design discharge of 52 cusec.

h. Construction of Hakra Left Sub Drain


New Drain Hakra Left Sub is proposed to be constructed to reclaim
waterlogged area in chak Nos. 156-3L, 195, 196-HB and 204-HB. Hakra Left
Sub Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD 17+622 of Hakra Left Main Drain. It
will be 41+750 ft long with proposed design discharge 48 cusec, having 15
No. of Tube wells of 2 cusec capacity each.

i. Construction of 1-L of Hakra Left Sub Drain


New 1-L of Hakra Left Sub drain is proposed to be constructed to outfall at
RD 5+081 of Hakra Left sub Drain. It will be 5+000 ft long with proposed
design discharge 8 cusec, having 3 No. of Tube wells of 2 cusec capacity
each.

j. Construction of Drain 7-R


New Drain 7-R is proposed to be constructed to reclaim waterlogged area in
chak No.197. 7-R Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD 34+357 of Hakra
Right Main Drain. It will be 6+078 ft long with proposed design discharge of
15 cusec, having 6 No. ofTube wells of 2 cusec capacity each.

k. Construction of Drain 8-R


New Drain 8-R is proposed to be constructed to reclaim waterlogged area in
chak no.199-8R. 8-R Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD 22+285 of Hakra
Right Main Drain. It will be 4+670 ft long with proposed design discharge of 9
cusec, having 4 No. of Tube wells of 2 cusec capacity each.

l. Construction of Drain 9-R


9-R Drain is proposed to be constructed to reclaim waterlogged area in chak
Nos.205-9R, 206-9R, 234-9R, 235-9R and in command area of 9R
distributary and 1L/9R Minor. 9-R Drain is proposed to be outfall at RD
260+510 of Hakra Branch Canal by means of pumping arrangement. It will be
32+980 ft long with proposed design discharge of 47 cusec, having 15 No. of
Tube wells of 2 cusec capacity each.

m. Lining of 2Ldisty
Existing 2Ldisty of Hakra Branch Canal is proposed to be lined to reclaim the
command area of 2L. It will be 21,438 ft long with design discharge of
19.11cusec.

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n. Lining of 3L disty
Existing 3L disty of Hakra Branch Canal is proposed to be lined to reclaim the
command area of 3L. It will be 13,900ft long with design discharge of
9.68cusec.

o. Lining of 4L disty
Existing 4L disty of Hakra Branch Canal is proposed to be lined to reclaim the
command area of 4L. It will be 10,594 ft long with design discharge of
10.54cusec.

p. Mechanical Works
 Total 43 tube wells of 2.0 cusec design capacity each, are proposed to be
installed within the Project area. Distribution of proposed tubewells is
given below.
 15 No. Tube wells along Hakra Left Sub Drain
 3 No. Tube wells along 1-L of Hakra Left Sub Drain
 6 No. Tube wells along 7-R Drain
 4 No. Tube wells along 8-R Drain
 15 No. Tube wells along 9-R Drain

 For the proper disposal of water into Hakra Branch Canal, 4 No. pumping
stations are proposed.
 Pumping station No.1is proposed at RD 26+770 of Hakra Branch
Canal with 30 cusec total capacity, having a pumping unit of 10 cusec
and 20 cusec each.
 Pumping station No.2 is proposed at RD 42+660 of Hakra Branch
Canal with 30 cusec total capacity, having a pumping unit of 10 cusec
and 20 cusec each.
 Pumping station No.3 is proposed at RD 260+000 of Hakra Branch
Canal with 100 cusec total capacity, having 4 pumping units of 20
cusec and 2 pumping units of 10 cusec each.
 Pumping station No.4 is proposed at RD 260+510 of Hakra Branch
Canal with 110 cusec total capacity, having 5 pumping units of 20
cusec each and 1 pumping unit of 10 cusec.

 The newly constructed Pump Houses and Tubewells will be energized by


a new feeder. For this purpose, a new High Transmission line will be
constructed from the nearest grid station to the project site, from where it
will be distributed along the drains in command area.

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 Installation of H/T, L/T network, distribution boards including circuit


brakers, ampere meters, volt meters will be installed for Tubewells &
Pump Motors.

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Figure CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS-33 Recommended Option-4; Construction of Surface Interceptor Drain and Surface
drains in the command area with Tubewells

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6 AGRICULTURE STUDIES (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)

6.1 GENERAL
The Project area comprises of severely waterlogged pockets geographically lying on left side of
(in between canal and Indo-Pak border) and on the right side of the Hakra canal below 85 RD.
Administratively, the area falls within two Tehsils Haroonabad and Fort Abbas of Bahawalnagar
District. All water logged pockets (project area) are mainly the low-lying areas and have brought
a large chunk of areas out of cultivation thus causing economic losses and deprivation of local
farming community. There is a controversy regarding the source of water-logging among locals.
A part of the farming community believes that the water logging is being caused by the
groundwater intrusion from Indian side of the boarder whereas rest of the population debates
that main source is seepage of Hakra canal. The severity of water-logging problem also directly
linked with the intensity and frequency of monsoon rains as the problem escalates with heavy
and frequent rains. For example, the floods of 2010 and heavy rainfall in August 2011 raised
the water table and severely affected the areas in depression of the district including the project
area. It also increased the overall area under influence of water logging. The other reasons
reported by the locals and official of Irrigation and Agriculture Departments; include the poor
conditions of existing drains, sandy soils with high percolation losses, and inability of
groundwater use for crop production due to highly ground water salinity etc. Present drainage
system in the project areas thus needs improvements related to construction of new drains,
rehabilitation of existing drains, installation of new tubewells in low-lying areas enhancing the
present intensity and capacity of tubewells (if feasible) and installation of pumping stations to lift
and dispose off drained water into drains which are on high elevations than the affected areas.
While considering the water logging in the project area with agricultural stand point, the area
can be divided into various categories based upon the severity of water-logging. The rise in
water table also affects the cropping pattern and crop diversification by shifting the cultivation of
high risk crops (e.g. cotton i.e. high risk crop due to water sensitivity) to low risk crops (e.g. rice
less sensitive to water). All such issues have been considered while studying the project area as
described in the following.

6.2 EXTENT OF WATER LOGGING


It has been observed during field visit that Water logging intensity varies in its extent inside the
project area. The impact of water-logging is sever in the depression areas whereas such water-
logging affect in the bordering peripheries of depressions is comparatively mild. Though crops
are being grown successfully in such areas but always remain under threat of partial or
complete failure with rise in water-table due to inward movement of water from the adjacent
areas. Inside the outer periphery with moderate to marginal water-logging impacts there exists
most water-logged affected areas where crops production is either not possible at all or, if
grown, exhibits below average yields. Accordingly, waterlogged area can, therefore, be
categorized into three types for the purpose of proper evaluation of water logging impacts on the
crop production. The categorization is based upon the water logging extent; it impacts on crops
and land use pattern. The project area has been categorized as (i) severely affected (Category-I

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water logging without cropping) (ii) moderately effected (Category-II water logging with some
cropping with low yields and under threat of failure, and; (iii) slightly effected (Category-III water
logging with normal cropping but under potential threat of water-logging if conditions persists in
near future). It is, however, highlighted that part of the category-III areas may shift to Category-II
areas and Category-II into Category-I in the case of floods and heavy rains in future and thus
can increase the gravity of the problem. It is, therefore, quite difficult to draw well defined
boundaries between severely; moderately and slightly effected water logged areas and
accurately work out the area under each category. Keeping in view the aforementioned
situation, consultants used the revenue records for last six cropping seasons, GIS maps
covering groundwater zones and field survey (for collection and verification of available
information) to make estimations on the extent of the area affected by water logging under each
category. Extent and Impacts of each aforementioned category on the agriculture have been
summarized in the Table-1 (Annex-E).

Table AGRICULTURE STUDIES (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-35 Classification of Command Area with
respect to Impact of Water logging

Fraction of
Water
Water logging CCA
logging Existing Land Use
Classification (acres)
Extent
Category I Severely Mostly the area is abandoned and has turned to 15600
affected with a culture-able waste land, Some areas may be
water logging brought under cultivation but risks of crop failure
predominate.
Category II Moderately Crops can be grown but remain under risk of 24840
affected with failure and exhibit extremely low yields (10- 25
water logging percent less) if crops grown successfully.

Category III Slightly/Margi Crop can be grown successfully but exhibit 12560
nally affected yields slightly lower (05-10%) than the average
with water of the adjacent areas.
logging
- GIS Studies, NESPAK 2016
- Jinswara Revenue Records for Respective Tehsils
- Field survey and farmers interviews 2016

Presently, area of category-I is severely affected with water logging and thus has created water
saturation in the root zone that reduces the chances for successful crop production to minimum.
Most of the project area of this category is abandoned. Only Kallar Grass, being hygrophyte,
can be grown successfully in this area but this practice is not very common in project area. In
the project areas of Category-II, water logging allows the crop production to some extent with

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reduced yields. Mostly wheat, cotton, rice and fodders are grown in such areas but these crops
exhibit low yields as compared to adjacent areas of category-III water-logging. In the project
areas where water depth lies beneath acceptable range (Category-III) crops especially the
wheat, cotton, fodders and rice are grown successfully and production levels are almost at par
with crops grown in the adjacent areas.

6.3 STATUS OF WATER LOGGING CONTROL THROUGH GROUNDWATER


ABSTRACTION
Groundwater abstraction thorough installation of tubewell is considered as an effective measure
to control the water logging and directly influence the cropping patterns, farming practices, and
production levels. The various characteristics of the project area with regard to the groundwater
abstraction are provided hereunder:

6.3.1 Status of Tubewells in the Project Area


SCARP tubewells are not functioning in Bahawalnager district especially in the project area.
Similarly, the number of agricultural tubewells installed by locals to meet the crop water needs is
very small as the most of area exhibit brackish ground water underneath. Low number of
tubewells is also a one of the reasons that is causing gradual elevation of the ground water. So
there is a need to construct new drains and coupled with the tubewells. Installation of these
tubewells will not only facilitate reclamation of severely water logged areas but will also improve
the situation in the bordering peripheries (marginally waterlogged areas) by reducing risks of
water logging. Installations and operation of new tubewells on the pattern of R. Y. Khan district
will also cut the time in land reclamation from water-logging.

6.4 EXISTING AGRICULTURE


The existing agriculture status of an area is evaluated on the bases of its land use pattern, farm
size, land tenure system, cropping pattern and intensities, yields and productions and level of
inputs being applied by the farmers. Primary and secondary data sources were explored to
collect the required information. The secondary data was further synthesized and rationalized in
the light of primary data to make it more sites specific. The primary data was collected by
interviewing farmers and conducting group discussions. The irrigation and agriculture officials
were also consulted to gather the useful project related information. The secondary data was
collected from government departments like Revenue and Agriculture.

6.4.1 Land Use Pattern


Land use statistics provide the information regarding existing agricultural status of the project
area and help in establishing the basis for assessment of potential for planned developments.
The data collected from the Revenue Department was supplemented with the information
collected from the GIS studies, local farmers and discussion with Irrigation (Drainage Circle) and
agriculture officials of the area. These data were analyzed and used to establish existing land
use for proposed Drainage development Project.

The Gross Catchment Area (CA) under investigation arrives at 58893 acres. It is assumed that
10% of this area is unavailable for cultivation being occupied by dwellings, roads and irrigation

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infrastructure etc. Thus the net catchment area 53000 acres (90% of Gross area) would be
reclaimed by the proposed interventions. About 15600 acres is worst affected and lies barren
because of shallow water tables depth. The moderately and marginally affected areas account
for 24840 and 12560 acres, respectively. The patchy and stunted plants growth with significant
low yields is the conspicuous feature of moderate areas. The poor germination compels farmers
to use more seed rate than normal. The area remains at a risk, particularly due to rainfall that
may cause partial to complete damages of the crops depending upon the precipitation intensity,
water table depth and type of soil. Detail information for existing land use based on the
information collected from the project area is presented in Table-1 (Annex-E).

6.4.2 Farm Size and Farm Number:


Average Farm size of any area is a good indicator of existing agricultural status and future land
use potential. The big farm size indicates innovative and commercialized farming whereas small
land holdings depict the subsistence type of agricultural conditions. The data regarding farm
size and farm number for Bahwalnagar District was collected from the recent publication,
Punjab Agriculture Census 2010, a part of national publication, Pakistan Agriculture Census
2010. To make it rationalize and more specific for Project area the data was derived and
synthesized from District data. The results indicate that the total number of farms in Project
area (53000 acres) is 7292. About 48% farms have holdings less than 5.0 acres. The average
farm size arrives at 7.3 acres. The details are given in Table-2 (Annex-E).

6.4.3 Land Tenure System:


Land tenure system indicates the cultivation of lands either through owners, tenants or tenants
cum owner. The data regarding this parameter was attained and synthesized in the same
manner as of farm size and farm numbers. The analysis indicates that all these three system
are active in the Project area. Most of the farms are operated by owners themselves (66%). This
is a good indicator for future development. The owners will be fully interested in their farms and
will easily achieve the development goals within the stipulated time. 26% and 13% are the
farms which are operated by owner cum tenants and only tenants, respectively. The details are
given in Table-3 (Annex-E).

6.4.4 Farms Fragmentation:


Farms fragmentation means the pieces or segments of a farm. A farm is said to be consolidated
if it has no pieces or segments. The consolidation of farms is considered a plus point as it
reduces the cost of production and easy to operate. The same data source and synthesis
procedure was adopted as for previous parameters like farms size and tenure system. The
glance of data depicts that 71% of farms are reported to be not fragmented and
remaining 29% farms are fragmented. This is a plus point for the Project area. The
minimum fragmentation of farms decreases the cost of farming because of reduced
transportation of farm equipment and traction power from one segment to another.
It also decreases the cost of manual inputs because of traveling for supervision of
farms located at different places. In short, farms not fragmented do not restraint the
optimization of available farm resources and impede the achievement of planned

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production targets. Therefore, present condition will assist in increasing the pace of
development and achieving in time production targets. The details are given in Table-4
(Annex-E)

6.4.5 Present Cropping Pattern and Intensities


The secondary data regarding cropping pattern and intensities for the water logging affected
villages was collected by acquiring the revenue records of Jinswara (cropped area) for the
recent three years 2013-14 to 2015-16 from the revenue offices, Haroonabad and Fort Abbas.
The primary field data was collected through field surveys and farmers’ interviews. The same
was discussed with irrigation and agriculture officials for verification and to supplement the
available secondary data. Some useful information was also collected from GIS imageries and
project area mapping regarding water table depth zoning/characterization on the basis of water
table depth.

The data analysis depicts that the major crops grown during Rabi season are Wheat and
Fodders (Lucern and Berseem), the area under other crops like winter oilseeds and vegetables
(mostly cabbage) is non-significant. The Kharif season crops include cotton, rice and Kharif
fodder (mostly sorghum). Some area is under cultivation of millets, maize and summer
vegetables (Tinda). Among perennials sugarcane and orchards occupy a few acres of field area.
Swanki grass on few acres particularly on the areas where water logging hazard and sodicity is
high can also be observed. The computed existing cropping pattern and intensities are given in
Table-5 (Annex-E). The existing annual cropping intensity of the project area is worked-out as
105.6 percent while the perennials i.e. Sugarcane and orchards have been counted twice.
Intensities of 47.8 percent during Kharif, 55.3 percent during Rabi and 1.3 percent for perennials
cropping have been worked out for the Project area. The cropping pattern constitutes
specifically wheat (49.1%); cotton (31.0%); fodders (10.9%), oilseeds (1.5%), sugarcane (1.1%,
counting once); and orchards (0.2%, counting once).

6.4.6 Existing Crop Yields & Productions


The level of existing yields for field crops have been assessed on the basis of field survey,
feedback from famers’ meetings and focus group discussions, individual famers interviews,
details regarding average existing crop yields provided by the crop reporting services for district
Bahawalnagar and soil physical conditions i.e. extent of ground water depth and magnitude of
water logging. The relevant literature regarding crop yield responses to water logging was also
consulted. The analysis indicates the yields in the project area are low (5 to 16%) due to the
poor availability of oxygen due to waterlogged conditions.

The discussion during the survey of project area during October, 2016 shows that yields
particularly for orchards, fiber and grain crops are lower than average yields mainly due to water
logging menace. The estimates regarding the agricultural yields per acre and crop productions
for exiting crops in the area are provided in Table-6 (Annex-E). The exiting yields for wheat,
cotton, rice, Kharif fodders, Rabi fodders, orchards and sugarcane are estimated as 1128, 827,
717, 4361, 10497, 4000, and 21336 Kg/acre, respectively. The existing crop productions have

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been estimated by multiplying yields with areas of respective crops and are given in Table-7
(Annex-E).

6.5 FARM PRACTICES


All agricultural activities and farm cultural practices are known as farming operations required to
grow a crop from preparatory tillage to harvesting. These practices mainly include cultural
operations like preparatory tillage (ploughing, planking), planting/seeding, inter-culture
(weeding, hoeing, thinning, earthing-up, pruning etc.), irrigation, fertilization, spraying and
harvesting.

Farm mechanization is one of the most important aspects of improved farm technology and
helps in achieving higher efficiency in agriculture operations. Mechanical means save time and
cost as compared with manual or animal driven implements. In the project area preparatory
tillage and seed bed preparations are done mostly with the help of tractor which are easily
available on hire basis from private owners in the Project area. In the areas with moderate
water logging conditions, two to three times rotavators are used to pulverize and make the soil
conducive for seed germination especially in case of wheat and cotton. The level of existing
farm mechanization is given in Table-20 (Annex-E).

6.6 FARM INPUTS


Optimum fertilizer application, use of good quality seeds, and sufficient and timely water supply
are most effective farm inputs to increase crop yields. Arrangement of these farm inputs and
application at right time and in optimum amount is a pre-requisite for obtaining higher
production.

The farm interviews in the project area reveal that existing seed rates for various crops are
almost more than normal areas. The more seed rate may be attributed to low germination rate
because of water logging. Most often, fertilizers are applied to all crops. Majority of farmers are
applying chemical sprays particularly to cotton, wheat, rice and vegetables to protect the crops
from weeds, and chewing & sucking insects. Herbicides are applied in wheat and cotton crops.
Livestock rearing is good source of income; hence Farm Yard Manure (FYM) is produced on
their own farms. The farmers split fields into patches and apply it to one patch one year, the next
year to other patch. In this way limited FYM is applied periodically to whole lands to nurture the
soil with organic matter. It is, however, observed that all farm inputs are easily available in the
project area and there is no shortage of any of these inputs although purchasing power of
farmers is low. Table-20 (Annex-E) depicts existing use of farm inputs in the Project area.

6.7 FARM LABOUR


Human labour is an important input used at all stages of crop production from preparatory tillage
to harvesting. The manual labour requirement is divided into two categories i.e. family and hired
labour. Mostly family labour is used for crop production whereas temporary hired labour is used
particularly in peak demand period especially during sowing, harvesting, packing, storage and
transportation periods. More than 70% percent of the farm labour is performed by the family

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which is not paid and resultantly can be considered as an income to the farmers. The details
regarding per acre labour requirement for each crop are shown in Table-20 (Annex-E).

6.8 FUTURE DEVELOPMENT “WITHOUT” PROJECT


Without implementation of the proposed project, it is envisaged that existing conditions of the
area will continue and farmers remain agriculturally deprived as no improvement is expected.
Though the area is quite fertile and farmers are well aware of modernized agricultural
techniques yet the commercialized and sustainable agriculture can’t be realized as the threat of
water logging persists. Field study of the Project area indicates that in the presence of
aforementioned constraint, there is no likelihood of increase in cropping area, improvements in
crop yields/pattern and enhancement in cropping intensity. But, keeping in mind the previous
agriculture growth, it is anticipated that the cultivated area under water logging will increase
gradually and about 5.3% more area will be deprived of cropping because of sever waterlogging
in coming five years. The threat for waterlogging will prevail and may result in reshuffling of
marginal areas to moderate and moderate to severe waterlogged areas. The future cropping
pattern and intensities under “Without” Project scenario has been depicted in Table-7 (Annex-
E). Similarly the projected crop yields and productions have been illustrated in Table-8 (Annex-
E).

The existing cropping pattern and intensities will be affected, but however, the crop yields have
been assumed constant as reported under “Without” project conditions. The same conclusion
was arrived at during the interviews with the farmers. Moreover, agriculture development
situation in the Project area reveals that farmers will make no significant progress due to said
limitation. It may be assumed that only a minor and insignificant increase will take place in farm
inputs i.e. fertilizer applications, seed rates, tillage operations, plant protection measures and
labour requirements mainly due to slight change in faming pattern and adaptation of crop
varieties resistant to water logging conditions. So keeping in mind this context, it has been
assumed that the level of inputs per acre would remain unchanged under “Without” Project
scenario as per existing levels.

6.9 FUTURE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT “WITH” PROJECT

6.9.1 Development Approach


Proposed field area development approach is based upon the construction of two new drains
i.e. Hakra and 9-R. The Hakra drain will run parallel to Hakra canal on left side and will drain out
the villages located in between Hakra canal and Indo-Pak boarder. It is being anticipated that
with the development of proposed drainage system, the water table depth will draw down and
ultimately the water logging hazard will be minimized increasing not only the cropped area but
also per acre crop yields, significantly. The time span for bringing water table depth below root
zone has been established after conversation with groundwater section working for the water
balancing studies of the consultant team. Five years seem enough to meet the needs. Therefore
five years development plan has been proposed and developed, accordingly.

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6.9.2 Cropping Pattern and Intensities


A suitable, sustainable and profitable cropping pattern is a prerequisite for harnessing
envisaged benefits out of investment made for Drainage development interventions. The
proposed cropping pattern is established keeping in mind the existing cropping pattern and
intensities, production potential of the area, agro-climatic conditions, farmer’s skills and
expertise and prevailing marketing opportunities.

Proposed cropping intensities have been worked-out by bringing 15600 acres culturable waste
(due to water logging, as mentioned earlier as category-I) under cultivation. The cropped area
for the existing cultivated area will also enhance as the risk for water logging for category-II will
be minimized.

The proposed cropping pattern and intensities for the Project Area under “With” project condition
are presented in Table-13 (Annex-E). The ultimate cropping intensity of 160.0 percent will be
attained within a period of 05 years after the completion of the project interventions. Under the
ultimate condition, the cropping pattern will constitute wheat (72.8%), cotton (47.6%), rice
(12.7%), sugarcane (1.5%, counting once), orchards (0.6%, counting once) and fodders
(17.2%). It is anticipated that an increase of 70.7 % cropping intensity (perennials counting
twice) will be observed with the implementation of project.

In development of cropping pattern and Intensity for the Project area, following agricultural
factors have been given due consideration:

- Extent of lowering of water logging magnitude


- Existing cropping pattern and intensities in the project and adjacent irrigated areas.
- Soil suitability in relationship to the proposed crops
- Local and national food and feed requirements
- Agro-climatic conditions and suitability of the area
- Water requirements of crops with relation to available irrigation supplies
- Availability of inputs, agriculture labour and farm machinery
- Marketing and transportation facilities
- Agriculture extension facilities and technical support in the area
- Adoptability tendency of the beneficiaries of the project
- Agro-socio-economic features of the Project

6.9.3 Justification for Selection of Crops


The factors affecting the choice of crops for proposed cropping pattern are described as under

Wheat
- Wheat is the leading crop for the existing cropping pattern and intensities.
- Farmers are well equipped regarding modernized production technology skills for
wheat.
- Staple food crop for the local population and an important source for subsistence
- Wheat is the major and high return cereal crop in Rabi cropping season

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- Wheat requires less frequent irrigation and crop protection requirements


- It requires comparatively less labour and intercultural operations
- Increase in production is required for local consumption and national food security.
- Better price and marketing incentive is available due to government procurement and
support price policies.
- Technical know-how and agriculture facilities are available for production of wheat
crop.
- No new competitive crop is available for replacement of wheat crop during Rabi
season.
- Agro-climatic and soil conditions favour the growing and production of wheat.
- Cropping calendar and growing period fits in the proposed cropping pattern and crop
rotations.

Cotton
- Cotton occupies significant area for the existing cropping pattern and intensities.
- Farmers are well equipped regarding modernized production technology
- Important source for export earnings
- Cotton is the major and high return cereal crop in Kharif cropping season
- Better price and marketing incentive is available
- Technical know-how and agriculture facilities are available for production of cotton
crop.
- Cropping calendar and growing period fits in the proposed cropping pattern and crop
rotations.

Fodder
- The project soils are suitable for cultivation of all kinds of Kharif and Rabi fodder
such as millets, berseem, and lucern.
- Majority of the farmers are rearing livestock and grow fodders for their feeding.
- Farmers are already well aware about the cultivation and production of fodders
techniques.
- The green fodder can easily be disposed off locally as well as in the nearby towns
market.

Rice
- An important waterlogging ameliorative crop
- Farmers are well familiar with its production technology
- Second staple food after wheat for the local population and an important source for
export earnings
- Better price and marketing incentive is available due to government procurement and
support price policies.
- Prevailing agro-climatic and soil conditions favour the growing and production of rice.
- Fits easily in prevailing cropping calendar and crop rotations.

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Sugarcane
- Sugarcane is part of existing cropping pattern
- Farmers are well equipped regarding modernized production technology skills
- Marketing opportunities are available as significant number of sugar mills is
functional.
- Cropping calendar and growing period permits the crop to be a part of proposed
cropping pattern and crop rotations.

6.9.4 Area Build-up and Development of Cropping Intensities


Farming skills and experience is already available among the farmers in the Project area.
Therefore, no major land development constraints are likely to restrict the land development.
Presently the only constraint is water logging in the command area. The farm equipment, skilled
labor, farm inputs and other facilities for irrigated farming are also available in the Project area. It
is anticipated that significant project benefits would accrue from increase in cropping intensities.
It is, therefore, expected that cropping intensity will be improved with the passage of time and
will achieve ultimate potential (160.0%) after five years of development. The data regarding
growth and projection of intensities and area build up under “With” project conditions are
illustrated in Table-15 and Table-16 (Annex-E), respectively.

6.10 CROP YIELD AND PRODUCTION “WITH” PROJECT


The ultimate yield projections for the project area have been made keeping in view existing crop
yields of the districts Bahawalnagar. The development of project interventions in the project
command area would minimize the water logging hazard, resulting in significant increase in crop
yields. Yields will be at optimum levels as crops will remain out of water logging stress most of
the times during cropping season. The expected yield levels and productions are given Table-
14. The proposed yields will be easily achievable in a period of five years. The year wise yield
and productions projections have been illustrated in Table-17 &18 (Annex-E).

6.10.1 Incremental Crop Production “With” Project


The incremental production of the crops for the ultimate year of the development has been
computed by subtracting the productions under “Without” scenario by productions under “With”
scenario and given in Tables-19 (Annex-E). It is foreseen that incremental production under
ultimate conditions will be about 21932.6 tons for food grains, 31254.8 tons for fodder, 10563.4
tons for cotton, 6914.1 tons for sugarcane and 924.0 tons for fruits.

6.10.2 Intangible Benefits


Execution of the project will generate employment opportunities in the area by enhancing agri-
business activities. The project may also encourage the local community to develop their land
through adoption of intensive agriculture which will lead to the increase in land prices that will
ultimately benefit the farmers. Above all, implementation of the project will improve the livelihood
conditions of the local community besides providing security in food production and
sustainability of agricultural farming.

Backup Calculations are attached as Annex-E.

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7 ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL ANALYSIS (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)

7.1 GENERAL
The proposed Project aims at Reclaiming Agriculture Land Affected due to Water Logging in
district Bahawalnagar. The area falls under two tehsils namely; Haroonabad and Fort Abbas.
The district Bahawalnagar consists of fertile lands and valuable infrastructure which contributes
a large towards the domestic production of country.

Economic cost- benefit analysis has been performed to assess the benefits from the investment
done in the development. The analysis has been done with a view to determine whether a
project has contributed significantly to the development of the economy and whether its
contribution has been significant enough to justify the expenditure of the resources, it has
utilized. The investment justification for this purpose relied on the returns generated and
meeting the selected criteria of Internal Rate of Return (IRR).

The major objective of the economic analysis was to assess the future flow of incremental agro-
economic benefits of the proposed project resulting from direct investment.

The detailed approach and methodology is given below.

7.1.1 Approach and Methodology


The detailed cost-benefit analysis has covered:

1. Economic Analysis
2. Financial Analysis
Economic evaluation of the project has been decided on the basis of the results obtained by the
application of the efficiency criterion of public investment using the “Discounted Cash Flow”
technique. The technique is extensively being used by Planning Commission of Pakistan and
the multilateral donor agencies like World Bank and Asian Development Bank etc.

Three indicators have been considered for economic analysis based on economic cash flow
comprising economic benefits and economic costs for the entire life of the concerned project.
These indicators are:

 The Net Present Value (NPV) which is the difference between the discounted total benefits
and cost;
 The Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR), which is the discount rate that zeroes out the
NPV or, the interest rate that makes the net present value of all cash flows equal to zero;
 The Benefit-Cost Ratio (B/C Ratio), which is the ratio of the present value (PV) of benefits
over the PV of costs over the lifetime of the project.

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The sensitivity analysis for these economic indicators had been carried out to assess the impact
of increase in project cost, decrease in benefits/revenue, delay in construction of project etc.
and also probable combinations of these items.

7.1.2 Economic Analysis


To establish economic viability of the proposed project, economic analysis would be carried on
current price level. The measurable economic benefits and costs shall be expressed in
monetary terms. The economic analysis would be carried to confirm its economic viability on
economic efficiency criteria. The analysis would cover:

Economic parameter such as Discount Rate, Standard Conversion Factor, valuation of labor,
border prices, project life etc would be defined to calculate project economic benefits. The
economic parameters are detailed below:

7.1.2.1 Economic Parameters


A- Price Datum
The economic quantification of project benefits and project costs has been carried out at the
constant price of October 2016.

B- Exchange Rate Exchange rate, for working out parity prices, has been taken as average rate
for a US Dollar in October, 2016 (1US$= 104.598 PK Rs) and the same has been adopted for use
by the analysis.
C- Rate of Discount

In Pakistan, the marginal productivity of capital lies between 10 and 12 percent. The opportunity
cost of capital has thus been taken as 12% for economic appraisal, as used by Planning
Commission of Pakistan and other multilateral agencies for appraising such projects.

D-Standard Conversion Factor

Standard Conversion Factor (SCF), which represents the ratio of prices of all goods within the
economy with respective international prices. The SCF is mainly influenced by the trade policies
of the Government. The general distortion between international and domestic prices is caused
by import/export duties, taxes and tariffs, subsidies and other price distortions to trade. The
value of this general conversion factor has been estimated on the basis of statistics covering
imports, exports, taxes and subsidies. The standard conversion factor has been used in shadow
pricing. The most general conversion factor used for converting market prices into economic
prices is the standard conversion factor (SCF) which represents the ratio of prices of all goods
within the economy to their international prices. The SCF is mainly influenced by the trade
policies of the government. It is approximated by the weighted average of import and export
tariff, with subsidies excluded. The weights used are based on the magnitude of imports and
exports in the total trade during the subject years.

Standard Conversion Factor is calculated and is shown below:

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SCF = M + X

(M+Tm) + (X-Tx)

Where M is the CIF value of imports

X is the FOB value of exports

Tm is the net value of taxes on imports

Tx is the net value of taxes on exports

Table-1.1 (Annex-D) shows the yearly data used to calculate the SCF for the fiscal years 2010-
11 to 2014-15. An average of five years is taken to allow for annual fluctuations in trade and
taxes. The value of SCF thus worked out is 0. 908.This however, only considers distortions to
domestic prices of traded goods caused by tariffs. International trading is a federal subject and
SCF of the country is applicable for province of Punjab also.

A- Specific Conversion Factors

Specific conversion factors are required for the adjustment of various non-traded inputs included
in the project costs. Specific Conversion Factor for Cement has been derived from Basha
Diamer Dam, study prepared by WAPDA in 2004. Based on the actual data on various
components of costs, the specific conversion factors have been worked out by computing ratio
of economic costs to financial costs. Specific Conversion values as determined in the Basha
Diamer Dam Project Feasibility Report for Portland cement and Sulphate Resistant cement are
0.56 and 0.64, respectively. These values have been averaged as 0.61 and have been used in
economic analysis. The specific conversion factor has been taken as 0.88 for Steel. These
conversion factors have been adopted for the detailed feasibility analysis.

B- Valuation of Labor

All inputs are to be charged to the project at their opportunity cost (i.e. their marginal productivity
in their alternative use), expressed in world prices or their equivalent. This applies to the
economic services of all income recipients such as unskilled and skilled labour. The cost
analysis for unskilled labour, a major non-traded factor of production, is described in the
following paragraphs:

 Unskilled

At full employment level, it would be normal to charge the project full market cost of the
employed labour. However, in Pakistan there is good reason to believe that not all market
wages reflect opportunity cost because there is a noticeable underemployment. The wages
prevailing in the `organized sector’ of the economy are determined to a considerable degree by
institutional factors which make them artificially high. Because of this factor, the shadow wage

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ratio (SWR) for unskilled labour (the opportunity cost of employing additional unskilled labour in
terms of output foregone elsewhere in the economy) is to be taken to be less than the market
wage at which it is employed.

Outside any organized sector, wages are more closely influenced by local market forces than by
institutional factors. Therefore, wages may be taken to be an acceptably close reflection of
opportunity cost at market prices. The valuation of labour costs in these less `organized’ and
more being `an informal’ enterprise in the economy, is reflecting more closely the marginal
productivity of unskilled labour.

In order to calculate Shadow Wage Rate (SWR) for unskilled labour, data regarding market
wage rates prevailing in the organized urban centres for unskilled workers as compared with
those daily rates paid to agricultural labour in the unorganized rural sector (taken from the
Monthly Statistical Bulletin published by the Federal Bureau of Statistics) has been taken and
adjusted for payment in kind which is usually one meal. Taking the casual labour rate as the
marginal productivity of unskilled labour, is then adjusted by the SCF and expressed as a ratio
of the organized wage rates, to give a SWR for unskilled labour of 0.75. The same has been
used for the analysis purpose.

 Skilled Labour

The general rule for valuation of domestic skilled labour (including managerial and professional
staff) is to take the domestic market rate for such labour and to adjust it only by the SCF. This
approach holds on the grounds that such labour, being scarce, can usually command an
equivalent income in other activities, so the market wage reflects its marginal productivity in
alternative use.

In Pakistan, there is currently little unemployment of skilled workers. Therefore, the market for
skilled workers would seem to be more or less in equilibrium and as such valued at its domestic
market rate.

C- Border Prices of Internationally Traded Commodities

Border prices of tradable commodities like wheat, rice, seed cotton and sugarcane were
computed based on latest available World Bank Commodity Price Data. Border prices of major
input i.e. chemical fertilizers have also been calculated on this basis. Necessary adjustments
have been made to account for transport and handling between port and market as well as from
market to the farm gate. The detailed calculation of border prices is given in Table-1.2 to Table-
1.8. (Annex-D).

D- Domestic Prices of Non-Traded Commodities

Those commodities for which Pakistan does not enter international trade, wholesale prices
prevailing in major commodity markets of project area (Bahawalnagar) during respective
harvesting periods has been collected and adjusted to the farm gate by deducting marketing
costs between the farm and the market. Marketing costs include packing, transportation,

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loading/unloading, commission charges etc. To convert into economic prices, these prices were
further adjusted by applying SCF. The summary of economic and financial prices for agriculture
inputs and outputs is given in Table-1.10 (Annex-D).

E- Project Life for Analytical Period

Project life or service life of the project is dependent upon the useful life of its diverse
components. Civil works will entail a different service life compared with earthwork and others
items like machinery. A project utilization period of 30 years (after development) has been
assumed.

7.1.2.2 Project Economic Benefits


Crop production benefits resulting from increased yields and reclaim area as the major benefits
of the project. More area will be brought under cultivation and adoption of best practices of
irrigated agriculture would lead to enhanced agriculture performance.

For analysis, this future enhanced crop production (with Project situation) has been compared
with “without project” production levels to get the “incremental crop production” due to
implementation of the project. The incremental crop production expressed in monetary terms
over the economic life of the project has been taken to represent the project agro-economic
benefit.

In order to measure these benefits, Crop budgets (in economic prices) per acre giving estimate
of crop gross production value, gross production expenses and crop gross margins under
without and with project conditions have been prepared for all the major crops of the area on the
basis of agronomic and field data. Gross production value, production expenses, gross margin
and net production value at economic prices under without and with project situations have
been detailed in Tables 1.11 to 1.16 and Tables 1.17 to 1.22 (Annex-D). The incremental crop
benefits have been also computed in Table 1.22 (Annex-D) which shows significant impact of
the project on agriculture benefits attributable from the project.

7.1.2.3 Project Economic Costs


The costs associated with the said project include civil works, mechanical and electrical works.
The other cost includes social and environmental cost associated with this project with some
construction management cost. These costs have been converted into economic cost for
economic analysis of the project.

The cost of the project has been converted into economic cost. The converted economic cost is
Rs. 1102.04 Million without price contingencies. The distribution of economic cost phases by
50% in first year and 50% in second year. The annual O & M (after development) has been
taken as 25.67 Million in economic terms. The economic cost is presented in Table 1.25 (Annex-
D).

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7.1.2.4 Results of Economic Analysis


To judge the economic viability of the project economic indicators namely, the Net Present Value
(NPV), Benefit Cost Ratio (B/C Ratio) and Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) have been
calculated using the streams of project benefits and project costs discussed earlier and given in
Table- 1.23 (Annex-D).

The results are summarized below:

Economic Indicators At 12% Discount Rate

2605.44
Net Present Value (Rs. Millions)
3.03:1
B/ C Ratio
28.65
EIRR (Percent)

The EIRR is above the economic opportunity cost of capital (12%), thus this shows that project
is economically viable.

7.1.2.5 Sensitivity Risk Analysis


The results of analysis given above have been computed on the basis of a set of assumptions.
In order to examine the effect on the EIRR, the following sensitivity tests have been considered

● 10 percent increase in project costs.

● 10 percent decrease in project benefits.

● Benefit reduction and cost over-run (each by 10 percent) occurring


simultaneously.

The sensitivity analysis is given in Table-1.23 (Annex-D) and the results are shown in Table below:

SCENARIO EIRR (Percent)


Base Case 28.65

Sensitivity Analysis: 26.68


10 percent decrease in project benefits
10 percent increase in project costs 26.87

Benefits reduction & cost over-run by 10 percent each 24.98


both occurring simultaneously

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A review of the sensitivity test results indicates that EIRR is robust. The investment in the
project remains economically feasible even under the adverse conditions.

7.2 FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

7.2.1 Project Financial Benefits


Crop production benefits resulting from increased yields and reclaim area as the major benefits
of the project. More area will be brought under cultivation and adoption of best practices of
irrigated agriculture would lead to enhanced agriculture performance.

For analysis, this future enhanced crop production (with Project situation) has been compared
with “without project” production levels to get the “incremental crop production” due to
implementation of the project. The incremental crop production expressed in financial terms
over the life of the project has been taken to represent the project agro-financial benefit.

In order to measure these benefits, Crop budgets (in financial prices) per acre giving estimate of
crop gross production value, gross production expenses and crop gross margins under without
and with project conditions have been prepared for all the major crops of the area on the basis
of agronomic and field data. Gross production value, production expenses, gross margin and
net production value at financial prices under without and with project situations have been
detailed in Tables 1.26 to 1.31 and Tables 1.32 to 1.37 (Annex-D). The incremental financial
crop benefits have been also computed in Table 1.37 (Annex-D), which shows significant impact
of the project on agriculture benefits attributable from the project.

7.2.2 Project Financial Costs


The costs associated with the said project include civil works, mechanical and electrical works.
The other cost includes social and environmental cost associated with this project with some
construction management cost. The financial cost has been used for financial analysis.

Total cost of the said project has been estimated as Rs. 1242.50 million with all works excluding
price contingencies. The distribution of economic cost phases by 50% in first year and 50% in
second year. The annual O & M (after development) has been taken as 28.55 Million in financial
terms. The financial cost is presented in Table 1.24 (Annex-D).

7.2.3 Results of Financial Analysis


To judge the financial viability of the project financial indicators namely, the Net Present Value
(NPV), Benefit Cost Ratio (B/C Ratio) and Financial Internal Rate of Return (FIRR) have been
calculated using the streams of project benefits and project costs discussed and given in Table-
1.38.

The results are summarized below:

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Financial Indicators At 12% Discount Rate

2587.41
Net Present Value (Rs. Millions)
2.79:1
B/ C Ratio
27.04
FIRR (Percent)

The FIRR is above the economic opportunity cost of capital (12%), thus this shows that project
is economically viable.

7.2.4 Sensitivity Risk Analysis


The results of analysis given above have been computed on the basis of a set of assumptions.
In order to examine the effect on the FIRR, the following sensitivity tests have been considered

● 10 percent increase in project costs.


● 10 percent decrease in project benefits.
● Benefit reduction and cost over-run (each by 10 percent) occurring
simultaneously.
The sensitivity analysis is given in Table-1.38 and the results are shown in Table below:

SCENARIO FIRR (Percent)

27.04
Base Case
Sensitivity Analysis:
10 percent decrease in project benefits 25.16

10 percent increase in project costs 25.34

Benefits reduction & cost over-run by 10 percent each 23.53


both occurring simultaneously

A review of the sensitivity test results indicates that FIRR is robust. The investment in the project
remains economically feasible even under the adverse conditions.

Backup Tables are attached as Annex-D.

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8 SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)

8.1 GENERAL
Pakistan's agriculture largely suffers due to water logging and salinity in cultivable land.
Pakistan has been acknowledged for having a well-knit irrigation system. No doubt, the
irrigation system has helped to increase agricultural production, but has also created
problems of water-logging and salinity. Millions of acres of farm land in the country have
been destroyed due to water logging and salinity problem and needed to be tackled by
finding ways to make saline and water- logged soils cultivable to reduce poverty by
increasing agriculture production. Pakistan is striving hard to control water logging and
salinity and has directed tremendous financial resources toward drainage infrastructure
development.

8.2 LOCATION OF THE PROJECT AREA


The project area falls in the south-eastern part of the Punjab Province. It covers parts of the
tehsils of Bahawalnagar, Haroonabad and Chishtian in the Bahawalnagar District. The area
is bordered on the northwest by the Malik Branch Canal, on the south by Hakra Canal and
on the east by India. Water logging and salinity is one of the main problems in the district.
Location of the project is shown in Figure 8-1.

8.3 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DISTRICT


Bahawalnagar is a district located in province of Punjab. It is situated at 30.55° North
latitude, 73.39° East longitude and 159 meters elevation above the sea level. The district of
Bahawalnagar is spread over an area of 8,878 square kilometers. The boundaries of
Bahawalnagar in the east and south touches the Indian territory while Bahawalpur district
lies in the west and river Sutlej flows from its western side. The District comprises the
following tehsils:

 Bahawalnagar
 Minchanabad
 Chishtian
 Haroonabad
 Fortabbas

According to the 1998 census, the total population of the district was 2061447 persons. Out
of male population was 51.78% and female 48.22% while, sex ratio calculated as107.4
percent. Average household size in the District was 6.7. The average annual growth rate of
the district was 2.41 percent (1981-1998).

8.3.1 Culture and Language


The cultural assets of the communities of South Punjab encompass a vast range of their
intangible and tangible heritage. This not only gives identity and a sense of pride to the
present generation by providing a critical link to the past of which they are the inheritors, but
also identifies the need for its safeguarding for the future generations. The district has a
distinct and unique culture influenced by the inherited ancient civilizations and historical past
which flourished in this region and has permeated their present day culture and its
expressions.

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Figure SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-34 Location Map of the Project area

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In the district, there are many places of worth seeing. Historical forts in tehsil Fort Abbas , Wild
Life Park , Sutlej Park in the city , Haider Stadium , National Park in Dodhla Jungle in Fort
Abbas Area , River Sutlej Near Bahawalnagar city.

According to the national census of 1998, the predominant first language in the district was
Punjabi, spoken by 94.6% of the population, followed by Urdu at 3.7% and Saraiki at 1.2%.

8.3.2 Agriculture and Industry


Major crops of the district are wheat, sugarcane, cotton, rice and rape/mustard seeds. At
present, the major industrial units operating in the district are sugar mills, textile spinning mills
and flour mills. There is also potential for milk processing unit, dairy farms, cattle/sheep/goat
fattening farm, tannery, leather products, and machine made woollen carpet.

8.4 NECESSITY OF THE PROJECT


The irrigation system has helped to increase agricultural production but has also created
problems of salinity and water-logging. Water logging and salinity are the major threats to the
sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the project area.

There is a long list of the causes of water logging and salinity, some significant are enlisted
here. These are;

 Uncontrolled seepage of water from Hakra Branch Canal and distributaries that raised
underground water table.
 Use of flood irrigation practices
 Poor management of the existing drainage system.

The Hakra Canal was designed with a capacity of 2,900 cusec originates from Jalwala
headworks, along the canal shows that water logging and salinity have affected a large number
of the agriculture land, housing and commercial structures. The water table has risen even to
ground surface due to which agricultural productivity of the land has been reduced to 40% of
potential. Water logging problem in this area has become so severe that the local inhabitants
prefer to migrate from this area as they are not even finding fodder for their livestock. The main
source of income in this area is agriculture and livestock, both have suffered badly. As a result,
there is an adverse impact on the socio-economic condition of the people.

Local inhabitants of the area are making hue and cry over the abhorrently reduced yield of their
agriculture land owing to aggravated water logging problem. Issue is being highlighted in print
and electronic media from time to time since long. The inhabitants also have highlighted their
problem their local representatives the government functionaries.

This area in width of 6-10 km on the left side of Hakra Canal up to Indian border is very
important from strategic point of view as there are sensitive defense installations in the area.

Remedial measures are essential for reclamation of water logged area as it is not a requirement
of public, but is also important from defense point of view of the country.

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8.5 WORK PROPOSED


To protect the arable land and the valuable infrastructures, following project components have
been proposed.

The detail of the proposed drains has provided in the chapter “Recommended Plan” which
includes the construction of following drains.
Table SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-36 Details of Proposed Drains

Sr. No. Name


1 Kot Abdul Haq Drain
2 Hasan Chowki Drain
3 Bakhu Shah Drain
4 Korian Wali Main Drain
5 Korian Wali Sub Drain
6 Hakra Left Main Drain
7 Hakra Right Main Drain
8 Hakra Left Sub Drain
9 1-L of Hakra Left Sub Drain
10 7R Drain
11 8R Drain
12 9-R Drain

8.6 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The survey aimed to ascertain water logging effects and its impacts on the socio-economic
condition of the local peoples, residing or having land in the Project area as well as impact of
the proposed project. The survey also aimed to record all assets and structures falling within
Corridor of Impact (COI) and assessment of the land required for the project.

8.7 SOCIO–ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF THE PROJECT AREA

8.7.1 Methodology
The information regarding socio-economic condition of project area was collected through the
field survey. During the survey, group discussions were also held and possible impacts of the
project were discussed. The findings are presented in the following sections.

Assessment of land acquisition and resettlement impacts within Right of Way (ROW) of the
proposed drains was also carried out.

To assess the socio-economic aspects of the project, five villages were randomly selected
covering the project area. The detail of sample villages is provided in Table 8-2 and location is
shown in Figure 8-2.

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Table SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-37 Detail of Sample Villages

Location of the
Sr. No. Village Name District Tehsils
Project Area

1 Bakhu Shah Head Bahawalnagar Bahawalnagar


2 Korian Wali Head Bahawalnagar Bahawalnagar
3 Chak -156-HB/3L Middle Bahawalnagar Haroonabad
4 Chak -196-HB Middle Bahawalnagar Haroonabad
5 Chak -106-9-R Tail Bahawalnagar Fortabbas

8.7.2 Data Collection


In order to have comprehensive and detailed information, the data was collected by using both
primary and secondary sources.

8.7.2.1 Secondary Source


The available published information and documents related to the project area, including census
report, published in print media and other relevant project documents were obtained and
reviewed to identify different parameters and yardsticks, so as to make the study more
meaningful, fruitful and comprehensive.

8.7.2.2 Primary Source


The primary quantitative and qualitative data was collected through interview schedule. The tool
for data collection was designed to include information related to demographic characteristics,
existing socio-economic pattern, impact assessment, people’s perceptions about the Project
and remedial measures in case of adverse impact of the project. Socio-economic aspects of the
Project area were studied on the basis of Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and Interview
schedule used as a tool of data collection. A brief description related to socio economic aspects
is provided in following sections:

8.7.3 Findings of the Survey


The findings of study are as under:

8.7.3.1 Family Composition


According to the findings of survey, total households of the surveyed villages are 2,350 with
population of 16,500. The average family size is 7.56 and they were living in different family
system depending upon their culture and economic needs. It was observed that in the surveyed
villages, majority of the families were living in joint family system. All households were local and
a majority of the inhabitants were Punjabi speaking. Detailed information is provided in Table 8-
3.

Table SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-38 Population of Sample Villages

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Numbers)

Total Total
Sr. No. Village Name Male Female
Households Population

Bakhu Shah
1 100 7,00 350 350
2 Korian Wali 1,000 7000 3,360 3,640
3 Chak -156-HB/3L 400 3,000 1,500 1,500
4 Chak -196-HB 600 4,500 2,250 2,250
5 Chak -206-9-R 250 2,000 980 10,020
Overall 2,350 16,500 8,440 17,760
Average family size 7.56
Source: Group discussions during field survey January, 2017

8.7.3.2 Occupation and Source of Income


Proposed project area is adjacent to the Hakra Branch canal, which is centre of agricultural
activities. During the field survey, information regarding major source of income of the
inhabitants were collected. According to the survey findings, farming was the main source of
income of 86 percent households, while 8 percent of households were depending on agriculture
and general Labour and remaining 6 percent of households had a source of earning for their
livelihood from private, government services and own business. The survey data indicates that
average monthly income of the households was Rs.10, 000 which is less than minimum wages
fixed by the Government for the fiscal year, 2016-17. Bahawalnagar city is the hub of economic
activities, where opportunities for income generation are available. Due to water logging
cropped area is decreasing rabidly, which affects the income of the household of the area.

8.7.3.3 Literacy Level


Education plays a pivotal role in changing social and economic condition of the individuals. The
education enhances the skill and ability to learn and act to improve one’s lot. Data was collected
from the respondents regarding educational facilities available in the area. The data indicates
that facility of primary level of education was available in all five surveyed villages, middle level
in two villages and higher educational facilities were available in the Bahawalnagar, Haroonabad
Fortabbas, Chishtian cities and other big towns in the surrounding areas. Out of the total
population, 4.3 percent males had passed matriculate and this ratio in females was 3.8 percent
and the encouraging factor is that the people of the project area was realising the importance of
the education of their children. People of the area have low income due to decrease in
agriculture production and other earning opportunities are very limited. The majority of the
households have low income cannot afford to send their children to schools in cities. Due to lack
of transport facilities female students were facing difficulties to attend the high schools.

8.7.3.4 Caste System and Religion


In the rural areas of Pakistan, caste plays an important role to unite the people. Strength of
groups depends on a number of the households in a caste. The survey data indicates that Arain,

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Jutt, Watto, Joia, Dhoodhi, Awan and Jhanjh were in majority in the Project area. The 100
percent of the population of these villages was Muslim.

8.7.3.5 Cropping Pattern


Rice, wheat, and cotton were the major crops sown in the project area on the available land. In
most parts of the project area the mode of irrigation is canal water and irrigation from private
tube wells was not common because the ground water is not suitable for crops. Some farmers
have installed their tube wells near bank of the HBC to irrigate land.

8.7.3.6 Source and Quality of Drinking Water


The quality of drinking water is directly linked to the health. Clean drinking water and sanitation
are essential to the realization of all human rights. Main source of water for inhabitants of the
district is groundwater although in some areas untreated canal water is also sued for drinking.
The river Sutlej lies passing nearby, but is not use as a source of water due to continuous
depletion of the river and major area of river went dry and are being used for cultivation of
crops. Canal named Fordwa is also passing near Bahawalnagar city, but the water is too much
contaminated that it cannot be used for domestic purpose.

Under ground water is hard water. Hard water is used for washing and bathing purpose. The
hard water creates skin problems.

The survey findings reveal that the quality of the ground water was poor and unfit for health. The
data indicates that 60 percent inhabitants of surveyed villages (Korian Wali, 156-HB/3L and
Chak -106-9-R) have the facility of water supplies for their drinking purpose, while in 40 percent
(Bakhu Shah and Chak -156-HB/3L) source of drinking water were hand pumps. Mostly hand
pumps installed along the banks of the Hakra Branch where the quality of the ground water was
better as compared to other parts of the project area. Water supply schemes installed by the
Government along the HBC to provide better quality of water for drinking purpose and now
being operated by the local communities on self-help basis.

8.7.3.7 Social Amenities Available in the Project Area


Social infrastructure and amenities are crucial to develop sustainable communities. These are
electricity, water supply, sewerage system, metalled road and availability of public transport.
Other facilities like health facilities, educational institutions, and utility stores, recreational sites
can be added. It is the responsibility of the state to provide facilities to the peoples at their door
step.

During the survey, it was observed that sewerage system was available in 80 percent of
surveyed villages. Facility of metalled roads was available for 100%, public transport facility for
20% of the inhabitants. The survey reveals that facility of electricity was available in all selected
villages while 60% villages had the facility of water supply. The detail of availability of social
amenities has been described in the Table 8-4.

Table SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-39 Availability of Civic Facilities

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Civic Facilities
Sr. Name of Metalled
No. Settlement Water Sewerage Public
Electricity Road
supply System Transport
Access
1 Bakhu Shah - - √ √ -
2 Korian Wali - √ √ √ √
3 Chak -156-HB/3L √ √ √ √ -
4 Chak -196-HB √ √ √ √ -
5 Chak -206-9-R √ √ √ √ -
Total 60 % 80% 100% 100% 20%

8.7.3.8 Diseases in the Project Area


Ground water of the area is not of good quality and people of the area are suffering various
diseases. The data related to prevailing diseases in the project area was collected during the
survey. The respondents pointed out malaria, diarrhea, hepatitis, fever and skin diseases in the
project area. People of the area are facing hostile living conditions in the areas because of
mosquitoes and other insects, and children contracted disease due to unhygienic conditions.

8.7.4 Mechanism of Conflict Resolution


In the past, it was an age of perfect harmony among different users of scarce natural resources.
Access to land and water was formerly regulated through local codes of tradition and diplomacy.
Today, however, access to resources varies with position in the social hierarchy of the area, also
affect the decision making and acceptance level.

During the field survey, group discussions were held with the local communities. It was
observed that most of the conflicts in the project area are insignificant, i.e. theft of animals or
quarrels among youngsters which are mutually resolved within the caste at local level.
Sometimes, the conflicts not resolved by the parties are referred to the police or court of justice.

8.8 PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS


Public consultation plays a vital role in studying the effects of the Project on the stakeholders
and in the successful implementation and execution of the proposed projects. Public
involvement is an important feature of any development project, which leads to better and more
acceptable decision-making. The important general objectives of the consultation process are:

 To provide key project information to the stakeholders and to solicit their views on the
project and its potential or perceived impacts,
 To identify problems and needs,
 To collaborate in problem solving,
 To develop and maintain communication links between the project proponents and
stakeholders,
 To ensure that views and concerns of the stakeholders are incorporated into the project
design and implementation with the objectives of reducing, offsetting the negative
impacts and enhancing benefits of the proposed project,
 To create a sense of ownership among the stakeholders regarding the project.

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 To increase public confidence about the proponents, reviewers and decision makers
and
 To ensure the transparency in all the project activities.

During survey, the community members and their representatives were consulted in the project
area to introduce the project formally to local community and to obtain their views on the
proposed project. To attain the maximum information, various focus discussions were carried
out with local communities.

8.8.1 Meeting with officials of Punjab Irrigation Drainage Authority (PIDA)


Before the start of the survey, meetings were held with relevant staff of Punjab Irrigation and
Drainage Authority (PIDA) at Bahawalnagar to collect the information about the project area as
well as information about the project was also shared. During the meeting following points
discussed:
 Activities of PIDA in the proposed project area.
 Role of Farmers’ Organizations (FOs) in repair and maintenance of water channels.
 Social mobilization and process of formation of FOs.
 Aftercare of the proposed drains with participation of the local farmers for the
sustainability of the drainage system and getting the long term benefits.

Figure SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-35 A view of discussion with Field
Officer – PIDA

8.8.2 Meeting with local Communities


In Project area, the second round of the public consultations was held with the general public,
whose lands affected due to water logging. The main purpose of the meetings was to note the
general response of the people about the project and the impact of water logging on social and
economic condition of the local community.

To cover whole Project areas, Focused Group Discussions: were held at different five villages
(Bakhu Shah, Korian Wali, Chak-156-HB/3L, 196 –HB and Chak-206-9R), where general
community members and their representative participated. Gender Specialist also conducted

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meeting with women of the area in the same villages and discussed social issues owing to
water logging problem in the area.

Participants were explained about the proposed project and benefits of the project. Responses
and suggestions given by the local communities about the proposed project were noted.

During FGDs, main issues highlighted by the local people are summarized below:

 The area has been experiencing water logging problem since long, but last few years water
logged area has been increased even a little rain causes a serious problem in certain areas.
 Due to seepage from Hakra Canal and distribution network the water level has risen.
 Most of the time during the monsoon, the ground water level of the area remains higher
than the normal conditions. It creates an unhealthy environmental situation and causes
inconvenience to the residents of the area, including damages to the infrastructure, loss of
crops, business and spreading of diseases.
 Livestock is the second source of income of the people in the project area, but is facing
shortage and quality of fodder.
 There are not sufficient drains in the area results in water logging.
 As a result of water logging, current and potential agricultural land is shrinking
tremendously.
 Unemployment in agriculture sector is also increasing.
 Local people are shifting their families from the project area to adjoining cities to find labour
and employment opportunities.
 The Quality of the ground water is poor and the local communities facing shortage of
drinking water and contaminated water caused the waterborne diseases.

The question was asked about providing, free of cost land for the construction of new drains. It
was observed that the people of the project area were reluctant to provide free land even it has
been waterlogged.

Pictorial view of the discussion is provided in the Figure 8-4.

Farmers and local representatives participated in the group discussion and they were happy to
learn about the proposed project. They were explained about the design of the project. The
people of the project area shown great interest in discussions and raised many questions about
the alignments of proposed drains and implementation of the project. The villages and number
of participants of FGDs are provided in Table 8-5.

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view of group discussion at Bakhu Shah Village view of meeting at Korian Wali Village

Meeting with local farmers Chak -206-9-R


A view of meeting with at Chak -196-HB
Figure SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-36 A view of discussions with local
farmers

Table SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-40 List of Male Participants

Sr. No. Name Father’s Name Occupation


1. Village Bakhu Shah
1 Ali Nawaz Muhammad Hussain Farming
2 Maqbool Ahmed Muhammad Saddique Farming
3 Muhammad Boota Muhammad Anwar Farming
4 Allah Ditta Ghulam Fareed Farming
5 Muhammad Khushid Muhammad Hayyat Farming
6 Manzoor Hamed Muhammad Saddique Farming
7 Ghulam Mustafa Ghulam Qadir Farming
8 Ehsan ul Hussan Khursheed Farming
9 Zulfiqar Muhammad Tufail Farming

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Sr. No. Name Father’s Name Occupation


10 Malooq Ahmed Jan Muhammad Farming
11 Sajjad Mehmood Muhammad Hussan Farming
12 Muhammad Nazeer Muhammad Rafique Farming
13 Muhammad Asghar Muhammad Tareen Farming
14 Muhammad Ramzan Ghulam Muhammad Farming
15 Sabir Ali Bagh Ali Farming
16 Zaheer Ahmed Muhammad Yaar Farming
17 Muhammad Hussan Ali Muhammad Farming
18 Muhammad hussain Khushi Muhammad Farming
19 Muhammad Yaseen Muhammad Sharif Farming
2- Village Korian Wali
1 Muhammad Hussaing Khushi Muhammad Faming
2 Muhammad Boota Lal Din Labour
3 Asgher Ali Faiz Ahmed Farming
4 Bagh Ali Jan Muhammad Farming
5 Yaseen Abdul Ghani Farming
6 Muhammad Din Haji Allah Ditta Farming
7 Muhammad Irfan Usama Farming
8 Shahsawar Muhammad Tufail Farming
9 Muhammad Amir Shamshad Farming
10 Muhammad Ramzan Satti Muhammad Farming
11 Abdul Hamid Muhammad Khurshid Farming
12 Wakeel Ahmed Ilyas Farming
13 Ghulam Abbas Muhammad Bukhsh Farming
14 Ishfaq Ahmed Faiz Ahmed Farming
15 Murtaza Shah Muhammad Farming
16 Ghulam Murtaza Muhammad Amin Farming
17 Hussain Farooq Iftikhar Farming
18 Maqbool Ahmed Muhammad Ilyas Farming
19 Muhammad Sharif Mian Kamal Farming
20 Mumtaz Ahmed Muhammad Hussain Farming
3- Chak -156-HB/3L

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Sr. No. Name Father’s Name Occupation


1 Maratab Ali Bashir Ahmed Farming
2 Haji Ahmed Muhammad Nawaz Farming
3 Asghar Ali Noor Muhammad Farming
4 Faqeer hussaing Nazeer hussaing Farming
5 Muhammad AAjmal Muhammad Zaman Farming
6 Muhammad Sajjad Muhammad Mali Farming
7 Muhammad Ikhlaq Muhammad Sardar Farming
8 Muhammad Mushtaq Ilam Din Farming
9 Abdul Wahid Muhammad Ismail Farming
10 Muhammad Akram Miraj Din Farming
11 Muhammad Aslam Muhammad Ramzan Farming
12 Muhammad iqbal Muhammad Bashir Farming
13 Muhammad Akram Muhammad Hanif Farming
14 Muhammad Riaz Muhammad Din Farming
15 Akhtar Ali Abdul Rehaman Farming
16 Muhammad hussain Barkat Ali Farming
17 Muhammad Akram Muhammad Afzal Farming
18 Liqat Ali Ali Sher Farming
19 Muhammd Imran Arif Ali Farming
21 Muhammad Sarfraz Attah Muhammad Farming
22 Abdul Majeed Khuda Bakhsh Farming
23 Muhammad Rafique Faqeer Muhammad Farming
24 Abdul Jabbar Ibrahim Farming
25 Shah Muhammad Mian Ahmed Farming
26 Muhammad Asghar Karam Dad Farming
27 Muhammad Asif Muhammad Sharif Farming
28 Muhammad Yousaf Muhammad Ishaq Farming
29 Muhammad Hanif Sardar Muhammad Farming
30 Muhammad Boota Muhammad Shafiq Farming
4- Chak-196-HB
1 Bashir Ahmed Abdul Aziz Farming
2 Muhammad Arshid Yousaf Ali Farming

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Sr. No. Name Father’s Name Occupation


3 Razaq Nazeer Ahmed Farming
4 Shebaz Ali Muhammad Huusain Farming
5 Muhammad Rafique Wazeer Ali Farming
6 Faisal Ramiz Ahmed Farming
7 Yaseen Agar Farming
8 Zulfiqar Nazeer Ahmed Farming
9 Riaz Ahmed Bashir Ahmed Farming
10 Muhammad Sajjad Muhammad Anwar Farming
11 Muhammad Ishtiaq Muhammad Riaz Farming
12 Muhammad Shamshad Muhammad Riaz Farming
13 Shoaib Sarwar Muhammad Sarwar Farming
14 Bashir Ahmed Charag Din Farming
15 Ali Ahmed Muhammad Yousaf Farming
16 Lyas Abdul Majeed Farming
20 Matloob Ali Maroof Ali Farming
21 Muhammad Asghar Talib Hussain Farming
22 Muhammad Iqbal Mukhtiar Ahmed Farming
23 Muhammad Boota Muhammad Ashraf Farming
24 Abbas Ali Muhammad Yousaf Farming
25 Khadim Hussain Jaffar Ali Farming
26 Ch. M. Boota Muhammad Shafi Farming
27 Muhammad Imran Muhammad Ilyas Farming
28 Muhammad Itikhar Muhammad Ashraf Farming
30 Ikram Munawar Hussain Farming
31 Ghulam Murtaza Muhammad Sharif Farming
32 Maqsood Ahmed Muhammad Anwar Farming
5- Chak -206-9-R
1 Muhammad Anwar Atta Muhammad Farming
2 Muhammad Akram Nabi Bakhsh Farming
3 Muhammad Ashraf Muhammad Boota Farming
4 Muhammad Hussain Abdul Ramzan Farming
5 Zain ul Abidin Ashiq Hussain Farming

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Sr. No. Name Father’s Name Occupation


6 Naveed Akhtar Muhammad Ashraf Farming
7 Rashid Ali Muhammad Nawaz Farming
8 Saif ur Rehman Muhammad Ashraf Farming
9 Muhammad Saewar Manzoor Ahmed Farming
10 Muhammad Abbas Mukhtar Ahmed Farming
11 Qasim hussain Muhammad Hussain Farming
12 Maroo Abdul Khaliq Farming
13 Mozamal Husssain Muhammad Anwar Farming
14 Ghulam Sarwar Asghar Ali Farming
15 Ali Ahmed Sultan Farming
16 Sanaullah Akhtar ali Farming
17 Muhammad Abbas Nazir Ahmed Farming
18 Zaffar Niaz Ahmed Farming
19 Muhammad Hussain Muhammad Ali Farming
20 Abdul Majeed Muhammad Ali Farming
21 Habib Ahmed Bashir Ahmed Farming
22 Muhammad Jawaid Khushi Muhammad Farming
23 Muhammad Ishfaq Fazal kareem Farming
24 Abdul Sattar Fazal Ali Farming
25 Muhammad Aslam Muhammad Shafi Farming
26 Muhammad Alam Ghulam Nabi Farming
27 Muhammad Shafi Sodagar Farming
28 Muhammad Ashraf Suleman Ahmed Farming
30 Saqib Ali Muhammad Iqbal Farming
31 Sajjad Ashraf Muhammad Ashraf Farming
32 Nadeem Akhtar Muhammad Anwar Farming
33 Asghar Ali Amir Ali Farming

8.9 OVERALL IMPACTS OF WATER LOGGING AND SALINITY


After the group discussion, the project area was also visited to visualize the impact due to water
logging and observed impacts have been depicted in this section. During the survey, it was
observed that water logging has the worst impact on agricultural land, housing and community

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structures. Farmers of the area are unable to cultivate their land due to standing water in the
field; even sometime access to the land is not possible.

8.9.1 On Land and Crops


Once the area was suitable for all types of crops, but due to rise of the water table on both sides
of the Hakra Canal the farmers observed negative impact on the productivity of the agricultural
land and turned it into a saline land. As a result of water logging, potential agricultural land is
shrinking tremendously and very low per acre yield of the crops has been observed. Adverse
impacts on land and crops are shown in the Figure 8-5.

A view of water logged area near Chak- 206-9R

A view of affected crop near Chak-156-HB


Figure SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-37 Adverse impacts on land and crops

8.9.2 On Buildings/ Infrastructures


Water logging has destroyed valuable properties, mud and semi- pacca houses. It was
observed that the foundations of the buildings remain subject to continuous decay that leads to
their ultimate collapse. To minimize the effect of water logging people of the area build strong
foundation of their houses. Destruction of roads occurred due to reduced bearing capacity of
waterlogged soil. Religious structures, i.e. graveyards in the project area are not save due to
this issue, graves found destroyed. Adverse impacts on buildings and other structures are given
in the Figure 8-6.

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A view of affected house by water logging & salinity - Chak-156-HB

A view of affected graveyard by salinity- Chak-156-HB


Figure SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-38 Adverse impacts on buildings and
Structures

8.9.3 On Human Health


The increasing water pollution is the biggest threat to public health in the area. The diseases
commonly caused due to polluted water are cholera, diarrhea and hepatitis. Inadequate access
to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities leads to higher infant mortality and intestinal
diseases.

Waterlogged soil provides excellent breeding grounds for mosquitoes, hence causes malaria.
Furthermore, humidity in the area is very high that causes skin related problems like skin
allergy, etc. Moreover, foul odor of the stagnant water is also a source of air pollution that has a
bad impact on the nearby residents. In rainy season, the situation becomes much worse and
some people even migrated from the project area.

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8.9.4 On Quality of Drinking Water:


Drinking water also affected due to this problem so the people face many health problems and
they have to spend resources on the treatment of the family members. Water supply schemes
have been installed along with the Hakra Canal to provide better quality of drinking water to the
inhabitants of the area, but these are not enough to fulfil the requirement of the local population.

8.10 WOMEN OF THE PROJECT AREA


Like many other persistent developmental issues in Pakistan, gender issues are also less
explored along with its marginal position in the planning process, policy formulation and
implementation of various development activities ranging from national, provincial to local level.
It is need of the time to reinterpret gender incorporating local value and cultural system of the
society to minimize disparities in terms of education, health and socio-economic development of
women and other marginalized segments of the society.

In the rural society, female plays important role in managing the household from domestic
chores to work in the fields and taking care of the livestock as well. Rural-women are major
contributors in various sub-sectors of the rural economy; crop production, livestock rearing,
cottage industry and household & family maintenance activities, such as fetching water, fuel
wood collection and fodder for livestock, food preparation & preservation and caring for children.
Most of their work and labour does not carry weight, unrecognized and unappreciated. Keeping
in view the important role of the female in the household as well as in the society, gender
consultations were also conducted in five villages to record the views of the females regarding
proposed intervention.

Gender specialist conducted meetings at five different locations in the project area to extract
their miserable condition due to water logging and to create awareness about the project. The
women of the area were keenly interested in the consultations and provided valuable
information. They included housewives, students, as far as education is concerned; the majority
of them were illiterate. Most of them belonged to poor families living in small houses.

Main findings of the discussions are presented below:

 Agriculture and livestock were the major source of their earnings, but agriculture was badly
affected from water logging, their lands have become barren. Because of this household income
badly affected which directly linked their health and education and living conditions.

 Focus group discussions with females revealed the majority of women were participating
in household activities and children caring. To support their families’ women of the area
are also participating in income generation activities, i.e. agricultural Labor, livestock
rearing while, very small percentages of women is involved in stitching and tailoring. In
social obligation women take part and there is no representation of women in political
and business activities.

 It was found that no NGO was working in the Project areas. Health facilities were too far
from their houses. Similarly higher education facilities were not available in villages.
Colleges are located near the city areas due to the long distance and lack of transport

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facilities; girls cannot reach to the educational institutions. Poverty is the main factor in
achieving the high level of education.

 In Project area, the education level of women was low, but there was a healthy and
emerging trend of girl education. Women are semi-dependent to take decisions
regarding education, health, number of children and economic self-sufficiency. The
employment ration of women in government department was very low, only a few were
serving in education and health sectors.

 During the focus group discussion, it was observed that there was no gender based
violence prevailed among the targeted community.

 The collected data revealed that the most pressing needs of women were the availability
of proper health, education facilities in the area.
 Women are semi-dependent to take decisions regarding education, health, number of
children and economic self-sufficiency.

 Out of total participants in focus group discussion, only 33 percent were literate and
remaining 67 percent were illiterate. Literacy level of the female participants in focus
group discussion is shown in Figure 8.7.

Figure SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-39 Literacy levels of Female participants

 The majorly of participants was involved in household activities and child caring and their
involvement in income generation activities was very significant. Women of the area
participate in cotton picking harvesting the rice crop and managing livestock, but their
activities related to the agriculture are decreasing owing to increase in water logged area
because agricultural land is decreasing owning to water logging. Income of the
decreased and women of the area facing difficulties to meet the household expenditure.
Participants in Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) 93 percent were housewife, only 1
percent was working in education sector and remaining 6 percent were students.

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 During the focus group discussion it was observed that there was no gender based
violence prevailed among the targeted community. There was no representation of
women in political activities. Females wanted more educational health facilities in the
rural area. They also demanded community based training/ vocational centres and
transport facilities. Pictorial view of Gender Group Discussions is given in Figure 8-8.

A view of discussion with female at Bakhu Shah village

View of gender data collection at Chak -206-9-R


Figure SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-40 A view of discussions with females

They were happy to know about the project because they were expecting restoration of the
agricultural activities in the area. The details of female participants are provided in Table 8-6.

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Table SOCIAL SURVEY (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-41 List of Female Participants

Sr. No. Name of Participants Age Education Occupation


1- Village Bakhu Shah
1 Amina bibi 55 Illiterate Housewife
2 Batoolbibi 40 Illiterate Housewife
3 Naseem Akhtar 30 Illiterate Housewife
4 Asia bibi 50 Illiterate Housewife
5 Sadiqabibi 40 Illiterate Housewife
6 Shameembibi 35 Illiterate Housewife
7 Shawanbibi 25 Illiterate Housewife
8 Naseembibi 20 Illiterate Housewife
9 Kousar 45 Illiterate Housewife
10 Rashimabibi 27 Illiterate Housewife
11 Atta bibi 50 Illiterate Housewife
12 Shafiqanbibi 35 Illiterate Housewife
13 Naziranbibi 58 Illiterate Housewife
14 Nusrat 40 Illiterate Housewife
15 Quraishanbibi 35 Illiterate Housewife
16 Nusratbibi 30 Illiterate Housewife
17 Iqbal bibi 40 Illiterate Housewife
18 Arshanbibi 55 Illiterate Housewife
2- Villge Korian Wali
1 Sugrabebe 30 Illiterate Housewife
2 Nazia 33 Illiterate Housewife
3 Azrabebe 20 Illiterate Housewife
4 Nasreen 35 Matric Housewife
5 Razia 30 F.A Teacher
6 Sobia 15 Middle Student
7 Nasreen 18 Illiterate Housewife
3- Chak -156-HB/3L
1 Basherabibi 45 Illiterate Housewife
2 Sajdabibi 35 Matric Housewife
3 Rasheeda 35 Illiterate Housewife

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Sr. No. Name of Participants Age Education Occupation


4 Mukhtarabibi 55 Illiterate Housewife
5 Mumtaz Begum 60 Illiterate Housewife
6 Asmabibi 30 Illiterate Housewife
7 ShaziaKousar 25 Illiterate Housewife
8 Nusrat 33 Illiterate Housewife
9 Sana 16 Middle Student
10 Riffat 15 Middle Student
11 Maryam bibi 27 Primary Housewife
12 Zubaida 20 Primary Housewife
13 Sakeena 45 Illiterate Housewife
4- Chak -196-HB
1 Irshadbibi 60 Illiterate Housewife
2 Asia bibi 35 Illiterate Housewife
3 Parveen 40 Illiterate Housewife
4 Mumtazbibi 35 Illiterate Housewife
5 Naseem, Akhtar 50 Illiterate Housewife
6 Sardarabibi 55 Illiterate Housewife
7 Qaneezabibi 60 Illiterate Housewife
8 Shugfta Nasreen 53 Middle Housewife
9 Shafaqatbibi 50 Illiterate Housewife
10 Raqshinda 45 Middle Housewife
11 Naseem Begum 25 Primary Housewife
12 Saba 16 Matric Student
13 Mafia 18 Primary Housewife
5- Chak -206-9-R
1 Sobia 32 F.A Housewife
2 Samara 25 Primary Housewife
3 Shahida 50 Matric Housewife
4 AbidaParveen 45 Middle Housewife
5 Shazia 37 Matric Housewife
6 Rasoolabibi 55 Illiterate Housewife
7 Maqboolabibi 50 Illiterate Housewife

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Sr. No. Name of Participants Age Education Occupation


8 Fazilatbibi 60 Illiterate Housewife
9 Aleena Shouqat 16 Primary Housewife
10 Irshadbibi 40 Illiterate Housewife
11 Kishwarbibi 35 Middle Housewife
12 Naseem Akhtar 40 Illiterate Housewife
13 Tasleem 35 Illiterate Housewife
14 Sajda 30 Matric Housewife
15 Yasmeen 40 Illiterate Housewife
16 Fazilat 50 Illiterate Housewife
17 Abida 40 Middle Housewife
18 Musaratbibi 45 Matric Housewife
19 Sardaran 60 Illiterate Housewife

8.11 GENERAL OPINION OF CONSULTED COMMUNITIES


The people of the Project area were pleased to learn about the proposed Project. They
considered this project a very favourable for reclamation of their land. Farmers of the area
support effective drain system which is one of the highest priorities needs of the area because
there are not sufficient drainage systems which result in water logging . They also demanded lining of
Hakra Canal. Tube wells should be installed to pump the ground water in the drains. The
villagers of affected area have demanded that the area be declared calamity hit.

8.12 CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATIONS


The sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the area is threatened by water logging and salinity
due to various. The situation has pushed the farmers of the affected areas on the verge of
starvation as majority of the population of the affected areas depends solely on agriculture.
Water logging has destroyed valuable properties and damage private and public infrastructure.
Water logged area is increasing which lead to social problems due to reduced employment in
agriculture. The economy status of the people downward due to this problem they move or
migrate to other areas. Unless significant measures are taken to incorporate water logging
concerns, the situation is likely to worsen in the future.

The people of this area have appealed to Government of the Punjab for immediate remedial
measures to solve the problem so that people of this area get permanent relief from the
destruction of water logging and salinity. Following main benefits of the proposed Project are
expected:

 The proposed project would lower the groundwater table at levels which would facilitate
agricultural development and would prevent soil salinization.

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 Reclamation of water logged land, increase agricultural production and consequently


improve the economic and social well-being of the area of the Project area.

 The project will result in increasing the value of land within and surrounding the project
area.
 Due to the reclamation of water logged agriculture land there will be a positive impact on
the health of the local population.
 Migration from project area to urban areas will be reduced

In addition to the above-mentioned benefits, people will get employment during the
implementation of the project and in turn the quality of life of the inhabitants of the area will
improve. Moreover, income generation opportunities in agriculture sector for women of the area
will increase. Ultimately the project will a have positive impact in the livelihoods of the local
communities.

The participatory management is fast emerging as a concept for ensuring the involvement of
different stake holders. It is more important in case of implementing projects in rural areas. For
the sustainability of the drainage system farmers of the command area of the drains should be
involved in operation and maintenance of the drains. Drainage Beneficiary Groups should be
formed with proper social mobilization, because the involvement of the beneficiaries will lead to
sustainable agriculture in the area.

8.13 NEED OF LAND ACQUISITION AND RESETTLEMENT SURVEY


The objective of the safeguard policies is to avoid involuntary resettlement where possible by
exploring project and design alternatives to enhance, or at least restore, the livelihood of all
displaced persons in real terms relative to pre-project level; and to improve the standard of living
of the displaced poor and other vulnerable groups. Therefore, it requires a Land Acquisition and
Resettlement Plan (LARP) the projects involving either physical or the economic displacement
of people. The scope and level of detailed resettlement planning will vary with circumstances,
depending on the project’s complexity and the magnitude of its effects. As a minimum
requirement of LARP it must be ensured that the livelihood of people affected by the project is
restored to pre-project level. The proposed project requires permanent land acquisition for the
construction new drains. Therefore, survey was conducted to assess impact of the proposed
project on land and other housing, commercial and community structures.

8.13.1 Minimizing Resettlement Impact


To minimize the adverse project impacts on housing, commercial and community structures the
alignments of the proposed drains were designed in such a way that no structures fall in the
Corridor of Impact (CoI). All alternative options have been considered to avoid adverse impacts
on the big settlements. As a result, no built-up structures will be affected. Thus, the total
resettlement impact of this project will be the land acquisition and loss of a crop.

8.13.2 Legal Policy Framework


The legal framework of Pakistan which applies to land acquisition and compensation has been
discussed in next sections describing the land acquisition process.

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8.13.3 Pakistan’s Law and Regulations on Land Acquisition and Resettlement


The Land Acquisition Act (LAA) of 1894 is the main law regulating land acquisition for public
purpose. The LAA and its implementation Rules require that following an impact assessment
and valuation effort, land and crops are compensated in cash at market rate to titled landowners
and registered land tenants/users, respectively. The LAA mandates that land valuation is to be
based on the latest 3-5 years average registered land sale rates, though, recently, the median
rate over the past one year, or even current rates, were applied in some cases. Due to
widespread land under-valuation by the Revenue Department, current market rates are now
frequently applied, plus 15% Compulsory Acquisition Surcharge as provided in the LAA.

The LAA 1894 regulates the land acquisition process and enables the provincial government to
acquire private land for public purposes. Land acquisition is a provincial responsibility and
provinces have also their own province specific implementation rules like Punjab Land
Acquisition Rules, 1983. The procedure for acquiring land both by Government for public
purposes and for company has been described in the Land Acquisition Act.

When land is required for public purpose by any agency, it makes a requisition to the Secretary
Revenue and Estate of the Province who will either delegate the District Revenue Officer in
case of small land acquisition or appoint a Land Acquisition Collector when the area to be
acquired is large depends on project. Acting on the request the District Collector/Deputy
Commissioner issues a notice under Section-4 of the LAA which is the preliminary notification of
intention to acquire the land. The purpose of such notification is only to enable the authorities to
carry out a preliminary investigation for deciding whether the land intended to be acquired is
suitable for the purpose for which it is needed. The object of the service of the substance of the
notice is to afford an opportunity to the affected persons to file objections within 30 days under
Section-5 of the Act. With the issuance of this notice the executing agency is granted the
authority to enter the notified private land for surveying.

Section-5 provides for the execution agency to pay for the damages caused during the survey
work. Recital in notification under section-6 is a declaration which is conclusive evidence that
land was needed for public purpose or for company. Section-7 indicates that the Land
Commissioner shall direct the Collector/Deputy Commissioner to take order for the acquisition
of land. The Collector/Revenue Officer has then to direct that the land is required to be
physically marked out measured and planned under Section-8. Section-9 allows the
Collector/Deputy Commissioner to give notice to all affected households that the Government
intends to take possession of the land. If they have any claims for compensation then these
claims should be made to him at an appointed time, while the Section-10 delegates power to
record statements of affected persons in the land to be acquired or any part thereof as co-
proprietor, sub-proprietor, mortgagee, and tenant or otherwise. Section-11 enables the District
Collector to make inquiries into the measurements, value and claim and issue the final "award".
The award includes the land's marked area and the valuation of compensation. Collector will
then take possession and the land shall thereupon vest absolutely in the Government, free from
all encumbrances.

The acquisition process is completed with the announcement of section-16 which announces
that the land is transferred to the name of executing agency after the payments are made.

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Under Section-18 a reference to the court can be made of a dispute with regard to the area or
the quantum of the compensation or as to the apportionment of the same amongst the persons
interested. In case of urgency, the procedure will remain the same except the notice under
Section-5-A. Collector/Deputy Commissioner announces section-17 (Land acquisition for
emergency Purpose) just after the announcement of section-4 or 5. This section does not allow
the landowners to register any complain against any issue and the land is acquired immediately.
The Collector announces the section-23 award of compensation for the owners after necessary
enquiries and compensation for acquired land is determined at its market value plus 15% in
consideration of compulsory nature of the acquisition for public purposes.

Section-24 describing the factors not be considered during the determination of compensation;
first, the degree of urgency which has led to the acquisition; secondly, any disinclination of the
person to part with the land acquired; thirdly, any damage sustained by him which. If caused by
a private person. would not render such person liable to a sue; fourthly, any damage which is
likely to be caused to the land acquired, after the dale of the publication of the declaration,
under section-6, by or in consequence of the use after which it will be put; fifthly, any increase to
the value of the land acquired likely to accrue from the use of which it will be put when acquired;
sixthly, any increase to the value of the other land of the person interested likely to accrue from
the use to which the land acquired will be put; seventhly, any outlay or improvements on, or
disposal of, the land acquired, commenced, made or effected without the sanction of the
Collector after the date of the publication of the notification under section 4' sub-section (I) ; or
eight, any increase to the value of the land on account of its being put to any use which is
forbidden by law or opposed to public policy.

Section 31 provides that the LAC can, instead of awarding cash compensation in respect of any
land, make any arrangement with a person having an interest in such land, including the grant
of other lands in exchange.

8.13.4 Punjab Land Acquisition Rules 1983


Rule 4: Enables the Collector to examine feasibility taking into consideration the
genuineness of the public purpose and suitability of the area proposed for requisition.

Rule 5: Collector notifies that the land be acquired for the acquiring agency under section 4
of the Act (1984) and clearly states the location, dimensions and boundaries of area
to be acquired.

Rule 6: The collector submits his report to the Commissioner within sixty days from the date
of publication of the Notification under section 4.

Rule 8: The Commissioner immediately on receipt of the survey report of the Collector
forwards the same to the Board of Revenue.

Rule 10: The Commissioner issue a Notification and ensure that the description of acquired
land is mentioned under rules 5 and the Collector carefully calculated the estimated
price of the land, considering the factors laid down in sections-23 and 24 of the Act;
like average market price of land based on the one year land transaction.

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8.13.5 Impact on Land


The project will require about 778 acres of private land on permanent basis for the construction
of new drains. Detail of land has been provided in the Table 3.1. The price of the arable land has
been evaluated on average registered land sale rates, over the past one year and the price of
the water logged land has been determined according to current market rates.

8.13.6 Impact on Building and Structure


There is no impact on residential or commercial structures by the project implementation.
Similarly, there is no impact on any community structure, or any business activities by the
construction of drains.

8.13.7 Budget for Land Acquisition


This section includes a summary of cost estimates for compensation and assistance for the loss
of land by the construction of new drains. The cost estimate has been based on the revenue
record and rates derived through survey, consultation with stakeholders and affected persons.

8.13.8 Meetings With landowners


The main purpose of the meetings was to note the general response of the landowners for
providing land for the proposed drainage system, especially for the tail portion of the Hakra Left
Drain.

Meetings were held in different four villages (Chak-240-HL, 241-HL, 142-HL &240-HB), where
landowners and community representatives participated. Participants were explained about the
proposed project and benefits of the project. Responses and suggestions given by the local
communities about the proposed project were noted. List of participants provided below:

List of Participants
Sr. Name Father’s Name Occupation Contact No.
No.
1- CHAK-240-HL
1 Maqsood Hussain Maqbool Hussain Faming 0302-3811017
2 Mustansar Riaz Muhammad Riaz Farming 0346-7717240
3 Abid Sultan Ajmal Khan Farming 0344-4712545
4 Imdad Hussain Muhammad Anwar Farming 0342-7213286
5 Tariq Mehmood Muhammad Saeed Farming 0342-7417240
6 Umar Draz Ghulam Muhammad Farming 0348-7099119
7 Muhammad Bashir Haji Ahmed Farming 0347-3428442
8 Sher Shah Fazal Hussain Shah Farming -
9 Allah Ditta Muhammad Khan Farming 0300-7076240
10 Muhammad Abbas Muhammad Khan Farming 2300-2545240
11 Ameer Hayder Syed Mustaq Hussain Farming 0344-2381738
12 Muhammad Ali Rajab Ali Farming 0345-5329420

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13 Ghazanfar Ali Shafqat Ali Farming 0345-7050362


14 Amir Raza Ghulam Mustafa Farming 0346-8195042
15 Sayed Amir Shah Syed Ameer Mehdi Farming 0342-8609240

A view of meeting with local farmers at Chak-240-HL

List of Participants
Sr. Name Father’s Name Occupation Contact No.
#
2- CHAK-241-HL
1 Asghar Ali Zaffar Ali Farming 0301-4314741
2 Ghulam Mustafa Noor Muhammad Farming 0344-7422241
3 Muhammad Khalid Muhammad yousaf Farming 0348-7098542
4 Rashid Mehmood Imdad Ali Farming 0346-0810834
5 Muhammad Ummar Nazeer Ahmed Farming 0343-6990305
6 Shahid Mehmood Bashir Ahmed Farming 0346-7564241
7 Muhammad Iqbal Ahmad Khan Farming 0346-8444852
8 Maqsood Ahmed Ahmed Khan Farming 0344-4641941
9 Muhammad Akhtar Noor Ahmed Farming 0345-6851141
10 Muhammad Asghar Noor Ahmed Farming 0346-7432241
11 Akbar Ali Noor Muhammad Farming 0345-7765241
12 Ghafoor Ahmed Allah Yaar Farming 0345-7042475

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13 Muhammad Yaar Allah Ditta Farming 0343-2231956


14 Muhammad Farooq Sher Muhammad Farming 0307-2231958
15 Shahnwaz Muhammad Azeem Farming 0349-7180247
16 Fakhar Hayyat Sher Muhammad Farming 0342-7153525
17 Ahmed Bux Wali Muhammad Farming -
18 Fakhar Hayyat Manzoor Hamed Farming -
19 Muhammad Boota Allah Ditta Farming 0345-6680393
20 Muhammad Akram Wali Muhammad Farming -
21 Muhammad Amir Ghulam Nabi Farming 0342-7380241
22 Muhammad Shafi Sujawar Khan Farming -
23 Zuffar Ali Haji Nazar Farming 0345-4831241
Muhammad
24 Muhammad Nauman Muhammad Amin Farming 0305-1472642
25 Muhammad Maqbool Noor Ahmed Farming -

A view of meeting with local farmers at Chak-241-HL

List of Participants

Sr. No. Name Father’s Name Occupation Contact No.

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3-Chak -142-HL
1 Wakeel Muhammmad Mian Sajwal Farming 0308-4242785
2 Bashir Ahmed Mian Sajwal Farming -
3 Muhammd Mumtaz Ahmed Bakhsh Farming -
4 Muhammad Ashraf Muhammad Sardar Farming 0305-6699243
5 Allah Bakhsh Akbar Ali Farming -
6 Muhammad Nawaz Akbar Ali Farming 0302-4727041
7 Muhammad Bakhsh Shah Muhammad Farming 0346-8059953

A view of meeting with local farmers at Chak-242-HL

List of Participants

Sr. No. Name Father’s Name Occupation Contact No.


4- Chak-240-HB
1 Malik M. Amin Allah Ditta Farming 0344-4591240
2 Malik Yaseen Allah Ditta Farming 0302-4944568
3 Muhammad Munir Muhammad Sultan Farming 0346-4988240
4 Hafiz M.Rafiq Ghulam Hayder Farming 0341-2521421
5 Sayed Razaq Shah Ghulam Rasool Farming 0345-2547240
6 Zafar Iqbal Muhammad Sharif Farming 0342-4775888
7 Muhammad Rashid Muhammad Afzal Farming 0301-7250487

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Reclamation of Water Logged Agriculture Land in Border Area along Hakra Canal Feasibility Study Report

8 Sayed Baqir Hussain Zakir hussain Farming 0341-5218240


9 Sayed Murtaza Said Shah Farming 0347-3462464
10 Malik Bashir Khokhar Allah Ditta Farming 0346-6353405
11 Muhammad Bakhsh Noor Muhammad Farming 0335-4943240
12 M. Fzal –ur-Rehman Muhammad Sadique Farming 0345-8082240
13 Azam Khan Ghulam Ali Farming -
14 Fawad Ali Ahmed Hussain Farming -
15 Sayed Iqbal Hussain Fazal Ahmed Shah Farming 0340-6688769
16 Malik M. Ibrahim Muhammad Saleem Farming 0300-8925294
20 Muhammad Riaz Manoor Ahmed Farming 0343-6733155
21 Shakil Abbas Mukhtiar Ahmed Farming 0347-7221140
22 Shabeer Jutt Abdul Ghani Farming 0342-8024352
23 Liaqat Ali Jutt Ghulam Ali Farming 0345-7039163
24 Haji Maqbool Ahmed Jalal Din Farming 0342-1576240

A view of meeting with local farmers at Chak-241-HB

8.13.9 Issue Raised


Local farmers of the area are expecting adverse impacts on their arable land due to the
construction of drains and they highlighted following issues:

 Adverse impact on livelihood due to the acquisition of the arable land

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 There is chance of water logging of land due to the passing drains in area and rise of
water table.
 Impact on ground water quality
 Impact on human health
 Small landowners will have swear impact due to loss of land
 Valuation of land required for the proposed drains
 Overflow from the Ghaggra River during flood season damages the crops and other
infrastructure.

During the field visit it was observed the available bed of the Ghaggar-Hakra River being
cultivated even at the disposal site of the drain along the Indian border with Pakistan. The river
normally remains dry, but during flood season due to overflow creates hardships for the local
people and there is no capacity to store additional water in the bed of the river.

A view of cultivate land of Ghaggar-Hakra Bed near the proposed site of the drain water

Proposed alignment of the Hakra left drain from RD 284+00 runs in the arable. The livelihood of
the local farmers depends on the land and there is an Indian Border at short distance. A view of
the land has been depicted below:

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A view of arable land to be acquired for the proposed project

8.13.10 General Opinion of Consulted Landowners


Participants were explained about the proposed project and benefits of the project. Responses
and suggestions given by the local communities about the proposed project were noted. The
suggestions given by the land owners are summarized below:

 Acquisition of the arable land can be avoided by disposing drain water in the Hakra
Branch.

 The Flood Channel is off taking from RD 285+920 of the Hakra Branch and land is
available between the channel and road which should be utilized for the construction of
the new drain.

 Another option is the army ditch channel which can also be utilized for the dispose of
drain eater.

 Available drains at the right side of the Hakra Branch should be used for the proposed
project.

 Arable land under the project impact should be properly compensated according to the
market rates if other options are not considerable.

8.13.11 Conclusion & Recommendations


The sustainability of irrigated agriculture in the area is threatened by water logging and salinity
due to various. The situation has pushed the farmers of the affected areas on the verge of
starvation as majority of the population of the affected areas depends solely on agriculture.
Water logging has destroyed valuable properties and damage private and public infrastructure.

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Reclamation of Water Logged Agriculture Land in Border Area along Hakra Canal Feasibility Study Report

Water logged area is increasing which lead to social problems due to reduced employment in
agriculture. The economy status of the people downward due to this problem they move or
migrate to other areas. Unless significant measures are taken to incorporate water logging
concerns, the situation is likely to worsen in the future.

The people of this area have appealed to Government of the Punjab for immediate remedial
measures to solve the problem so that people of this area get permanent relief from the
destruction of water logging and salinity.

Due to the reclamation of water logged land, agricultural production would increase,
consequently, improve the economic and social well-being of the area of the Project area.

As a result of discussions with land owners of the tail portion of the project area and the
sustainability of the project following recommendation are made:

 Acquisition of the arable land and adverse impacts of the project should be minimized
by exploring other options.

 Proposed drainage system along the Hakra Branch RD 285+920 and Hakra left disty
should be lined in order to avoid risk of water logging along its alignment.

 Land required for the project should be evaluated as per market rates so that the
affected landowners could purchase land of the same categories.

The participatory management is fast emerging as a concept for ensuring the involvement of
different stake holders. It is more important in case of implementing projects in rural areas. For
the sustainability of the drainage system farmers of the command area of the drains should be
involved in operation and maintenance of the drains. Drainage Beneficiary Groups should be
formed with proper social mobilization, because the involvement of the beneficiaries will lead to
sustainable agriculture in the area.

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9 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)

An Environmental Impact Assessment was conducted for “Reclamation of Water Logged


Agriculture Land in District Bahawalnagar” in pursuance to all relevant laws, policies, and
guidelines. These include Punjab Environmental Protection (Amendment) Act, 2012 and
Pakistan IEE/EIA Review Regulations (2000). All project activities will be in compliance with
NEQS and will have monitoring and evaluation system, as required under Punjab EPA.

According to Review of IEE/EIA Regulations, 2000 the project falls under category F (2) of
schedule I, i.e. “Water management, dams, irrigation and flood protection”. The PEPA, 2012 is
a superseding law and the proposed project seeks approval from Punjab EPA under the Act.
EIA Report will be submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Punjab for
approval. The report has been prepared to ensure compliance with the local legal requirement
and seek approval from Punjab EPA.

During impact assessment study, the potential environmental impacts of the project have been
identified through the use of the standard checklists, relevant guidelines, environmental
surveys, expert knowledge and experience. The impacts identified were assessed for their
significance keeping in view their likelihood, consequence, reversibility, duration, location,
timing etc. The impacts are considered at three phases, viz; Design, Construction and
Operational phase to suggest their mitigation measures. At design stage, some of the impacts
are minimized through adjustments in the project design. As regards environmental impacts
during construction and operation, these may be positive and negative, slight, moderate or
significant, an account of which is discussed below:

9.1 POSITIVE IMPACTS


1. The proposed project will bring about a net-positive benefit in terms of land reclamation
and restoration
2. In result of proposed rehabilitation/ restoration and construction works benefits would
accrue from improved agriculture production
3. The Project will also improve existing drainage infrastructure including rehabilitation of
existing choked up drains and repair of structures to restore the reduced carrying design
capacity of existing drainage system in the project area.
4. Availability of jobs during construction phase will help the unemployed local youth to
learn skills through working on this project. The project’s worker will receive a life time
benefits through skill training, capacity building and help in poverty alleviation. There will
be no major loss or damage to livelihood. This will be the significant positive impact.
5. The livelihoods of farming communities will also improve through social and economic
uplift. The representation of women and other vulnerable groups will be ensured in the
Project benefits.
6. Greater awareness will be created about health care including HIV/AIDS amongst the
labor and nearby communities.
7. The scenic and aesthetic value of the area will be enhanced due to land restoration

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and by recommended plantation.

9.2 NEGATIVE IMPACTS


It is conceived that the project will not have any significant adverse environmental impact on
the existing environment of the project area. Most of the adverse impacts are associated with
the construction phase of the project. Construction related environmental impacts may emerge
in terms of air, noise and water pollution, some crop loss and tree uprooting etc. These impacts
are temporary, localize and reversible in nature.

The drainage system/network may prove to be inefficient in case of poor maintenance. Keeping
this in consideration proper engineering controls at design stage as well as proper maintenance
of the system afterwards can prevent system non efficiency. Uprooting of trees will be required
for the construction of new drains. The funds are proposed to be allocated in order to make
payments to Forest Department as replenishment cost in this regard.

Ambient air quality may deteriorate locally from dust and noise pollution during the construction
phase of the project. The impact is mitigable with the control measures provided in the EIA
report.

Private land acquisition and relocation of houses and some other structures will be required for
the construction of new structures. However, these issues will be duly addressed in
resettlement plan and the overall impact of the project on socio-economic condition of the
project area will be positive. The Land Acquisition and Resettlement Plan (LARP) will be
prepared and submit under separate cover to address the resettlement and relocation issues of
locals. The remaining impacts associated with the construction phase will be temporary,
reversible, phased over a period of time, localized and manageable.

Recommendations for mitigation, management and monitoring measures are based on relevant
guidelines, experience and best practices. Eliminating risk by altering the scope or method of
execution of work was preferred rather than minimizing the risk with control measures, where
possible.

9.3 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN


A comprehensive Environmental Management Plan (EMP) is suggested to be prepared to
minimize the adverse environmental impacts, mainly occurring during construction phase of the
project. EMP is the most important component of the environmental study which binds all the
parties of the contract (client, consultants & contractors) of the Project in a chain of
commanding clauses in terms of supervision, monitoring, management and implementation.
The EMP will be made part of bidding and contract documents and the contractor is bound to
implement the EMP in letter and spirit. Contractor will also be bound by the contract to abide
and adhere to the Social Framework Agreement between client and the beneficiaries. In
addition to that the Contractor will cooperate with the Environmental & Social Unit (ESU) of the
client and supervision consultants and will give priority to their explanations regarding EMP
contents in a proper manner.

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9.4 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING


The objectives of environmental and social monitoring during the various phases of the
proposed project are to ensure;

 Implementation of mitigation measures included in the EIA report


 effectiveness of the mitigation measure in minimizing the project’s impacts on social
and environmental resources

To achieve these objectives, compliance monitoring, effects monitoring and external monitoring
are proposed. The monitoring plan provides details of the above types of monitoring including
the procedures, responsibility, timeframe and reporting requirement.

9.5 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT COST


The environmental management cost has been worked out which covers the monitoring,
training, environment audit, special waste disposal, emergency plan implementation, drinking
water & wastewater disposal monitoring, site visits, restoration of work sites, tree plantation and
traffic management.

The overall estimated cost of EMP, derived from the given scope of work and previous
experience, is PKR 7.30 million. The distribution of cost is summarized in Table 9-1 as follows.

Table ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (OF RECOMMENDE PLAN)-42 Environmental


Management Cost

Cumulative Cost
Activities
(PKR millions)

Environmental Monitoring Cost 1.57


Training Cost 0.5
Environmental Audit Cost 1.0
Plantation Cost/ Environmental Improvement Cost 2
Cost of Implementation of Emergency Plan 0.5
Cost of Drinking Water and Groundwater Monitoring Near Disposal Pit 0.48
Site Visits by Regulatory Authorities 0.25
Traffic Management Cost 1.0
Total 7.30

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9.6 RECOMMENDATIONS
 The deep drainage wells may prove to be inefficient in long-term. An integrated
approach of surface and bio-drainage is most suitable for combating water logging and
eventual salinity problem in the area.
 Properly designed strips of suitable Eucalyptus tree specie (e.g. Eucalyptus tereticorn is
grows well in semi arid regions with alluvial sandy loam soils) on farmers’ fields and
block plantation along canals for uniform reclamation of water logged soils should be
raised for integrating bio-drainage
 Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Acacia nilotica, Tamarix troupii, Haloxylon spp should be
planted to reclaim salinity and sodicity affected areas in project area..

9.7 CONCLUSION
Summing up it can be concluded that;

 There are no significant adverse environmental impacts expected during construction


and operational phases of the project. As being a localized activity, rehabilitating the
existing system, it will cause minimum change in the environment. The project is an
environmentally sustainable, financially viable, socially acceptable and physically
feasible project.
 The proposed project will bring about net positive benefit in terms of improved
agricultural land availability and production. The project would result in the betterment of
beneficiaries, whose income would increase due to improvement in irrigation
productivity.
 There will be no major loss or damage to livelihood. The livelihoods of farming
communities will improve through social and economic uplift. The scenic and aesthetic
value of the area will be enhanced due to land restoration and recommended plantation.

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