Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 69

ASME B30.

20-201 8
(Revision of ASME B30.20-2013)

Below-the-Hook
Lifting Devices
Safety Standard for Cableways,
Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks,
and Slings

A N A M E R I C A N N AT I O N A L S TA N D A R D

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
ASME B30.20-2018
(Revision of ASME B30.20-2013)

Below-the-Hook
Lifting Devices
Safety Standard for Cableways,
Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks,
and Slings

AN AMERICAN NATIONAL STANDARD

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
Two Park Avenue • New York, NY • 1 001 6 USA
x
Date of Issuance: July 25, 2018

The next edition of this Standard is scheduled for publication in 2023. This Standard will become effective 1 year after the Date of
Issuance.
ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretations of technical aspects of this Standard. Interpretations are
published on the ASME website under the Committee Pages at http://cstools.asme.org/ as they are issued.
Errata to codes and standards may be posted on the ASME website under the Committee Pages to provide corrections to
incorrectly published items, or to correct typographical or grammatical errors in codes and standards. Such errata shall be used
on the date posted.
The Committee Pages can be found at http://cstools.asme.org/. There is an option available to automatically receive an e-mail
notification when errata are posted to a particular code or standard. This option can be found on the appropriate Committee
Page after selecting “Errata ” in the “Publication Information ” section.

ASME is the registered trademark of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

This code or standard was developed under procedures accredited as meeting the criteria for American National Standards. The Standards
Committee that approved the code or standard was balanced to assure that individuals from competent and concerned interests have had an
opportunity to participate. The proposed code or standard was made available for public review and comment that provides an opportunity
for additional public input from industry, academia, regulatory agencies, and the public-at-large.
ASME does not “approve, ” “rate,” or “endorse ” any item, construction, proprietary device, or activity.
ASME does not take any position with respect to the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any items mentioned in this
document, and does not undertake to insure anyone utilizing a standard against liability for infringement of any applicable letters patent, nor
assume any such liability. Users of a code or standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the
risk of infringement of such rights, is entirely their own responsibility.
Participation by federal agency representative(s) or person(s) affiliated with industry is not to be interpreted as government or industry
endorsement of this code or standard.
ASME accepts responsibility for only those interpretations of this document issued in accordance with the established ASME procedures
and policies, which precludes the issuance of interpretations by individuals.

No part of this document may be reproduced in any form,


in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher.

The American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990

Copyright © 2018 by
THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERS
All rights reserved
Printed in U.S.A.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
CONTENTS

Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
Committee Roster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
B30 Standard Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
Summary of Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii

Chapter 20-0 Scope, Definitions, Personnel Competence, Translations, and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1


Section 20-0.1 Scope of ASME B30.20 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Section 20-0.2 Definitions — General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Section 20-0.3 Definitions for Chapter 20-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Section 20-0.4 Definitions for Chapter 20-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Section 20-0.5 Definitions for Chapter 20-3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Section 20-0.6 Definitions for Chapter 20-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Section 20-0.7 Definitions for Chapter 20-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Section 20-0.8 Definitions for Chapter 20-6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Section 20-0.9 Personnel Competence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Section 20-0.10 Translations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Section 20-0.11 References to Other Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Chapter 20-1 Structural and Mechanical Lifting Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Section 20-1.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Section 20-1.2 Marking, Construction, and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Section 20-1.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Section 20-1.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Section 20-1.5 Instruction Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Chapter 20-2 Vacuum Lifting Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Section 20-2.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Section 20-2.2 Marking, Construction, and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Section 20-2.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Section 20-2.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Section 20-2.5 Instruction Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Chapter 20-3 Close Proximity Operated Lifting Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Section 20-3.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Section 20-3.2 Marking, Construction, and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Section 20-3.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Section 20-3.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Section 20-3.5 Instruction Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Chapter 20-4 Remotely Operated Lifting Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Section 20-4.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Section 20-4.2 Marking, Construction, and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Section 20-4.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
iii
Section 20-4.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Section 20-4.5 Instruction Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Chapter 20-5 Scrap and Material-Handling Grapples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Section 20-5.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Section 20-5.2 Marking, Construction, and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Section 20-5.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Section 20-5.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Section 20-5.5 Instruction Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Chapter 20-6 Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Section 20-6.1 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Section 20-6.2 Marking, Construction, and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Section 20-6.3 Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Section 20-6.4 Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Section 20-6.5 Instruction Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Figures
20-1.1-1 Structural Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
20-1.1-2 Mechanical Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
20-1.1-3 Mechanical Supporting Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
20-2.1-1 Vacuum Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
20-3.1-1 Close Proximity Operated Magnetic Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
20-4.1-1 Remotely Operated Magnetic Lifters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
20-5.1-1 Scrap and Material-Handling Grapples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
20-6.0-1 Load-Supporting Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
20-6.0-2 Friction-Type Pressure-Gripping Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
20-6.0-3 Indentation-Type Pressure-Gripping Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
20-6.0-4 Anchoring and Positioning Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
20-6.0-5 Hybrid Clamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Table
20-1.3.3-1 Minimum Inspection for Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
iv
FOREWORD

This American National Standard, Safety Standard for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks, Jacks, and Slings, has
been developed under the procedures accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). This Standard had
its beginning in December 1916 when an eight-page Code ofSafety Standards for Cranes, prepared by an ASME Committee
on the Protection of Industrial Workers, was presented at the annual meeting of the ASME.
Meetings and discussions regarding safety on cranes, derricks, and hoists were held from 1920 to 1925, involving the
ASME Safety Code Correlating Committee, the Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers, the American Museum of
Safety, the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC) (later changed to American Standards Association (ASA),
then to the United States ofAmerica Standards Institute (USASI), and finally to ANSI), Department ofLabor — State ofNew
Jersey, Department ofLabor and Industry — State ofPennsylvania, and the Locomotive Crane Manufacturers Association.
On June 11, 1925, AESC approved the ASME Safety Code Correlating Committee’s recommendation and authorized the
project with the U.S. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks, and ASME as sponsors.
In March 1926, invitations were issued to 50 organizations to appoint representatives to a Sectional Committee. The
call for organization of this Sectional Committee was sent out October 2, 1926, and the committee organized November 4,
1926, with 57 members representing 29 national organizations. Commencing June 1, 1927, and using the eight-page code
published by ASME in 1916 as a basis, the Sectional Committee developed the Safety Code for Cranes, Derricks, and Hoists.
The early drafts of this safety code included requirements for Jacks, but, due to inputs and comments on those drafts, the
Sectional Committee decided in 1938 to make the requirements for Jacks a separate code. In January 1943, ASA B30.2-
1943 was published addressing a multitude of equipment types and in August 1943, ASA B30.1-1943 was published just
addressing Jacks. Both documents were reaffirmed in 1952 and widely accepted as safety standards.
Due to changes in design, advancement in techniques, and general interest of labor and industry in safety, the Sectional
Committee, under the joint sponsorship ofASME and the Bureau ofYards and Docks (now the Naval Facilities Engineering
Command) was reorganized on January 31, 1962, with 39 members representing 27 national organizations. The new
committee changed the format of ASA B30.2-1943 so that the multitude of equipment types it addressed could be
published in separate volumes that could completely cover the construction, installation, inspection, testing, mainte-
nance, and operation of each type of equipment that was included in the scope of ASA B30.2. This format change resulted
in the initial publication of B30.3, B30.5, B30.6, B30.11 and B30.16 being designated as Revisions of B30.2 with the
remainder ofthe B30 volumes being published as totally new volumes. ASA changed its name to USASI in 1966 and to ANSI
in 1969, which resulted in B30 volumes from 1943 to 1968 being designated as either ASA B30, USAS B30, or ANSI B30,
depending on their date of publication.
In 1982, the Committee was reorganized as an Accredited Organization Committee, operating under procedures
developed by ASME and accredited by ANSI. This Standard presents a coordinated set of rules that may serve as a
guide to government and other regulatory bodies and municipal authorities responsible for the guarding and inspection
ofthe equipment falling within its scope. The suggestions leading to accident prevention are given both as mandatory and
advisory provisions; compliance with both types may be required by employers of their employees.
In case ofpractical difficulties, new developments, or unnecessary hardship, the administrative or regulatory authority
may grant variances from the literal requirements or permit the use ofother devices or methods, but only when it is clearly
evident that an equivalent degree of protection is thereby secured. To secure uniform application and interpretation of
this Standard, administrative or regulatory authorities are urged to consult the B30 Committee, in accordance with the
format described in Section IX of the Introduction, before rendering decisions on disputed points.
Safety codes and standards are intended to enhance public safety. Revisions result from committee consideration of
factors such as technological advances, new data and changing environmental and industry needs. Revisions do not imply
that previous editions were inadequate.
B30.20, Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices, was first published in 1985; new editions were published in 1993, 1999, 2003,
and 2006. In the 2010 edition, maintenance was made mandatory, definitions were revised and other changes were made
to improve clarity. The 2013 revision added requirements for personnel competence, operating controls marking and
inspection, translation ofnon-English documentation into English, and updates to the definition ofDuty Cycle to align with
revisions made to BTH-1. In addition, responsibilities for Owners and Operators are defined for each piece of equipment.
This 2018 edition adds Chapter 6 on Clamps, revisions to product safety labeling, addition of rated load marking re-
quirements for remotely operated magnets, expanded and clarified magnet testing requirements, revision to the

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
v
permanent magnet rating factor, revisions to align with recent changes to BTH-1, and updates to the operating practices
sections to align with revisions to the standards applicable to the equipment used with BTH lifters.
This Volume of the Standard, which was approved by the B30 Committee and by ASME, was approved by ANSI and
designated as an American National Standard on April 24, 2018.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
vi
ASME B30 COMMITTEE
Safety Standard for Cableways, Cranes, Derricks, Hoists, Hooks,
Jacks, and Slings
(The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Standard.)

STANDARDS COMMITTEE OFFICERS


B. D. Closson, Chair
T. L. Blanton, Vice Chair
K. M. Hyam, Secretary

STANDARDS COMMITTEE PERSONNEL


N. E. Andrew, LTS Cranes Mechanical P. D. Sweeney, Riverside Engineering, LLC
T. L. Blanton, NACB Group, Inc. E. P. Vliet, Turner Industries Group, LLC
P. A. Boeckman, The Crosby Group, Inc. J. D. Wiethorn, Haag Engineering Co.
P. W. Boyd, The Boeing Co. R. C. Wild, CJ Drilling, Inc.
B. D. Closson, Craft Forensic Services D. N. Wolff, National Crane/Manitowoc Cranes
J. A. Danielson, The Boeing Co. S. D. Wood, Terex Corp.
D. R. Decker, Becket, LLC B. B. Bacon, Alternate, Tennessee Valley Authority
L. D. Demark, Equipment Training Solutions, LLC L. J. Bolen, Alternate, Consultant
D. W. Eckstein, Eckstein & Associates, Inc. G. J. Brent, Alternate, NCCCO
R. J. Edwards, NBIS J. R. Burkey, Alternate, Columbus McKinnon Corp.
A. J. Egging, National Oilwell Varco B. M. Casey, Alternate, General Dynamics Electric Boat
E. D. Fidler, Grove U.S., LLC W. C. Dickinson, Jr., Alternate, Crane Industry Services, LLC
J. A. Gilbert, Associated Wire Rope Fabricators J. Dudley, Alternate, The Walsh Group
J. L. Gordon, Acco Material Handling Solutions, Inc. D. Duerr, Alternate, 2DM Associates, Inc.
N. C. Hargreaves, Consultant M. Eggenberger, Alternate, Berry Contracting, Inc.
G. B. Hetherston, Consultant S. R. Fletcher, Alternate, Cowles, Murphy, Glover & Associates
K. M. Hyam, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers M. Gardiner, Alternate, Haag Engineering Co.
M. M. Jaxtheimer, Navy Crane Center D. M. Gordon, Alternate, Liberty Mutual Insurance
P. R. Juhren, Morrow Equipment Co., LLC S. R. Gridley, Alternate, Navy Crane Center
R. M. Kohner, Landmark Engineering Services D. A. Henninger, Alternate, Bridon America
A. J. Luci, Jr., LuMark Consulting, LLP D. F. Jordan, Alternate, American International Crane Bureau
E. K. Marburg, Columbus McKinnon Corp. K. Kennedy, Alternate, Navy Crane Center
L. D. Means, Means Engineering & Consulting J. Lindsay, Alternate, Link-Belt Construction Equipment
M. W. Mills, Liberty Mutual Insurance E. E. Lutter, Alternate, The Crosby Group, Inc.
D. L. Morgan, Critical Lift Consultants, LLC T. C. Mackey, Alternate, WRPS Hanford
W. E. Osborn, Ingersoll Rand G. D. Miller, Alternate, Manitowoc Cranes
R. M. Parnell, Industrial Training International, Inc. D. A. Moore, Alternate, Unified Engineering
J. T. Perkins, First Solar Electric L. S. Olver, Alternate, Kolo Holdings, Inc.
B. A. Pickett, Systems Engineering and Forensic Services J. M. Randall, Alternate, CB&I
J. A. Pilgrim, Manitowoc Cranes A. R. Ruud, Alternate, Atkinson Construction
S. K. Rammelsberg, CB&I J. R. Schober, Alternate, American Bridge Co.
J. E. Richardson, U.S. Department of the Navy J. Schoppert, Alternate, NBIS
D. W. Ritchie, Dave Ritchie Consultant, LLC L. Shapiro, Alternate, Howard I. Shapiro & Associates
J. W. Rowland III, Consultant K. J. Shinn, Alternate, K. J. Shinn, Inc.
J. C. Ryan, Boh Brothers Construction Co. C. H. Smith, Alternate, Morrow Equipment Co., LLC
D. W. Smith, STI Group S. Snider, Alternate, Ingersoll Rand
W. J. Smith, Jr., NBIS R. Stanoch, Alternate, IPS Cranes
R. S. Stemp, Lampson International, LLC C. Warren, Alternate, Webber, LLC
R. G. Strain, Advanced Crane Technologies, LLC M. P. Zerba, Alternate, Lampson International, LLC
J. Sturm, Sturm Corp.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
vii
HONORARY MEMBERS
J. W. Downs, Jr., Downs Crane and Hoist Co. J. M. Klibert, Lift-All Co., Inc.
J. J. Franks, Consultant R. W. Parry, Consultant
C. W. Ireland, Consultant

B30.20 SUBCOMMITTEE PERSONNEL


P. W. Boyd, Chair, The Boeing Co. T. Raines, Jr., CMCO
B. Baker, Young Corp. D. T. Rebbin, Bradley Lifting
G. A. Bond, Wood’s Powr-Grip Co., Inc. P. D. Sweeney, Riverside Engineering, LLC
D. Duerr, 2DM Associates, Inc. D. Verenski, Hunter Lift, Ltd.
J. D. Edmundson, Konecranes/P&H T. J. Brookbank, Alternate, Hunter Lift, Ltd.
T. Eicher, The Caldwell Group, Inc. T. Cobb, Alternate, Columbus M cKinnon Forge O perations —
P. Friedrich, Industrial Magnetics, Inc. Chattanooga
F. G. Heath, Heath & Associates J. E. Rea, Alternate, Bradley Lifting Corp.
K. M. Jankowski, Walker Magnetics Group M. P. Zerba, Alternate, Lampson International, LLC
T. C. Mackey, WRPS Hanford J. W. Downs, Jr., Honorary Member, Downs Crane and Hoist Co.
L. Radu, Mazzella Lifting Technologies

B30 INTEREST REVIEW GROUP


O. Akinboboye, Ropetech Engineering Services C. Lan, Department of Industry — BSEE
D. Beltran, Gunnebo Johnson Corp. A. C. Mattoli, Prowinch, LLC
J. D. Cannon, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers J. P. Mihlbauer, All Ship & Cargo Surveys, Ltd.
B. Dobbs, LEEA L. S. Olver, Kolo Holdings, Inc.
M. J. Eggenberger, Berry Contracting, Inc. G. L. Owens, Consultant
A. Gomes Rocha, Belgo Bekaert Arames D. R. Remus, Reed Manufacturing
H. A. Hashem, Saudi Aramco C.-C. Tsaur, Institute of Occupational Safety and Health
J. Hui, Si Pai Lou, School of Civil Engineering

B30 REGULATORY AUTHORITY COUNCIL


C. Shelhamer, Chair, New York City Department of Buildings J. Mendoza, North Carolina D epartment of Labor, D ivision of
K. M. Hyam, Secretary, The American Society ofMechanical Engineers Occupational Safety
L. G. Campion, Department of Labor/OSHA M. J. Nelmida, State of California, Occupational Safety and Health
R. Feidt, Stephenson Equipment, Inc. Standards Board
C. Harris, City of Chicago — Department of Buildings G. E. Pushies, Michigan OSHA
R. D. Jackson, U.S. Department of Labor C. N. Stribling, Jr., Kentucky Labor Cabinet
J. L. Lankford, State of Nevada (OSHA) T. Taylor, Minnesota Department of Labor & Industry
D. E. Latham, M aryland D epartment of Lab or, Licensing and A. O. Omran, Alternate, New York City Department of Buildings
Regulation K. L. Powell, Alternate, Maryland Occupational Safety and Health —
A. Lundeen, State ofWashington, Department ofLabor and Industries Division of Labor and Industry

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
viii
ð 18 Þ B30 STANDARD INTRODUCTION

SECTION I: SCOPE B30.20 Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


B30.21 Lever Hoists
The ASME B30 Standard contains provisions that apply
to the construction, installation, operation, inspection, B30.22 Articulating Boom Cranes
tes ting, mai ntenance, and us e o f crane s and o ther B30.23 Personnel Lifting Systems
lifting and material-movement-related equipment. For B30.24 Container Cranes
the convenience of the reader, the Standard has been B30.25 Scrap and Material Handlers
divided into separate volumes. Each volume has been
wri tte n u n d e r th e d i r e c ti o n o f th e AS M E B 3 0 B30.26 Rigging Hardware
Standards Committee and has successfully completed a B30.27 Material Placement Systems
consensus approval process under the general auspices B30.28 Balance Lifting Units
of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). B30.29 Self-Erecting Tower Cranes
As of the date of issuance of this Volume, the B3 0
B30.30 Ropes 1
Standard comprises the following volumes:
B30.31 Self-Propelled, Towed, or Remote-Controlled
B30.1 Jacks, Industrial Rollers, Air Casters, and
Hydraulic Platform Transporters 1
Hydraulic Gantries
B30.32 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Used in
B30.2 Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running
Inspection, Testing, Maintenance, and Lifting
Bridge, Single or Multiple Girder, Top Running
Operations 1
Trolley Hoist)
B30.3 Tower Cranes
B30.4 Portal and Pedestal Cranes
SECTION II: SCOPE EXCLUSIONS
B30.5 Mobile and Locomotive Cranes Any exclusion of, or limitations applicable to, the equip-
B30.6 Derricks ment, requirements, recommendations, or operations
contained in this Standard are established in the affected
B30.7 Winches
volume’s scope.
B30.8 Floating Cranes and Floating Derricks
B30.9 Slings SECTION III: PURPOSE
B30.10 Hooks
The B30 Standard is intended to
B30.11 Monorails and Underhung Cranes (withdrawn (a) prevent or minimize injury to workers, and other-
2018 — requirements found in latest revision wise provide for the protection of life, limb, and property
of B30.17) by prescribing safety requirements
B30.12 Handling Loads Suspended From Rotorcraft (b) p ro vide directio n to manufacturers , o wners ,
B30.13 Storage/Retrieval (S/R) Machines and employers, users, and others concerned with, or respon-
Associated Equipment sible for, its application
(c) guide governments and other regulatory bodies in
B30.14 Side Boom Tractors
the development, promulgation, and enforcement of
B30.15 Mobile Hydraulic Cranes (withdrawn 1982 — appropriate safety directives
requirements found in latest revision of
B30.5) SECTION IV: USE BY REGULATORY AGENCIES
B30.16 Overhead Underhung and Stationary Hoists
These volumes may be adopted in whole or in part for
B30.17 Cranes and Monorails (With Underhung Trolley
governmental or regulatory use. If adopted for govern-
or Bridge)
mental use, the references to other national codes and
B30.18 Stacker Cranes (Top or Under Running Bridge, standards in the specific volumes may be changed to
Multiple Girder With Top or Under Running refer to the corresponding regulations of the govern-
Trolley Hoist) mental authorities.
B30.19 Cableways
1
This volume is currently in the development process.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
ix
SECTION V: EFFECTIVE DATE Upon receipt by the Secretary, the request will be
forwarded to the relevant B30 Subcommittee for consid-
(a) Effective Date. The effective date of this Volume of eration and action. Correspondence will be provided to the
the B30 Standard shall be 1 yr after its date of issuance. requester defining the actions undertaken by the B3 0
Construction, installation, inspection, testing, mainte- Standards Committee.
nance, and operation of equipment manufactured and
facilities constructed after the effective date of this SECTION IX: REQUESTS FOR INTERPRETATION
Volume shall conform to the mandatory requirements
The B30 Standards Committee will render an interpre-
of this Volume.
ta ti o n o f th e p ro vi s i o n s o f th e B 3 0 S ta n d a rd . An
(b) Existing Installations. Equipment manufactured
Interpretation Submittal Form is available on ASME’s
and facilities constructed prior to the effective date of
web s ite at http : //cs to o ls . as me. o rg/I nterp retatio n/
this Volume of the B3 0 Standard shall be subj ect to
InterpretationForm.cfm.
the inspection, testing, maintenance, and operation re-
Phrase the question as a request for an interpretation of
quirements of this Standard after the effective date.
a specific provision suitable for general understanding
It is not the intent of this Volume of the B30 Standard to
and use, not as a request for approval of a proprietary
require retrofitting of existing equipment. However, when
design or situation. Plans or drawings that explain the
an item is being modified, its performance requirements
ques tio n may be submitted to clarify the ques tio n.
shall be reviewed relative to the requirements within the
H owever, they s ho uld no t co ntain any p ro p ri etary
current volume. The need to meet the current require-
names or information. Read carefully the note addressing
ments shall be evaluated by a qualified person selected
the types of requests that the B30 Standards Committee
by the owner (user) . Recommended changes shall be
can and cannot consider.
made by the owner (user) within 1 yr.
Upon submittal, the request will be forwarded to the
relevant B30 Subcommittee for a draft response, which
SECTION VI: REQUIREMENTS AND
will then be subj ect to approval by the B30 Standards
RECOMMENDATIONS C o m m i tte e p ri o r to i ts fo rm a l i s s u a n c e . T h e B 3 0
Requirements of this Standard are characterized by use Standards Committee may rewrite the question for the
of the word shall. Recommendations of this Standard are sake of clarity.
characterized by the word should . Interpretations to the B30 Standard will be available
o nli ne at http s : //cs to o ls . as me. o rg/I nterp retati o n/
SECTION VII: USE OF MEASUREMENT UNITS SearchInterpretation.cfm.

This Standard contains SI (metric) units as well as U.S. SECTION X: ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE
Customary units. The values stated in U.S. Customary units
are to be regarded as the standard. The SI units are a direct The equipment covered by the B30 Standard is subject
(soft) conversion from the U.S. Customary units. to hazards that cannot be abated by mechanical means, but
only by the exercise of intelligence, care, and common
SECTION VIII: REQUESTS FOR REVISION sense. It is therefore essential to have personnel involved
in the use and operation ofequipment who are competent,
The B30 Standards Committee will consider requests careful, physically and mentally qualified, and trained in
fo r re vi s io n o f any o f the vo lume s within the B 3 0 the proper operation of the equipment and the handling of
Standard. Such requests should be directed to loads. Serious hazards include, but are not limited to,
improper or inadequate maintenance, overloading, drop-
Secretary, B30 Standards Committee ping or slipping of the load, obstructing the free passage of
ASME Codes and Standards the load, and using equipment for a purpose for which it
Two Park Avenue was not intended or designed.
New York, NY 10016-5990 The B30 Standards Committee fully realizes the impor-
tance of proper design factors, minimum or maximum
Requests should be in the following format: dimensions, and other limiting criteria of wire rope or
chain and their fastenings, sheaves, sprockets, drums,
Volume: Cite the designation and title of the volume.
and similar equipment covered by the Standard, all of
Edition: Cite the applicable edition of the volume. which are closely connected with safety. Sizes, strengths,
Subject: Cite the applicable paragraph number(s) and and similar criteria are dependent on many different
the relevant heading(s). factors, often varying with the installation and uses.
Request: Indicate the suggested revision. These factors depend on
(a) the condition of the equipment or material
Rationale: State the rationale for the suggested revision.
(b) the loads

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
x
(c) the acceleration or speed of the ropes, chains, (g) many variables that must be considered in each
sheaves, sprockets, or drums individual case
(d) the type of attachments The requirements and recommendations provided in
(e) the number, size, and arrangement of sheaves or the volumes must be interpreted accordingly, and judg-
other parts ment used in determining their application.
(f) environmental conditions causing corrosion or
wear

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
xi
ASME B30.20-2018
SUMMARY OF CHANGES
Following approval by the ASME B30 Committee and ASME, and after public review, ASME B30.20-2018 was approved by
the American National Standards Institute on April 24, 2018.

ASME B30.20-2018 includes the following changes identified by a margin note, (18) .

Page Location Change


ix B30 Standard Introduction Revised in its entirety
1 Section 20-0.1 Second sentence and reference to new
Chapter 20-6 added
1 Section 20-0.2 (1) Definitions ofabnormal operating
conditions, maintenance parts, severe
service, and special or infrequent service
added
(2) Definitions of administrative or
regulatory authority , alteration , and
modified deleted
(3) Definitions of altered , below-the-hook
lifting device , modification , rated load,
shall, and should revised
1 Section 20-0.3 (1) Definitions for abnormal operating
conditions; friction-type pressure-gripping
lifters; grip ratio; indentation-type
pressure-gripping lifters; ingot turnover;
lock bar sheet lifter; service, severe; and
service, special or infrequent deleted
(2) Definitions for heavy service , normal
service , and supporting lifter revised
(3) Figures 20-0.3-1 through 20-0.3-5
deleted or moved to other Chapters
2 Section 20-0.4 (1) Definitions for abnormal operating
conditions; four-pad powered vacuum
lifter; four-pad powered vacuum lifter
manipulator; service, severe; and service,
special or infrequent deleted
(2) Definitions for heavy service , normal
service , and supporting lifter revised
(3) Figure 20-0.4-1 moved to Chapter 20-2
and redesignated as Figure 20-2.1-1
2 Section 20-0.5 Revised in its entirety
3 Section 20-0.6 Revised in its entirety
3 Section 20-0.7 (1) Definitions for abnormal operating
conditions; scrap and material handling
grapples; service, severe; and service,
special deleted

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
xii
(2) Definitions for rated volume capacity;
service, heavy; and service, normal revised
(3) Figure 20-0.7-1 moved to Chapter 20-5
and redesignated as Figure 20-5.1-1
3 Section 20-0.8 Added, and remaining sections redesignated
4 Section 20-0.11 Formerly Section 20-0.10; updated
5 Section 20-1.1 Revised
6 Figure 20-1.1-1 Added
7 Figure 20-1.1-2 Added
8 Figure 20-1.1-3 Added
5 20-1.2.1 Subparagraphs (b), (c), and (d)(1) revised
5 20-1.2.2 First paragraph and subparas. (a) and (c)
revised
9 20-1.3.1 First paragraph and subparas. (a)(2), (b)(2)
(-d), (b)(3)(-b), (b)(3)(-c), and (b)(3)(-d)
revised
10 Table 20-1.3.3-1 In “Item” column, fifth entry revised
10 20-1.3.7 Revised
10 20-1.3.8.1 Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised
11 20-1.3.8.2 Subparagraphs (a) and (c) revised
11 20-1.3.9 (1) Subparagraph (b)(1)(-c) added
(2) Subparagraph (b)(2) revised
(3) Subparagraph (b)(6) deleted
11 20-1.4.2 Subparagraphs (a)(1) and (c) revised
11 20-1.4.3.1 Subparagraph (k) revised
12 20-1.4.3.2 Subparagraph (e) revised
12 20-1.4.4 (1) New subparagraph (b) added, and
previous subpara. (b) redesignated as
subpara. (c)
(2) Subparagraphs (c) through (o) revised
and redesignated as subparas. (d) through
(p), respectively
14 Section 20-2.1 Revised
15 Figure 20-2.1-1 Moved from Chapter 20-0; previously
designated as Figure 20-0.4-1
14 20-2.2.1 Subparagraphs (b), (c), and (d)(1) revised
14 20-2.2.2 Revised in its entirety
16 20-2.3.1 First paragraph and subparas. (a)(1), (a)(2),
(b)(2)(-d), (b)(3)(-b), (b)(3)(-c), and (b)
(3)(-d) revised
17 20-2.3.7 First sentence revised
17 20-2.3.8.1 Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised
17 20-2.3.8.2 Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised
18 20-2.3.9 (1) Subparagraph (b)(2) revised
(2) Subparagraphs (b)(1)(-c), (b)(2)(-c), and
(b)(2)(-d) added
(3) Subparagraph (b)(6) deleted
18 20-2.4.2 Subparagraphs (a)(1) and (c) revised

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
xiii
18 20-2.4.3.1 Subparagraph (k) revised
19 20-2.4.3.2 Subparagraph (e) revised
19 20-2.4.4 (1) New subparagraph (b) added, and
previous subpara. (b) redesignated as
subpara. (c)
(2) Subparagraphs (c) through (t) revised
and redesignated as subparas. (d) through
(u), respectively
22 Figure 20-3.1-1 Added
21 20-3.2.1 Revised in its entirety
22 20-3.2.2 Revised in its entirety
23 20-3.3.1 First paragraph and subparas. (a)(1), (a)(2),
(b)(2)(-d), (b)(3)(-b), (b)(3)(-c), and (b)
(3)(-d) revised
24 20-3.3.7 First sentence revised
24 20-3.3.8.1 Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised
24 20-3.3.8.2 Revised in its entirety
25 20-3.3.9 (1) Subparagraph (b)(1)(-c) added
(2) Subparagraph (b)(2) revised
(3) Subparagraph (b)(6) deleted
25 20-3.4.2 Subparagraphs (a)(1) and (c) revised
26 20-3.4.3.1 Subparagraph (k) revised
26 20-3.4.3.2 (1) Subparagraphs (e) and (i) revised
(2) Subparagraph (r) added
26 20-3.4.4 Revised in its entirety
28 Section 20-3.5 First paragraph and subparas. (a), (c), (d),
and (e) revised
29 Figure 20-4.1-1 Added
29 20-4.2.1 Revised in its entirety
30 20-4.2.2 Subparagraphs (a) through (e) revised
30 20-4.3.1 First paragraph and subparas. (a)(2), (b)(1)
(-d), (b)(2)(-b), (b)(2)(-c), and (b)(2)(-d)
revised
31 20-4.3.2 Subparagraph (f) added
31 20-4.3.3 Subparagraph (d) added
31 20-4.3.6 First sentence revised
31 20-4.3.7 Revised in its entirety
32 20-4.3.8 (1) Subparagraph (b)(1)(-c) added
(2) Subparagraph (b)(2) revised
(3) Subparagraph (b)(6) deleted
33 20-4.4.2 Subparagraphs (a), (a)(1), and (c) revised
33 20-4.4.3.1 Subparagraph (k) revised
33 20-4.4.3.2 (1) Subparagraph (i) revised
(2) Subparagraphs (q) and (r) added
34 20-4.4.4 (1) New subparagraph (b) added, and
previous subpara. (b) redesignated as
subpara. (c)

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
xiv
(2) Previous subparas. (c) through (n)
revised and redesignated as subparas. (d)
through (o), respectively
(3) Subparagraph (p) added
35 Section 20-4.5 First paragraph and subparas. (a), (c), (d),
and (e) revised
37 Figure 20-5.1-1 Moved from Chapter 20-0; previously
designated as Figure 20-0.7-1
36 20-5.2.1 Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised in their
entirety
36 20-5.2.2 Subparagraphs (a), (b), and (c) revised
36 20-5.3.1 First paragraph and subparas. (a)(2), (b)(1)
(-d), (b)(2)(-b), (b)(2)(-c), and (b)(2)(-d)
revised
39 20-5.3.6 First sentence revised
39 20-5.3.7 Subparagraphs (a) and (b) revised
39 20-5.3.8 (1) Subparagraphs (b)(1)(-b) and (b)(2)
revised
(2) Subparagraph (b)(6) deleted
39 20-5.4.2 Subparagraphs (a), (a)(4), and (c) revised
40 20-5.4.4 Subparagraphs (c), (d), (e), (g), and (j)
revised
42 Chapter 20-6 Added

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
xv
INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
xvi
ASME B30.20-2018

Chapter 20-0
Scope, Definitions, Personnel Competence, Translations, and
References

ð 18 Þ SECTION 20-0.1: SCOPE OF ASME B30.20 maintenance parts: parts designated by the manufacturer
that may be periodically replaced as part of normal opera-
Volume B30.20 includes provisions that apply to the
tion of the lifter.
marking, construction, installation, inspection, testing,
maintenance, and operation of below-the-hook lifting modification: see altered .
devices, other than components addressed by other normal operating conditions: conditions during which the
ASME B30 volumes or other standards, used for attaching lifter is performing functions within the scope of the
loads to a hoist. The requirements in this Volume also original design.
apply to clamps used for positioning and anchoring.
qualified person: a person who, by possession of a recog-
The devices are arranged in six chapters as follows:
nized degree in an applicable field or certificate of profes-
Chapter 20-1 : Structural and Mechanical Lifting sional standing, or who, by extensive knowledge, training,
Devices and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability
Chapter 20-2 : Vacuum Lifting Devices to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter
and work.
Chapter 20-3 : Close Proximity Operated Lifting
Magnets rated load: the maximum load designated by the manu-
facturer for which the equipment is designed and built.
Chapter 20-4: Remotely Operated Lifting Magnets
Chapter 20-5 : Scrap and Material-Handling Grapples repair: the process of reconditioning, renewal, or replace-
ment of parts, components, and/or subsystems to a condi-
Chapter 20-6: Clamps
tion equal to the original manufacturer’s specifications for
the purpose of ensuring performance in accordance with
the applicable requirements.
ð 18 Þ SECTION 20-0.2: DEFINITIONS — GENERAL
service class: lifter classification that establishes the allow-
abnormal operating conditions: environmental conditions
able stress range for the specified fatigue life (load cycles).
that are unfavorable, harmful, or detrimental to or for the
operation of the equipment, such as excessively high or severe service: service that involves normal or heavy
low ambient temperatures, exposure to adverse weather, service with abnormal operating conditions.
corrosive fumes, dust-laden or moisture-laden atmo- shall: a word indicating a requirement.
spheres, and hazardous locations.
should: a word indicating a recommendation.
altered: a physical change, addition, or deletion that modi-
special or infrequent service: service that involves opera-
fies the original design, or intended functioning, of the
tion other than normal, heavy, or severe.
equipment.
below-the-hook lifting device: a device used for attaching a
SECTION 20-0.3: DEFINITIONS FOR CHAPTER 20-1 ð 18 Þ
load to a hoist. The device may contain components such
as slings, hooks, and rigging hardware addressed by other heavy service: service that involves operation within the
ASME B30 volumes or other standards, typically referred rated load limit that exceeds the limits of normal service.
to as a lifter. latch: a device for holding a lifter in the open or closed
design category: lifter classification that specifies the position.
design factor to be used to establish static stress limits latch, automatic: a sequencing latch mechanism operated
for the design. by lifter motion.
hoist: a machinery unit that is used for lifting and lowering. lifting beam (spreader beam): a load-supporting lifter [see
lifter: see below-the-hook lifting device . Figure 20-1.1-1 , illustration (a)] .

lifting device: see below-the-hook lifting device .

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
1
ASME B30.20-2018

manipulating lifter: a lifter that rotates the load about one vacuum manipulator: a vacuum lifter capable of reposi-
or more axes during the lifting process (see Figure 20-1.1- tioning the load while suspended.
2). vacuum pad: a device that applies a holding force on the
mechanical lifting device: a mechanism composed of two load by means of vacuum.
or more rigid parts which move with respect to each other vacuum reservoir: the evacuated portion of the vacuum
for attaching a load to a hoisting device. system that functions to compensate for leakage into
normal service: the vacuum system or to provide a vacuum reserve in
Design Category A lifters (for ASME BTH-1): service that the event of vacuum generator failure.
involves operation with various weights within the rated vertical surface lift: a condition where the surface to which
load limit with not more than four operations above 65% a vacuum pad is attached is in a vertical plane.
of the rated load limit per 24-hr period.
Design Category B lifters (for ASME BTH-1): service that SECTION 20-0.5: DEFINITIONS FOR ð 18 Þ
involves operation with various weights within the rated
load limit, averaging less than 65% of rated load limit.
CHAPTER 20-3
structural lifting device: a lifter consisting ofan assembly of battery backup system: batteries used to guard against
inadvertent load release due to the loss of primary
rigid parts designed to hold and attach a load to a hoisting
power to the system.
device.
supporting lifter: a lifter that carries the load on rigid battery-powered lifting electromagnet: a lifting magnet
that requires continuous current supplied by a battery
proj ection(s) or bearing surface(s) [see Figure 2 0-1.1-
to maintain holding force [see Figure 20-3.1-1 , illustration
3, illustrations (b), (c), (d), and (e)] .
(a)] .

ð 18 Þ SECTION 20-0.4: DEFINITIONS FOR breakaway force: the force required to detach a properly
CHAPTER 20-2 engaged lifting magnet from a piece of ferromagnetic
material when the force is applied normal to the lifting
heavy service: service that involves operation within the surface of the magnet.
rated load limit that exceeds the limits of normal service.
breakaway force test: a test that is carried out per para. 20-
horizontal surface lift: a condition where the surface to 3.3.8.2 in order to establish the rated breakaway force.
which the vacuum pad (or pads) is attached is in a hori-
zontal plane. close proximity operated lifting magnet: a lifting magnet
used in such a fashion that the operator manually posi-
nonporous material: a material that is not permeable by tions the lifting magnet on the load, and manually guides
fluid/air. the lifting magnet and load during a lift.
normal service: cold current: the current drawn by the lifting magnet when
Design Category A lifters (for ASME BTH-1): service that its coil is at 68°F (20°C) and at rated voltage.
involves operation with various weights within the rated
load limit with not more than four operations above 65% electrically controlled permanent lifting magnet: a lifting
of the rated load limit per 24-hr period. magnet that derives holding force from p ermanent
Design Category B lifters (for ASME BTH-1): service that magnet material and requires electrical current during
involves operation with various weights within the rated attachment or release. Also known as Electro Perm,
load limit, averaging less than 65% of rated load limit. Perm Electro, or similar names [see Figure 20-3.1-1 , illus-
tration (b)] .
porous material: a material that is permeable by fluid/air.
externally powered lifting electromagnet: a lifting magnet
seal ring (seal): that part of the vacuum pad which forms suspended from a crane that requires power from an
the seal of the vacuum chamber between the vacuum pad external source.
body or vacuum lifting device and the attached material.
general application lifting magnet: lifting magnets that are
single-pad mechanical vacuum lifter: see Figure 20-2.1-1 , intended by the manufacturer to be used on a number of
illustration (b). different geometrical shapes and do not fall under the
two-pad mechanical vacuum lifter: see Figure 2 0-2.1-1 , category of remotely operated lifting magnets.
illustration (a). heavy service: service that involves operation within the
vacuum : p re s s u re l e s s th a n a m b i e n t a tm o s p h e ri c rated load limit that exceeds the limits of normal service.
pressure. internal control function indicator: an indicator which
vacuum lifter: a below-the-hook lifting device for lifting shows that the permanent magnet material in one type
and transporting loads using a holding force by means of electrically controlled permanent magnet has been
of vacuum (see Figure 20-2.1-1 ). positioned internally to provide full magnetic attraction.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
2
ASME B30.20-2018

magnet duty cycle: the percentage of time an electro- magnet duty cycle: the percentage of time an electro-
magnet can be energized ( Te ) , relative to total cycle magnet can be energized ( Te ) , relative to total cycle
time. Deenergized time equals Td. If not rated as contin- time. Deenergized time equals Td. If not rated as contin-
uous, the magnet duty cycle rating includes information on uous, the magnet duty cycle rating includes information on
maximum continuous energized time and minimum maximum continuous energized time and minimum
deenergized time to prevent overheating. deenergized time to prevent overheating.
Te Te
magnet duty cycle = × 100 magnet duty cycle = × 100
Te + Td Te + Td

EXAMPLE: 3 min energized, 2 min deenergized equal EXAMPLE: 3 min energized, 2 min deenergized equal

3 3
× 1 00 = 60% × 1 00 = 60%
3 + 2 3 + 2

manually controlled permanent lifting magnet: a lifting n orm al service: service that involves operation with
magnet that derives ho lding force from p ermanent various weights within the rated load limit, averaging
magnet material and requires a manual effort during less than 65% of rated load with the magnet operating
period of attachment or release [see Figure 20-3.1-1 , illus- at, or below, the rated duty cycle over one shift (8 hr).
tration (c)] . rated load: the maximum load that the lifting magnet is
n orm al service: service that involves operation with designated by the manufacturer to handle.
various weights within the rated load limit, averaging remotely operated lifting magnet: a lifting magnet that
less than 65% of rated load with the magnet operating does not require the operator or other personnel to be
at, or below, the rated duty cycle. in clo se p ro ximity to the lifting magnet o r its lo ad
rated load: the maximum load that the lifting magnet is while the lifting magnet is in use [see Figure 20-4.1-1 , illus-
designated by the manufacturer to handle. trations (a) and (b)] .
remotely operated lifting magnet: a lifting magnet that
does not require the operator or other personnel to be SECTION 20-0.7: DEFINITIONS FOR ð 18 Þ

in clo se p ro ximity to the lifting magnet o r its lo ad CHAPTER 20-5


while the lifting magnet is in use. heavy service: service that involves operation within the
specified application breakaway force test: a test that is rated capacity and load limit for:
carried out in accordance with instructions from the (a) one work shift per day working in material that will
manufacturer of the lifting magnet in order to establish not crush or deform as the grapple closes
the application breakaway force. (b) two or more work shifts per day working in mate-
rial that will crush or deform as the grapple closes
specified application lifting magnet: lifting magnets that
are designed for lifting specified geometrical configura- normal service: service that is limited to operation for a
tions and weights of designated parts, identified by period ofone shift or less per day working within the rated
part number or other controlled definition and used in load limit in material that will crush or deform as the
a controlled manner. grapple closes.
specified application load: a load applied to the lifting rated volume capacity: the volume of scrap/material that
magnet when it is used to handle a specified load. can be handled with the grapple closed and the tine tips
touching. This is to be expressed in cubic yards or cubic
ð 18 Þ SECTION 20-0.6: DEFINITIONS FOR meters.
CHAPTER 20-4 tine: the hinged portion of the grapple that comes in
close proximity operated lifting magnet: a lifting magnet contact with or encompasses the load.
used in such a fashion that the operator manually posi-
tions the lifting magnet on the load, and manually guides SECTION 20-0.8: DEFINITIONS FOR ð 18 Þ

the lifting magnet and load during a lift. CHAPTER 20-6


cold current: the current drawn by the lifting magnet when friction-type pressure-gripping clamps: clamps that grip
its coil is at 68°F (20°C) and at rated voltage. the load without significant or harmful permanent defor-
mation of the load surface (see Figure 20-6.0-2 ).
heavy service: service that involves operation within the
rated load limit that exceeds the limits of normal service. heavy service: service that involves operation within the
rated load limit that exceeds the limits of normal service.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
3
ASME B30.20-2018

indentation-type pressure-gripping clamps: clamps that (d) The finished translation shall be verified for compli-
carry the load by applying force to indent the sides of ance with (c) (1 ) through (c) (5 ) by a qualified person
the load (see Figure 20-6.0-3 ). having an understanding of the technical content of
normal service: the subject matter.
Design Category A lifters (for ASME BTH-1): service that
involves operation with various weights within the rated
20-0.10.2 Translation of Technical and Safety-
load limit with not more than four operations above 65% Related Information and Manual(s)
of the rated load limit per 24-hr period. The entities responsible for the operation, use, inspec-
Design Category B lifters (for ASME BTH-1): service that tion, testing, and maintenance of the covered equipment
involves operation with various weights within the rated shall have the technical and safety-related information
load limit, averaging less than 65% of rated load limit. available in a language that their employees can read
and understand. The entities shall obtain a translation
SECTION 20-0.9: PERSONNEL COMPETENCE of the original manufacturer’s written safety information
and manuals from the manufacturer or from a translation
Persons performing the functions identified in this
service provider if the manuals are not in a language
Volume shall, through education, training, experience,
unders to o d b y their emp lo yees . The trans latio n(s )
skill, and physical fitness, as necessary, be competent
shall meet the requirements of paras. 20-1.10-1(c) and
and capable to perform the functions as determined by
20-1.10-1(d) .
the employer or employer’s representative.

SECTION 20-0.10: TRANSLATIONS SECTION 20-0.11: REFERENCES TO OTHER CODES ð 18 Þ

AND STANDARDS
20-0.10.1 Technical and Safety-Related The following is a list of publications referenced in this
Information Volume:
The manufacturer shall provide instructions [manual ANSI Z535.4-2011, Product Safety Signs and Labels
(s)] for the operation, inspection, testing, maintenance, Publisher: American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
assembly, and disassembly of the equipment. 2 5 We s t 4 3 rd S tre e t, N e w Yo rk, N Y 1 0 0 3 6
(a) The instructions shall be provided in a language (www.ansi.org)
specified by the purchaser at the time of the initial
sale by the manufacturer. ASME B30.9-2014, Slings
(b) Pictograms used to identify contro ls shall b e ASME B30.10-2014, Hooks
described in the instructions. The pictograms should ASME B30.26-2015, Rigging Hardware
comply with ISO 7000, ISO 72 96, or other recognized ASME BTH-1 −2 01 7, Design of Below-the-Hook Lifting
source, if previously defined. Devices
(c) Translations ofthe original language instructions (if Publisher: The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
the manufacturer no longer exists, translation of the (ASME), Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990
instructions with the equipment is acceptable) shall (www.asme.org)
me e t p ro fe s s i o n al tran s l ati o n i n du s try s tan dards ,
which include, but are not limited to, the following: ISO 7000-2012, Graphical symbols for use on equipment
(1 ) translating the complete paragraph message, — Registered symbols
instead of word by word ISO 7296-1991, Cranes — Graphical symbols — Parts 1–3
(2) ensuring grammatical accuracy Publisher: International Organization for Standardization
(3) preserving the source document content without (ISO), Central Secretariat, Chemin de Blandonnet 8, Case
omitting or expanding the text P o s tal e 4 0 1 , 1 2 1 4 Ve rni e r, G e n e va, S wi tz e rl and
(4) translating the terminology accurately (www.iso.org)
(5) reflecting the level of sop histicatio n o f the NFPA 70, National Electrical Code
original document
Publisher: National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), 1
B a tte rym a rc h P a rk, Qu i n c y, M A 0 2 1 6 9 - 7 4 7 1
(www.nfpa.org)

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
4
ASME B30.20-2018

Chapter 20-1
Structural and Mechanical Lifting Devices

ð 18 Þ SECTION 20-1.1: SCOPE (8) ASME BTH-1 Service Class (if altered)
This requirement is not applicable to repairs limited to
Chapter 2 0-1 applies to the classification, marking,
replacement of maintenance parts.
construction, installation, inspection, testing, mainte-
(d) Product Safety Labels
nance, and o p eratio n o f s tructural and mechanical
(1) Where size and shape of the lifter allow, lifters
lifting devices. Structural and mechanical lifters/lifting
shall have labels affixed to them in a readable position, that
devices are categorized as load-supporting lifters, and
include the appropriate signal word, according to ANSI
include a positive connection to the load or other compo-
Z53 5.4-2 011, to bring the label to the attention of the
nent (see Figures 2 0 - 1 .1 - 1 , 2 0 - 1 .1 -2 , and 2 0 -1 .1 - 3 ) .
operator. The label should include cautionary language
Structural and mechanical lifting devices frequently
identifying hazards, methods for accident prevention,
contain components within the scope of Chapters 20-2
a n d r e fe r to i n s tr u c ti o n m a n u a l s fo r a d d i ti o n a l
through 20-6 for load attachment.
information.
(2) Where size or shape of the lifter prohibits the
SECTION 20-1.2: MARKING, CONSTRUCTION, AND inclusion of all or any such markings, a label shall be
INSTALLATION affixed, referring user to consult manufacturer’s instruc-
tion manual for product safety information.
ð 18 Þ 20-1.2.1 Marking (e) Operating Controls. Each control shall be clearly
(a) Rated Load. The rated load of the lifting device shall marked describing resulting motion or function of the
be legibly marked on its main structure or on a tag lifter.
attached to its main structure where it is visible. If the
lifting device is made up of several lifters, each detachable
20-1.2.2 Construction ð 18 Þ

from the group, these lifters shall also be marked with The manufacturer shall verify that structural and
their individual rated loads. mechanical lifting devices are designed in accordance
(b) Identification. Structural and mechanical lifting with ASME BTH-1.
devices shall be marked with, but not limited to, the Structural and mechanical lifting devices shall be
following information: designed to ASM E B TH - 1 D esign C ategory B (static
(1) manufacturer’s name and contact information strength criteria) and the proper Service Class (fatigue
(2) serial number (unique unit identifier) life criteria) selected for its number of load cycles,
(3) lifter weight, if over 100 lb (45 kg) unles s a quali fi ed p e rs o n rep re s entin g the o wne r,
(4) cold current (amps) (when applicable) purchaser, or user of the lifting device determines and
(5) rated voltage (when applicable) can demonstrate that ASME BTH-1 Design Category A
(6) rated load [as described in (a) ] is appropriate.
(7) ASME BTH-1 Design Category Design Category A shall only be designated when the
(8) ASME BTH-1 Service Class magnitude and variation of loads applied to the lifter
(c) Repaired or Altered Lifters. Repaired or altered are predictable and do not exceed the rated capacity,
s tructural and mechanical lifters shall be p ro vided where the loading and environmental conditions are accu-
with identification displaying, but not limited to, the rately defined, service is not severe, and the anticipated
following information: number of load cycles does not exceed Service Class 0.
(1) name and contact information of the repairer or (a) Welding. Welding shall be in accordance with ASME
alterer BTH-1, para. 1-4.6.
(2) repairer’s or alterer’s unit identification (b) Guards for Moving Parts. Exposed moving parts,
(3) lifter weight (if altered) such as, but not limited to, gearing, proj ecting shafts,
(4) cold current (amps) (if altered) a n d c h a i n d ri ve s , th a t c o n s ti tu te a h a z a rd u n d e r
(5) rated voltage (if altered) normal operating conditions, should be guarded.
(6) rated load (if altered) [as described in (a) ]
(7) ASME BTH-1 Design Category (if altered)

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
5
ASME B30.20-2018

ð 18 Þ Figure 20-1.1-1 Structural Lifters

( a ) Sprea der Bea m ( b) Adj u sta bl e Sprea der Ba r

( c) Ba l a n ced Pa l l et Li fter ( d) Ba l a n ced “ C” Li fter

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
6
ASME B30.20-2018

ð 18 Þ Figure 20-1.1-2 Mechanical Lifters

( a ) Co n ta i n er Li fter ( b ) D ru m - Tu rn i n g Li fter

( S u p p o rts Ri b s o f D ru m )

( c) Tel esco p i n g S h eet Li fter ( d ) Tel esco p i n g Co i l G ra b ( e) Po wer Rota tor

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
7
ASME B30.20-2018

ð 18 Þ Figure 20-1.1-3 Mechanical Supporting Lifters

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
8
ASME B30.20-2018

(c) Electrical Equipment. External power supply, elec- (2) Frequent Inspection. Visual examinations by the
trical equipment, and wiring for below-the-hook lifters operator or other designated persons with records not
shall be in accordance with ASME BTH-1. required.
(d) Alterations. Structural and mechanical lifters may (-a) Normal service — monthly
be altered or rerated, provided such alterations are (-b) Heavy service — weekly to monthly
analyzed and approved by the equipment manufacturer (-c) Severe service — daily to weekly
or a qualified person. A rerated lifter, or one whose compo- (-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom-
nents have been altered, shall conform to para. 20-1.2.2 mended by a qualified person before and after each lift
and be tested according to para. 20-1.3.8 . New rated load (3) Periodic Inspection. Visual inspection making
shall be displayed in accordance with para. 20-1.2.1 . records of apparent external conditions to provide the
(e) Slings. When employed, slings shall meet the re- basis for a continuing evaluation. An external code
quirements of ASME B30.9. mark on the lifter is an acceptable identification in lieu
(f) Hooks. When employed, hooks shall meet the re- of records.
quirements of ASME B30.10. (-a) Normal service for equipment in place —
(g) Rigging Hardware. When employed, rigging hard- yearly
ware shall meet the requirements of ASME B30.26. (-b) Heavy service — semiannually
(-c) Severe service — quarterly
20-1.2.3 Installation (-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom-
mended by a qualified person before the first such lift
(a) The lifter shall be installed in accordance with the
and as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent
manufacturer’s instructions.
lifts
(b) The installer shall check for correct rotation of all
motors.
20-1.3.2 Every Lift Inspection
SECTION 20-1.3: INSPECTION, TESTING, AND Items such as the following shall be inspected by the
MAINTENANCE operator before and/or during every lift for any indication
ofdamage as specifically indicated, including observations
ð 18 Þ 20-1.3.1 Inspection Classification during operation for any damage that might occur during
the lift:
General. All inspections shall be performed by a desig- (a) surface of the load for debris
nated person. Any deficiencies identified shall be exam- (b) condition and operation of the controls
ined and a determination made by a qualified person as to (c) condition and operation of the indicators and
whether they constitute a hazard, and if so, what addi- meters when installed
tional steps need to be taken to address the hazard.
I ns p ectio n o f s lings (AS M E B 3 0 . 9 ) , ho o ks (AS M E 20-1.3.3 Frequent Inspection (See Also Table 20-
B 3 0 .1 0 ) , rigging hardware (ASM E B 3 0 .2 6) , or other 1.3.3-1)
special devices shall comply with the inspection require-
ments in the applicable volume. Items such as the following shall be inspected for
(a) Initial Inspection damage at intervals as defined in para. 2 0-1.3 .1(b) (2 ) ,
(1 ) New and reinstalled lifters shall be inspected including observations during operation for any indica-
prior to initial use to verify compliance with applicable tions of damage that might appear between inspections.
provisions of this Volume. A qualified person shall determine whether any indica-
(2) Altered or repaired lifters shall be inspected. The tions of damage constitute a hazard or will require
inspection may be limited to the components affected by more frequent inspection. For all lifters, inspect
the alteration or repair, as determined by a qualified (a) structural members for deformation, cracks, or
person. excessive wear on any part of the lifter
(b) Inspection Intervals. Inspection procedure for lifters (b) loose or missing guards, fasteners, covers, stops, or
in regular service is divided into three general classifica- nameplates
tions based upon the intervals at which inspection should (c) all functional operating mechanisms and automatic
be performed. The intervals, in turn, are dependent upon hold-and-release mechanisms for misadjustments inter-
the critical components of the lifters and the degree of fering with operation
their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. (d) missing or illegible operating control markings
The three general classifications are herein designated
as every lift, frequent, and periodic, with respective inter-
vals between inspections as defined below.
(1 ) Every Lift Inspection. Visual examination by the
operator before and during each lift made by the lifter.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
9
ASME B30.20-2018

ð 18 Þ Table 20-1.3.3-1 Minimum Inspection for Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices


Normal Service Heavy Service Severe Service
Visual, Record Visual, Weekly Record Visual, Daily Record
Monthly Yearly to Monthly Semiannually to Weekly Quarterly
Item [Note (1)] [Note (2)] [Note (1)] [Note (3)] [Note (3)] [Note (3)]
Frequent Inspection (refer to para. 20-1.3.3 ) — X … X … X …
structural deformation, cracks, or excessive wear of
any part of the lifter
Loose or missing guards, fasteners, covers, stops, or X … X … X …
nameplates
All functional operating mechanisms and automatic X … X … X …
hold and release mechanisms for misadjustments
interfering with operation
Periodic Inspection (refer to para. 20-1.3.4) — loose … X … X … X
bolts or fasteners
Cracked or worn gears, pulleys, sheaves, sprockets, … X … X … X
bearings, drive chains, and belts
Excessive wear of linkages and other mechanical parts … X … X … X
Excessive wear at hoist hooking points and load support … X … X … X
clevises, or pins
NOTES:
(1) By operator or designated person with records not required.
(2) Visual inspection by designated person making records of apparent external conditions to provide the basis for a continuing evaluation.
(3) As in Note (2) , unless external conditions indicate that disassembly should be done to permit detailed inspection.

20-1.3.4 Periodic Inspection (See Also Table 20- 20-1.3.7 Repairs ð 18 Þ

1.3.3-1) Damage disclosed by the inspection requirements of


Complete inspection of the lifter shall be performed at Section 20-1.3 shall be corrected according to the proce-
intervals as defined in para. 20-1.3.1(b)(3) . Any deficien- dures outlined in para. 20-1.3.9 before operation of the
cies, such as listed below, shall be examined and deter- lifter is resumed, unless a qualified person determines
mination made as to whether they constitute a hazard. the damage does not constitute a hazard. Repairs of
These inspections shall include the requirements of slings (ASME B30.9), hooks (ASME B30.10), rigging hard-
para. 20-1.3.3 and, in addition, items such as the following: ware (ASME B30.26), or other special devices shall comply
(a) loose bolts or fasteners with repair requirements in the applicable volumes or
(b) cracked or worn gears, pulleys, sheaves, sprockets, standards.
bearings, drive chains, and belts
(c) excessive wear of friction pads, linkages, and other 20-1.3.8 Testing
mechanical parts 20-1.3.8.1 Operational Tests ð 18 Þ
(d) excessive wear at hoist hooking points and load
support clevises or pins (a) New and reinstalled lifting devices shall be tested
(e) missing or illegible product safety labels required by a qualified person, or a designated person under the
by para. 20-1.2.1(d) direction of the manufacturer or a qualified person, prior
to initial use to verify compliance with applicable provi-
20-1.3.5 Lifting Devices Not in Regular Use sions of this Volume, including, but not limited to, the
following:
A lifter that has been idle for a period of 1 month to 1 yr (1 ) Moving Parts. Lifters with moving parts shall be
shall be inspected in accordance with para. 20-1.3.3 before tested to determine that the lifter operates in accordance
being placed in service. A lifter that has been idle for a with manufacturer’s instructions.
period of 1 yr or more shall be inspected in accordance (2) Latches. Lifters with manually operated or auto-
with para. 20-1.3.4 before being returned to service. matic latches shall be tested to determine that the latch
operates in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.
20-1.3.6 Inspection Records (b) Altered or repaired lifters shall be tested by a qual-
Dated inspection reports shall be made on critical items ified person, or a designated person under the direction of
such as those listed in para. 20-1.3.4. Records should be the manufacturer or a qualified person. This test may be
available for each periodic inspection and when the lifter limited to the components affected by the alteration or
is either altered or repaired.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
10
ASME B30.20-2018

repair, as determined by a qualified person with guidance SECTION 20-1.4: OPERATION


from the manufacturer.
(c) All indicator lights, gages, horns, bells, alarms, poin- 20-1.4.1 Operators
ters, and other warning devices shall be tested.
Below-the-hook lifting devices shall be operated only by
(d) Dated reports of all operational tests shall be filed.
trained, designated persons.
ð 18 Þ 20-1.3.8.2 Load Test
20-1.4.2 Qualifications ð 18 Þ
(a) Prior to initial use, all new, altered, or repaired
l i fti n g d e vi ce s s h o u l d b e te s te d a n d i n s p e cte d . I f Qualifications for operators of below-the-hook lifting
devices are as follows:
performed, tests shall be done under the direction of
the manufacturer or a qualified person and a written
(a) The operator shall be instructed in the use of the
report be furnished by such a person, confirming the device by a designated p erso n. I nstructio ns s hould
load rating of the lifter. The load rating should not be include, but not be limited to, the following:
more than 80% of the maximum load sustained during (1 ) application of the lifter to the load and material-
handling device, and adjustments, if any, that adapt the
the test. Test loads shall not be more than 1 2 5 % of
lifter to various sizes or kinds of loads
the rated load unless otherwise recommended by the
manufacturer. Test reports should be available. (2 ) i n s tru c ti o n s i n a n y s p e ci a l o p e ra ti o n s o r
(b) The load test, if made, shall consist of the following precautions
operations as a minimum requirement: (3 ) th e m a n u fa c tu r e r ’ s s u gge s te d o p e r a ti n g
procedures
(1 ) Hoist the test load a sufficient distance to ensure
the load is supported by the lifter, or apply the required
(4) condition of the load itself required for operation
load if the test is made using a testing machine. of the lifter, such as, but not limited to, balance, surface
(2) After the test load is released, visually inspect the cleanliness, flatness, bending, and load thickness
lifter for deformation, cracks, or other defects. (5) storage of the lifter to protect it from damage
(c) Tests of altered or repaired lifters may be limited to (6) not exceeding the rated load of the lifting device
no r the cap aci ty o f the ho i s ti ng e quip ment b y the
the components affected by the alteration or repair, as
determined by a qualified person with guidance from combined weight of the load, the lifting device, and rigging
the manufacturer. (7) the proper attachment of adapters to lifting
device for special load handling
ð 18 Þ 20-1.3.9 Maintenance (b) The operator shall demonstrate the ability to
operate the lifter as instructed before assuming respon-
(a) Maintenance Program. A maintenance program sibility for using the lifter.
shall be established and be based on recommendations (c) The operator shall demonstrate an understanding
made by the lifter manufacturer. If a qualified person of standard hand signals when applicable.
determines it is appropriate, the program should also
include that individual’s additional recommendations 20-1.4.3 Responsibilities
based on a review of the lifter application and operations.
While the organizational structure of various projects
(b) Maintenance Procedure
may differ, the following roles are described here for
(1 ) Before adjustments and repairs are started on a
purposes of delineating responsibilities. All responsibil-
lifter, the following precautions shall be taken:
ities listed below shall be assigned in the worksite orga-
(-a) All sources of power shall be disconnected,
nization. (A single individual may perform one or more of
locked out, and tagged “Out of Service.”
these roles.)
(-b) A lifter removed from service for repair shall
be tagged “Out of Service.” operator: directly controls the lifting device’s functions.
(-c) Relieve fluid pressure from all circuits before owner: has custodial control of a lifting device by virtue of
loosening or removing fluid power components. lease or ownership.
(2) Only designated persons shall perform adjust-
ments, repairs, and tests when required. These persons and roles may or may not match the
(3) Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the persons and roles associated with the hoisting equipment
original manufacturer’s specifications. in use.
(4) After adjustments and repairs have been made,
20-1.4.3.1 Responsibilities of the Lifting Device ð 18 Þ
the lifter shall not be returned to service until it has been
Owner. The responsibilities of the lifting device owner
inspected according to para. 20-1.3.4.
shall include the following:
(5) D ated records o f rep airs and rep lacements
should be made.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
11
ASME B30.20-2018

(a) providing a lifting device, and all necessary compo- The o p erato r’ s res p o ns ib i li tie s s hal l include the
nents specified by the manufacturer, that meets the re- following:
quirements of Sections 2 0 -1 .2 and 2 0-1 .3 as well as (a) reviewing the requirements for the lifting device
specific job requirements. with the owner before operations.
(b) providing all applicable operating instructions. (b ) kno wing what typ es o f s ite co nditio ns co uld
(c) p roviding field assembly, and disassembly (if adversely affect the operation of the lifting device and
applicable) , operation and maintenance information, consulting with the owner concerning the possible pres-
and warning decals and placards installed as prescribed ence of those conditions.
by the lifting device manufacturer. (c) unders tanding and ap p lying the info rmatio n
(d) establishing an inspection, testing, and mainte- contained in the lifting device manufacturer’s operating
nance program in accordance with Section 20-1.3 . manual.
(e) using designated personnel to perform the required (d) understanding the lifting device’s functions and
maintenance, repair, and inspections. l i m i ta ti o n s a s we l l a s i ts p a rti c u l a r o p e ra ti n g
(f) ensuring that the lifting device is in proper oper- characteristics.
ating condition prior to initial use at the worksite by (e) ensuring an inspection is performed prior to every
the following: lift as specified in para. 20-1.3.2 .
(1 ) ve r i fyi n g th a t a l l i n s p e c ti o n s h a ve b e e n (f) promptly reporting the need for any adjustments or
performed as required by Section 20-1.3 repairs to a designated person.
(2) verifying that the lifting device has the necessary (g) following applicable lock out/tag out procedures.
lifting capacity to perform the proposed lifting operations (h) not operating the lifting device when physically or
in the planned configuration mentally unfit.
(g) using operators that meet the requirements of para. (i) ensuring that all controls are in the off or neutral
20-1.4.2 . position and that all personnel are in the clear before ener-
(h) ensuring that all personnel involved in mainte- gizing the lifting device.
nance, repair, assembly, disassembly, and inspection (j) not engaging in any practice that will divert his
are aware of their responsibilities, assigned duties, and attention while operating the lifting device.
the associated hazards. (k) testing the lifting device function controls that will
(i) determining if additional regulations are applicable be used and operating the lifting device only if those func-
to lifting device operations. tion controls respond properly.
(j) ensuring that conditions that may adversely affect (l) operating the lifting device’s functions, under
lifting device operations are addressed. Such conditions normal operating conditions, in a smooth and controlled
include, but are not limited to, the following: manner.
(1 ) wind velocity or gusting winds (m) knowing and following the procedures specified by
(2) precipitation the manufacturer or approved by a qualified person, for
(3) fog assembly, disassembly, setting up, and reeving/rigging of
(4) extreme temperatures the lifting device.
(5) lighting (n) considering all factors known that might affect the
(k) addressing safety concerns raised by the operator lifting device capacity and informing the owner ofthe need
or other personnel and being responsible if he and a qual- to make appropriate adjustments.
ified person decide to overrule those concerns and directs (o) understanding basic load attachment procedures.
lifting device operations to continue. (In all cases, the (p) responding only to instructions from designated
manufacturer’s criteria for safe operation and the require- persons. However, the operator shall obey a stop order
ments of this Volume shall be followed.) at all times, no matter who gives it.
(q) ensuring that all personnel shall stay clear of the
ð 18 Þ 2 0 - 1 . 4 . 3 . 2 Re s p o n s i b i li ti e s o f O p e rato rs . T h e
load.
operator shall be responsible for the following listed
i te m s . T h e o p e ra to r s h a l l n o t b e re s p o n s i b l e fo r 20-1.4.4 Lifting Device Operating Practices ð 18 Þ
hazards or conditions that are not under his direct
co n tro l an d that adve rs e l y affe ct o p erati o n o f th e (a) Lifting devices s hall b e o p erated o nly b y the
lifting device. Whenever the operator has doubt as to following qualified personnel:
the safety of lifting device operations, the operator (1 ) designated persons
shall place the load in a safe condition and stop the (2) trainees under the supervision of a designated
lifting device’s functions in a controlled manner. Use of person, the number oftrainees permitted to be supervised
the lifting device shall resume only after safety concerns by a single designated person, the physical location of the
have been addressed or the continuation of lifting device designated person while supervising, and the type of
operations is directed by the owner. co m m u n i ca ti o n re q u i re d b e twe e n th e d e s i gn a te d

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
12
ASME B30.20-2018

person and the trainee shall be determined by a qualified (n) The operator shall not ride, or allow others to ride
person loads or the lifting device.
(3) maintenance and test personnel, when it is nec- (o) The operation of the lifter shall be observed during
essary in the performance of their duties use. Any deficiency observed shall be examined by a desig-
(4) inspectors (lifting devices) nated person. If the deficiency constitutes a hazard, the
(b) Ensure the weight of the load and its approximate lifter shall be removed from service and tagged “Out of
center o f gravity have b een o b tained, p ro vided, o r Service.” Any indication of a hazardous condition shall
calculated. be reported to a qualified person for evaluation.
(c) The lifting device shall not be loaded in excess of its (p) Loads shall be guided in such a manner as to avoid
rated load or handle any load for which it is not designed. endangering hands or other body parts as the load is
(d) Properly attaching the lifting device to the hook, moved, or if it drops.
shackle, or other load handling device.
(e) The lifter shall be applied to the load in accordance 20-1.4.5 Miscellaneous Operating Practices
with the instruction manual.
(a) An operator shall not use a lifting device that is
(f) Before lifting, the operator shall make sure that lifter
tagged “O ut of Service” or otherwise designated as
ropes or chains are not kinked, and that multiple part lines
nonfunctioning.
are not twisted around each other.
(b) “Out of Service” tags on lifting devices shall not be
(g) Care should be taken to make certain the load is
removed without the approval of the person placing them
correctly distributed for the lifter being used.
or a designated person.
(h) The temperature of the load should not exceed the
(c) The lifter, when not in use, should be stored at an
maximum allowable limits of the lifter.
assigned location.
(i) Verify that the load is well secured and properly
(d) Caution should be taken that operating markings or
balanced in the lifting device when it is initially lifted.
tags shall not be removed or defaced. Missing or illegible
(j) Do not allow load or lifter to come into contact with
markings or tags shall be replaced.
any obstruction.
(k) The operator shall ensure that the lifting device is
adequately protected from damage during use.
SECTION 20-1.5: INSTRUCTION MANUALS
(l) The lifter shall not be used for side pulls or sliding Operating instructions and maintenance and parts
the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified information shall be furnished by the manufacturer.
person.
(m) The operator shall land any attached load and store
the lifter before leaving the lifting device. The operator
shall not leave suspended loads unattended.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
13
ASME B30.20-2018

Chapter 20-2
Vacuum Lifting Devices

ð 18 Þ SECTION 20-2.1: SCOPE This requirement is not applicable to repairs limited to


replacement of maintenance parts.
Chapter 2 0-2 applies to the marking, construction,
(d) Product Safety Labels
installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and opera-
(1) Where size and shape of the lifter allow, lifters
tion of vacuum below-the-hook lifting devices. The provi-
shall have labels affixed to them in a readable position, that
sions of Chapter 20-2 apply to all power operated and
include the appropriate signal word, according to ANSI
mechanically operated vacuum lifting and manipulating
Z53 5.4-2 011, to bring the label to the attention of the
devices, except those vacuum lifting devices handling
operator. The label should include cautionary language
porous materials that require special design considera-
identifying hazards, methods for accident prevention,
tions (see Figure 20-2.1-1 ).
a n d r e fe r to i n s tr u c ti o n m a n u a l s fo r a d d i ti o n a l
information.
SECTION 20-2.2: MARKING, CONSTRUCTION, AND (2) Where size or shape of lifter prohibits the inclu-
INSTALLATION sion of all or any such markings, a label shall be affixed,
referring user to consult manufacturer’s instruction
ð 18 Þ 20-2.2.1 Marking manual for product safety information.
(a) Rated Load. The rated load of the lifter and each pad (e) Operating Controls
shall be legibly marked on its main structure or on a tag (1) If the vacuum lifting device has manual shutoff
attached to its main structure where it is visible. This valves that control pads or groups of pads, the valves shall
marking shall refer to the instruction manual for informa- be marked to s ho w op erating p o sitio n. Should this
tion relating to decreases in rating due to additional marking be some type of coding, then a label or tag
considerations. shall be attached at or near the valve that explains
(b) Identification. Vacuum lifting devices shall be such markings.
marked with, but not limited to, the following information: (2) Each control shall be clearly marked describing
(1) manufacturer’s name and contact information resulting motion or function of the lifter.
(2) serial number (unique unit identifier)
(3) lifter weight 20-2.2.2 Construction ð 18 Þ

(4) electrical power requirements (when applicable) (a) Vacuum Lifter Design. The manufacturer shall verify
(5) pressure and volume of compressed air required that vacuum lifting devices are designed by or under the
(when applicable) supervision of a qualified person. The design shall be in
(6) rated load [as described in (a) ] accordance with ASME BTH-1.
(7) ASME BTH-1 Design Category (b) Welding. Welding shall be in accordance with ASME
(8) ASME BTH-1 Service Class BTH-1, para. 1-4.6.
(c) Repaired or Altered Lifters. Repaired or altered (c) Electrical Equipment. External power supply, elec-
vacuum lifting devices shall be provided with identifica- trical equipment, and wiring for below-the-hook lifters
ti o n d i s p l a yi n g, b u t n o t l i m i te d to , th e fo l l o wi n g shall be in accordance with ASME BTH-1.
information: (d) Alterations. Vacuum lifters may be altered or
(1) name and contact information of the repairer or rerated, provided such alterations are analyzed and
alterer approved by the equipment manufacturer or a qualified
(2) repairer’s or alterer’s unit identification person. A rerated lifter or one whose components have
(3) lifter weight (if altered) been altered shall conform to this paragraph and be
(4) electrical power requirements (if altered) tested according to para. 2 0-2 .3 .8 . The new rated load
(5) pressure and volume of compressed air required shall be displayed in accordance with para. 20-2.2.1(a) .
(if altered) (e) Slings. When employed, slings shall meet the re-
(6) rated load (if altered) [as described in (a) ] quirements of ASME B30.9.
(7) ASME BTH-1 Design Category (if altered) (f) Hooks. When employed, hooks shall meet the re-
(8) ASME BTH-1 Service Class (if altered) quirements of ASME B30.10

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
14
ASME B30.20-2018

ð 18 Þ Figure 20-2.1-1 Vacuum Lifters

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
15
ASME B30.20-2018

(g) Rigging Hardware. When employed, rigging hard- (2) Frequent Inspection. Visual examinations by the
ware shall meet the requirements of ASME B30.26. operator or other designated persons with records not
required.
20-2.2.3 Installation (-a) Normal service — monthly
(-b) Heavy service — weekly to monthly
(a) The vacuum lifting device shall be assembled and
(-c) Severe service — daily to weekly
i n s ta l l e d i n a c c o rd a n c e wi th th e m a n u fa c tu re r’ s
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom-
instructions.
mended by a qualified person before and after each lift
(b) The installer shall ensure that the power supply is
(3) Periodic Inspection. Visual inspection making
the same as that shown on the nameplate.
records of apparent external conditions to provide the
(c) The electrical power supply to the vacuum lifter
basis for a continuing evaluation. An external coded
shall be connected to the line side of the crane disconnect
mark on the vacuum lifting device is an acceptable iden-
or to an independent circuit.
tification in lieu of records.
(d) The installer shall check for correct rotation of all
(-a) Normal service for equipment in place —
motors.
yearly
(e) Prior to initial use, the lifter shall be tested per para.
(-b) Heavy service — semiannually
20-2.3.8 .
(-c) Severe service — quarterly
(f) Operating instructions, maintenance, and parts
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom-
information shall be furnished by the manufacturer.
mended by a qualified person before the first lift and
(g) External power supply and electrical equipment for
as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent lifts
below-the-hook lifters shall comply with NFPA 70.
20-2.3.2 Every Lift Inspection
SECTION 20-2.3: INSPECTION, TESTING, AND
MAINTENANCE Items such as the following shall be inspected by the
operator before and/or during every lift for any indication
ð 18 Þ 20-2.3.1 Inspection Classification ofdamage as specifically indicated, including observations
during operation for any damage that might occur during
General. All inspections shall be performed by a desig- the lift:
nated person. Any deficiencies identified shall be exam- (a) surface of the load for debris
ined and a determination made by a qualified person as to (b) seal of the vacuum pad for debris
whether they constitute a hazard, and if so, what addi- (c) condition and operation of the controls
tional steps need to be taken to address the hazard. (d) condition and operation of the indicators, meters,
I ns p ectio n o f s lings (AS M E B 3 0 . 9 ) , ho o ks (AS M E and pumps when installed
B 3 0 .1 0 ) , rigging hardware (ASM E B 3 0 .2 6) , or other
special devices shall comply with the inspection require- 20-2.3.3 Frequent Inspection
ments in the applicable volume.
(a) Initial Inspection Items such as the following shall be inspected for
(1 ) New and reinstalled vacuum lifters shall be damage at intervals as defined in para. 20-2 .3 .1(b) (2 ) ,
inspected prior to initial use to verify compliance with including observations during operation for any indica-
applicable provisions of this Volume. tions of damage that might appear between inspections.
(2) Altered or repaired vacuum lifters shall be A qualified person shall determine whether any indica-
inspected. The inspection may be limited to the compo- tions of damage constitute a hazard or will require
nents affected by the alteration or repair, as determined by more frequent inspection. For all vacuum lifters, inspect
a qualified person. (a) structural members for deformation, cracks, and
(b) In spection In tervals. I nspection procedure for excessive wear on any part of the lifter.
vacuum lifting devices in regular service is divided into (b) the vacuum generator for output.
three general classifications, based upon the intervals (c) all vacuum pad seal rings for cuts, tears, excessive
at which inspection should be performed. The intervals, wear, and presence of foreign particles.
in turn, are dependent upon the nature of the critical (d) all vacuum lines and vacuum line connections for
co m p o n e n ts o f th e vacu u m l i fti n g d e vi ce an d th e leakage, cuts, kinks, and collapsed areas of hoses.
degree of their exp osure to wear, deterio ratio n, o r (e) the vacuum reservoir for leaks and visual damage.
malfunction. The three general classifications are desig- (f) the entire vacuum system, including indicator lights,
nated as every lift, frequent, and periodic, with respective gages, horns, bells, pointers or other warning devices, and
intervals between inspections as defined below. vacuum level indicators, by attaching a nonporous, clean
(1 ) Every Lift Inspection. Visual examination by the surface to the vacuum pad or pads and then stopping the
operator before and during each lift made by the vacuum vacuum source. The vacuum level in the system shall not
lifting device. decrease by more than the manufacturer’s specified rate.
(g) missing or illegible operating control markings.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
16
ASME B30.20-2018

20-2.3.4 Periodic Inspection (1 ) moving parts


(2) latches
Complete inspections of the vacuum lifting device shall
(3) stops
be performed at intervals as defined in para. 20-2.3.1(b)
(4) limit switches
(3) . Any deficiencies, such as listed below, shall be exam-
(5) control devices
ined, and determination made as to whether they consti-
(6) vacuum pad seals
tute a h az ard. The s e i n s p e cti o ns s h all i ncl ude th e
(7) vacuum lines
requirements of para. 2 0-2 .3 .3 and, in addition, items
(b) Altered or repaired lifting devices shall be tested by
such as the following:
a qualified person, or a designated person under the direc-
(a) external evidence of
tion of the manufacturer or a qualified person. This test
(1 ) looseness
may be limited to the components affected by the altera-
(2) wear
tion or repair, as determined by a qualified person with
(3) deformation
guidance from the manufacturer.
(4) cracking
(c) The seals and connections shall be tested for leaks
(5) corrosion
by attaching a smooth, nonporous, clean material to the
(b) external evidence of damage to
vacuum pad or pads and then stopping the vacuum source.
(1 ) supporting structure
Vacuum level in the system shall not decrease by more
(2) motors
than the manufacturer’s specified rate.
(3) controls
(d) All indicator lights, gages, horns, bells, pointers, and
(4) other auxiliary components
other warning devices and vacuum level indicators shall
(c) missing or illegible product safety labels required
be tested by the same method as in para. 20-2.3.8.2 below.
by para. 20-2.2.1(d)
(e) Dated reports of all operational tests shall be filed.
20-2.3.5 Vacuum Lifters Not in Regular Use 20-2.3.8.2 Load Test ð 18 Þ

A vacuum lifter that has been idle for a period of1 month (a) Prior to initial use, all new, altered, or repaired
to 1 yr shall be inspected in accordance with para. 20-2.3.3 vacuum lifting devices shall be load tested and inspected
before being placed in service. A vacuum lifter that has by a qualified person, or a designated person under the
been idle for a period of 1 yr or more shall be inspected direction of the manufacturer or a qualified person. A
in accordance with para. 20-2.3.4 before being returned to wri tte n re p o rt s h al l b e p re p are d b y th e qu al i fi e d
service. person and placed on file, confirming the load rating of
the vacuum lifting device. The load rating should not
20-2.3.6 Inspection Records b e mo re than 8 0 % of the maximum load sus tained
Dated inspection reports shall be made on critical items duri ng the tes t. Tes t lo ads s hall no t b e mo re than
such as those listed in para. 20-2.3.4. Records should be 125% of the rated load of the system, unless otherwise
available for each periodic inspection and when the recommended by the manufacturer or a qualified person.
vacuum lifter is either altered or repaired. (b) Altered or repaired vacuum lifting devices shall be
tested by, or under the direction of, a qualified person. This
ð 18 Þ 20-2.3.7 Repairs test may be limited to the components affected by the
al te rati o n o r re p ai r, as de te rm i n e d b y a qu al i fi e d
Damage disclosed by the inspection requirements of
person with guidance from the manufacturer.
Section 20-2.3 shall be corrected according to the proce-
(c) The load test shall consist of one of the following
dures outlined in para. 20-2.3.9 before operation of the
procedures:
vacuum lifter is resumed, unless a qualified person deter-
(1 ) Actual Load Test
mines the damage does not constitute a hazard. Repairs of
(-a) Attach pads to the designated test load.
slings (ASME B30.9), hooks (ASME B30.10), rigging hard-
(-b) Raise the test load a minimum distance to
ware (ASME B30.26), or other special devices shall comply
ensure the load is supported by the vacuum lifting device.
with repair requirements in the applicable volumes or
(-c) Hold the load for 2 min.
standards.
(-d) Lower the load for release.
20-2.3.8 Testing (2) Simulated Load Test. Using a test fixture, apply
forces to all load-bearing components, either individually
ð 18 Þ 20-2.3.8.1 Operational Tests or in assemblies, equivalent to the force encountered by
(a) New and reinstalled lifting devices shall be tested the components if they were supporting a load that was
by, or under the direction of the manufacturer or a qual- 125% of the rated load.
ified person prior to initial use to verify compliance with (d) After the test, the vacuum lifting device shall be
applicable provisions of this Volume, including, but not visually inspected. Any condition that constitutes a
limited to, the following: hazard shall be corrected before the lifting device is

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
17
ASME B30.20-2018

placed in service. If the correction affects the structure, (a) The operator shall be instructed in the use of the
then the lifter shall be retested. device by a designated person. I ns tructions sho uld
include, but not be limited to, the following:
ð 18 Þ 20-2.3.9 Maintenance (1 ) application of the lifter to the load and material-
handling device, and adjustments, if any, that adapt the
(a) Maintenance Program. A maintenance program
lifter to various sizes or kinds of loads
shall be established and be based on recommendations
(2 ) i n s tru cti o n s i n a n y s p e c i a l o p e ra ti o n s o r
made by the vacuum lifting device manufacturer. If a qual-
precautions
ified person determines it is appropriate, the program
(3 ) th e m a n u fa c tu r e r ’ s s u gge s te d o p e r a ti n g
should also include that individual’s additional recom-
procedures
mendations based on a review of the vacuum lifting
(4) condition ofthe load required for operation ofthe
device application and operations.
lifter, such as, but not limited to, balance, surface cleanli-
(b) Maintenance Procedure
ness, flatness, bending, and load thickness
(1 ) Before adjustments and repairs are started on a
(5) storage of the lifter to protect it from damage
vacuum lifting device, the following precautions shall be
(6) not exceeding the rated load of the lifting device
taken:
no r the cap acity o f the ho is ting equi p ment b y the
(-a) Locate the vacuum lifting device where it will
combined weight of the load, the lifting device, and rigging
cause the least interference with other operations in the
(7) charging of the battery (if required)
area.
(8) the purpose of indicators, meters, or alarms on
(-b) All sources of power shall be disconnected,
the vacuum lifter
locked out, and tagged “Out of Service.”
(9) the proper attachment of adapters to lifting
(-c) Relieve fluid pressure from all circuits before
device for special load handling
loosening or removing fluid power components.
(b) The operator shall demonstrate the ability to
(2) Only designated personnel shall perform adjust-
operate the lifter as instructed before assuming respon-
ments, repairs, and tests when required.
sibility for using the lifter.
(-a) Provisions should be made for designated
(c) The operator shall demonstrate an understanding
persons to work on energized equipment when adjust-
of standard hand signals when applicable.
ments and tests are required.
(-b) All moving parts of the vacuum lifting device
for which lubrication is specified should be regularly lubri-
20-2.4.3 Responsibilities
cated. The manufacturer’s recommendations as to points While the organizational structure of various projects
and frequency of lubrication, maintenance of lubrication may differ, the following roles are described here for
levels, and types of lubricant should be used. purposes of delineating responsibilities. All responsibil-
(-c) Adj ustments shall be maintained to assure ities listed below shall be assigned in the worksite orga-
correct functioning of components. nization. (A single individual may perform one or more of
(-d) Repairs or replacements shall be made as these roles.)
needed. operator: directly controls the lifting device’s functions.
(3) Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the
original manufacturer’s specifications. owner: has custodial control of a lifting device by virtue of
(4) After adjustments and repairs have been made, lease or ownership.
the vacuum lifting device shall not be returned to service These persons and roles may or may not match the
until it has been inspected according to para. 20-2.3.4. persons and roles associated with the hoisting equipment
(5) D ated records of repairs and rep lacements in use.
should be made.
20-2.4.3.1 Responsibilities of the Lifting Device ð 18 Þ

SECTION 20-2.4: OPERATION Owner. The responsibilities of the lifting device owner
shall include the following:
20-2.4.1 Operators (a) providing a lifting device, and all necessary compo-
nents specified by the manufacturer, that meets the re-
Below-the-hook lifting devices shall be operated only by quirements of Sections 2 0-2 .2 and 2 0 -2 .3 as well as
trained, designated persons. specific job requirements.
(b) providing all applicable operating instructions.
ð 18 Þ 20-2.4.2 Qualifications (c) p roviding field assembly, and disassembly (if
Qualifications for operators of below-the-hook lifting applicable) , operation and maintenance information,
devices are as follows: and warning decals and placards installed as prescribed
by the lifting device manufacturer.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
18
ASME B30.20-2018

(d) establishing an inspection, testing, and mainte- (c) unders tandi ng and ap p lyi ng the i nfo rmati o n
nance program in accordance with Section 20-2.3 . contained in the lifting device manufacturer’s operating
(e) using designated personnel to perform the required manual.
maintenance, repair, and inspections. (d) understanding the lifting device’s functions and
(f) ensuring that the lifting device is in proper oper- l i m i ta ti o n s a s we l l a s i ts p a rti c u l a r o p e ra ti n g
ating condition prior to initial use at the worksite by characteristics.
the following: (e) ensuring an inspection is performed prior to every
(1 ) ve r i fyi n g th a t a l l i n s p e c ti o n s h a ve b e e n lift as specified in para. 20-2.3.2 .
performed as required by Section 20-2.3 (f) promptly reporting the need for any adjustments or
(2) verifying that the lifting device has the necessary repairs to a designated person.
lifting capacity to perform the proposed lifting operations (g) following applicable lock out/tag out procedures.
in the planned configuration (h) not operating the lifting device when physically or
(g) using operators that meet the requirements of mentally unfit.
paras. 20-2.4.2 . (i) ensuring that all controls are in the off or neutral
(h) ensuring that all personnel involved in mainte- position and that all personnel are in the clear before ener-
nance, repair, assembly, disassembly, and inspection gizing the lifting device.
are aware of their responsibilities, assigned duties, and (j) not engaging in any practice that will divert his
the associated hazards. attention while operating the lifting device.
(i) determining if additional regulations are applicable (k) testing the lifting device function controls that will
to lifting device operations. be used and operating the lifting device only if those func-
(j) ensuring that conditions that may adversely affect tion controls respond properly.
lifting device operations are addressed. Such conditions (l) op erating the lifting device’s functions, under
include, but are not limited to, the following: normal operating conditions, in a smooth and controlled
(1 ) wind velocity or gusting winds manner.
(2) precipitation (m) knowing and following the procedures specified by
(3) fog the manufacturer or approved by a qualified person, for
(4) extreme temperatures assembly, disassembly, setting up, and reeving/rigging of
(5) lighting the lifting device.
(k) addressing safety concerns raised by the operator (n) considering all factors known that might affect the
or other personnel and being responsible if he and a qual- lifting device capacity and informing the owner ofthe need
ified person decide to overrule those concerns and directs to make appropriate adjustments.
lifting device operations to continue. (In all cases, the (o) understanding basic load attachment procedures.
manufacturer’s criteria for safe operation and the require- (p) responding only to instructions from designated
ments of this Volume shall be followed.) persons. However, the operator shall obey a stop order
at all times, no matter who gives it.
ð 18 Þ 2 0 - 2 . 4 . 3 . 2 Re s p o n s i b i li ti e s o f O p e rato rs . T h e
(q) ensuring that all personnel shall stay clear of the
operator shall be responsible for the following listed
load.
i te m s . T h e o p e ra to r s h a l l n o t b e re s p o n s i b l e fo r
hazards or conditions that are not under his direct 20-2.4.4 Lifting Device Operating Practices ð 18 Þ
co n tro l and that adve rs e l y affe ct o p e rati o n o f th e
lifting device. Whenever the operator has doubt as to (a) Lifting devices shall be op erated only by the
the safety of lifting device operations, the operator following qualified personnel:
shall place the load in a safe condition and stop the (1 ) designated persons
lifting device’s functions in a controlled manner. Use of (2) trainees under the supervision of a designated
the lifting device shall resume only after safety concerns person, the number oftrainees permitted to be supervised
have been addressed or the continuation of lifting device by a single designated person, the physical location of the
operations is directed by the owner. designated person while supervising, and the type of
The o p erato r’ s res p o ns ib i li ti es s hall incl ude the c o m m u n i c ati o n re q u i re d b e twe e n th e d e s i gn a te d
following: person and the trainee shall be determined by a qualified
(a) reviewing the requirements for the lifting device person.
with the owner before operations. (3) maintenance and test personnel, when it is nec-
(b) kno wing what typ es o f s ite co nditio ns co uld essary in the performance of their duties
adversely affect the operation of the lifting device and (4) inspectors (lifting devices)
consulting with the owner concerning the possible pres- (b) Ensure the weight of the load and its approximate
ence of those conditions. center o f gravity have b een o b tained, p ro vided, o r
calculated.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
19
ASME B30.20-2018

(c) The lifting device shall not be loaded in excess of its 20-2.4.5 Miscellaneous Operating Practices
rated load or handle any load for which it is not designed.
(d) Properly attaching the lifting device to the hook, (a) An operator shall not use a lifting device that is
shackle, or other load handling device. tagged “O ut of Service” o r o therwis e designated as
(e) The lifter shall be applied to the load in accordance nonfunctioning.
with the instruction manual. (b) “Out of Service” tags on lifting devices shall not be
(f) Before lifting, the operator shall make sure that lifter removed without the approval of the person placing them
ropes or chains are not kinked, and that multiple part lines or a designated person.
are not twisted around each other. (c) The lifter, when not in use, should be stored at an
(g) Care should be taken to make certain the load is assigned location.
correctly distributed for the lifter being used. (d) Caution should be taken that operating markings or
(h) The temperature of the load should not exceed the tags shall not be removed or defaced. Missing or illegible
maximum allowable limits of the lifter. markings or tags shall be replaced.
(i) Verify that the load is well secured and properly
balanced in the lifting device when it is initially lifted. SECTION 20-2.5: INSTRUCTION MANUALS
(j) Do not allow the load to come into contact with any The manufacturer shall provide operating instructions,
obstruction. and maintenance and parts information. In addition, the
(k) The operator shall ensure that the lifting device is manual shall also provide a statement of those factors that
adequately protected from damage during use. alter the vacuum lifter’s lifting capacity and related limita-
(l) The lifter shall not be used for side pulls or sliding tions. Several factors known to affect the vacuum lifter’s
the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified lifting capacity are noted below.
person. (a) Load Rigidity. The rigidity may cause the vacuum
(m) If power goes off while making a lift, the operator pads and the structure to be loaded unevenly. The rigidity
shall immediately warn all persons in the vicinity of the may vary depending on orientation.
lifter and land the load if at all possible to do so. (b) Load Strength. Stress induced by the load’s own
(n) The vacuum lines shall be free from kinks and wei ght an d th e s tre s s fro m the vacu u m p ads may
twists, and shall not be wrapp ed around or lo op ed damage the load.
over portions of the lifter that will move during the lift. (c) Load Surface Conditions. Uneven or rough surfaces
(o) The pad contact surface shall be clean and free of may affect the vacuum pad’s ability to attach or maintain a
loose particles. seal. Frictional properties may affect the capacity.
(p) Before starting to lift, verify that he vacuum level (d) Load Overhang. As the lo ad extends p as t the
indicator has reached the required level. s u p p o r ts o f th e va c u u m p a d s , th e l o a d m a y b e
(q) Before starting to lift, raise the load a few inches to damaged or deflect and peel away from the pad seal.
establish that the vacuum lifting device has been correctly (e) Angle of the Load. The effect of the coefficient of
applied and that a stable vacuum level exists. friction between the load and vacuum pad becomes signif-
(r) The operator shall land any attached load and store icant when the load is not horizontal.
the lifter before leaving the lifting device. The operator (f) Number of Pads Attached to the Load. The capacity
shall not leave suspended loads unattended. varies with the number of pads fully attached to the load.
(s) The operator shall not ride, or allow others to ride (g) Load Temperature. Elevated temperatures may
loads or the lifting device. damage the vacuum pads or affect the function of the pads.
(t) The operation of the lifter shall be observed during (h) Elevation and Vacuum Level. The vacuum pad rating
use. Any deficiency observed shall be examined by a desig- varies with the vacuum level achieved under the pads. If
nated person. If the deficiency constitutes a hazard, the the vacuum level decreases from the vacuum level used for
lifter shall be removed from service and tagged “Out of capacity calculations, the ultimate pad capacity is reduced.
Service.” Any indication of a hazardous condition shall At various elevations, the vacuum level that can be reached
be reported to a qualified person for evaluation. may vary.
(u) Loads shall be guided in such a manner as to avoid
endangering hands or other body parts as the load is
moved, or if it drops.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
20
ASME B30.20-2018

Chapter 20-3
Close Proximity Operated Lifting Magnets

SECTION 20-3.1: SCOPE (6) the voltage of the primary power supply or
battery (when applicable)
Chapter 2 0-3 applies to the marking, construction,
(7) rated load [as described in (a) ]
installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and opera-
(8) ASME BTH-1 Design Category B
tion of all lifting magnets when used for single or multiple
(9) ASME BTH-1 Service Class
steel piece handling operations in which the operator of
(c) Repaired or Altered Lifting Magnets. Repaired or
the lifting magnet is required to manually position the
altered magnets shall be provided with identification
lifting magnet on the load and manually guide the load
displaying, but not limited to, the following information:
during its movement, or in remotely operated lifting
(1 ) name and address of the repairer or alterer
magnets when operated in close proximity to people.
(2) repairer’s or alterer’s unit identification
Fo r multi- magnet s ys tems where individual lifting
(3) weight of lifting magnet (if altered)
magnets are suspended from a spreader beam or its
(4) duty cycle (if altered)
equivalent, this section applies only to the individual
(5) the cold current or wattage at 68°F (2 0°C) (if
lifting magnet, excluding the spreader beam or its equiva-
altered)
lent and the associated control equipment (see Figure 20-
(6) the voltage of the primary power supply or
3.1-1 ). This Chapter does not apply to remotely operated
battery (if altered)
lifting magnets in areas where people are excluded during
(7) rated load (if altered) [as described in (a) ]
normal operation.
(8) ASME BTH-1 Design Category B
(9) ASME BTH-1 Service Class (if altered)
SECTION 20-3.2: MARKING, CONSTRUCTION, AND This requirement is not applicable to repairs limited to
INSTALLATION replacement of maintenance parts.
(d) Product Safety Labels
ð 18 Þ 20-3.2.1 Marking (1 ) Where size and shape of the lifter allow, lifters
(a) Rated Load shall have labels affixed to them in a readable position, that
(1 ) General Application Lifting Magnets. The rated include the appropriate signal word, according to ANSI
load of the lifting magnet shall be legibly marked on Z53 5.4-2 011, to bring the label to the attention of the
the lifting magnet or on a tag attached to the lifting operator. The label should include cautionary language
magnet where it is visible. This marking shall refer to identifying hazards, methods for accident prevention,
the ins tructi o n manual fo r info rmatio n re lating to a n d r e fe r to i n s tr u c ti o n m a n u a l s fo r a d d i ti o n a l
decreases in rating due to the load surface condition, thick- information.
ness, percentage of contact with the lifting magnet, (2) Where size or shape of lifting magnet prohibits
temperature, metallurgical composition, and deflection. the inclusion of all or any such markings, a label shall be
(2) Specified Application Lifting Magnets. The rated affixed, referring user to consult manufacturer’s instruc-
load of the lifting magnet shall be legibly marked on the tion manual for product safety information.
lifting magnet or on a tag attached to the lifting magnet (3) Labels on battery operated lifting magnets shall
where it is visible. This marking shall describe the specific provide additional cautionary language about operating
loads for which this rating applies. when the battery capacity is inadequate.
(b) Iden tification . Close proximity operated lifting (4) Labels on externally powered electromagnets
magnets shall be provided with identification displaying, shall contain additional cautionary language against
but not limited to, the following information: (-a) exceeding lifting magnet duty cycle
(1 ) manufacturer’s name and contact information (-b) disconnecting lifting magnet with power on
(2) serial number (unique unit identifier) (5) Labels on electrically controlled permanent
(3) weight of lifting magnet magnets shall contain additional cautionary language
(4) duty cycle (when applicable) about operating if the internal control function indicator,
(5) the cold current (amps) at 68°F (20°C) (when where applicable, does not indicate a complete cycle.
applicable)

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
21
ASME B30.20-2018

ð 18 Þ Figure 20-3.1-1 Close Proximity Operated Magnetic Lifters

(6) Lab e l s o n man ual l y co ntro l l e d p e rm ane n t (b) Electrical Equipment. External power supply, elec-
magnets shall contain additional precautionary language trical equipment, and wiring for electromagnets shall be in
about operating with the control handle latch not fully in accordance with ASME BTH-1.
the “attach” position. (c) Lifting Magnet Controllers. Lifting magnet control-
(e) Operating Controls. Each control shall be clearly lers should have voltage and amperage indicators (when
marked describing resulting motion or function of the applicable).
lifter. (d) Power Disconnects. Disconnects are not required on
externally powered electromagnets operating from a
ð 18 Þ 20-3.2.2 Construction 120 VAC single-phase power source.
(a) General (e) Alterations. Lifting magnets may be altered or
rerated, provided such alterations and the supporting
(1) Lifter Design. The manufacturer shall verify that
s tructure are analyzed and ap p ro ved by the lifting
close proximity operated lifting magnets are designed in
magnet manufacturer or a qualified person. A rerated
accordance with ASME BTH-1 . Close proximity lifting
lifting magnet or one whose load-supporting components
magne ts s hal l b e de s i gne d to AS M E B TH - 1 D e s i gn
have been altered shall conform to (a)(1) and be tested in
Category B (static strength criteria) and the proper
accordance with para. 20-3.3.8 . New rated load and appli-
S ervice C las s (fatigue life criteria) s elected fo r the
cation load shall be displayed in accordance with para. 20-
number of load cycles.
3.2.1 .
(2) Welding. Welding shall be in accordance with
ASME BTH-1, para. 1-4.6.
(f) Slings. When employed, slings shall meet the re-
quirements of ASME B30.9.
(g) Hooks. When employed, hooks shall meet the re-
quirements of ASME B30.10.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
22
ASME B30.20-2018

(h) Rigging Hardware. When employed, rigging hard- (3) Periodic Inspection. Visual inspection making
ware shall meet the requirements of ASME B30.26. records of apparent external conditions to provide the
basis for a continuing evaluation.
20-3.2.3 Installation (-a) Normal service for equipment in place —
yearly
(a) The lifting magnet shall be installed in accordance
(-b) H eavy service for equipment in place —
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
quarterly
(b) Determine that the external power input is in accor-
(-c) Severe service — monthly
dance with paras. 2 0-3.2.2(b) and 2 0-3.2.2 (f) , is of the
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom-
correct voltage and amperage, and that the power conduc-
mended by a qualified person before the first lift and
tors and controls are of adequate rating, and insulated and
as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent lifts
protected against accidental interruption or damage.
20-3.3.2 Every Lift Inspection
SECTION 20-3.3: INSPECTION, TESTING, AND
MAINTENANCE Items such as the following shall be inspected by the
operator before and/or during every lift for any indication
ð 18 Þ 20-3.3.1 Inspection Classification ofdamage as specifically indicated, including observations
during operation for any damage that might occur during
General. All inspections shall be performed by a desig- the lift:
nated person. Any deficiencies identified shall be exam- (a) lifting magnet face and surface of the load for
ined and a determination made by a qualified person as to foreign materials and smoothness
whether they constitute a hazard, and if so, what addi- (b) condition and operation of the control handle of a
tional steps need to be taken to address the hazard. manually controlled permanent magnet
I ns p ectio n o f s lings (AS M E B 3 0 . 9 ) , ho o ks (AS M E (c) condition and operation of indicators and meters
B 3 0 .1 0 ) , rigging hardware (ASM E B 3 0 .2 6) , or other when installed
special devices shall comply with the inspection require-
ments in the applicable volume. 20-3.3.3 Frequent Inspection
(a) Initial Inspection
(1 ) New and reinstalled lifting magnets shall be Items such as the following shall be inspected for
inspected prior to initial use to verify compliance with damage at intervals as defined in para. 2 0-3 .3 .1(b) (2 ) ,
applicable provisions of this Volume. including observations during operation for any indica-
(2) Altered or repaired lifting magnets shall be tions of damage that might appear between inspections.
inspected. The inspection may be limited to the compo- A qualified person shall determine whether any indica-
nents affected by the alteration or repair, as determined by tions of damage constitute a hazard or will require
a qualified person. more frequent inspection. For all lifting magnets, inspect
(b) Inspection Intervals. Inspection procedures for (a) structural and suspension members for deforma-
l ifting magnets in regular s ervice are divided into ti o n , cracks , o r e xce s s i ve we ar o n any p art o f th e
three general classifications, based upon the intervals lifting magnet
at which the inspections shall be performed. The intervals, (b) lifting magnet face fo r fo reign materials and
in turn, are dependent upon the nature of the critical smoothness
components of the lifting magnet and the degree of (c) condition of lifting bail or sling suspension
their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. (d) condition and operation of control handle
The three general class ificatio ns are designated as (e) condition and operation of indicators and meters,
every lift, frequent, and periodic, with respective intervals where applicable
between inspections as defined below. (f) for all lifting magnets, except manually controlled
(1 ) Every Lift Inspection. Visual examination by the permanent magnets, inspect all electrical conductors
operator before and during each lift made by the lifting that are visible without disassembly for loose connections,
magnet. continuity, corrosion, and damage to insulation
(2) Frequent Inspection. Visual examination by the (g) for battery operated electromagnets, inspect for
operator or other designated persons with records not proper level of battery electrolyte and for corrosion of
required. either the battery posts or connectors
(-a) Normal service — monthly (h) cracked housings, welds, and loose bolts
(-b) Heavy service — weekly to monthly (i) labels and markings
(-c) Severe service — daily to weekly (j) missing or illegible operating control markings
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom-
mended by a qualified person before and after each lift

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
23
ASME B30.20-2018

20-3.3.4 Periodic Inspection sions of this Volume, including, but not limited to, the
following:
C o mp lete i ns p ectio ns o f lifting magnets s hall b e
(1 ) moving parts
p erfo rmed and reco rded at intervals as defined in
(2) latches
para. 2 0 -3 .3 .1 (b) (3 ) . Any deficiencies, such as those
(3) stops
listed below, shall be examined by a qualified person
(4) switches
and determination made as to whether they constitute
(5) any control devices
a hazard. These inspections shall include the requirements
(6) alarms
of para. 2 0 -3 .3 .3 and, in addition, items such as the
(b) Altered or repaired lifting magnets shall be tested
following:
by a qualified person, or a designated person under the
(a) All members, fasteners, locks, switches, warning
direction of the manufacturer or a qualified person. The
labels, and lifting parts shall be inspected for deformation,
test may be limited to the components affected by the
wear, and corrosion.
al te rati o n o r re p ai r, as d e te rmi n e d b y a qual i fi e d
(b) All electrical components described in paras. 20-
person with guidance from the manufacturer.
3.2.2(b) through 20-3.2.2(f) , including meters, indicators,
(c) All indicator lights, gages, horns, bells, alarms, poin-
or alarms, shall be tested for proper operation and
ters, and other warning devices shall be tested.
condition.
(d) Dated reports of all operational tests shall be filed.
(c) The lifting magnet coil shall be tested for ohmic and
gro u n d re ad i n gs an d co mp are d to m an u factu re r’ s 20-3.3.8.2 Load Test ð 18 Þ
standards.
(d) missing or illegible product safety labels required (a) Prior to initial use, all new, altered, or repaired
by para. 20-3.2.1(d) . lifting magnets shall be tested by, or under the direction
of the manufacturer or a qualified person. The rated load
20-3.3.5 Lifting Magnets Not in Regular Use of all lifting components associated with the magnet shall
exceed the maximum breakaway force of the magnet to
A lifting magnet that has been idle for a period of 1 avoid overload, or the components shall not be included in
month to 1 yr shall be inspected in accordance with the test. The test results shall be recorded confirming the
para. 2 0-3 .3 .3 before being placed in service. A lifting load rating of the lifting magnet.
magnet that has been idle for a period of 1 yr or more (1 ) Breakaway Force Test
shall be inspected in accordance with para. 2 0 -3 .3 .4 (-a) General application lifting magnets shall be
before being returned to service. required to satisfy the rated breakaway force test.
(-1 ) The rated load for permanent magnet lifters
20-3.3.6 Inspection Records shall be less than 33% of the breakaway force measured in
Dated inspection reports shall be made on critical items, this test.
such as those listed in para. 20-3.3.4. Records should be (-2) The rated load for electromagnetic lifters
available for each periodic inspection and when the lifting shall be less than 50% of the breakaway force measured
magnet is either altered or repaired. in this test.
(-b) Specified application lifting magnets shall be
ð 18 Þ 20-3.3.7 Repairs required to satisfy the specified application lifting magnet
breakaway force test.
Damage disclosed by the inspection requirements of
(-1 ) The rated load for permanent magnet lifters
Section 20-3.3 shall be corrected according to the proce-
shall be less than 33% of the breakaway force measured in
dures outlined in para. 20-3.3.9 before operation of the
this test.
lifting magnet is resumed, unless a qualified person deter-
(-2) The rated load for electromagnetic lifters
mines the damage does not constitute a hazard. Repairs of
shall be less than 50% of the breakaway force measured
slings (ASME B30.9), hooks (ASME B30.10), rigging hard-
in this test.
ware (ASME B30.26), or other special devices shall comply
(2) Design Factor Test. Close proximity operated
with repair requirements in the applicable volumes or
lifting magnets should have an annual magnetic design
standards.
factor test to verify the magnet meets para. 20-3.3 .8.2 .
20-3.3.8 Testing This test should be performed to the actual breakaway
point of the magnet or may be performed at the calculated
ð 18 Þ 20-3.3.8.1 Operational Tests minimum breakaway force. The rated load of all compo-
(a) New and reinstalled lifting magnets shall be tested nents associated with the (magnetic) design factor test
by a qualified person, or a designated person under the s h al l e xce e d th e m axi m um b re akaway l o ad o f th e
direction of the manufacturer or a qualified person, prior magnet to avoid overload or the lifting hardware shall
to initial use to verify compliance with applicable provi- be removed. Caution should be exercised during the

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
24
ASME B30.20-2018

test. The test shall be performed under the direction of a (5) D ated records o f rep airs and rep lacements
qualified person. should be made.
(b) The general application lifting magnet breakaway
force test shall establish the force required to vertically SECTION 20-3.4: OPERATION
remove the lifting magnet from a low carbon, rolled steel
plate of the minimum thickness stated by the lifting 20-3.4.1 Operators
magnet manufacturer. The portion of this plate that is
Below-the-hook lifting devices shall be operated only by
in contact with the lifting magnet shall not exceed 125
a trained, designated person.
μin. (3.2 × 10 −3 mm) or better and be flat within 0.002
in./ft (0.05 mm/m) , without exceeding 0.005 in. (0.127
20-3.4.2 Qualifications ð 18 Þ
mm) total. The full operating face of the lifting magnet
shall be in contact with the steel plate, which shall be Qualifications for operators of below-the-hook lifting
between 60°F (15°C) and 120°F (50°C). The steel plate, devices are as follows:
load cell, or other testing device shall be mounted to (a) The operator shall be instructed in the use of the
al l o w s e l f- al i gn me n t s o th e l o ad i s ap p l i e d to th e device by a designated p erso n. I nstructio ns s hould
magnet through the magnet’s center of force. include, but not be limited to, the following:
(c) The specified application lifting magnet breakaway (1 ) application of the lifter to the load and material-
force test shall establish the breakaway forces ofthe lifting handling device, and adjustments, if any, that adapt the
magnet under the variety of loading conditions for which lifter to various sizes or kinds of loads
the lifting magnet is specified. The details of this test (2 ) i n s tru c ti o n s i n a n y s p e ci a l o p e ra ti o n s o r
should be supplied by the manufacturer of the lifting precautions
magnet. (3 ) th e m a n u fa c tu r e r ’ s s u gge s te d o p e r a ti n g
(d) Battery operated electromagnets and externally procedures
powered electromagnets shall be operated at the manu- (4) condition ofthe load required for operation ofthe
facturer’s recommended voltage and current levels. lifter, such as, but not limited to, balance, surface cleanli-
(e) The test for altered or repaired lifting magnets may ness, flatness, bending, and load thickness
be limited to the components affected by the alteration or (5) storage of the lifter to protect it from damage
repair, as determined by a qualified person with guidance (6) not exceeding the rated load of the lifting device
from the manufacturer. no r the cap aci ty o f the ho i s ti ng e quip ment b y the
combined weight of the load, the lifting device, and rigging
ð 18 Þ 20-3.3.9 Maintenance (7) ch a rgi n g o f th e l i fti n g m a gn e t b atte ry (i f
required)
(a) Maintenance Program. A maintenance program
(8) the purpose of indicators, meters, or alarms on
shall be established and be based on recommendations
the lifting magnet
made by the lifting magnet manufacturer. If a qualified
(9) the proper attachment of adapters to lifting
p e rs o n d e te rm i n e s i t i s ap p ro p ri ate , th e p ro gram
device for special load handling
should also include that individual’s additional recom-
(b) The operator shall demonstrate the ability to
mendations based on a review of the lifting magnet appli-
operate the lifter as instructed before assuming respon-
cation and operations.
sibility for using the lifter.
(b) Maintenance Procedure
(c) The operator shall demonstrate an understanding
(1 ) Before adjustment and repairs are started on a
of standard hand signals when applicable.
lifting magnet or its controls, the following precautions
shall be taken: 20-3.4.3 Responsibilities
(-a) All sources of lifting magnet power shall be
disconnected, locked out, and tagged “Out of Service.” While the organizational structure of various projects
(-b) A lifting magnet removed for repair shall be may differ, the following roles are described here for
tagged “Out of Service.” purposes of delineating responsibilities. All responsibil-
(-c) Relieve fluid pressure from all circuits before ities listed below shall be assigned in the worksite orga-
loosening or removing fluid power components. nization. (A single individual may perform one or more of
(2) Only designated personnel shall work on equip- these roles.)
ment when adjustments, repairs, and tests are required. operator: directly controls the lifting device’s functions.
(3) Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the
owner: has custodial control of a lifting device by virtue of
original manufacturer’s specifications.
lease or ownership.
(4) After adjustments and repairs have been made,
the lifting magnet shall not be returned to service until it These persons and roles may or may not match the
has been inspected according to para. 20-3.3.4. persons and roles associated with the hoisting equipment
in use.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
25
ASME B30.20-2018

ð 18 Þ 20-3. 4. 3. 1 Respon sibili ties of th e Liftin g Device have been addressed or the continuation of lifting device
Owner. The responsibilities of the lifting device owner operations is directed by the owner.
shall include the following: The o p e rato r’ s re s p o ns i b il iti es s hall i nclude the
(a) providing a lifting device, and all necessary compo- following:
nents specified by the manufacturer, that meets the re- (a) reviewing the requirements for the lifting device
quirements of Sections 2 0-3 .2 and 2 0 -3 .3 as well as with the owner before operations.
specific job requirements. (b ) kno wing what typ es o f s ite co nditio ns co uld
(b) providing all applicable operating instructions. adversely affect the operation of the lifting device and
(c) providing field assembly, and disassembly (if consulting with the owner concerning the possible pres-
applicable) , operation and maintenance information, ence of those conditions.
and warning decals and placards installed as prescribed (c) unders tanding and ap p lying the i nfo rmati o n
by the lifting device manufacturer. contained in the lifting device manufacturer’s operating
(d) establishing an inspection, testing, and mainte- manual.
nance program in accordance with Section 20-3.3 . (d) understanding the lifting device’s functions and
(e) using designated personnel to perform the required l i m i ta ti o n s a s we l l a s i ts p a rti c u l a r o p e ra ti n g
maintenance, repair, and inspections. characteristics.
(f) ensuring that the lifting device is in proper oper- (e) ensuring an inspection is performed prior to every
ating condition prior to initial use at the worksite by lift as specified in para. 20-3.3.2 .
the following: (f) promptly reporting the need for any adjustments or
(1 ) ve r i fyi n g th a t a l l i n s p e c ti o n s h a ve b e e n repairs to a designated person.
performed as required by Section 20-3.3 (g) following applicable lock out/tag out procedures.
(2) verifying that the lifting device has the necessary (h) not operating the lifting device when physically or
lifting capacity to perform the proposed lifting operations mentally unfit.
in the planned configuration (i) ensuring that all controls are in the off or neutral
(g) using operators that meet the requirements of para. position and that all personnel are in the clear before
20-3.4.2 . attaching the lifting device.
(h) ensuring that all personnel involved in mainte- (j) not engaging in any practice that will divert his
nance, repair, assembly, disassembly, and inspection attention while operating the lifting device.
are aware of their responsibilities, assigned duties, and (k) testing the lifting device function controls that will
the associated hazards. be used and operating the lifting device only if those func-
(i) determining if additional regulations are applicable tion controls respond properly.
to lifting device operations. (l) operating the lifting device’s functions, under
(j) ensuring that conditions that may adversely affect normal operating conditions, in a smooth and controlled
lifting device operations are addressed. Such conditions manner.
include, but are not limited to, the following: (m) knowing and following the procedures specified by
(1 ) wind velocity or gusting winds the manufacturer or approved by a qualified person, for
(2) precipitation assembly, disassembly, setting up, and reeving/rigging of
(3) fog the lifting device.
(4) extreme temperatures (n) considering all factors known that might affect the
(5) lighting lifting device capacity and informing the owner ofthe need
(k) addressing safety concerns raised by the operator to make appropriate adjustments.
or other personnel and being responsible if he and a qual- (o) understanding basic load attachment procedures.
ified person decide to overrule those concerns and directs (p) responding only to instructions from designated
lifting device operations to continue. (In all cases, the persons. However, the operator shall obey a stop order
manufacturer’s criteria for safe operation and the require- at all times, no matter who gives it.
ments of this Volume shall be followed.) (q) ensuring that all personnel shall stay clear of the
load.
ð 18 Þ 2 0 - 3 . 4 . 3 . 2 Re s p o n s i b i li ti e s o f O p e rato rs . T h e
(r) not lifting stacked loads with a permanent magnet
operator shall be responsible for the following listed
unless approved by the manufacturer.
i te m s . T h e o p e ra to r s h a l l n o t b e re s p o n s i b l e fo r
hazards or conditions that are not under his direct 20-3.4.4 Lifting Device Operating Practices ð 18 Þ
co ntro l and that adve rs e l y affe ct o p e rati o n o f the
lifting device. Whenever the operator has doubt as to (a) All Magnets
the safety of lifting device operations, the operator (1 ) Lifting devices shall be operated only by the
shall place the load in a safe condition and stop the following qualified personnel:
lifting device’s functions in a controlled manner. Use of (-a) designated persons
the lifting device shall resume only after safety concerns

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
26
ASME B30.20-2018

(-b) trainees under the supervision of a designated (-c) The operator shall land any attached load and
person, the number oftrainees permitted to be supervised release the load before leaving the lifting device. The
by a single designated person, the physical location of the operator shall not leave suspended loads unattended.
designated person while supervising, and the type of (-d) The operator shall not ride, or allow others to
co m m u n i ca ti o n re q u i re d b e twe e n th e d e s i gn a te d ride loads or the lifting device.
person and the trainee shall be determined by a qualified (-e) The operation of the lifter shall be observed
person during use. Any deficiency observed shall be examined
(-c) maintenance and test personnel, when it is nec- by a designated person. If the deficiency constitutes a
essary in the performance of their duties hazard, the lifter shall be removed from service and
(-d) inspectors (lifting devices) tagged “Out of Service.” Any indication of a hazardous
(2) Ensure the weight of the load and its approximate condition shall be reported to a qualified person for
center o f gravity have b een o b tained, p ro vided, o r evaluation.
calculated. (-f) Loads shall be guided in such a manner as to
(3) The lifting device shall not be loaded in excess of its avoid endangering hands or other body parts as the
rated load or handle any load for which it is not designed. load is moved, or if it drops.
(4) Properly attaching the lifting device to the hook, (-g) When lifting loads that do not absorb all avail-
shackle, or other load handling device. able flux, use caution to avoid lifting multiple loads.
(5) The lifter shall be applied to the load in accordance (b) Battery Operated Electromagnets
with the instruction manual. (1) Before lifting, the operator should confirm that
(6) Before lifting, the operator shall make sure that the device indicating correct current flow remains stable
lifter ropes or chains are not kinked and that multiple for a minimum of 5 sec.
part lines are not twisted around each other. (2) For a lift of extended duration, the operator
(7) Verify that the load is well secured and properly should observe the device indicating existing battery
balanced in the lifting device when it is initially lifted. conditions every 5 min.
(8) Care should be taken to make certain the load is (3) The operator should open the ventilation lid
correctly distributed for the lifter being used. before charging the battery.
(9) The temperature of the load should not exceed the (c) Electrically Controlled Permanent Magnets. Before
maximum allowable limits of the lifter. lifting, the operator should check the internal control func-
(10) Do not allow the load or lifter to come into contact tion indicator, where applicable, to confirm proper opera-
with any obstruction. tion of the lifting magnet.
(11) The operator shall ensure that the lifting device is (d) Manually Controlled Permanent Magnets. Before
adequately protected from damage during use. lifting, the operator should confirm that the control
(12) The lifter shall not be used for side pulls or sliding h an dl e i s i n th e “attach ” p o s i ti o n an d th e co n tro l
the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified handle latch is operating.
person. (e ) B a tte r y Ch a r g i n g o f B a tte r y O p e ra te d
(1 3) The lifting magnet face and the lifting magnet Electromagnets or Battery Backup Systems
contact area on the load shall be clean. (1) Vented wet cell batteries shall be recharged at the
(1 4) The load to be lifted shall be within the lifting first indication of current flow or voltage below the manu-
magnet’s rated load (capacity) or application load (capac- facturer’s recommended range.
ity) and lifting equipment rated load (capacity). (2) Vented wet cell batteries shall be charged
(15) The operator shall observe all meters and indica- (-a) in a well-ventilated area to avoid accumula-
tors on the lifting magnet to confirm proper operation tion of combustible gases
prior to making a lift. (-b) where personnel are least likely to be exposed
(16) Before raising the load more than 2 in. (50 mm), to vented fumes or electrolyte spillage
any adjustable input control should be switched to the “full (3) All batteries shall be charged prior to being
power” or “full on” position and remain in this position returned to service according to the recommendations
until the load is removed from the lifting magnet. supplied by the lifting magnet manufacturer.
(-a) Before lifting, the operator shall warn people (4) Eye, hand, and body protection shall be worn
near the lift. while servicing batteries.
(-b) The operator shall not switch the magnet to the
“attach” position until the lifting magnet has been placed 20-3.4.5 Miscellaneous Operating Practices
in contact with the load to be lifted. Prematurely switching
(a) An operator shall not use a lifting device that is
the magnet to the “attach” position could cause unwanted
tagged “O ut of Service” or otherwise designated as
materials to be attracted to the lifting magnet.
nonfunctioning.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
27
ASME B30.20-2018

(b) “Out of Service” tags on lifting devices shall not be the flux available in the lifting magnet, which reduces
removed without the approval of the person placing them the lifting magnet’s lift capacity.
or a designated person. (c) Load Surface Conditions. Anything that creates an air
(c) The lifter, when not in use, should be stored at an gap or nonmagnetic separation between a lifting magnet
assigned location. and the load reduces the flux flowing from the lifting
(d) Caution should be taken that operating markings or magnet into the load, which reduces the lifting capacity
tags shall not be removed or defaced. Missing or illegible of a lifting magnet. Typical causes of air gaps are: rough
markings or tags shall be replaced. surface finish, paper, dirt, rust, paint, and scale.
(d) Load Length or Width. As the length or width of the
ð 18 Þ SECTION 20-3.5: INSTRUCTION MANUALS load increases, the load begins to deflect and to peel at the
lifting magnet face. This may create an air gap between the
The manufacturer shall provide operating instructions, load and the lifting magnet, which reduces the lifting ca-
safety precautions, and maintenance information. In addi- pacity per (c) . The manual shall contain manufacturer’s
tion, the manual shall also provide a statement of those reco mmendatio ns p ertaining to the maximum lo ad
factors that alter the magnet’s lifting capacity and related dimensions.
limitations. Several factors known to affect that magnet’s (e) Attitude ofLoad. As the attitude of the surface of the
lifting capacity are noted below. load to which a lifting magnet is attached (lifting surface)
(a) Load Thickness. The magnetic flux flowing from a changes from horizontal to vertical, the lifting capacity of
lifting magnet into a load increases as the thickness of the the lifting magnet is greatly reduced and becomes depen-
load increases. Consequently, as a lifting magnet’s lifting dent upon the coefficient of friction of the lifting surface.
capacity is a function of this flux, the lift capacity increases (f) Portion ofLifting Magnet Face in Contact With Load.
with load thickness. For every lifting magnet design, there The full face of the lifting magnet must contact the load if
is a critical load thickness where all of the lifting magnet’s the lifting magnet is to achieve maximum capabilities.
available flux flows into the load and the lift capacity (g) Load Temperature. The temperature of the load can
reaches maximum. Loads thicker than the critical load cause damage to the lifting magnet and, if high enough,
thickness will not increase the magnet lift cap acity even change the magnetic characteristics of the load.
beyond this level. As loads become thinner than the critical Consequently, the manual shall contain the manufac-
load thickness, the magnet’s lift capacity diminishes since turer’s recommendations pertaining to operation of the
the load cannot transmit all the flux generated by the lifting magnet o n lo ads at temp eratures exceeding
magnet. normal ambient temperatures.
(b) Load Alloy. M any alloys of iron do not accept
m a gn e ti c fl u x a s e a s i l y a s d o l o w c a rb o n s te e l s .
Consequently, loads of such alloys will not accept all of

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
28
ASME B30.20-2018

Chapter 20-4
Remotely Operated Lifting Magnets

SECTION 20-4.1: SCOPE decreases in rating due to the load surface condition, thick-
ness, percentage of contact with the lifting magnet,
Chapter 2 0-4 applies to the marking, construction,
temperature, metallurgical composition, and deflection.
installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and opera-
(2) Specified Application Lifting Magnets. The rated
tion of remotely operated lifting magnets (see Figure 20-
load of the lifting magnet shall be legibly marked on the
4.1-1 ). This Chapter applies to remotely operated lifting
lifting magnet or on a tag attached to the lifting magnet
magnets in areas where people are excluded during
where it is visible. This marking shall describe the specific
normal operation. This Chapter does not apply to close
loads for which this rating applies.
proximity operated magnets.
(b) Identification. Remotely operated lifting magnets
shall be provided with identification displaying, but
SECTION 20-4.2: MARKING, CONSTRUCTION, AND not limited to, the following information:
INSTALLATION (1 ) manufacturer’s name and contact information
(2) serial number (unique unit identifier)
ð 18 Þ 20-4.2.1 Marking (3) weight of lifting magnet
(a) Rated Load (4) duty cycle (when applicable)
(1 ) General Application Lifting Magnets. The rated (5) the cold current (amps) at 68°F (20°C) (when
load of the lifting magnet shall be legibly marked on applicable)
the lifting magnet or on a tag attached to the lifting (6) the voltage of the primary power supply or
magnet where it is visible. This marking shall refer to battery (when applicable)
the ins tructi o n manual fo r info rmatio n re lating to (7) rated load [see (a) ]

ð 18 Þ Figure 20-4.1-1 Remotely Operated Magnetic Lifters

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
29
ASME B30.20-2018

(8) ASME BTH-1 Design Category B (b) Electrical Equipment. External power supply, elec-
(9) ASME BTH-1 Service Class trical equipment, and wiring for electromagnets shall be in
(c) Repaired or Altered Lifting Magnets. Repaired or accordance with ASME BTH-1.
altered magnets shall be provided with identification (c) Lifting Magnet Controllers. Lifting magnet control-
displaying, but not limited to, the following information: lers should have voltage and amperage indicated (when
(1) name and contact information of the repairer or applicable).
alterer (d) Power Disconnects. Disconnects are not required on
(2) repairer’s or alterer’s unit identification externally powered electromagnets operating from a
(3) weight of lifting magnet (if altered) 120 VAC single-phase power source.
(4) duty cycle (if altered) (e) Alterations. Lifting magnets may be altered or
(5) the cold current or wattage at 68°F (2 0°C) (if rerated, provided such alterations and the supporting
altered) s tructure are analyzed and ap p ro ved by the lifting
(6) the voltage of the primary power supply or magnet manufacturer or a qualified person. A rerated
battery (if altered) lifting magnet or one whose load-bearing structural
(7) rated load [see (a) ] components have been altered shall conform to (a) (3 )
(8) ASME BTH-1 Design Category B and be tested in accordance with para. 20-4.3.7 .
(9) ASME BTH-1 Service Class (if altered) (f) Slings. When employed, slings shall meet the re-
This requirement is not applicable to repairs limited to quirements of ASME B30.9.
replacement of maintenance parts. (g) Hooks. When employed, hooks shall meet the re-
(d) Product Safety Labels quirements of ASME B30.10.
(1) Where size and shape of the lifter allow, lifters (h) Rigging Hardware. When employed, rigging hard-
shall have labels affixed to them in a readable position, that ware shall meet the requirements of ASME B30.26.
include the appropriate signal word, according to ANSI
Z53 5.4-2 011, to bring the label to the attention of the 20-4.2.3 Installation
operator. The label should include cautionary language
(a) The lifting magnet shall be installed in accordance
identifying hazards, methods for accident prevention,
with the manufacturer’s instructions.
a n d r e fe r to i n s tr u c ti o n m a n u a l s fo r a d d i ti o n a l
(b) Determine that the external power input is in accor-
information.
dance with paras. 20-4.2.2(b) and 20-4.2.2(d) , is of the
(2) Where size or shape of lifting magnet prohibits correct voltage and amperage, and that the power conduc-
the inclusion of all or any such markings, a label shall be
tors and controls are of adequate rating, and insulated and
affixed, referring user to consult manufacturer’s instruc-
protected against accidental interruption or damage.
tion manual for product safety information.
(3) Labels on battery operated lifting magnets shall
provide additional cautionary language about operating
SECTION 20-4.3: INSPECTION, TESTING, AND
when the battery capacity is inadequate. MAINTENANCE
(4) Labels on externally powered electromagnets
shall contain additional cautionary language against
20-4.3.1 Inspection Classification ð 18 Þ

(-a) exceeding lifting magnet duty cycle General. All inspections shall be performed by a desig-
(-b) disconnecting lifting magnet with power on nated person. Any deficiencies identified shall be exam-
(e) Operating Controls. Each control shall be clearly ined and a determination made by a qualified person as to
marked describing resulting motion or function of the whether they constitute a hazard, and if so, what addi-
lifter. tional steps need to be taken to address the hazard.
I ns p ectio n o f s lings (AS M E B 3 0 . 9 ) , ho o ks (AS M E
ð 18 Þ 20-4.2.2 Construction B 3 0 .1 0 ) , rigging hardware (ASM E B 3 0 .2 6) , or other
(a) General special devices shall comply with the inspection require-
(1 ) Suspension Devices. Lifting magnet suspension ments in the applicable volume.
devices should meet the lifting magnet manufacturer’s (a) Initial Inspection
recommendations. (1 ) New and reinstalled lifting magnets shall be
(2) Lifter Design. The manufacturer shall verify that inspected prior to initial use to verify compliance with
remotely operated lifting magnets are in accordance with applicable provisions of this Volume.
ASME BTH-1. Remotely operated lifting magnets shall be (2) Altered or repaired lifting magnets shall be
designed to ASM E B TH - 1 , D esign Category B (static inspected. The inspection may be limited to the compo-
strength criteria) , and the proper Service Class (fatigue nents affected by the alteration or repair, as determined by
life criteria) selected for its number of load cycles. a qualified person.
(3) Welding. Welding shall be in accordance with
ASME BTH-1, para. 1-4.6.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
30
ASME B30.20-2018

(b) In spection In tervals. Inspection procedures for and determination made as to whether they constitute
lifting magnets in regular service are divided into two a hazard. These inspections shall include the requirements
general clas sifications , b ased up o n the intervals at of para. 2 0 -4.3 .2 and, in addition, items such as the
which the inspections shall be performed. The intervals, following:
in turn, are dependent upon the nature of the critical (a) All members, fasteners, and lifting parts shall be
components of the lifting magnet and the degree of inspected for deformation, wear, and corrosion.
their exposure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. (b) All electrical components described in para. 2 0-
The two general classifications are designated as frequent 4.2 .2 , including meters, indicators, or alarms, shall be
and periodic, with respective intervals between inspec- tested for proper operation and condition.
tions as defined below. (c) The lifting magnet coil shall be tested for ohmic and
(1 ) Frequent Inspection. Visual examination by the gro und readings , and co mp ared to manufacture r’ s
operator or other designated persons with records not standards.
required. (d) Missing or illegible product safety labels required
(-a) Normal service — monthly by para. 20-4.2.1(d) .
(-b) Heavy service — weekly to monthly
(-c) Severe service — daily to weekly 20-4.3.4 Lifting Magnets Not in Regular Use
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom- A lifting magnet that has been idle for a period of 1
mended by a qualified person before and after each lift month to 1 yr shall be inspected in accordance with
(2) Periodic Inspection. Visual inspection making para. 2 0-4.3 .2 before being placed in service. A lifting
records of apparent external conditions to provide the magnet that has been idle for a period of 1 yr or more
basis for a continuing evaluation. shall be inspected in accordance with para. 2 0-4.3 .3
(-a) Normal service for equipment in place — before being returned to service.
yearly
(-b) H eavy service for equip ment in p lace — 20-4.3.5 Inspection Records
quarterly
(-c) Severe service — monthly Dated inspection reports shall be made on critical items,
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom- such as those listed in para. 20-4.3.3 . Records should be
mended by a qualified person before the first lift and available for each periodic inspection and when the lifting
as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent lifts magnet is either altered or repaired.

ð 18 Þ 20-4.3.2 Frequent Inspection 20-4.3.6 Repairs ð 18 Þ

Items such as the following shall be inspected for Damage disclosed by the inspection requirements of
damage at intervals as defined in para. 2 0-4.3 .1(b) (1) , Section 20-4.3 shall be corrected according to the proce-
including observations during operation for any indica- dures outlined in para. 20-4.3.8 before operation of the
tions of damage that might appear between inspections. lifting magnet is resumed, unless a qualified person deter-
A qualified person shall determine whether any indica- mines the damage does not constitute a hazard. Repairs of
tions of damage constitute a hazard or will require slings (ASME B30.9), hooks (ASME B30.10), rigging hard-
more frequent inspection. For all lifting magnets, inspect ware (ASME B30.26), or other special devices shall comply
(a) structural and suspension members for deforma- with repair requirements in the applicable volumes or
ti o n , cracks , o r e xce s s i ve we ar o n any p art o f th e standards.
lifting magnet
(b) lifting magnet face fo r fo reign materials and 20-4.3.7 Testing ð 18 Þ

smoothness, if applicable 20-4.3.7.1 Operational Tests


(c) all electrical conductors that are visible without
(a) New and reinstalled lifting magnets shall be tested
disassembly
by a qualified person, or a designated person under the
(d) cracked housings, welds, and loose bolts
direction of the manufacturer or a qualified person, prior
(e) missing or illegible operating control markings
to initial use to verify compliance with applicable provi-
(f) for battery operated electromagnets, inspect for
sions of this Volume, including, but not limited to, the
proper level of battery electrolyte and for corrosion of
following:
either the battery posts or connectors
(1 ) moving parts
ð 18 Þ 20-4.3.3 Periodic Inspection (2) latches
(3) stops
C o mp lete ins p ectio ns o f lifting magnets s hall b e (4) switches
p erfo rmed and reco rded at intervals as defined in (5) any control devices
para. 2 0 -4.3 .1 (b) (2 ) . Any deficiencies, such as those (6) alarms
listed below, shall be examined by a qualified person

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
31
ASME B30.20-2018

(7) indicator lights, gages, horns, bells, alarms, poin- in contact with the lifting magnet shall have a surface
ters, and other warning devices finish of 125 µin. (3.2 × 10 −3 mm) or better and be flat
(b) Altered or repaired lifting magnets shall be tested within 0.002 in./ft (0.05 mm/30 cm), without exceeding
by a qualified person, or a designated person under the 0.005 in. (0.127 mm) total. The full operating face of the
direction of the manufacturer or a qualified person. The lifting magnet shall be in contact with the steel plate, which
test may be limited to the components affected by the shall be between 60°F (15°C) and 120°F (50°C). The steel
al te rati o n o r re p ai r, as d e te rm i n e d b y a qu al i fi e d plate, load cell or other testing device shall be mounted to
person with guidance from the manufacturer. allow self-alignment so the load is applied to the magnet
(c) Dated reports of all operational test shall be filed. through the magnet’s center of force.
(c) The specified application lifting magnet breakaway
20-4.3.7.2 Load Test force test shall establish the breakaway forces ofthe lifting
(a) Prior to initial use, all new, altered, or repaired magnet under the variety of loading conditions for which
lifting magnets shall be tested by a qualified person, or the lifting magnet is specified. The details of this test
a designated person under the direction of the manufac- should be supplied by the manufacturer of the lifting
turer or a qualified person. The rated load for all compo- magnet.
nents associated with the magnet shall meet the maximum (d) Battery operated electromagnets and externally
breakaway force of the magnet to avoid overload or the powered electromagnets shall be operated at the manu-
components shall not be included in the test. The test facturer’s recommended voltage and current levels.
results shall be recorded confirming the load rating of (e) The test for altered or repaired lifting magnets may
the lifting magnet. be limited to the components affected by the alteration or
(1 ) Breakaway Force Test repair, as determined by a qualified person with guidance
(-a) General application lifting magnets shall be from the manufacturer.
re q u i re d to s ati s fy th e ge n e ral ap p l i cati o n l i fti n g
magnet breakaway force test. 20-4.3.8 Maintenance ð 18 Þ

(-1 ) The rated load for permanent magnet lifters (a) Maintenance Program. A maintenance program
shall be less than 33% of the breakaway force measured in shall be established and be based on recommendations
this test. made by the lifting magnet manufacturer. If a qualified
(-2) The rated load for electromagnet lifters p ers o n de te rmi n e s i t i s ap p ro p ri ate , th e p ro gram
shall be less than 50% of the breakaway force measured should also include that individual’s additional recom-
in this test. mendations based on a review of the lifting magnet appli-
(-b) Specified application lifting magnets shall be cation and operations.
required to satisfy the specified application lifting magnet (b) Maintenance Procedure
breakaway force test. (1 ) Before adjustments and repairs are started on a
(-1 ) The rated load for permanent magnet lifters lifting magnet or its controls, the following precautions
shall be less than 33% of the breakaway force measured in shall be taken:
this test. (-a) All sources of lifting magnet power shall be
(-2) The rated load for electromagnet lifters disconnected, locked out, and tagged “Out of Service.”
shall be less than 50% of the breakaway force measured (-b) A lifting magnet removed from service for
in this test. repair shall be tagged “Out of Service.”
(2) Design Factor Test. Remote operated lifting (-c) Relieve fluid pressure from all circuits before
magnets should have an annual magnetic design factor loosening or removing fluid power components.
test to verify the magnet meets (1) (-a) or (1) (-b) . This (2) Only designated personnel shall work on equip-
tes t s ho uld b e p erfo rmed to the actual b reakaway ment when maintenance, repairs, and tests are required.
point of the magnet or may be performed at the calculated (3) Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the
minimum breakaway force. The rated load of lifting hard- original manufacturer’s specifications.
ware associated with the magnetic design factor test shall (4) After adjustments and repairs have been made,
exceed the maximum breakaway load of the magnet to the lifting magnet shall not be returned to service until it
a vo i d o ve r l o a d o r th e l i fti n g h a r d wa r e s h a l l b e has been inspected according to para. 20-4.3.3 .
removed. Caution should be applied during the test. (5) D ated records of repairs and rep lacements
The test shall be performed under the direction of a qual- should be made.
ified person.
(b) The general application lifting magnet breakaway
force test shall establish the force required to vertically
remove the lifting magnet from a low carbon, rolled steel
plate of the minimum thickness stated by the lifting
magnet manufacturer. The portion of this plate that is

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
32
ASME B30.20-2018

SECTION 20-4.4: OPERATION 20-4.4.3.1 Responsibilities of the Lifting Device ð 18 Þ

Owner. The responsibilities of the lifting device owner


20-4.4.1 Operators shall include the following:
(a) providing a lifting device, and all necessary compo-
Below-the-hook lifting devices shall be operated only by
nents specified by the manufacturer, that meets the re-
trained, designated persons.
quirements of Sections 2 0-4.2 and 2 0 -4.3 as well as
ð 18 Þ 20-4.4.2 Qualifications specific job requirements.
(b) providing all applicable operating instructions.
Qualifications for operators of below-the-hook lifting (c) providing field assembly, and disassembly (if
devices are as follows: applicable) , operation and maintenance information,
(a) The operator shall be instructed in the use of the and warning decals and placards installed as prescribed
device by a designated person before operating the device. by the lifting device manufacturer.
Instructions should include, but not be limited to, the (d) establishing an inspection, testing, and mainte-
following: nance program in accordance with Section 20-4.3 .
(1 ) application of the lifter to the load and material- (e) using designated personnel to perform the required
handling device, and adjustments, if any, that adapt the maintenance, repair, and inspections.
lifter to various sizes or kinds of loads (f) ensuring that the lifting device is in proper oper-
(2 ) i n s tru c ti o n s i n a n y s p e ci a l o p e ra ti o n s o r ating condition prior to initial use at the worksite by
precautions the following:
(3 ) th e m a n u fa c tu r e r ’ s s u gge s te d o p e r a ti n g (1 ) ve r i fyi n g th a t a l l i n s p e c ti o n s h a ve b e e n
procedures performed as required by Section 20-4.3
(4) condition ofthe load required for operation ofthe (2) verifying that the lifting device has the necessary
lifter, such as, but not limited to, balance, surface cleanli- lifting capacity to perform the proposed lifting operations
ness, flatness, bending, and load thickness in the planned configuration
(5) storage of the lifter to protect it from damage (g) using operators that meet the requirements of para.
(6) not exceeding the rated load of the lifting device 20-4.4.2 .
no r the cap aci ty o f the ho i s ti ng e quip ment b y the (h) ensuring that all personnel involved in mainte-
combined weight of the load, the lifting device, and rigging nance, repair, assembly, disassembly, and inspection
(7) ch a rgi n g o f th e l i fti n g m a gn e t b atte ry (i f are aware of their responsibilities, assigned duties, and
required) the associated hazards.
(8) the purpose of indicators, meters, or alarms on (i) determining if additional regulations are applicable
the lifting magnet to lifting device operations.
(9) the proper attachment of adapters to lifting (j) ensuring that conditions that may adversely affect
device for special load handling lifting device operations are addressed. Such conditions
(b) The operator shall demonstrate the ability to include, but are not limited to, the following:
operate the lifter as instructed before assuming respon- (1 ) wind velocity or gusting winds
sibility for using the lifter. (2) precipitation
(c) The operator shall demonstrate an understanding (3) fog
of standard hand signals when applicable. (4) extreme temperatures
(5) lighting
20-4.4.3 Responsibilities (k) addressing safety concerns raised by the operator
While the organizational structure of various projects or other personnel and being responsible if he and a qual-
may differ, the following roles are described here for ified person decide to overrule those concerns and directs
purposes of delineating responsibilities. All responsibil- lifting device operations to continue. (In all cases, the
ities listed below shall be assigned in the worksite orga- manufacturer’s criteria for safe operation and the require-
nization. (A single individual may perform one or more of ments of this Volume shall be followed.)
these roles.) 20-4. 4. 3. 2 Respon sibilities of Operators. T h e ð 18 Þ
operator: directly controls the lifting device’s functions. operator shall be responsible for the following listed
i te m s . T h e o p e ra to r s h a l l n o t b e re s p o n s i b l e fo r
owner: has custodial control of a lifting device by virtue of
hazards or conditions that are not under his direct
lease or ownership.
co ntro l and that adve rs e l y affect o p e rati o n o f the
These persons and roles may or may not match the lifting device. Whenever the operator has doubt as to
persons and roles associated with the hoisting equipment the safety of lifting device operations, the operator
in use. shall place the load in a safe condition and stop the
lifting device’s functions in a controlled manner. Use of
the lifting device shall resume only after safety concerns

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
33
ASME B30.20-2018

have been addressed or the continuation of lifting device (2) trainees under the supervision of a designated
operations is directed by the owner. person, the number oftrainees permitted to be supervised
The o p e rato r’ s re s p o ns i b il iti es s hall i ncl ude the by a single designated person, the physical location of the
following: designated person while supervising, and the type of
(a) reviewing the requirements for the lifting device co m m u n i ca ti o n re q u i re d b e twe e n th e d e s i gn a te d
with the owner before operations. person and the trainee shall be determined by a qualified
(b ) kno wing what typ es o f s ite co nditio ns co uld person
adversely affect the operation of the lifting device and (3) maintenance and test personnel, when it is nec-
consulting with the owner concerning the possible pres- essary in the performance of their duties
ence of those conditions. (4) inspectors (lifting devices)
(c) unders tanding and ap p lyi ng the i nfo rmati o n (b) Ensure the weight of the load and its approximate
contained in the lifting device manufacturer’s operating center o f gravity have b een o b tained, p ro vided, o r
manual. calculated.
(d) understanding the lifting device’s functions and (c) The lifting device shall not be loaded in excess of its
l i m i ta ti o n s a s we l l a s i ts p a rti c u l a r o p e ra ti n g rated load or handle any load for which it is not designed.
characteristics. (d) Properly attaching the lifting device to the hook,
(e) performing a Frequent Inspection as specified in shackle, or other load handling device.
para. 20-4.3.2 . (e) The lifter shall be applied to the load in accordance
(f) promptly reporting the need for any adjustments or with the instruction manual.
repairs to a designated person. (f) Before lifting, the operator shall make sure that lifter
(g) following applicable lock out/tag out procedures. ropes or chains are not kinked and that multiple part lines
(h) not operating the lifting device when physically or are not twisted around each other.
mentally unfit. (g) Verify that the load is well secured and properly
(i) ensuring that all controls are in the off or neutral balanced in the lifting device when it is initially lifted.
position and that all personnel are in the clear before (h) Care should be taken to make certain the load is
attaching the lifting device. correctly distributed for the lifter being used.
(j) not engaging in any practice that will divert his (i) The temperature of the load should not exceed the
attention while operating the lifting device. maximum allowable limits of the lifter.
(k) testing the lifting device function controls that will (j) Do not allow load or lifter to come into contact with
be used and operating the lifting device only if those func- any obstruction.
tion controls respond properly. (k) The operator shall ensure that the lifting device is
(l) op erating the lifting device’s functions, under adequately protected from damage during use.
normal operating conditions, in a smooth and controlled (l) The lifter shall not be used for side pulls or sliding
manner. the load unless specifically authorized by a qualified
(m) knowing and following the procedures specified by person.
the manufacturer or approved by a qualified person, for (m) The operator shall land any attached load and store
assembly, disassembly, setting up, and reeving/rigging of the lifter before leaving the lifting device. The operator
the lifting device. shall not leave suspended loads unattended.
(n) considering all factors known that might affect the (n) The operator shall not ride, or allow others to ride
lifting device capacity and informing the owner ofthe need loads or the lifting magnet.
to make appropriate adjustments. (o) The operation of the lifter shall be observed during
(o) understanding basic load attachment procedures. use. Any deficiency observed shall be examined by a desig-
(p) responding only to instructions from designated nated person. If the deficiency constitutes a hazard, the
persons. However, the operator shall obey a stop order lifter shall be removed from service and tagged “Out of
at all times, no matter who gives it. Service.” Any indication of a hazardous condition shall
(q) ensuring that all personnel shall stay clear of the be reported to a qualified person for evaluation.
load. (p) When lifting loads that do not absorb all available
(r) not lifting stacked loads with a permanent magnet flux, use caution to avoid lifting multiple loads.
unless approved by the manufacturer.
20-4.4.5 Miscellaneous Operating Practices
ð 18 Þ 20-4.4.4 Lifting Device Operating Practices (a) An operator shall not use a lifting device that is
(a) Lifting devices s hall b e o p erated o nly b y the tagged “O ut of Service” o r o therwis e designated as
following personnel: nonfunctioning.
(1 ) designated persons (b) “Out of Service” tags on lifting devices shall not be
removed without the approval of the person placing them
or a designated person.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
34
ASME B30.20-2018

(c) The lifter, when not in use, should be stored at an (c) Load Surface Conditions. Anything that creates an air
assigned location. gap or nonmagnetic separation between a lifting magnet
(d) Caution should be taken that operating markings or and the load reduces the flux flowing from the lifting
tags shall not be removed or defaced. Missing or illegible magnet into the load, which reduces the lifting capacity
markings or tags shall be replaced. of a lifting magnet. Typical causes of air gaps are: rough
surface finish, paper, dirt, rust, paint, and scale.
ð 18 Þ SECTION 20-4.5: INSTRUCTION MANUALS (d) Load Length or Width. As the length or width of the
load increases, the load begins to deflect and to peel at the
The manufacturer shall provide operating instructions, lifting magnet face. This may create an air gap between the
safety precautions, and maintenance information. In addi- load and the lifting magnet, which reduces the lifting ca-
tion, the manual shall also provide a statement of those pacity per (c) . The manual shall contain manufacturer’s
factors that alter the lifting magnet’s lifting capacity and reco mmendatio ns p ertaining to the maximum lo ad
related limitations. Several key factors known to affect the dimensions for a particular lifting magnet.
magnet’s lifting capacity are noted below. (e) Attitude ofLoad. As the attitude of the surface of the
(a) Load Thickness. For every lifting magnet design, load to which a lifting magnet is attached (lifting surface)
there is a critical load thickness where all of the lifting changes from horizontal to vertical, the lifting capacity of
magnet’s available flux flows into the lo ad and the the lifting magnet is greatly reduced and becomes depen-
magnet’s lift capacity reaches maximum. Loads thicker dent upon the coefficient of friction of the lifting surface.
than the critical load thickness will not increase the (f) Portion ofLifting Magnet Face in Contact With Load.
magnet lift capacity beyond this level. As loads become The full face of the lifting magnet must contact the load if
thinner than the critical load thickness, the magnet’s the lifting magnet is to achieve maximum capabilities.
lift capacity diminishes since the load cannot transmit (g) Load Temperature. The temperature of the load can
all the flux generated by the magnet. cause damage to the lifting magnet and, if high enough,
(b) Load Alloy. M any alloys of iron do not accept even change the magnetic characteristics of the load.
m a gn e ti c fl u x a s e a s i l y a s d o l o w c a rb o n s te e l s . Consequently, the manual shall contain the manufac-
Consequently, loads of such alloys will not accept all of turer’s recommendations pertaining to operation of the
the flux available in the lifting magnet, which reduces lifting magnet o n lo ads at temp eratures exceeding
the lifting magnet’s lift capacity. normal ambient temperatures.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
35
ASME B30.20-2018

Chapter 20-5
Scrap and Material-Handling Grapples

SECTION 20-5.1: SCOPE Scrap and material-handling grapples shall be designed


to AS M E B TH - 1 D esign C atego ry B (s tatic s trength
Chapter 2 0-5 applies to the marking, construction,
criteria) and the proper Service Class (fatigue life criteria)
installation, inspection, testing, maintenance, and opera-
selected for the number of load cycles.
tion of hydraulically operated scrap and material-hand-
(b) Welding. Welding shall be in accordance with ASME
ling grapples (see Figure 20-5.1-1 ).
BTH-1, para. 1-4.6.
(c) Electrical Equipment. External power supply, elec-
SECTION 20-5.2: MARKING, CONSTRUCTION, AND trical equipment, and wiring for below-the-hook lifters
INSTALLATION shall be in accordance with ASME BTH-1.
(d) Grapple Magnets. Lifting magnet construction shall
ð 18 Þ 20-5.2.1 Marking comply with para. 20-4.2.2 .
(a) Identification. Scrap and material-handling grap- (e) Alterations. Grapples may be altered or rerated,
ples shall be marked with, but not limited to, the following provided such modifications are analyzed and approved
information: by the equipment manufacturer or a qualified person. A
(1) manufacturer’s name and contact information rerated grapple or one whose components have been
(2) serial number (unique unit identifier) altered shall be tested according to para. 20-5.3.7 . New
(3) grapple weight rated capacity shall be displayed in accordance with
(4) rated voltage (when applicable) para. 20-5.2.1(b) .
(5) operating hydraulic pressure(s) (f) Slings. When employed, slings shall meet the re-
(6) rated load quirements of ASME B30.9.
(7) ASME BTH-1 Design Category B (g) Hooks. When employed, hooks shall meet the re-
(8) ASME BTH-1 Service Class quirements of ASME B30.10.
(b) Repaired or Altered Grapples. Repaired or altered (h) Rigging Hardware. When employed, rigging hard-
scrap and material-handling grapples shall be provided ware shall meet the requirements of ASME B30.26.
with identification displaying, but not limited to, the
following information:
20-5.2.3 Installation
(1) name and contact information of the repairer or (a) The grapple shall be installed in accordance with
alterer the manufacturer’s instructions.
(2) repairer’s or alterer’s unit identification (b) The user shall confirm that the hydraulic flows and
(3) grapple weight (if altered) pressures are the same as indicated on the grapple
(4) operating hydraulic pressure(s) (if altered) nameplate.
(5) rated voltage (if altered) (c) Determine that the external power input is in accor-
(6) rated load (if altered) dance with para. 20-5.2.2(c) , and is of the correct voltage
(7) ASME BTH-1 Design Category B and amperage.
(8) ASME BTH-1 Service Class (if altered) (d) Confirm that the electrical power conductors and
This requirement is not applicable to repairs limited co ntro ls are o f adequate rating, and ins ulated and
to replacement of maintenance parts. protected against inadvertent interruption or damage.
(c) Operating Controls. Each control shall be clearly
marked describing resulting motion or function of the SECTION 20-5.3: INSPECTION, TESTING, AND
lifter (if altered).
MAINTENANCE
ð 18 Þ 20-5.2.2 Construction 20-5.3.1 Inspection Classification ð 18 Þ

(a) General. The manufacturer shall verify that scrap General. All inspections shall be performed by a desig-
and material- handling grap p les are des igned b y o r nated person. Any deficiencies identified shall be exam-
under the supervision of a qualified person. The design ined and a determination made by a qualified person as to
shall be in accordance with ASME BTH-1.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
36
ASME B30.20-2018

ð 18 Þ Figure 20-5.1-1 Scrap and Material-Handling Grapples

( a ) Fou r-Ti n e Ora n g e Peel G ra ppl e ( b) E l ectroh ydra u l i c G ra ppl e

( c) Th ree-i n -On e G ra ppl e ( d) M a g n et G ra ppl e

( e) Ca r Body G ra ppl e

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
37
ASME B30.20-2018

whether they constitute a hazard, and if so, what addi- (c) hydraulic lines
tional steps need to be taken to address the hazard. (d) hydraulic cylinders
I ns p ectio n o f s lings (AS M E B 3 0 . 9 ) , ho o ks (AS M E (e) loose bolts
B3 0 .1 0 ) , rigging hardware (ASM E B3 0 .2 6) , or other (f) for combination magnet/grapp les, inspect the
special devices shall comply with the inspection require- lifting magnet per para. 20-4.3.2
ments in the applicable volume. (g) for electrohydraulic grapples, inspect all electrical
(a) Initial Inspection conductors that are visible without disassembly
(1 ) New and reinstalled grapples shall be inspected (h) missing or illegible operating control markings
prior to initial use to verify compliance with applicable
provisions of this Volume. 20-5.3.3 Periodic Inspection
(2) Altered or repaired grapples shall be inspected. Complete inspections of grapples shall be performed
The inspection may be limited to the components affected and recorded at intervals as defined in para. 2 0-5 .3 .1
by the alteration or repair, as determined by a qualified (b) (2 ) . Any deficiencies, such as those listed below,
person. shall be examined by a qualified person and determination
(b) In spection In tervals. Inspection procedures for made as to whether they constitute a hazard. These
gra p p l e s i n re gu l a r s e rvi c e a re d i vi d e d i n to two inspections shall include the requirements of para. 20-
general clas s ificatio ns, bas ed up on the intervals at 5.3.2 and, in addition, items such as the following:
which the inspections shall be performed. The intervals, (a) all members, fasteners, and lifting parts shall be
in turn, are dependent upon the nature of the critical inspected for deformation, wear, and corrosion
components of the grapple and the degree of their expo- (b) hydraulic hose, fittings, and tubing inspection
sure to wear, deterioration, or malfunction. The two (1 ) evidence of leakage at the surface of flexible hose
general classifications are designated as frequent and peri- or its junction with metal couplings
odic, with respective intervals between inspections as (2) blistering or abnormal deformation of the outer
defined below. covering of the hydraulic hose
(1 ) Frequent Inspection. Visual examination by the (3) leakage at threaded or clamped joints that cannot
operator or other designated persons with records not be eliminated by normal tightening or recommended
required. procedures
(-a) Normal service — monthly (4) evidence of excessive abrasion or scrubbing on
(-b) Heavy service — weekly to monthly the outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting
(-c) Severe service — daily to weekly (c) hydraulic motors
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom- (1 ) loose bolts or fasteners
mended by a qualified person before and after each lift (2) leaks at joints between sections
(2) Periodic Inspection. Visual inspection making (3) shaft seal leaks
records of apparent external conditions to provide the (4) unusual noises or vibration
basis for a continuing evaluation. (5) loss of operating speed
(-a) Normal service for equipment in place — (6) excessive heating of the fluid
yearly (7) loss of pressure
(-b) H eavy service for equipment in place — (d) hydraulic cylinders
quarterly (1 ) drifting caused by fluid leaking across the piston
(-c) Severe service for equipment in place — seals
monthly (2) rod seal leakage
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom- (3) leaks at welded joints
mended by a qualified person before the first lift and (4) scored, nicked, or dented cylinder rods
as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent lifts (5) dented case (barrel)
(6) loose or deformed rod eyes or connecting joints
20-5.3.2 Frequent Inspection
(e) for combination magnet/grapples, inspect the
Items such as the following shall be inspected for magnet per para. 20-4.3.3
damage at intervals as defined in para. 20-5.3 .1(b) (1) , (f) for electrohydraulic grapples, all electrical compo-
including observations during operation for any indica- nents, including meters, indicators, and alarms, shall be
tions of damage that might appear between inspections. tested for proper operation and condition
A qualified person shall determine whether any indica-
tions of damage constitute a hazard or will require 20-5.3.4 Grapples Not in Regular Use
more frequent inspection. For all grapples, inspect A grapple that has been idle for a period of 1 month to 1
(a) structural members for deformation, cracks, or
yr shall be inspected in accordance with para. 20-5.3.2
excessive wear on any part of the grapple before being placed in service. A grapple that has been
(b) pins and bushings

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
38
ASME B30.20-2018

idle for a period of 1 yr or more shall be inspected in accor- (2) Only designated personnel shall perform main-
dance with para. 20-5.3.3 before being returned to service. tenance, repairs, and tests when required. All moving
parts of the grapple for which lubrication is specified
20-5.3.5 Inspection Records should be regularly lubricated. The manufacturer’s rec-
Dated inspection reports shall be made on critical items ommendations as to the points and frequency of lubrica-
such as those listed in para. 20-5.3.3 . Records should be tion, and types of lubricant, should be used.
available for each periodic inspection and when the (3) Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the
grapple is either altered or repaired. original manufacturer’s specifications.
(4) After adjustments and repairs have been made,
ð 18 Þ 20-5.3.6 Repairs the grapple shall not be returned to service until it has
been inspected according to para. 20-5.3.3 .
Damage disclosed by the inspection requirements of (5) D ated records o f rep airs and rep lacements
Section 20-5.3 shall be corrected according to the proce- should be made.
dures outlined in para. 20-5.3.8 before normal operation
of the grapple is resumed, unless a qualified person deter- SECTION 20-5.4: OPERATION
mines the damage does not constitute a hazard. Repairs of
slings (ASME B30.9), hooks (ASME B30.10), rigging hard- 20-5.4.1 Operators
ware (ASME B30.26), or other special devices shall comply
with repair requirements in the applicable volumes or Grapples shall be operated only by trained, designated
standards. persons.

ð 18 Þ 20-5.3.7 Testing 20-5.4.2 Qualifications ð 18 Þ

(a) New and reinstalled grapples shall be tested by a Qualifications for operators of grapples are as follows:
qualified person, or a designated person under the direc- (a) The operator shall be instructed in the use of the
tion of the manufacturer or a qualified person prior to grapple by a designated person before handling the
initial use, to verify compliance with applicable provisions grapple. Instructions should include, but not be limited
of this Volume, including a visual inspection to verify that to, the following:
the grapple contains no visible indications of hazardous (1 ) i n s tru c ti o n s i n a n y s p e ci a l o p e ra ti o n s o r
conditions. precautions
(b) Altered or repaired grapples shall be tested by a (2 ) th e m a n u fa c tu r e r ’ s s u gge s te d o p e r a ti n g
qualified person, or a designated person under the direc- procedures
tion of the manufacturer or a qualified person. This test (3) storage of the grapple to protect it from damage
may be limited to the components affected by the altera- (4) not exceeding the rated load of the grapple nor
tion or repair, as determined by a qualified person with the material handler by the combined weight of the
guidance from the manufacturer. grapple and the load
(c) All indicator lights, gages, horns, bells, alarms, poin- (b) The operator shall demonstrate the ability to
ters, and other warning devices shall be tested. operate the grapple as instructed before assuming respon-
(d) Dated reports of all operational tests shall be filed. sibility for using the grapple.
(c) The operator shall demonstrate an understanding
ð 18 Þ 20-5.3.8 Maintenance of standard hand signals when applicable.

(a) Maintenance Program. A maintenance program 20-5.4.3 Responsibilities


shall be established and be based on recommendations
m ad e b y th e gra p p l e m an u fa ctu re r. I f a q u al i fi e d While the organizational structure of various projects
p e rs o n d e te rm i n e s i t i s ap p ro p ri ate , th e p ro gram may differ, the following roles are described here for
should also include that individual’s additional recom- purposes of delineating responsibilities. All responsibil-
mendations based on a review of the grapple application ities listed below shall be assigned in the worksite orga-
and operations. nization. (A single individual may perform one or more of
(b) Maintenance Procedure these roles.)
(1 ) Before maintenance is started on a grapple or its operator: directly controls the lifting device’s functions.
controls, the following precautions shall be taken: owner: has custodial control of a lifting device by virtue of
(-a) all sources of grapple power shall be discon- lease or ownership.
nected, locked out, and tagged “Out of Service”
(-b) relieve fluid pressure from all circuits before These persons and roles may or may not match the
loosening or removing fluid power components persons and roles associated with the hoisting equipment
(-c) a grapple removed from service for repair in use.
shall be tagged “Out of Service”

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
39
ASME B30.20-2018

20-5. 4. 3. 1 Respon sibilities of th e Li fti n g Devi ce have been addressed or the continuation of lifting device
Owner. The responsibilities of the lifting device owner operations is directed by the owner.
shall include the following: The o p erato r’ s re s p o ns i b ili ti es s hall i ncl ude the
(a) providing a lifting device, and all necessary compo- following:
nents specified by the manufacturer, that meets the re- (a) reviewing the requirements for the lifting device
quirements of Sections 2 0 -5 .2 and 2 0-5 .3 as well as with the owner before operations.
specific job requirements. (b ) kno wing what typ es o f s ite co nditio ns co uld
(b) providing all applicable operating instructions. adversely affect the operation of the lifting device and
(c) p roviding field assembly, and disassembly (if consulting with the owner concerning the possible pres-
applicable) , operation and maintenance information, ence of those conditions.
and warning decals and placards installed as prescribed (c) unders tanding and ap p lyi ng the i nfo rmati o n
by the lifting device manufacturer. contained in the lifting device manufacturer’s operating
(d) establishing an inspection, testing, and mainte- manual.
nance program in accordance with Section 20-5.3 . (d) understanding the lifting device’s functions and
(e) using designated personnel to perform the required l i m i ta ti o n s a s we l l a s i ts p a rti c u l a r o p e ra ti n g
maintenance, repair, and inspections. characteristics.
(f) ensuring that the lifting device is in proper oper- (e) performing a Frequent Inspection as specified in
ating condition prior to initial use at the worksite by para. 20-5.3.2 .
the following: (f) promptly reporting the need for any adjustments or
(1 ) ve r i fyi n g th a t a l l i n s p e c ti o n s h a ve b e e n repairs to a designated person.
performed as required by Section 20-5.3 (g) following applicable lock out/tag out procedures.
(2) verifying that the lifting device has the necessary (h) not operating the lifting device when physically or
lifting capacity to perform the proposed lifting operations mentally unfit.
in the planned configuration (i) ensuring that all controls are in the off or neutral
(g) using operators that meet the requirements of para. position and that all personnel are in the clear before ener-
20-5.4.2 . gizing the lifting device.
(h) ensuring that all personnel involved in mainte- (j) not engaging in any practice that will divert his
nance, repair, assembly, disassembly, and inspection attention while operating the lifting device.
are aware of their responsibilities, assigned duties, and (k) testing the lifting device function controls that will
the associated hazards. be used and operating the lifting device only if those func-
(i) determining if additional regulations are applicable tion controls respond properly.
to lifting device operations. (l) op erating the lifting device’s functions, under
(j) ensuring that conditions that may adversely affect normal operating conditions, in a smooth and controlled
lifting device operations are addressed. Such conditions manner.
include, but are not limited to, the following: (m) knowing and following the procedures specified by
(1 ) wind velocity or gusting winds the manufacturer or approved by a qualified person, for
(2) precipitation assembly, disassembly, setting up, and reeving/rigging of
(3) fog the lifting device.
(4) extreme temperatures (n) considering all factors known that might affect the
(5) lighting lifting device capacity and informing the owner ofthe need
(k) addressing safety concerns raised by the operator to make appropriate adjustments.
or other personnel and being responsible if he decides to (o) understanding basic load attachment procedures.
overrule those concerns and directs lifting device opera- (p) responding only to instructions from designated
tions to continue. (In all cases, the manufacturer’s criteria persons. However, the operator shall obey a stop order
for safe operation and the requirements of this Volume at all times, no matter who gives it.
shall be followed.)
20-5.4.4 Grapple Operating Practices ð 18 Þ
2 0 - 5 . 4 . 3 . 2 Re s p o n s i b i li ti e s o f O p e rato rs . T h e
operator shall be responsible for the following listed (a) Grapples shall be operated by the following qual-
i te m s . T h e o p e ra to r s h a l l n o t b e re s p o n s i b l e fo r ified personnel:
hazards or conditions that are not under his direct (1 ) designated persons
co ntro l and that adve rs e l y affect o p e rati o n o f the (2) trainees under the supervision of a designated
lifting device. Whenever the operator has doubt as to person, the number oftrainees permitted to be supervised
the safety of lifting device operations, the operator by a single designated person, the physical location of the
shall place the load in a safe condition and stop the designated person while supervising, and the type of
lifting device’s functions in a controlled manner. Use of co m m u n i ca ti o n re q u i re d b e twe e n th e d e s i gn a te d
the lifting device shall resume only after safety concerns

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
40
ASME B30.20-2018

person and the trainee shall be determined by a qualified lifter shall be removed from service and tagged “Out of
person Service.” Any indication of a hazardous condition shall
(3) maintenance and test personnel, when it is nec- be reported to a qualified person for evaluation.
essary in the performance of their duties
(b) The grapple shall not be loaded in excess of its rated 20-5.4.5 Miscellaneous Operating Practices
load or handle any load for which it is not designed.
(a) An operator shall not use a grapple that is tagged
(c) Properly attaching the lifting device to the hook,
“O u t o f S e rvi c e ” o r o th e rwi s e d e s i gn a te d a s
shackle, or other load handling device.
nonfunctioning.
(d) The grapple shall be applied to the load in accor-
(b) “O ut of Service” tags on grapples shall not be
dance with the instruction manual.
removed without the approval of the person placing
(e) The temperature of the load shall not exceed the
them or a designated person.
maximum allowable limits of the grapple.
(c) The grapple, when not in use, shall be stored.
(f) Do not allow load or grapple to come into contact
(d) Caution should be taken that operating markings or
with any obstruction.
tags shall not be removed or defaced. Missing or illegible
(g) The operator shall ensure that the lifting device is
markings or tags shall be replaced.
adequately protected from damage during use.
(h) The operator shall land any attached load and store
the lifter before leaving the lifting device. The operator
SECTION 20-5.5: INSTRUCTION MANUALS
shall not leave suspended loads unattended. Operating instructions and maintenance and parts
(i) The operator shall not ride, or allow others to ride information shall be furnished by the manufacturer.
loads or the grapple.
(j) The operation of the lifter shall be observed during
use. Any deficiency observed shall be examined by a desig-
nated person. If the deficiency constitutes a hazard, the

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
41
ASME B30.20-2018

Chapter 20-6
ð 18 Þ Clamps

SECTION 20-6.1: SCOPE (7) ASME BTH-1 Service Class


(8) clamps that are designed only for anchoring or
Chapter 2 0-6 applies to the classification, marking,
positioning shall be marked accordingly
construction, installation, inspection, testing, mainte-
(c) Repaired or Altered Clamps. Repaired or altered
nance, and operation of clamps. For proper function, a
clamps shall be provided with identification displaying,
clamp relies on a nonvertical force against the surface
but not limited to, the following information:
of the load to generate a vertical lifting force, or a
(1) name and contact information of the repairer or
force normal to the surface of the load or anchorage to
alterer
prevent motion of the clamp relative to the load or ancho-
(2) repairer’s or alterer’s unit identification
rage, or both. These forces may be generated by gravity or
(3) clamp weight (if altered)
by screw, cam, or similar device. Clamps included in this
(4) rated maximum load (if altered) [as described in
Chapter may be used for attaching loads to a hoist, or for
(a) ]
other load handling purposes such as anchoring or posi-
(5) rated minimum load (if altered) [as described in
tioning. Within Chapter 20-6, the clamps are categorized
(a) ]
as follows:
(6) ASME BTH-1 Design Category (if altered)
(a) s u p p o rti n g cl am p s (s e e F i gu re 2 0 - 6 . 0 - 1 fo r (7) ASME BTH-1 Service Class (if altered)
examples).
This requirement is not applicable to repairs limited to
(b) friction-type pressure-gripping clamps (see Figure replacement of maintenance parts.
20-6.0-2 for examples).
(d) Product Safety Labels
(c) indentation-type pressure-gripping clamps (see (1) Where size and shape of the clamp allow, clamps
Figure 20-6.0-3 for examples).
shall have labels affixed to them in a readable position, that
(d) anchoring and p ositioning clamp s. Anchoring include the appropriate signal word, according to ANSI
clamps are used for suspending or attaching detachable
Z53 5.4-2 011, to bring the label to the attention of the
rigging hardware. Positioning clamps are used to hold or
operator. The label should include cautionary language
locate parts during assembly operations (see Figure 20-
identifying hazards, methods for accident prevention,
6.0-4 for examples).
a n d r e fe r to i n s tr u c ti o n m a n u a l s fo r a d d i ti o n a l
(e) hybrid clamps that use a combination of categories information.
above (see Figure 20-6.0-5 for example).
(2) Where size or shape of the clamp prohibits the
inclusion of all or any such markings, a label shall be
SECTION 20-6.2: MARKING, CONSTRUCTION, AND affixed, referring user to consult manufacturer’s instruc-
INSTALLATION tion manual for product safety information.

20-6.2.1 Marking 20-6.2.2 Construction


(a) Rated Load. The rated maximum and minimum (if The manufacturer shall verify that clamps are designed
applicable) loads of the clamp shall be legibly marked on in accordance with ASME BTH-1.
its main structure or on a tag attached to its main structure C lamp s shall be designed to ASM E B TH - 1 D es ign
where it is visible. The minimum load (if applicable) shall Category B (static strength criteria) and the proper
be defined by the manufacturer or a qualified person. S ervi ce C las s (fatigue l ife criteria) s e lecte d fo r its
(b) Identification. Clamps shall be marked with, but not number of load cycles, unless a qualified person repre-
limited to, the following information: senting the owner, purchaser, or user of the clamp deter-
(1) manufacturer’s name and contact information mines that ASME BTH-1 Design Category A is appropriate.
(2) serial number (unique unit identifier) Design Category A shall only be designated when the
(3) clamp weight, if over 100 lb (45 kg) magnitude and variation of loads applied to the clamp
(4) rated maximum load [as described in (a) ] are predictable and where the loading and environmental
(5) rated minimum load [as described in (a) ] conditions are accurately defined, where service is not
(6) ASME BTH-1 Design Category

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
42
ASME B30.20-2018

Figure 20-6.0-1 Load-Supporting Clamps

( a ) Web Bea m Cl a m p ( b) H ori zon tal Cl a m p

severe, and where the anticipated number of load cycles SECTION 20-6.3: INSPECTION, TESTING, AND
does not exceed Service Class 0. MAINTENANCE
(a) Welding. Welding shall be in accordance with ASME
BTH-1, para. 1-4.6. 20-6.3.1 Inspection Classification
(b) Guards for Moving Parts. Exposed moving parts,
General. All inspections shall be performed by a desig-
s uch as , b ut no t limited to , gearing and p ro j ecting
nated person. Any deficiencies identified shall be exam-
shafts, that constitute a hazard under normal operating
ined and a determination made by a qualified person as to
conditions shall be guarded.
whether they constitute a hazard, and if so, what addi-
(c) Electrical Equipment. External power supply, elec-
tional steps need to be taken to address the hazard.
trical equipment, and wiring for clamps shall be in accor-
I ns p ectio n o f s lings (AS M E B 3 0 . 9 ) , ho o ks (AS M E
dance with ASME BTH-1.
B 3 0 .1 0 ) , rigging hardware (ASM E B 3 0 .2 6) , or other
(d) Alteration s. Clamps may be altered or rerated,
devices shall comply with the inspection requirements
provided such alterations are analyzed and approved
in the applicable volume.
by the equipment manufacturer or a qualified person.
(a) Initial Inspection
A rerated clamp, or one whose components have been
(1 ) New and reinstalled clamps shall be inspected
altered, shall conform to this paragraph and be tested
prior to initial use to verify compliance with applicable
according to para. 2 0-6.3 .8 . The new rated load shall
provisions of this Volume.
be displayed in accordance with para. 20-6.2.1 .
(2) Altered or repaired clamps shall be inspected.
(e) Slings. When employed, slings shall meet the re-
The inspection may be limited to those components
quirements of ASME B30.9.
affected by the alteration or repair, as determined by a
(f) Hooks. When employed, hooks shall meet the re-
qualified person.
quirements of ASME B30.10.
(b) In spection In tervals. I nspection procedure for
(g) Rigging Hardware. When employed, rigging hard-
clamps in regular service is divided into three general clas-
ware shall meet the requirements of ASME B30.26.
sifications based upon the intervals at which inspection
20-6.2.3 Installation should be performed. The intervals, in turn, are dependent
upon the critical components of the clamps and the degree
The clamp shall be installed in accordance with the of their exposure to wear or deterioration. The three
manufacturer’s instructions. general classifications are herein designated as every
lift, frequen t , and periodic, with respective intervals
between inspections as defined below.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
43
ASME B30.20-2018

Figure 20-6.0-2 Friction-Type Pressure-Gripping Clamps

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
44
ASME B30.20-2018

Figure 20-6.0-2 Friction-Type Pressure-Gripping Clamps (Cont ’ d)

(1 ) Every Lift Inspection. Visual examination before (-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom-
and during each use of the clamp. mended by a qualified person before the first such lift
(2) Frequent Inspection. Visual examinations with and as directed by the qualified person for any subsequent
records not required. lifts
(-a) Normal service — monthly
(-b) Heavy service — weekly to monthly 20-6.3.2 Every Lift Inspection
(-c) Severe service — daily to weekly Items such as the following shall be inspected before
(-d) Special or infrequent service — as recom- and/or during every lift for any indication of damage
mended by a qualified person before and after each lift as specifically indicated, including observations during
(3) Periodic Inspection. Visual inspection making operation for any damage that might occur during the lift:
records of apparent external conditions to provide the (a) clamp load contact surface condition
basis for a continuing evaluation. An external code (b) engagement
mark on the clamp is an acceptable identification in (c) obvious clamp damage
lieu of records.
(-a) Normal service — yearly 20-6.3.3 Frequent Inspection
(-b) Heavy service — semiannually
(-c) Severe service — quarterly Clamps shall be inspected for damage at intervals as
defined in para. 2 0-6.3 .1(b) (2) , including observations
during operation for any indications of damage that
might appear between inspections. A qualified person
shall determine whether any indications of damage

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
45
ASME B30.20-2018

Figure 20-6.0-3 Indentation-Type Pressure-Gripping Clamps

constitute a hazard or will require more frequent inspec- inspection. Conditions such as those listed in para. 20-
tion. Conditions such as those listed in para. 20-6.3.7 , or 6 . 3 . 7 , o r an y o the r co n d i ti o n th at m ay re s u l t i n a
any other condition that may constitute a hazard, shall hazard, s hall caus e the clamp to b e remo ved fro m
cause the clamp to be removed from service. Clamps service. Clamps shall not be returned to service until
shall not be returned to service until approved by a qual- approved by a qualified person. The inspection and docu-
ified person. mentation shall be based on the manufacturer’s instruc-
tions or para. 20-6.3.7 .
20-6.3.4 Periodic Inspection
20-6.3.5 Clamps Not in Regular Use
Documented inspection ofthe clamp shall be performed
at intervals as defined in para. 20-6.3.1(b)(3) , including A clamp that has been idle for a period of 1 month to 1 yr
observations during operation for any indications of shall be inspected in accordance with para. 20-6.3.3 before
damage. If external conditions indicate, disassembly being placed in service. A clamp that has been idle for a
shall be performed for a detailed inspection. A qualified period of 1 yr or more shall be inspected in accordance
p erso n s hall determine whether any indicatio ns of with para. 20-6.3.4 before being returned to service.
damage constitute a hazard or will require more frequent

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
46
ASME B30.20-2018

Figure 20-6.0-4 Anchoring and Positioning Clamps

Figure 20-6.0-5 Hybrid Clamps

( a ) Ba rrel Li p Cl a m p ( b) Ba r Ton g

20-6.3.6 Inspection Records 20-6.3.7 Removal Criteria


Dated inspection reports shall be made on critical items A clamp shall be removed from service if conditions (if
such as those listed in para. 20-6.3.7 . Records should be applicable) such as the following are present (limits estab-
available for each periodic inspection and when the clamp lished by the manufacturer or qualified person) and shall
is either altered or repaired. only be returned to service when approved by a qualified
person:
(a) deformation, cracks, or wear
(b) loose or missing guards, fasteners, covers, stops, or
nameplates

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
47
ASME B30.20-2018

(c) excessive pitting or corrosion (1 ) Moving Parts. Clamps with moving parts shall be
(d) excessive nicks or gouges tested to determine that the clamp operates in accordance
(e) indications of heat damage, including weld spatter with manufacturer’s instructions.
or arc strikes (2) Lockin g Mech an ism s. C lamps with manually
(f) evidence of unauthorized welding or modification operated or automatic locking mechanisms shall be
(g) unauthorized replacement components tested to determine that the locking mechanism operates
(h) improper assembly in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.
(i) gripping teeth (b) Altered or repaired clamps shall be tested by a qual-
(1 ) severely worn ified person, or a designated person under the direction of
(2) broken, chipped, or damaged the manufacturer or a qualified person. This test may be
(3) clogged with foreign material limited to the components affected by the alteration or
(j) gripping surfaces repair, as determined by a qualified person with guidance
(1 ) contamination from the manufacturer.
(2) excessive surface wear (c) All indicator lights, gages, horns, bells, alarms, poin-
(3) lack of integrity of the gripping material ters, and other warning devices shall be tested.
(4) lack of bond between gripping material and (d) Dated reports of all operational tests shall be filed.
metal backing
(k) damaged or distorted pins 20-6.3.9.2 Load Test
(l) bail (a) Prior to initial use, all new, altered, or repaired
(1 ) severely worn clamps should be tested and inspected. If performed,
(2) bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, cracked, or tests shall be done by a qualified person, or a designated
broken person under the direction of the manufacturer or a qual-
(m) body ified person and a written report be furnished, confirming
(1 ) cracked welds the load rating of the clamp. The load rating should not be
(2) bent, twisted, distorted, stretched, elongated pin more than 80% of the maximum load sustained during the
holes, or cracks test. Test loads shall not be more than 125% of the rated
(n) damaged, distorted, or worn threads including load unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.
foreign material on the threads Test reports should be available.
(o) impaired, seized, or bound cam, linkage, bail move- (b) The load test, if made, shall consist of the following
ment, or locking lever operations as a minimum:
(p) deformed, broken, or missing spring(s) (1 ) Hoist the test load a sufficient distance to ensure
(q) broken, worn, or loose cam the load is supported by the clamp, or apply the required
(r) other conditions, including visible damage, that load if the test is made using a testing machine.
cause doubt as to continued safe use (2) After the test load is released, visually inspect the
clamp for deformation, cracks, or other defects.
20-6.3.8 Repairs (c) Tests of altered or repaired clamps may be limited
Damage disclosed by the inspection requirements of to the components affected by the alteration or repair, as
Section 20-6.3 shall be corrected according to the proce- determined by a qualified person with guidance from the
dures outlined in para. 20-6.3.10 before operation of the manufacturer and shall be tested to at least the rated load.
clamp is resumed, unless a qualified person determines
the damage does not constitute a hazard. Repairs of slings 20-6.3.10 Maintenance
(ASME B30.9), hooks (ASME B30.10), rigging hardware (a) Maintenance Program. A maintenance program
(ASM E B 3 0 .2 6 ) , or other devices shall comply with shall be established and be based on recommendations
re p ai r re qui re me n ts i n th e ap p l i cab l e vo l u me s o r made by the clamp manufacturer. If a qualified person
standards. determines it is appropriate, the program should also
include that individual’s additional recommendations
20-6.3.9 Testing based on a review of the clamp application and operation.
20-6.3.9.1 Operational Tests (b) Maintenance Procedure
(1 ) Before adjustments and repairs are started on a
(a) New clamps shall be tested by a qualified person, or
clamp, the following precautions shall be taken:
a designated person under the direction of the manufac-
(-a) All sources of power shall be disconnected,
turer or a qualified person, prior to initial use to verify
locked out, and tagged “Out of Service.”
compliance with applicable provisions of this Volume,
(-b) A clamp removed from service for repair shall
including, but not limited to, the following:
be tagged “Out of Service.”
(2) Only designated persons shall perform adj ust-
ments, repairs, and tests.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
48
ASME B30.20-2018

(3) Replacement parts shall be at least equal to the owner: has custodial control ofa clamp by virtue oflease or
original manufacturer’s specifications. ownership.
(4) After adjustments and repairs have been made,
the clamp shall not be returned to service until it has been These persons and roles may or may not match the
inspected according to para. 20-6.3.4. persons and roles associated with the hoisting equipment.
(5) D ated records of repairs and rep lacements 20-6.4.3.1 Responsibilities of the Clamp Owner. The
should be made. responsibilities of the clamp owner shall include the
(6) Any hazardous co nditio ns dis clo sed b y the following:
inspection of para. 2 0-6.3 .1 shall be corrected before (a) providing a clamp, and all necessary components
n o rm a l o p e ra ti o n o f th e c l a m p i s re s u m e d . specified by the manufacturer, that meets the require-
Adjustments and repairs shall be done under the direction ments of Sections 20-6.2 and 20-6.3 as well as specific
of, or by, a qualified person. job requirements.
(b) providing all applicable operating instructions.
SECTION 20-6.4: OPERATION (c) p roviding field assembly, and disassembly (if
applicable) , operation and maintenance information,
20-6.4.1 Operators and warning decals and placards installed as prescribed
Clamps shall be operated only by trained, designated by the clamp manufacturer.
persons. (d) establishing an inspection, testing, and mainte-
nance program in accordance with Section 20-6.3 .
20-6.4.2 Qualifications (e) using designated personnel to perform the required
maintenance, repair, and inspections.
Qualifications for operators of clamps are as follows: (f) ensuring that the clamp is in proper operating
(a) The operator shall be instructed in the use of the condition prior to initial use at the worksite by the
clamp by a designated person. Instructions should include, following:
but not be limited to, the following: (1 ) ve r i fyi n g th a t a l l i n s p e c ti o n s h a ve b e e n
(1 ) application of the clamp to the load and material- performed as required by Section 20-6.3
handling device, and adjustments, if any, that adapt the (2) verifying that the clamp has the necessary lifting
clamp to various sizes or kinds of loads capacity to perform the proposed lifting operations in the
(2 ) i n s tru c ti o n s i n a n y s p e ci a l o p e ra ti o n s o r planned configuration
precautions (g) using operators that meet the requirements of para.
(3 ) th e m a n u fa c tu r e r ’ s s u gge s te d o p e r a ti n g 20-6.4.2 .
procedures (h) ensuring that all personnel involved in mainte-
(4) characteristics of the load itself required for nance, repair, assembly, disassembly, and inspection
operation of the clamp , such as, but not limited to, are aware of their responsibilities, assigned duties, and
b alance , s urface cl eanl ines s , flatnes s , ri gi di ty, and the associated hazards.
thickness (i) determining if additional regulations are applicable
(5) storage of the clamp to protect it from damage to clamp operations.
(6) not exceeding the rated load of the clamp nor the (j) ensuring that conditions that may adversely affect
capacity of the hoisting equipment by the combined clamp operations are addressed. Such conditions include,
weight of the load, the clamp, and rigging but are not limited to, the following:
(7) the proper attachment of adapters to the clamp (1 ) wind velocity or gusting winds
for special load handling (2) precipitation
(b) The operator shall demonstrate the ability to (3) fog or humidity
operate and inspect the clamp as instructed before (4) extreme temperatures
assuming responsibility for using the clamp. (5) lighting
(c) The operator shall be familiar with standard hand (k) addressing safety concerns raised by the operator
signals when applicable. or other personnel and being responsible if they and a
qualified person decide to overrule those concerns and
20-6.4.3 Responsibilities directs clamp operations to continue. (In all cases, the
While the organizational structure of various projects manufacturer’s criteria for safe operation and the require-
may differ, the following roles are described here for ments of this Volume shall be followed.)
purposes of delineating responsibilities. All responsibil- 20-6. 4. 3. 2 Respon sibilities of Operators. T h e
ities listed below shall be assigned in the worksite orga- operator shall be responsible for the following listed
nization. (A single individual may perform one or more of i te m s . T h e o p e ra to r s h a l l n o t b e re s p o n s i b l e fo r
these roles.) hazards or conditions that are not under his direct
operator: directly controls the clamp’s functions. co ntro l and that adve rs e l y affe ct o p e rati o n o f th e

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
49
ASME B30.20-2018

clamp. Whenever the operator has doubt as to the safety of (6) Do not use two or more vertical clamps on oppo-
lifting operations, the operator shall place the load in a safe site ends ofa plate to lift the plate in the horizontal position
condition and stop the lift in a controlled manner. Use of unless approved by the manufacturer.
the clamp shall resume only after safety concerns have (7) When locks are provided on the clamp, they shall
been addressed or the continuation of clamp usage is be used.
directed by the owner and a qualified person. (8) A clamp shall only be used within its thickness
The o p e rato r’ s re s p o ns i b il iti es s hall i ncl ude the range.
following: (9) Reduce the rated load as required by the manu-
(a) reviewing the requirements for the clamp with the facturer for lifts other than a straight lift.
owner before operations. (b) Clamps shall be operated only by the following qual-
(b ) kno wing what typ es o f s ite co nditio ns co uld ified personnel:
adversely affect the operation of the clamp and consulting (1 ) designated persons
with the owner concerning the possible presence of those (2) trainees under the supervision of a designated
conditions. person, the number oftrainees permitted to be supervised
(c) unders tanding and ap p lyi ng the i nfo rmati o n by a single designated person, the physical location of the
contained in the clamp manufacturer’s operating manual. designated person while supervising, and the type of
(d) understanding the clamp’s functions and limita- co m m u n i ca ti o n re q u i re d b e twe e n th e d e s i gn a te d
tions as well as its particular operating characteristics. person and the trainee shall be determined by a qualified
(e) ensuring an inspection is performed prior to every person
lift as specified in para. 20-6.3.2 . (3) maintenance and test personnel, when it is nec-
(f) promptly reporting the need for any adjustments or essary in the performance of their duties
repairs to a designated person. (4) inspectors
(g) following applicable lock out/tag out procedures. (c) Ensure the weight of the load and its approximate
(h) not using the clamp when physically or mentally center o f gravity have b een o b tained, p ro vided, o r
unfit. calculated.
(i) ensuring that all personnel are in the clear before (d) The clamp shall not be loaded in excess of its rated
initiating the lift. load or handle any load for which it is not designed.
(j) not engaging in any practice that will divert his (e) Properly attaching the lifting device to the hook,
attention while using the clamp. shackle, or other load handling device.
(k) inspecting the clamp for proper function before use. (f) Clamps and the load must be clean in accordance
(l) using the clamp in a smooth and controlled manner. with the instruction manual.
(m) knowing and following the procedures specified by (g) The clamp shall be applied to the load in accordance
the manufacturer or approved by a qualified person, with the instruction manual.
concerning attachment of the clamp. (h) Before lifting, make sure that clamp slings (as
(n) considering all factors known that might affect the applicable) are not kinked or twisted.
clamp capacity and informing the owner of the need to (i) Care should be taken to make certain the load is
make appropriate adjustments. correctly distributed for the clamp(s) being used.
(o) responding only to instructions from designated (j) The temperature of the load shall not exceed the
persons. However, the operator shall obey a stop order maximum allowable limits of the clamp unless approved
at all times, no matter who gives it. by the manufacturer or qualified person.
(p) not making alterations or modifications to the (k) Verify that the load is well secured and properly
clamp. balanced in the lifting device when it is initially lifted.
(l) Do not allow load or clamp to come into contact with
20-6.4.4 Clamp Operating Practices any obstruction.
(m ) E n s ure that th e l i fti ng de vice i s adequate l y
(a) Selection of the clamp and proper setup is as
protected from damage during use.
follows:
(n) Recheck clamp engagement and clamping force
(1 ) Follow manufacturer’s procedures to prevent
whenever the load has been placed on a supporting
load disengagement.
surface.
(2) Verify load meets or exceeds the minimum load
(o) The clamp shall not be used for side pulls or sliding
required for proper clamp function.
the load unless specifically authorized by the manufac-
(3) Use proper clamp for material hardness, material
turer or a qualified person.
type, surface conditions, etc.
(p) The operator shall land any attached load and
(4) Do not lift multiple or sagging plates unless
disengage the clamp befo re leaving the clamp . The
approved by the manufacturer.
operator shall not leave suspended loads unattended.
(5) Assure all moving clamp components move
Anchoring clamps are exempt from this requirement.
freely.

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
50
ASME B30.20-2018

(q) The operator shall not ride, or allow others to ride p ro vide a s tatement o f tho s e facto rs that alter the
loads or the clamp. clamp’s capacity and related limitations. Several factors
(r) The operation of the clamp shall be observed before known to affect a clamp’s lifting capabilities are noted
use and during a shift. Any deficiency observed shall be below and shall be included in the manual.
examined by a designated person. If the deficiency consti- (a) Temperature of Load. The manufacturer’s recom-
tutes a hazard, the clamp shall be removed from service mendations pertaining to operation of the clamp on
and tagged “Out of Service.” Any indication of a hazardous l o ad s a t te m p e ratu re s e xce e d i n g n o rm al am b i e n t
condition shall be reported to a qualified person for temperatures.
evaluation. (b) Load Dimensions. Define the limitations on the size
(s) Loads shall be guided in such a manner as to avoid of the load that is recommended.
endangering hands or other body parts as the load is (c) Surface, Shapes, Material, and Surface Hardness
moved, or if it drops. Configuration. Provide specific information on what
(t) When using two or more clamps, follow the manu- surfaces, shapes, materials, and surface hardness the
facturer’s instructions for multiple clamp use. device is designed to handle, including factors such as
(u) A plate clamp(s) shall only be used to lift a single rough surface finish, paper, dirt, rust, paint, and any
plate unless otherwise approved by clamp manufacturer. other factors deemed important to the handling of loads.
(d) Maintenance of Interfacing Surfaces. Define the
20-6.4.5 Miscellaneous Operating Practices permissible amount of wear, distortion, or damage of
the interface components.
(a) An operator shall not use a clamp that is tagged “Out
of Service” or otherwise designated as nonfunctioning.
(e) Environmental. Define conditions that adversely
affect the lifting capacity including but not limited to
(b) “Out ofService” tags on clamps shall not be removed
wind, rain, snow, etc.
without the approval of the person placing them or a
designated person.
(f) Lifting Angle Range. Define limitations on the lifting
angle range.
(c) The clamp, when not in use, should be stored at an
assigned location.
(g) Minimum Lifting Force. Define minimum lifting
fo r c e n e c e s s a r y to a c tu a te th e c l a m p i n g a c ti o n .
(d) Caution should be taken to ensure that operating
Minimum loads for pressure-gripping lifting and struc-
markings or tags shall not be removed or defaced. Missing
tural shape clamps are dependent on clamp wear and
or illegible markings or tags shall be replaced.
material hardness.

SECTION 20-6.5: INSTRUCTION MANUALS


The manufacturer shall provide operating instructions,
inspection and removal criteria, and maintenance and
parts information. In addition, the manual shall also

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation
51
ASME B30.20-201 8

@Seismicisolation
@Seismicisolation