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Sound and Light Waves

Sound waves mechanical waves : originate from a vibrating object

Light waves electromagnetic waves :

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Sound waves

Amplitude

loudness

Frequency

pitch

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Light waves

This bending of light rays at an angulated interface is known as refraction. Note particularly that the degree of refraction

increases as a function of (1) the ratio of the two refractive

indices of the two transparent media and (2) the degree of

angulation between the interface and the entering wave front.

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A light wave travels through three transparent materials of equal thickness. Rank is order, from the largest to smallest, the indices of refraction n 1 , n 2 , and n 3 .

n 2 > n 1 > n 3
n 3 > n 2 > n 1
B.
E.
n 3 > n 1 > n 2
n 1 = n 2 = n 3
C.
n 1 > n 2 > n 3

A.

D.

Lights and Lenses

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Reflexion and Refraction

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Refractive index

Refraction

Is the change of direction of light as it passes from one medium to another.

Refractive index

The refractive index of a material, n, is a measure of how much a substance can refract a light ray.

Angle of incidence, i

image

Angle of refraction, r

actual location
different
different

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26.2

Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light

SNELL’S LAW

SNELL’S LAW OF REFRACTION

When light travels from a material with one index of refraction to a material with a different index of refraction, the angle of incidence is related to the angle of refraction by

n sinn sin

1

1

2

2

26.2

Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light

Example 1 Determining the Angle of Refraction

A light ray strikes an air/water surface at an angle of 46 degrees with respect to the normal. Find the angle of refraction when the direction of the ray is (a) from air to water and (b) from water to air.

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26.2 Snell’s Law and the Refraction of Light

(a)

(b)

 sin  2  n 1 sin  1    1.00 sin 46   0.54

2 33

 sin  2  n 1 sin  1    1.33 sin 46   0.96

2 74

n

2

1.33

n

2

1.00

Lenses

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Thin Lens Shapes

These are examples of converging lenses

They have positive focal lengths

They are thickest in the middle

These are examples of diverging lenses

They have negative focal lengths

They are thickest at the edges

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The effect of a converging lens and of a diverging lens on a beam of parallel light rays

Images in convex lens

The image formed by a convex lens is always real and inverted until the object moved nearer to the lens than its focal length; the image becomes erect and virtual.

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Images in concave lens

The image formed by a convex lens is always virtual and erect.

When numerical values are substituted into the formula, the sign convention ‘real is positive; virtual is negative’ is used for the object and image distances.

The focal length, f, of a converging lens is

always assigned a positive value. A diverging lens is always assigned a negative value.

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Focusing Elements

Refractive indicies within the eye

Aqueous Humour 1.33

Cornea 1.37

Vitreous Humour 1.33

Crystalline Lens 1.38 (outer layers) 1.41 (inner layers)

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The Eye
Image formation
• Light converges on the retina
• Path of rays is changed by the eye by refraction (carried out by cornea and lens)
• Ciliary muscles change the shape of the lens to keep image focussed on retina if the distance alters.
– Contracted ciliary muscles = loose ligament = lens more rounded = focus on nearby objects
– Relaxed ciliary muscles = taut ligaments = lens flattened = focus on distant objects
• No limit to how far away you can focus – far point is at infinity
• You near point is approx. 25cms – nearer and image is blurred.
Accommodation/ Focussing
Eye structure diagram