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RATIONAL USE OF ENERGY IN TERTIARY

FUEL CELLS
AND
HYDROGEN TECHNOLOGIES
FOR
ENERGY APPLICATIONS
Alberto Tenconi - alberto.tenconi@polito.it
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica - Politecnico di Torino
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2 December 2010
OUTLINE

Introduction – Why Hydrogen


Fuel Cell operation principle
Fuel Cell Technologies
Fuel Cell System
Applications
Hydrogen production, storage and safety issues

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WHY HYDROGEN

• One problem that accompanies all


renewable energies is the storage
• For mobile and portable applications we
need an energy carrier
• Hydrogen can store energy →hydrogen
is a secondary energy carrier
• Hydrogen is a clean energy carrier
• Hydrogen can be utilised in fuel cell
systems to produce electric and thermal
power

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WHY HYDROGEN

• Potentially an Biomass
inexhaustible energy
carrier Hydro
Wind
Solar
• Can be produced
from several primary Nuclear
energy sources
Oil
• Reduced
dependence on
Coal
petroleum imports if
produced from coal Natural
or renewables Gas

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WHY FUEL CELLS

Transportation
• High energy
conversion efficiency HIGH EFFICIENCY
by use of H2 in Fuel & RELIABILITY
Cells (UP TO 90%) in
place of I.C. engines
(30-35%)
Distributed
• Potential ZERO/NEAR ZERO Generation
environmental EMISSIONS
benefits

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OUTLINE

Introduction – Why Hydrogen


Fuel Cell operation principle
Fuel Cell Technologies
Fuel Cell System
Applications
Hydrogen production, storage and safety issues

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FUEL CELL OPERATION PRINCIPLE
• Fuel Cells (FC) are electrochemical energy conversion devices
• Operation principle is very similar to battery with difference
that the fuel cell can continually work as much as fuel and
oxidant are provided without any “energy recharge”

• The fuel (hydrogen) and the


Electrolyte oxygen (usually provide by air)
react on the electrodes producing
electrical energy, water and heat

Anode Cathode • Water is the only waste product


in case in which H2 is the fuel!
Current

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FUEL CELL OPERATION PRINCIPLE
Anode: hydrogen Cathode: oxygen or air
feeds anode and feed fuel cell from
helped by catalyst cathode side. The
it’s atoms are electrons separated
divided in protons from atom at anode
and electrons. side makes current and
Protons can pass upon arrival at cathode
trough electrolyte side, meanwhile
hydrogen and oxygen
ions makes water
H22H++2e- 1/2O2+2H++2e-H2O

H2+1/2 O2H2O
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FUEL CELL OPERATION PRINCIPLE
The electrodes
• Have porous structure which enable
rapid reagents diffusion in electrolyte
• Their role is also to remove chemical
reaction products and sometimes even
water odds coming from electrolyte
humidity system
• This type of structure has a surface that
enable reagents diffusion: highly
extended surface which provides a lot of
active sites, zones in which chemical
reaction occurs
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FUEL CELL OPERATION PRINCIPLE
• The chemical reaction is rather low
• To have larger kinetics and as consequence larger
surface current density :
• Increase the temperature
• Increase the surface
• Use a catalyst (Pt)

• The catalyst must be protected by poisoning elements


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FUEL CELL OPERATION PRINCIPLE
The electrolyte
• Have role of ion transportation from anode to cathode
• It has to have
• high current conductance
• good chemical composition
• acid or base nature
• Generally it is the element chosen to be a reference for
FC type classification

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FUEL CELL OPERATION PRINCIPLE
• Current intensity is directly proportional to electrode surface
• One single cell normally produce around 0.7 V voltage and
from 300 to 1000 mA/cm2
1
Voltage [V], Power [W]

0.9
0.8
0.7
Power
0.6
0.5 Voltage
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4
Current density J [A/cm2]
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FUEL CELL OPERATION PRINCIPLE
• For desirable power and voltage level we need to put more
cells in series creating stack, while reagent supply is parallel
• Reagent supply is parallel and each cell has to be supplied
with oxygen and hydrogen with the necessary homogenous
concentration

Stacks with large Fuel


number of cells have
high dependence on Electric load Single
reagent distribution cell Stack
with risk of bad
functionality of entire Air
stack

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OUTLINE

Introduction – Why Hydrogen


Fuel Cell operation principle
Fuel Cell Technologies
Fuel Cell System
Applications
Hydrogen production, storage and safety issues

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FUEL CELLS TYPES

Temperature Electric efficiency Residual Heat


[°C] [%] Temperature
[°C]
Alkaline FC (AFC) 60 - 100 45 - 60 < 60

Proton Exchange Membrane 60 -120 40 - 60 40 – 60


FC (PEMFC)
Phosphoric - acid FC (PAFC) 180 – 200 35 - 40 70 - 80

Molten Carbonate 600 - 700 45 - 60 600 – 700


FC (MCFC)

Solide Oxide FC (SOFC) 800 - 1000 50 - 65 700 – 1000

Direct Methanol FC (DMFC) 60 - 130 ~ 40

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FUEL CELLS TYPES

70
Electrical Efficiency(%)

60

50
MCFC

40
PAFC
PEFC
30 Micro
Micro
Gas Turbines
Gas Motors

20
1 10 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 1,000,000 (kW)

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ALKALINE FUEL CELLS (AFC)

• Relatively low operation


temperature between 70
and 120 oC
H2
• The electrolyte is
alkaline such as
potassium hydroxide

Anode Cathode • Electrical efficiency can


Electrolyte
reach 65%

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ALKALINE FUEL CELLS (AFC)
• AFCs were one of the first fuel cell technologies developed,
and they were the first type widely used in space program to
produce electrical energy and water onboard spacecraft
• Applications include remote applications as space and under
sea. To effectively compete commercial markets, these fuel
cells will have to become more cost-effective
• AFC stacks maintain stable operation for more than 8,000
operating hours. To be economically viable in large-scale utility
applications, these fuel cells need to exceed 40,000 hours,
something that has not yet been achieved due to material
durability issues
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POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FC (PEMFC)

• Also called Proton Exchange


Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)

H2 Air
• Relatively low operation
temperature between 70 and
H2o
100 oC
• The electrolyte is the polymeric
Anode
Electrolyte
Cathode membrane of sulphuric type
• Electrical efficiency is in range
from 40 to 60%

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POLYMER ELECTROLYTE FC (PEFC)
• PEMFC need only hydrogen, oxygen from the air, and water to
operate and do not require corrosive fluids
• PEMFC are easily "poisoned" by carbon monoxide, decreasing
the fuel cell's efficiency, hence are typically fuelled with pure
hydrogen (from storage tanks or onboard reformers)
• PEM fuel cells potential application are primarily transportation
applications, stationary applications (typically small stationary)
and lately some portable application
• Due to their fast start-up time, and favourable power-to-weight
ratio, PEM fuel cells are suitable for use in passenger vehicles,
such as cars and buses
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PHOSPHORIC ACID FC (PAFC)

• Operation temperature is
approximately 200 oC
• The electrolyte is concentrate
H2 Air
phosphoric acid

H2 o • Electrical efficiency is in
range from 37 to 42%
Anode Cathode
Electrolyte
• High operation temperature
can be used for cogeneration

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PHOSPHORIC ACID FC (PAFC)
• PAFCs is one of the most mature cell types and the first to be
used commercially.
• Typically used for stationary power generation and to power
large vehicles such as buses
• PAFCs are more tolerant of impurities than PEM cells
• When used for the co-generation of electricity and heat they
are 85% efficient, but generating electricity alone 37 to 42 %
(combustion power plants typically operate at 33 to 35 %)
• PAFCs are less powerful than other fuel cells, given the same
weight and volume

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MOLTEN CARBONATE FC (MCFC)

• This type of FC use


molten carbonate salt
H2 as the electrolyte
• High operation
temperature (650 oC)
Anode
Electrolyte
Cathode • Electrical efficiency is
greater than 45%

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MOLTEN CARBONATE FC (MCFC)
• Due to the high temperatures at which MCFCs operate,
useful fuels are converted to hydrogen within the fuel cell
itself by a process called internal reforming
• Because they are more resistant to impurities than other fuel
cell types, scientists believe that they could even be capable
of internal reforming of coal.
• When the waste heat is captured and used, overall fuel
efficiencies can be as high as 85 %
• The primary disadvantage of current MCFC technology is the
durability

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SOLID OXIDE FC (SOFC)
• High operation temperature
(900 – 1000 oC) needed for
high electrolyte
conductance
Fuel

• The electrolyte is a solid


ceramic (zirconium oxide
Exhausted stabilised with yttrium oxide)
Anode
Electrolyte
Cathode • This FC can reach
efficiency of above 60%

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SOLID OXIDE FC (SOFC)
• SOFCs operate at very high temperatures and it also allows
internal reforming, enabling the use of a variety of fuels and
reduces the cost with adding a reformer to the system
• Utilizing the system's waste heat (co-generation), overall fuel
use efficiencies up to 80-85%
• Slow startup and requires significant thermal shielding to retain
heat and protect personnel (acceptable for utility applications
but not for transportation and small portable applications)
• Scientists are currently exploring the potential for developing
lower-temperature SOFCs operating at or below 800°C, that
have fewer durability problems and cost less
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DIRECT METHANOL FC (DMFC)
• DMFC operate on a
methanol-water mix fed
directly into the stack
without the need of prior
reforming

Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

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DIRECT METHANOL FC (DMFC)
• Direct methanol fuel cells do not have many of the fuel
storage problems typical of some fuel cells since methanol
has a higher energy density than hydrogen. Methanol is also
easier to transport and supply to the public using our current
infrastructure since it is a liquid, like gasoline.
• Direct methanol fuel cell technology is relatively new
compared to the one powered by pure hydrogen, and DMFC
research and development are roughly 3 - 4 years behind
that for other fuel cell types
• The application for this type of fuel cell is portable
applications
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STATE OF THE ART

25

• The continuous
20
1993
advances in research
15 1993 (improved) has allowed in the
1996 course of the years
k g /k W

1999/2000
10 sensitive increases of
2004
Future target the power density
5

0
Nominal Power Density

C. Song / Catalysis Today

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STATE OF THE ART
• Nowadays, fuel cells cost approximately $3,000 to $5,000 /
kW. (FCs are competitive only in high value, "niche" markets)
• Economical studies predicted that the fuel cell costs must
drop below $1,500 /kW to enable market penetration
worldwide
• An example, for stationary application (DG), a fuel cell
available commercially today is built by UTC Power: the cost
is approximately $4,000/kW. The installed cost of the unit
approaches $1.1 million. At a rated output of 200kW, this
translates to about $5,500/kW, installed

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SCENARIO

MARKET SCENARIO FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION PLAN - UE


P ortable
P ortable FC s (for
G enerators & S tationary FC s R oad
heandheld
E arly stage (C H P ) Transport
electric devices)
M arkets
E U H 2 /FC units ~ 100.000 x 100.000 to 200.000 0.4 m illion to 1.8
sold x year ~ 250 m illion
year per year (2-4G W e) m illion
projection 2020
E U cum ulative ~ 600.000 400.000 to 800.000 (8-
sales projection n.a. 1-5 m illion
(~ 6 G W e) 16 G W e)
until 2020
E U E xpected 2020 M ass m arket
Established Established G rowth
M arket S tatus roll-out
<100kW (M icro HP)
A verage pow er F C
15 W 10 kW >100kW (industrial 80kW
system
CHP)
2.000 €/kW <100 €/kW (for
FC system cost
1-2 € / W 500 € / kW 1.000-1.500 €/kW 150.000 units
target
(industrial CHP) per year)

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European Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technology Platform (HFP)
SCENARIO

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OUTLINE

Introduction – Why Hydrogen


Fuel Cell operation principle
Fuel Cell Technologies
Fuel Cell System
Applications
Hydrogen production, storage and safety issues

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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Fuel Cells System (Direct Hydrogen)
H 2O from
Hydrogen Supply
Tank

Hydrogen Tank H/C


Fuel Cell Stack
Recirculation
Anode
Radiator
Cathode
e-
Air Supply System
Condenser

Expander H 2O Tank
H/C
Motor
Water and Thermal Residual
Compressor
Management System H 2O
Exhaust to ATM ATM air (Source: Institute of Transportation Studies, UCD)

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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Fuel Cells System (Fuel Reforming)
For cooling H 2O from
Gas Fuel Reformer System Tank
Tank
Mix/Preheat H/C
H 2O from ATR and Cleanup
Tank Fuel Cell Stack
Air Preheat
Anode
Burner
Exhaust

Compressor Cathode
e-
Motor
Condenser
ATM air Exhaust to ATM
H 2O Tank
H/C
Water and Thermal
Motor
Management System
Compressor

Air Supply ATM air


System
(Source: Institute of Transportation Studies, UCD)

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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
• Fuel Cell: the electrochemical section of the FC system,
made by the cells which produce electrical energy from
chemical reaction of hydrogen and oxygen
• The chemical reaction is exothermal

Fuel Control System

Air

Fuel Treatment H2

Fuel Cell Power Conditioning Electric power


H2O

Heat
Heat Heat
Thermal recovery system

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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Fuel Control System

Air

Fuel Treatment H2

Fuel Cell Power Conditioning Electric power


H2O

Heat
Heat Heat
Thermal recovery system

• Fuel Treatment: this part of the fuel cell system provides


hydrogen from the fuel, which is rich of hydrocarbon, usually
reforming process is used
• If the fuel cell is using pure hydrogen or reforming process
this part is not needed
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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
• Fuel and oxidant providing system: assure that both the
fuel and the oxidant present in FC are within required
conditions, quantity, pressure, temperature, humidity etc.
The air system takes part of this system

Fuel Control System

Air

Fuel Treatment H2

Fuel Cell Power Conditioning Electric power


H2O

Heat
Heat Heat
Thermal recovery system

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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
• Thermal recovery system: is necessary for complete system.
Heat from thermal recovery system can be used inside (reactor
for fuel conversion) or externally in cogeneration
• Control system: assure the coordination behaviour of all
system sections
Fuel Control System

Air

Fuel Treatment H2

Fuel Cell Power Conditioning Electric power


H2O

Heat
Heat Heat
Thermal recovery system

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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
• Power Conditioning: the conditioning of electrical power from
dc, load dependent to ac electrical power with required
characteristics: voltage level, frequency and dynamic (the
stack life: load transients, inverse current, current ripple, etc)

Fuel Control System

Air

Fuel Treatment H2

Fuel Cell Power Conditioning Electric power


H2O

Heat
Heat Heat
Thermal recovery system

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POWER CONDITIONING

There are different architectures

Single stage

Single stage transformer-less

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POWER CONDITIONING

Multiple stage Power


Conditioner

• The FC due to their dynamic usually needs an additional


energy storage element, battery or super-capacitor

• Hydrogen and Oxygen flow must adjusted to modify


the power production
• High dynamic supply systems to follow the load
variations
• Load levelling to “protect” the fuel cells
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POWER CONDITIONING
Load levelling Load profile

Avarage power Dynamic power

Fuel cell Battery/Supercap


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43
POWER CONDITIONING

Hybrid system with


energy system
element at the high
voltage side

Hybrid system with


energy system element
connected at the high
voltage side using an
additional DC-DC
converter

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POWER CONDITIONING
•DC-DC converter (chopper)
boost the FC output voltage
protect from current stresses (transient and ripple)
uni-directinal power flow (bi-directional buffer)

•DC-AC converter (inverter)


control output voltage frequency/amplitude (fixed – adjustable)
generate output current with low THD / high PF (grid-connected)
control the drive (traction applications)

Dedicated design
No breakthrough (required/expected)
Technological improvements (in case of high volume)
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POWER CONDITIONING

•Energy buffer (batteries and/or supercapacitors)


Load feeding during worm-up
Smooth the load variation
Recover energy (regenerative braking)
•State of the art
Many different technologies
Poor/medium reliability & lifetime
Poor/medium power & energy density

Breakthrough (required but not expected)


Technological improvements & dedicated design
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AIR MANAGEMENT
• Provide the adequate air
quantity
• Provide air at adequate Thermal
Management
pressure level
Fuel Heat Electric
Fuel
Feeder Power
• Adequate air humidity Fuel Cell
Stack
Air
• Air pressure maintenance Managemen Air Water
t
• Air filtering Water
Management
• Eventually energy recovery
using expander

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WATER MANAGEMENT

PEMFC

Thermal
Management
• Water inside the cell Fuel Electric
Heat
provides membrane Feeder Fuel Power
Fuel Cell
humidity, ensure Stack

good proton Air


Management Air
conductance and Water

heat transfer Water


Management

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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Product Example Controls, Interface

Power-Conditioner

NG Fuel Processor

Low Pressure PEM-Stack

Desulphurization

Moisture-Conditioner

Valve Group

Vaillant
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OUTLINE

Introduction – Why Hydrogen


Fuel Cell operation principle
Fuel Cell Technologies
Fuel Cell System
Applications
Hydrogen production, storage and safety issues

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APPLICATIONS AND POWER RANGE

Portable Electronics Automotive, Boat, Buses, Distributed


Equipment Domestic Heat and Power Generation
Power Generation
2 3 4 5 6 7
P(W) 1 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

PEMFC

DMFC SOFC

AFC PAFC

MCFC

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STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
• One of the important characteristics of fuel cell systems is
that their efficiency is nearly unaffected by size
• Stationary application is the most tried and tested
application for fuel cells

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STATIONARY APPLICATIONS

• Smaller plants (several hundred kW to 1 to 2 MW) can be


sited at the user’s facility and are suited for cogeneration
operation that is the plant is producing electrical and
thermal energy
• Larger units (1 to 10MW) are likely to be used in distributed
generation
• The plants are usually fueled primarily with natural gas.

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STATIONARY APPLICATIONS DG
Distributed Generation: small, modular power systems that are
sited at or near their point of use (tipically less than 30MW)

Type Size Efficiency, %


Reciprocating Engines 50 kW – 6 MW 33 – 37
Micro turbines At 10 kW – 300 kW 20 – 30
Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) 50 kW – 1 MW 40
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 5 kW – 3 MW 45 – 65
Proton Exchange Fuel Cell (PEFC) <1 kW – 1 MW 34 – 36
Photovoltaics (PV) 1 kW – 1 MW NA
Wind Turbines 150 kW – 500 kW NA
Hybrid Renewable <1 kW – 1 MW 40 – 50
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STATIONARY APPLICATIONS DG

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STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
Domestic Fuel Cell Application

• Domestic Combined Heat and


Power (Micro-Cogeneration)
• Grid connected
• Central heating and hot water
production
• Intelligent hot water storage
• Condensing peak heater
• Digital communication and control

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LARGE STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
Market

Cumulative units
Annual new units

Stationary units with an electrical output in excess of 10kW,


although the average output is nearer 200kW

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LARGE STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
Market

Number of Units Installed

Installed MW
Over the past years the large stationary sector has moved
forward substantially

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LARGE STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
Technology

Technology type in percentage

Although the MCFC are still dominating, PAFC and SOFC


stronger presence could be noticed
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LARGE STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
FC / Gas turbine hybridization
• It’s one of the increasing trends
• A modular fuel cell unit is developed in parallel with a gas
turbine
• Four high profile proponents of this technological strategy
are: Fuel Cell Energy (MCFC), GE Energy (SOFC), Rolls
Royce (SOFC) and Siemens Westinghouse (SOFC)
• The purported benefits of hybridization include higher
efficiency, lower life-time costs and higher recovery of waste
heat

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LARGE STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
Fuel choice Region of operation

• The majority of fuel cell


installations in this area still
continue to be fueled by natural
gas
• Increasing number of units
powered by alternative fuels
such as: coal gas and
anaerobic digester gas

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LARGE STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
PureCell™ power system specifications:
• Power - 200kW/235 kVA
• Voltage and Frequency
• 480 volts, 3-phase, 4-wire, 60 Hz*
• 400 volts, 3-phase, 4-wire, 50 Hz
• Cooling Module - three fan air
• Noise - 60dBA @ 30 ft
PureCell™ 200 power system
• Emissions (ppmV @ 15% O2 Dry) - Nox
<1, CO <2, Sox, particulates, Stockton College, New Jersey
hydrocarbons - negligible • Power Module Dimensions:
• Fuel Type - NG, ADG H: 307 cm, W: 290 cm, L: 538 cm
• Fuel Flow - NG 2050 scf/hr avg., ADG Weight - 18,144 kg
3,500 scf/hr avg.
• Cooling Module Dimensions:
H: 127 cm, W: 124 cm, L: 411 cm
Weight - 771 kg
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LARGE STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
• In conclusion, the large stationary fuel cell sector continues
to make good progress, particularly in technical terms
• Increasing fuel options has opened up new market sectors
for the units, including for direct hydrogen units
• Forecast: larger and larger fuel cell power plants, as well as
smaller (<200kW), for distributed and back-up power for
single installations. Also an increasing number of orders will
be announced

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SMALL STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
Market survey

The number of units is now


over the 5000, cumulatively

Cumulative Small Stationary Units

Looking forward the number


of new units is to be around
3000.
New annual small stationary units
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SMALL STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
Technology
• PEM and SOFC FCs are dominating in
this application
• PEM with its longer and more sustained
development period is still well ahead

Unit size
The dataset collected for 2006 shows
units with the electrical output of 1, 1.5,
2, 3, 5, 6, 7 and 10 kW respectively

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SMALL STATIONARY APPLICATIONS
Fuel choice

• Direct Hydrogen both in residential and UPS application


• There are units which use natural gas, town gas,
bioethanol, kerosene and LPG
• Innovation in this sector: kerosene reformers to operate
with PEM based units

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FUEL CELL SYSTEM
Electrical Output 1 - 4.6 kWel grid parallel
Thermal Output 1.5 - 7 kWth
plus ~ 25 - 280 kWth peak heater
Electric Efficiency > 35 %
Total Efficiency > 80 %
Application Multi-family house, small business

Fuel Natural gas


System Lifetime 15 years, 80.000 h
Maintenance 2 years (annual inspection)
Heating System Temp max. 70 / 55 °C
Exhaust Temperature max. 75 °C

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SMALL STATIONARY APPLICATIONS

• In conclusion, along with a number of the other application


the Small Stationary sector is going through a very positive
phase
• Units are growing at a steady rate, beta-test demonstrations
for residential units are increasing in size and actual sales of
UPS systems have jumped significantly
• In terms of regulation, codes and standards work still needs
to be done to remove this as a barrier to commercialization

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PORTABLE APPLICATIONS
Portable applications for Fuel Cell can be resumed in:
• Mobile electronic devices (Laptop, cell phone, PDA, etc)
• Small generators used as “power box”, remote and/or
backup power source

Basic Requirements:
Mobile Increasing Intelligence
More power demand
Electronic Increasing Connectivity
Devices Increasing Time Turned on More operating time
More compact and
Lighter

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PORTABLE APPLICATIONS
Technology type, Portable by developer
(2006)

DMFC companies active in this sector shows great forecast


for DMFC (the chart regards low power (<250 W, where there
is the largest potential market). To power > 500 W, PEMFC is
expected to have a great share.
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PORTABLE APPLICATIONS

Cumulative number of systems manufactured

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PORTABLE APPLICATIONS

• FCs could enable the development of


devices with a greater number of
functions, where conventional batteries
might not be powerful enough
• FC should enable the universal
connectivity of wireless devices, such as
laptop computers and 3G phones, which
will be limited by battery lifetimes
• FCs are easy to be recharged and
lighter than conventional batteries

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PORTABLE APPLICATIONS
Portable Generators

• Fuel cells can be already competitive


with IC engines if there is a demand
for silent and clean power, for
example inside building. IC – Honda EU1000

• Where higher power outputs are


required, PEMFCs are likely to be
dominant. Fuel cell systems might
also compete with NiCD or NiMH
batteries in remote, back-up, UPS
FC - Ballard / Coleman
Powermate
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PORTABLE APPLICATIONS
Battery Chargers and External Power Units

• The battery chargers and external power units are


expected to be a niche application for FC.
• This market is expected to be the most promising as an
entry point and proving ground for fuel cells in electronics
devices.
• A number of portable fuel cell companies have
demonstrated external power units for laptop computers,
cell phones, PDA and others portable applications

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TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS

Clean car concept CO2 reduction


Emission reduction
FCHV
THS
Hybrid Technology
Energetic safety
D-4
CNG Diesel DI Lean Burn EV
VVT-i
Alternative Diesel Gasoline Electric
Fuels Engines Engines Vehicles

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TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS
Fuel Cells Vehicles

Japanese Government UC Irvine / UC Davis

December 2002:
presentation of
the first Fuel
4FCHVs Cells Vehicle 2FCHVs

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TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS
FCHV Assessment

• 20.000 Km routed by 6 FCHVs (Dec/ ’02 - May/ ’03)

• Users valuation:

• Good acceleration
• Silent
• Comfortable

• Unsatisfactory range
• Start-up too long (5 sec.)

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TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS
Hybrid ICE and Fuel Cells Vehicles

PRIUS TOYOTA-FCHV
ICE Hybrid Vehicle (Prius) Toyota FC Hybrid Vehicle
Engine Fuel Cell

Power Power
Control Control
Unit Unit
Secondary Secondary
Battery Battery
Motor Motor

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WELL TO WHEEL EFFICIENCY
Well to Tank
(%)
Tank to Wheel
(%)
Well to Wheel (%)
0 10 20 30 40

ICE Vehicle 14%


88 16
(gasoline)
Hybrid 88 32 28%
(Gasoline)

38*2 22%
1
Hydrogen 58*
1

50*2 29%
With HV control

42%
Hydrogen 70 60 3 x Gasoline, 1.5 x HV
(target)
*1 Natural gas base *2 Measurement from the electric current

Source: Toyota
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CO2 Emissions Well To Wheel
(Gasoline ICE Vehicle = 1)
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Gasoline Vehicle
Diesel Vehicle
Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle
Gasoline Hybrid Vehicle(Future)
Diesel Hybrid Vehicle(Future)
Well to tank CO2
FCHV
(Natural Gas Hydrogen; today) Tank to Wheel CO2
FCHV
(Natural Gas Hydrogen)
FCHV
(Coal Hydrogen)
FCHV
(H2O H2 from Natural Energy)
FCHV
(Biomass)

A. Tenconi, “Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Technologies for Energy Applications ”, November 2010 Source: Toyota 80/90
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TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS

1. Technical Problems
High Efficiency / High Performance, Life
Time/Reliability, Low Temperature, High
Temperature,Dust, Salt Water, Volcanic Gas
(H2S), etc.
2. Market Problems
Autonomy (Hydrogen Storage Technology)
Cost (Vehicle Cost/Hydrogen Cost)
3. Security
Hydrogen, High Voltage, Crash Problems
4. Accessories & Services/ Material Recycle / LCA

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TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS

Technological Cost and Product Competence


Competence Stadium Stadium
With necessary Infrastructure

Wide diffusion

Fleet tests / Limited diffusion

Demonstration
’01 ’05 ’10 ’20 - 30
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OUTLINE

Introduction – Why Hydrogen


Fuel Cell operation principle
Fuel Cell Technologies
Fuel Cell System
Applications
Hydrogen production, storage and safety issues

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HYDROGEN PRODUCTION TECH
ENERGIA
TERMOLISI ACQUA
NUCLEARE

CARBONE GASSIFICAZIONE PURIFICAZIONE


PETROLEUM COKE
RAFFINA- IDROCARBURI PESANTI OSSIDAZIONE SINTESI
PETROLIO ZIONE PARZIALE AMMONIACA
IDROCARBURI LEGGERI SYNTHESIS
GAS di RAFFINERIA GAS
GAS REFORMING SINTESI
NATURALE FERMENTAZIONE BIO GAS METANOLO

METABOLISMO
H2
BIOMASSE
CICLI
RIFIUTI TERMOELETTRICI

GEO
TERMICO
ELETTROLISI
SOLARE FOTOVOLTAICO ELETTRICITA’ ACQUA

GENERATORI
IDRICO
A TURBINE

EOLICO

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HYDROGEN PRODUCTION COST
World wide production
•From Natural gas (mostly steam reforming) - 48%
•Oil (mostly consumed in refineries) - 30%
•Coal -18%
•Electrolysis - 4%

Nearly all H2 production is based on fossil fuels at present.

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HYDROGEN PRODUCTION COST

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STORAGE

Storage as gas under Cryogenic storage as liquid


pressure (250 – 350 bar) hydrogen (Temp. –253 0 C)

Storage techniques (under development):


•Storage as metallic hydrides
•Carbon adsorption and glass microsphere
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DELIVERY
• The current system for delivering
conventional fuels to consumers cannot
be used for hydrogen
• Changes must be made in the energy
infrastructure to accommodate hydrogen
• Questions remain about pipeline
embrittlement, feasibility of high pressure
H2 pipeline
• On-site reforming (natural gas, LPG,
ecc.) represents a different approach to
the on-site production of hydrogen
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SAFETY ISSUES
H2 SAFER:
• Vaporization Time: 0 min, 3 secondi

• Cloud formation
Hydrogen Car
• Fire Gasoline Car

H2 RISKIER:
• In enclosed rooms
• Customer handling of H2
demands technical safety Time: 1 min, 0 sec

measures (self-adjusting gas


sensors linked to ventilation
systems)
Fonte: M. R. Swain, Miami University, FL (US)
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CONCLUSIONS
Although the potential benefits of hydrogen and fuel cells are
significant, many challenges, technical and otherwise, must be
overcome before hydrogen and fuel cells will offer a
competitive alternative for consumers:
• Production & Delivery
• Storage
• Fuel Cell Cost and Durability
• Management of innovation
• Safety, Codes and Standards
• Public Acceptance
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CONCLUSIONS

International Energy Agency

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