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Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, and Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop

and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer. It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc., in
January 1977, and sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few
years, Jobs and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line.
Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped
new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in
1984, and Apple's marketing commercials for its products received widespread critical acclaim.
However, the high price tag of its products and limited software titles caused problems, as did
power struggles between executives at the company. In 1985, Wozniak stepped away from
Apple, while Jobs resigned and founded a new company — NeXT — with former Apple
employees.

As the market for personal computers increased, Apple's computers lost share to lower-priced
products, particularly ones that ran the Microsoft Windows operating system. After more
executive job shuffles, CEO Gil Amelio in 1997 bought NeXT to bring Jobs back. Jobs regained
leadership within the company and became the new CEO shortly after. He began to rebuild
Apple's status, opening Apple's own retail stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to
create a portfolio of software titles, and changing some of the hardware used in its computers.
The company returned to profitability. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc.,
reflecting it’s shifted focus toward consumer electronics, and announced the iPhone, which saw
critical acclaim and significant financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to
health complications, and Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months later, Jobs died,
marking the end of an era for the company.

Apple's worldwide annual revenue totaled $229 billion for the 2017 fiscal year. Apple is the
world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile
phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei. In August 2018, Apple became the first public
U.S. company to be valued at over US$1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time
employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018. It operates the iTunes
Store, which is the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion
Apple products are actively in use worldwide.[10] The company enjoys a high level of brand
loyalty and has been repeatedly ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, it receives
significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental and
business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source
materials.

Products of Apple Company


Apple II
Hand built by Steve Wozniak – the bearded sidekick to Steve Jobs – the Apple II was released in
1977, just 12 months after the very first Apple computer, the Apple I. Unlike that Apple I, which
was assembled in Jobs's parents' garage, the Apple II signaled the Apple co-founder's early drive.
Some years later, he was reported as saying: "My dream for the Apple II was to sell the first real
packed computer." The Apple II duly became the fastest-selling personal computer of its time,
fetching $79m in sales in 1979.

The Macintosh

The Macintosh 128K was released in January 1984 "with all the showbiz of a car launch". And what a
launch it was. No technology company would have dared dream about flaunting a personal computer in a
multimillion-dollar Super bowl slot, but Apple did. The Macintosh 128J was different thought – it wasn't
especially for business or bespectacled engineers; it was comparatively easy to use.
The iMac
Three years after his return to Apple in 1998, Jobs urged the world to "think different". But no
one anticipated the iMac, the computer that kick started Apple's fortunes and propelled the
company to where it is today. As the Guardian review from 14 May 1998 noted: "nobody who
attended last week's product launch expected to find the most radical Macintosh since the
original hit the streets 14 years ago … There isn't even a floppy drive."

The iPod nano

Steve Jobs discontinued the iPod mini at


the height of its popularity in September
2005. His indefatigable drive for design
and efficiency saw it replaced with the
much smaller nano. Apple reinvented
the nano in September 2010 with its
sixth iteration. At 21.1g the new nano
was 15g lighter than its predecessor and
half the height.
i phone

Less than half a decade after the iPod, Apple was already the biggest name in digital music.
After months of rumors and anticipation, Jobs, in January 2007, unveiled what would quickly
become Apple's killer product. The phone was a hit with techies and non-techies alike. A
typically fervent Stephen Fry reviewed the iPhone four months after its launch. "Beauty. Charm.
Delight. Excitement. Ooh. Aah. Wow! Let me at it," he wrote in the Guardian. With the fifth
incarnation unveiled earlier this week, the excitement has not yet dissipated.

i Tunes
Until Jobs unveiled iTunes in January 2001, no one had been able to convince music label
executives that people might pay for songs online. Announced at the back end of a 90-minute
keynote to launch the new Macintosh, iTunes was an unexciting "all-in-one digital music
program" that brought together MP3 playback, internet radio and CD writing. This week Apple
began letting people access their digital music across any of their devices wirelessly. It is the
beginning of Apple's cloud revolution.

i OS App Store
Apple announced a new milestone for its App Store in July this year: 15bn downloads (of more
than 500,000 apps) since it launched in July 2008. The App Store has become the cornerstone to
the iPhone's success, with the world's media giants all scrambling for a prominent place on the
smartphone of choice – and spawning a new market for software developers. Pundits called it the
future of mobile consumption, and Apple has since expanded its App Store to OS X computers,
potentially ushering in a new age of software development.
6, Why does Dell purchase most of the components that go into its
PC from independent suppliers, as opposed to making more itself? (Dell does
little more than final assembly of components into PC).

In order to have world level competition in the Information technology, the company must have to be
cost efficient and innovative. By following the concept Dell is relied on outside suppliers for their
production of components. Dell derive two main advantages by outsourcing, Strategic flexibility and cost
efficient. Dell believed that they have comparative advantage in

1, Customization

2, Price

3, Order fulfillment in short span of time

Dell more focus is on customer satisfaction and they handled the activities where they are good at. The
company focused on the core values and activities and rest of the manufacturing activities is given to
the suppliers. The company realized that their benefit is in supply chain management and logistic, then
manufacturing process. Dell focus on the most critical and important factors in customer
satisfaction and positioning their product. Dell focused on core areas where they are good at
while allowing their suppliers to do the rest in other areas of the process.
Outsourcing is the suitable strategy to maintain the benefits in the competitive market. It allow
the company to focus on the most important matters. It also increase the trust level of company
over their suppliers. Due to increase trust level, the suppliers are always in struggle to improve
the product quality.
Moreover, strategy of outsourcing have several advantages for Dell company but one of the crucial
benefit is that, it allow Dell to focus on what the company can perform in the best possible way and let
the suppliers to do their part.
Conclusion
Software and hardware, make the integrated system of Information technology. There are companies
which are in continuous struggle to develop advance hardware and software. Among such companies, the
some of the firms are:

Hardware companies
These companies are making the tangible components of the machines mostly used in information
technology. For example monitor screen, CPU, mobile casing, wires, and hard disk.
Some of the hardware companies are:

 Foxconn Technology group


 Apple Company
 Toshiba Corporation

Software companies
These companies develop programs which are required to run the hardware to produce the output.
These programs use to give instruction and help in processing data.

 Netsol Technology
 TCS (TATA consultancy service)
 Phebsoft. Pvt. Ltd

Case study of Dell Company

Majority of Dell engineers and development groups are hard at work around the globe
aggressively pursuing new and better ways to customer technology challenges. The otcome of
their work is often first-to-market products that guide innovation industry-wide. While its
principal headquarters and design centers remain in Austin, Texas, Dell has expanded its
operations over recent years. The company has established new facilities around the world, each
with its own areas of specialization: Companies generally drive to multi country manufacturing
and expand into different countries in order to achieve advantages such as reduce transport and
distribution costs, prevent trade barriers or non-tariff barriers, Secure supplies of raw materials or
markets and last but not least the reduced labor costs. These will ultimately result in Cost
advantages on manufacturing. Therefore it is evident that Dell too enjoys a mix of above
advantages, taking into consideration of their locations.
Respected Sir,

It is to update you about the progress of our group in the assigned final project of Marketing
Management. Our group consist of five members namely:

Hadia Malik

Laraib Khalid,

Zainab Nayab

Bushra Ali

Aizen Zehra

Through mutual discussion we selected the following organizations for our project:

 Habib Bank Of Pakistan


 Fauji Cement
 Ufone
 Nishad Linen

We will try to get in touch with the companies, which ever company will be willing to provide us the
information in best possible way, that company will be preferred for the project. We got the companies
contact number from their website.

Soon after selecting the company, we will formally start our project.

Regards