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Q.1 Explain necessity of equilization and neutrialization for industrial waste water?

Ans. Equalization of wastes. Sometimes the waste will be having high pollutant concentration and at
other times it will be having low pollutant concentration. If we can equalize the waste we may not be
reducing the overall strength of the waste but for a particular time if you see we will not be getting a
very high strength wastewater we will be equalizing the effluent. So, equalization of the waste also can
reduce the strength of the wastewater. It will not be reducing the overall quantity of the pollutant
present in the system but at a particular time if you take the concentration of the pollutant will be

NEUTRALIZATION. Neutralization of process water is a critical step in most

industrial wastewater treatment processes. Any company that dischargeseffluent into sewer
systems, lakes, streams are required to neutralize this effluentbefore allowing it to be
discharged. Neutralization Tanks for Chemical Waste. Orion polypropylene and
polyethyleneneutralization tanks are designed to receive, dilute and neutralize corrosive and
harmful chemical wastes before allowing such materials to be discharged into the public sewers
or the environment.

Q.2 Write a short note on CPCB norms for industial waste water treatment?

Ans. Pollution from industrial sources .

Pollution control at source ¾ The water polluting industries which had not so far installed ETPs should
be asked to furnish a time bound programme to the Ministry of Environment and Forests for treatment
of their effluents. ¾ Those who have given commitment under Corporate Responsibility on Environment
Protection (CREP) should adhere to it. ¾ Such programmes should clearly indicate the existing and
proposed arrangements with detailed time schedules. The programme should be backed up by a
commitment from the Administrative Ministry concerned or the respective State Government, as the
case may be, to provide the funds as necessary and ensure compliance by the industries. ¾ If the
undertakings and the administrative Ministry/State Government failed to respond, action under the
Environment (Protection) Act need to be taken forthwith thereafter. ¾ SPCBs should monitor the
progress and report on the outcome. The SPCBs should examine the prevailing arrangements in charging
water supply for industry and formulate proposals in consultation with the concerned departments on
how the system can be rationalized to conserve water and recycle it for use. ¾ Emerging technologies
such as aerobic composting, vermiculture, ferti-irrigation, etc. as secondary treatment should be
adopted for the organic wastes by the industries. Recently, the root-zone technology is also being
advocated is yet another alternative for energy saving for treatment of industrial wastewaters. ¾
Incentives have to be made more attractive to make the industries undertake pollution control
measures. It is important to assess the effectiveness of this measure and work out other measures
which would serve as effective incentives for pollution control.

B. Reuse/recycling of treated industrial waste and resource recovery:

¾ The reuse and recycling of wastes for agricultural purpose would not only help to reduce the pollution
and requirement of fresh water for such use but also would supplement the much needed nutrients and
organic manure to the plants. ¾ The segregation of waste water streams may help in reducing waste
water volume and waste strength and may help recycling and reuse of majority of waste streams. The
quantity of the effluent generated in sugar industry can be reduced from 300 litres to 50 litres per tonne
of cane crushed, if recycling techniques are meticulously followed. The wastewater quantity generated
in continuous fermentation distilleries is 7 litres per litre of alcohol produced, as compared to 14-15
litres per litre of alcohol produced in batch fermentation process distilleries. The reduction in
wastewater quantity is mainly achieved by recycling wash and adopting reboiler system. In pulp and
paper industries, the paper mill wastewater is completely recycled into pulp mill by adopting fibre
recovery system. It has helped to reduce the wastewater from 200 cum to 50 cum per tonne of paper

C. Waste minimization and clean technologies:

¾ It may be noted that by recycling techniques the waste concentrations may increase, however the
total load remain the same. The concentration of waste strength would help the economical conversion
of spent wash to biofertilizer. Waste strength reduction can be achieved by adopting in plant control
measures such as reduction of spillages of wastes, elimination of process failures, use of proper
equipment for handling and dry cleaning techniques etc. This is often termed as clean technologies; it
does not add to the cost of production, in fact industry gains from it. ¾ Innovation in pollution
prevention/waste minimization efforts on the part of the industries needs to be sternly promoted.
Pollution prevention/ waste minimization, in our country at least, is done only for product quality
improvement, energy saving or other economic reasons and any reduction in pollution is only incidental.
¾ All organic wastes are best source of energy. A number of anaerobic technologies are now available
for treatment of organic industrial effluents. Spent wash, black liquor (pulp mill), dairy effluents, sugar
factory effluents and press mud etc. are some of the organic wastes tried for energy recovery. The
energy recovery will incidentally solve the air pollution problem, as biogas is a cleaner fuel compared to
baggasse, rice husk or coal. It is essential to introduce energy audit in all the industries so hat cost-
benefit ratio can be established in each case. ¾ Bio-fertilizers are now prepared from organic rich wastes
by admixing filler materials. Spent wash is converted to manure by addition of press mud, bagasse cillo,
agricultural residues etc. In this technology the entire liquor effluent is converted into solid mass and it
can be termed as "Zero-discharge” technology.

D. Waste water discharge standards and charges on residual pollution:

¾The limits need to be fixed on water use and wastewater generation per unit production for each
industry. In order to achieve this goal, guidelines are to be evolved and the industry should be forced to
adopt recycling and reuse through legislation and vigilance monitoring. ¾ New measures such as
imposing charges on residual pollution once the prescribed limits are complied will have to be
introduced to encourage recycle and reuse of effluents and adoption of the zero-discharge concept. E.
Mixing sewage with industrial waste wherever advantageous ¾Wherever it is possible, industrial wastes
should be combined with domestic wastes for treatment if no toxicity. ¾Economy of scale, better
treatability of industrial waste water and better arrangements for disposal of treated effluents are some
of the advantage of the joint treatment of industrial and domestic effluents. ¾Contribution from
industries to capital expenditure of laying sewers and construction of treatment plant would render
finance to sewerage and treatment schemes. ¾Joint treatment is attractive for cities and towns and
industrial areas surrounded by residential areas. ¾Baroda and Ahmedabad cities have such joint
treatment schemes under a notified charging formula. ¾It is considered that for small-scale industries
located in cities, such joint collection and treatment is a win-win option. For medium and large
industries wherever possible such joint collection and treatment would improve, besides other technical
advantages, the financial viability of the city sewerage and treatment system.

Q.3 Explain for sugar,dairy,pulpand paper industry;sources of waste;characterstics of

waste;treatmnt of waste water;disposal of waste water?

Ans. SUGAR INDUSTRY:Wastewater Characterization of a Sugar Industry:

The effluent characteristics from a typical sugar plant are presented in Table 3.

Wastewater Treatment of Sugar Industry:

Like any other industry, the pollution load from Sugar mills can also be reduced with a better water and
material economy practiced in the plant. Judicious use of water in various plant practices, and its
recycle, wherever practicable, will reduce the volume of waste to a great extent. Volume of mill house
waste can be reduced by recycling the water used for splashing.
Dry cleaning of floors or floor washings using controlled quantity of water will also reduce the volume of
waste to a certain extent. The organic load of the waste can only be reduced by a proper control of the
operations. Overloading of the evaporators and the vacuum pans and the extensive boiling of the syrup
lead to a loss of sugar through condenser water, this in turn increases both volume and strength of the
waste effluent.

Conventional Treatment Method:

The conventional system of treating wastewater is by Activated Sludge Process (ASP) from various units
of a sugar plant is shown in Fig. 3. The various units include Bar Screen, Skimming Tank, Equalization
Basin, Aeration Unit, Clarifier and Sludge Drying Beds.

2. Dissolved Solids(a) Sources of wastewater:
The liquid waste from a large dairy originates from the following sections or plants: receiving stations,
bottling plant, cheese plant, casein plant, condensed milk plant, dried milk plant, and ice cream plant.
The main sources of dairy effluents are those arising from the following:

 Spills and leaks of products or by-products

 Residual milk or milk products in piping and equipment before cleaning
 Wash solutions from equipment and floors
 Condensate from evaporation processes
 Pressings and brines from cheese manufacture

Dairy plant operators may choose from a wide variety of methods for treating dairy wastes from their
plants. This may range from land application for small plants to operation of biological waste-water
treatment systems for larger plants. Some dairy plants may pre-treat the effluents and discharge them
to a municipal waste-water treatment plant.

In addition to the wastes from all the above milk processing units, some amount of uncontaminated
cooling water comes as waste; these are very often re-circulated.

(b) Characteristics of wastewater:

Dairy effluent contains soluble organics, suspended solids, trace organics. All these components
contribute largely towards their high biological oxygen demand (BODS) and chemical oxygen demand
(COD). Dairy wastes are white in colour and usually slightly alkaline in nature and become acidic quite
rapidly due to the fermentation of milk sugar to lactic acid. The suspended matter content of milk waste
is considerable mainly due to fine curd found in cheese waste. The pollution effect of dairy waste is
attributed to the immediate and high oxygen demand. Decomposition of casein leading to the formation
of heavy black sludge’s and strong butyric acid odors and characterize milk waste pollution. The
characteristics of a dairy effluent contain Temperature, Color, PH (6.5-8.0), DO, BOD, COD, Dissolved
solids, suspended solids, chlorides, sulphate, oil & grease. It depends largely on the quantity of milk
processed and type of product manufactured. The waste water of dairy contains large quantities of milk
constituents such as casein, inorganic salts, besides detergents and sanitizers used for washing. It has
high sodium content from the use of caustic soda for cleaning. Typical Characteristics of dairy industry
wastewaters reported by various authors are given in table.

(c) Treatment:
Dairy manufacturing has a strong impact on the environment, producing large volumes of wastewater
with high organic and nutrient loading and extreme pH variations. This requires the application of
effective and cheap wastewater treatment procedures which ensure fresh water preservation. There are
various dairy effluent treatment strategies as shown in following figure:
(d) Disposal:

Dairy plants discharging waste waters directly to streams, bays, rivers, creeks and /or estuaries must
have a permit for this discharge. Dairy plants that use non-discharge systems such as land disposal will
also need a permit. Permits for discharge are usually obtained from the state government control
agency. Effluents from waste treatment systems must be sufficiently reduced in BOD and biological
nutrients (e.g., P, NH3) that discharge to surface waters does not significantly affect aquatic life.
Environmental regulatory agencies specify limits for composition of effluents discharged to each type of
stream or watershed. To reduce the volume of dairy wastewater to be treated and reduce treatment
costs, careful attention must be given to minimizing losses of milk and milk products in the dairy plant.
With good product conservation and selection of an effective waste treatment process, dairy plant
operators should be able to operate profitably and meet environmental requirements.

3. Pulp and Paper Industry

(a) Sources of wastewater:

The high volumes of water required, have resulted in the majority of the mills in India being situated
close to rivers where inexpensive water is readily available. Inland where inexpensive water is less
readily available, process water is also derived from treated domestic waste waters. Waste-water
disposal often occurs directly to rivers or to the sea with or without prior biological treatment. Other
avenues of disposal include irrigation onto pasture land, or discharge to sewer (attracting a local
municipal discharge levy).

In the production of approximately 3 000 000 t/a of paper products the Industry uses some 130 million
m3 /n of water. The waste water produced is high both in organic material (200 to 17 000 mg/C COD)
and inorganic material (500 to 13 000 mg/f TDS). The variation in water intake and waste-water quality
is dependent upon the tree species or pulp material utilized, the efficiency of the mill in terms of process
control and operation, the paper product produced, and the degree o\ chemical recovery or wastewater
treatment prior to discharge.

(b) Characteristics of wastewater:

1. Suspended Solids

The presence of suspended solids in mill waste waters is due to the fine bark particles and silt from
pretreatment, the overall retention on the paper machines, which is affected by the use of retention
aids and save-alls, and the loss of fibre/filler in spillages or during wash-ups and grade changes.

(i) Organic matter: Depending upon the pulping procedure and yield coefficient of pulp from the wood,
bagasse or waste paper, up to 60% of the raw material is suspended or dissolved and becomes a
potential organic pollutant load. The loss of dissolved organic matter in mill waste waters also arises
from non-retained wet-end additives and materials dissolved from pulp or recycled broke and waste
paper. In practice the majority of this material is recovered for reuse. As measured by the COD of the
mixed waste water, the specific loss of dissolved organics ranged from 4,4 - 80 kg/t. The strength of the
waste water depends on the load loss and the specific water intake and varies over an extremely wide
range (200 - 20 000 mg/£ COD).

(ii) Inorganic matter: Total dissolved solids loads ranged from 2 - 183 kg/t of product (Table 6). Pulp
liquors containing discharges from the black liquor, washing liquors, overflows and storage residue
contribute to the hiiih TDS levels in the form of salt cake, sodium, calcium, carbonates and sulphates.

(c) Treatment:

Treatment of water without reuse (open cycle)

In this case, the objective of treatment is to reduce the contamination in effluents to such a degree that
they can be discharged, thereby complying with legislative requirements and avoiding any
environmental impact.
The effluents to be treated tend to have high pH values and a high content of organic matter, solids in
suspension, organohalogenated compounds (AOX), nitrogen, and phosphorus, amongst other

A satisfactory treatment of such effluents would involve stages such as homogenization and
neutralization of the pH, coagulation/flocculation prior to decantation, and, finally, elimination of the
organic matter using a biological process (anaerobic or aerobic) or by advanced oxidation (with ozone,
Fenton, or photo-Fenton). After these steps, the effluent can be discharged into the environment.

Treatment using a zero-waste system (closed cycle)

The implementation of a zero-waste system is a much broader concept than simply an effluent
treatment technology. Indeed, this is an environmental management system that aims to achieve the
lowest environmental impact of the process as a whole. Thus, the generation of liquid waste and
consumption of drinking water are minimized by reuse of the water recovered from the effluent.

In order to treat effluents to achieve a sufficient quality that allows the water recovered to be reused, a
more exhaustive treatment than in the previous case must be designed. An initial homogenization and
pH-neutralization step, followed by decantation to sediment the solids in suspension with the largest
particle sizes, is required. Treatment then continues with advanced oxidation (preferably ozonization) to
destroy larger organic molecules that may be refractory to a subsequent biological process, usually an
anaerobic biological treatment, in which the content of organic matter dissolved in the liquid is reduced
while generating biogas, followed by filtration of the digestion effluent, initially through a sand filter and
then using ultrafiltration membranes. A reverse osmosis process completes the treatment. The
permeate resulting upon reverse osmosis is of the quality required for reuse in the paper manufacturing
process, whereas the rejection flow is treated using a vacuum evaporation process to reduce its volume
as far as possible. The water recovered by evaporation can also be reused, whereas the concentrate,
which has a minimum volume, must be managed as a waste. The sludges generated in the anaerobic
digestion process, together with the plant residues, such as tree bark, sawdust, etc. generated during
initial preparation of the wood, are burnt in a furnace. Both the heat generated by the furnace and that
generated upon burning the biogas help to meet the energy requirements of the vacuum evaporator.

Thus, most of the water used during the process is recovered, a minimum quantity of waste that needs
to be managed externally is generated, and major synergies between different processes are achieved in
energy terms, therefore, overall, this is a highly sustainable environmental management system.

Q.4 Write a note on effluents standards?


Q.5 Explain in details CETP?
Ans. It will be reducing the capital and operating cost and advantage of having trained personnel to take
care of the unit, avoiding land constraints in individual industries because if individual industries go for
separate treatment plants lot of land requirement is there so that can be avoided and so much of
domestic wastewater will be coming to such plants so this domestic wastewater can contribute
nutrients and dilution potential making an industrial wastewater more amenable to degradation. This is
another advantage and the last one is domestic wastewater provide a continual seed source to the
biological unit

This is because most of the industrial wastewater will be containing hazardous waste that will be
adversely affecting the biological treatment system. But if we can supply domestic wastewater then the
microorganism will be continuously getting seeded so that the system efficiency will be more.

Now, if you want to go for such type of a treatment system, common effluent treatment plants, who
will be paying for that because many industries are contributing to the pollution to that treatment
plant so who will be taking care of that one. For example, in a municipal wastewater treatment plant
the residents of the municipality will be paying the taxes so they will be paying for the treatment
plant also. But when we are putting up a Common Effluent Treatment Plant that will be bearing the
cost, definitely the industry has to bear the cost. But many industries are involved; many types of
wastes are coming so how can we proportion the cost of this treatment.

There are various methods for that one. One is equitable sharing of the financial burden. If many
industries are present each industry will be sharing equal amount. For example, if the waste
generated by each industry is of same quantity and quality this is acceptable. But if the quantity
generated by various industries is different then nobody will be accepting this method.