nalysis of Welded Joints

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Review

state of development

Wolfgang Fricke*

Technical University Hamburg-Harburg, AB 3-06, L ammersieth 90, D-22305 Hamburg, Germany

.

Abstract

The literature on fatigue analysis of welded joints is reviewed, considering mainly papers

and books published during the past 10–15 years. After a short introduction, the different

approaches for fatigue analyses are covered, i.e. the nominal stress approach, the structural or

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Only seam

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-weld

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considered, and not the behaviour of spot-welds, which is a very special ﬁeld. Due to the

vast

vast amoun

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relevant

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literature

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some speciﬁ

speciﬁcc areas

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are left

left for other

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reviewss or only

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touched, i.e. fatigue testing and evaluation, fatigue loading and variable amplitude effects,

environmental effects and fatigue reliability.

r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186

2. Fatigue analysis approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

3. Nominal stress approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

4. Structural or hot-spot stress approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

5. Notch stress approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191

6. Notch intensity approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

7. Notch strain approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

8. Crack propagation approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

9. Introduction to references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

E-mail address: w.fricke@tu-harburg.de (W. Fricke).

0951-8339/03

0951-833 9/03/$/$ - see front matter

matter r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 9 5 1 - 8 3 3 9 ( 0 2 ) 0 0 0 7 5 - 8

186 W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200

1. Introduction

Fatigue of materials is a very complex process, which is still today not fully

understood. The damage of the material starts in the crystalline structure and

becomes visible in a later stage by plastic deformation, formation of micro-cracks on

slip bands, coalescence of micro cracks and ﬁnally propagation of a main crack.

Many inﬂuence factors complicate the subject. The behaviour of different materials

and the effect of these inﬂuence factors has been and is being extensively

investigated. Very often, the phenomena are analysed and further evaluated with

the aim of wider application.

Fatigue of welds is even more complex. Welding strongly affects the material by

the process of heating and subsequent cooling as well as by the fusion process with

additional ﬁller material, resulting in inhomogeneous and different materials.

Furthermore, a weld is usually far from being perfect, containing inclusions, pores,

cavities, undercuts etc. The shape of the weld proﬁle and non-welded root gaps

create high stress concentrations with widely varying geometry parameters. Last but

not least residual stresses and distortions due to the welding process affect the fatigue

behaviour.

As a consequence, fatigue failures appear in welded structures mostly at the welds

rather than in the base metal, even if the latter contains notches such as openings or

re-entrant corners. For this reason, fatigue analyses are of high practical interest for

all cyclic loaded welded structures, such as ships, offshore structures, cranes, bridges,

vehicles, railcars etc. In view of the complexity of the subject and the wide area of

application it is not surprising that several approaches for fatigue analysis of welded

joints exist. However, it is almost impossible to follow up the great amount of related

literature dealing with fatigue testing and the development or application of

approaches to consider all the different inﬂuence parameters.

Much effort is spent in working groups of several organisations with the aim to

follow the development, to condense information and to derive recommendations

and codes. Two examples of such organisations should be mentioned here, in

which also the author is involved: (a) the International Institute of Welding

(IIW) with representatives from National Welding Societies all over the world, and

(b) the International Ship and Offshore Structures Congress (ISSC), where the

members of various Committees summarise and present the state-of-the-art every 3

years [1].

Due to the vast amount of literature, the following report can review only a

limited number of relevant publications and will concentrate exactly on ‘fatigue

analysis of welded joints’. In this connection, only seam-welded joints are

considered, whereas the analysis and behaviour of spot-welds is a speciﬁc area

treated quite differently and being mostly applied to thin-walled structures.

Furthermore, the following areas, each of which could be the subject of similar

reviews, have been left out here or are only touched:

* Fatigue loading and the effect of variable amplitudes on life prediction,

W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200 187

* Application of reliability methods to the fatigue assessment (fatigue reliability).

On the other hand, much progress has been achieved during the past years in the

development of approaches considering the local geometry and material effects,

which will form the main part of the following review.

Before different areas of the fatigue assessment of welded joints are covered, some

books are mentioned in the following, which give introduction into the subject and

summarise the fundamentals as well as recent developments. Among others, Suresh

[2] gives a comprehensive description of the mechanics and micro-mechanics of

fatigue in metals. The topic of the textbook by Dowling [3] is the mechanical

behaviour of materials in general, but emphasis is placed on practical methods of

predicting the fatigue life of mechanical parts and structural members. The new book

by Schijve [4] aims at the understanding of the fatigue mechanism in the material and

how it can be affected by a large variety of practical conditions, helping to design a

structure for durability and thus against fatigue. Bannantine [5] explains in detail the

fatigue analysis methods related to crack initiation and propagation in base metal

and provide a separate manual containing a great number of solutions of practical

problems. Carpinteri [6] summarises several topics of fatigue crack propagation in a

2-volume handbook.

In connection with welded joints, the books by Gurney [7] and Maddox [8] have

certainly to be mentioned, presenting investigations on the fatigue behaviour of

welds as well as fundamentals of the fatigue strength assessment together with design

rules and applications. Comprehensive information on procedures and data for

fatigue strength assessment from the viewpoint of special applications (offshore

structures; vehicles) is contained in [9,10]. Radaj [11] presents the fatigue strength

characteristics of welded joints and outlines different approaches for their

assessment. More recently, Radaj and Sonsino [12] have given a comprehensive

overview on the assessment of welded joints by local approaches together with

analysis procedures and application examples. Both books include an extensive list

of references including early and fundamental papers as well as in particular German

literature.

Different approaches exist for the fatigue analysis of welded joints, which can be

distinguished by the parameters used for the description of the fatigue life N or

fatigue strength. Fig. 1 shows the different parameters together with characteristic

diagrams. In general, the approaches can be subdivided into the following categories:

* Nominal stress approach, using the nominal stress range Dsn determined by the

external or internal loads and by the related cross section properties.

* Structural or hot-spot stress approach, using the structural stress range Dss at the

weld to consider additionally the effect of the structural discontinuity.

188 W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200

Fig. 1. Approaches for description of the fatigue strength and life, after [12].

* Notch stress and notch intensity approach, using the elastic notch stress range

Dsk or an equivalent parameter such as the stress intensity to take the notch effect

of the weld toe or root into account.

* Notch strain approach, using the local elastic–plastic strain range Dek and/or

other parameters describing the relevant damage process in the material.

* Crack propagation approach, using special parameters such as the J -integral or

the range of the stress intensity DK to describe the increase of the crack length per

cycle, i.e. the crack propagation rate d a=dN :

This categorisation is used in the following to review the related papers published.

The fatigue assessment according to the nominal stress approach uses standard

S 2N curves together with detail classes of basic joints which can be found in several

Standards and guidelines and which are mainly based on the statistical evaluation of

relevant fatigue tests in the 1970s [13,14], where also uniform scatter bands have been

deﬁned for the S 2N curves. Later, a harmonised set of S 2N curves and an

associated catalogue of details was agreed upon internationally and issued by the

IIW [15], which contains joints at aluminium alloys in addition to steel. It is

interesting to note that the recent Norwegian structural design code combines the

IIW classiﬁcation and the class designations used in several British and related

Standards [16].

Over the past few years, the consideration of several inﬂuence factors in fatigue

analyses has been investigated, such as the mean stress effect and in particular the so-

called plate thickness effect, which has to be taken into account in case of welded

joints at relatively thick plates [7]. Recent proposals based on various investigations

can be found in Refs. [17] and [18]. The consideration of the opposite effect for welds

at relatively thin sheets (2–6 mm) has been investigated by Gurney [19], who

established a suitable parameter for the use in design.

W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200 189

components are not acting in-phase. These are in the nominal stress approach

usually considered by interaction equations. B ackstrom and Marquis [20] re-

. .

interaction equations from different codes, giving mostly conservative results for

proportional and non-proportional loading, however, showing a relatively large

scatter.

Petinov et al. [21] criticise the lost similitude between test specimens and real

structures and propose that only the initial phase of the fatigue life, which is

governed by the local conditions, should be described by adjusted S 2N curves. The

subsequent crack propagation should be analysed separately, taking the effects of

the surrounding structure and loading into account. This proposal is principally

followed by local approaches.

stress approach, considers the stress increase due to the structural conﬁguration or in

other words, the macro-geometry. The idea to exclude the local stress concentration

due to the weld toe by using the stress or strain at a certain distance away from the

weld toe is related to experimental investigations performed in the 1960s by Peterson,

Manson and Haibach, see [12]. The hot-spot stress approach with the deﬁnition of

reference points for the stress evaluation and extrapolation at certain distances away

from the weld, which depend on the plate or shell thickness, was developed in the

1970s in a combined effort by classiﬁcation societies and operators of offshore

installations together with research institutes. The objective was the fatigue strength

assessment of tubular joints. The development is reviewed and summarised,

e.g. in [9,22–24].

Various codes and recommendations exist for load assumptions, for

stress evaluation and extrapolation, for parametric formulae of hot-spot

stress concentration factors (SCFs) and for the deﬁnition of an appropriate

S 2N curve [24]. In this connection, also IIW has issued recommendations,

which have recently been revised [25]. They contain new parametric SCFs

for welded circular and rectangular hollow sections, allowing an improved

combination of different load components. Parallel to this, van Wingerde et al.

[26] present simpliﬁed design formulae and graphs to facilitate the SCF-determina-

tion of K-shaped connections. Analytical expressions for SCFs of circumferential

welds in tubulars under consideration of fabrication tolerances are given by

Lotsberg [27].

The structural or hot-spot stress is a ﬁctitious value; however, Radaj [11]

demonstrated that in plate or shell structures it corresponds to the sum of membrane

and bending stress at the weld toe, which can be determined either by surface

extrapolation or inner linearisation of the stress. He presented applications of the

approach to several welded plate structures. Fricke and Petershagen [28] derived a

190 W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200

generalised hot-spot stress approach for plate structures using Radaj’s local

approach [11] and applied it to complex welded structures.

The hot-spot stress approach for welded plate structures was further developed

particularly in Japan [29,30], France [22] and Finland [31]. Maddox [32] has recently

re-evaluated several fatigue tests using the stress extrapolation recommended by IIW

[15] to validate the related design S 2N curve. Detailed recommendations for the

determination of hot-spot stresses are given by Niemi [31]. However, several

applications showed that the stress results are still affected by the ﬁnite element

meshing and element properties. Additional recommendations for ﬁnite element

modelling and hot-spot stress evaluation are given by Huther et al. [33] and by

Fricke [34], the latter based on extensive round-robin stress analyses. A

comprehensive IIW-guidance for the structural stress approach is currently under

preparation [35].

The appropriate selection of reference points for the stress evaluation and the

deﬁnition of the hot-spot S 2N curve is still under debate. Labesse and Recho [36]

discuss the selection by the example of a T-joint and make a new proposal to take

into account effects of the loading mode. Tveiten and Moan [37] describe the

development and veriﬁcation of a new and general method for the structural stress

extrapolation, being based on the asymptotic behaviour of the stresses adjacent to an

idealised notch and the deﬁnition of a stress extrapolation from points outside the

region affected by the singularity. Soh [38] found that the stresses in the vicinity of

the welded brace/chord intersections of tubular joints computed with solid elements

do not satisfy the free surface conditions and developed a correction procedure to

improve the accuracy of computed stresses. Dong [39] utilises the structural stress

deﬁnition by Radaj [11] and evaluates the structural stress at the weld toe position

from ﬁnite element results by using principles of elementary structural mechanics.

Mesh insensitivity is demonstrated by several examples, however, mostly on 2D basic

joints.

The above-mentioned deﬁnition fails at in-plane notches such as welded edge

gussets, where plate thickness is no more a relevant parameter for the deﬁnition of

the reference points for stress evaluation. Niemi and Tanskanen [40] as well as Fricke

[34] propose alternative procedures for the hot-spot stress analysis in such cases,

using absolute distances for the reference points.

The bi-axial fatigue data for welded connections mentioned in the previous

chapter have been re-analysed by B ackstrom and Marquis [41] also on the basis of

. .

hot-spot stresses according to three design criteria, of which the hot-spot critical

plane model was most successful in resolving the data to a single hot-spot S 2N line.

Other parameters such as the mean stress and thickness effect are treated in a

similar way as in the nominal stress approach. Misalignment effects are, however,

considered separately in the applied stress. Based on earlier investigations by

Maddox [8] and others, a procedure is given in [15].

Several applications of the structural or hot-spot stress approach in different

industrial areas give insight into speciﬁc problems and solutions, such as details in

ship and offshore structures [42–47], structures for mechanical engineering [48],

vehicles [49,50] or steel bridges [51].

W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200 191

The analysis and assessment of the elastic notch stress at the weld toe or root

contain the problems of high or even inﬁnite stress peaks at sharp notches and of

micro-structural support effects reducing the stress relevant for the crack initiation

and propagation. Different micro-structural support hypotheses exist, which are

further described in textbooks such as [11]: the stress gradient approach according to

Siebel and Stieler, the stress averaging approach according to Neuber and the surface

layer approach according to Peterson. More recently, approaches have been

proposed which are based on highly stressed volume [52] or the stress at a critical

distance from the notch root [53].

Corresponding approaches developed for welded joints cover generally the crack

initiation phase up to a certain crack depth, which is differently deﬁned (between 0.1

and 0.5 mm). Lawrence et al. [54,55] proposed a procedure for the evaluation of the

fatigue notch factor, which is based on Peterson’s hypothesis [56] and which shows a

maximum value for the weld toe radius of approx. 0.25 mm taken as worst case

condition. The crack initiation life is obtained using the elastic part of the strain

S 2N curve (Basquin relation). The approach has been applied to several cases,

where the subsequent crack propagation phase is treated separately [57–59].

Radaj [11] developed an approach based on Neuber’s micro-structural support

hypothesis by suggesting an additional ﬁctitious radius r f at the notch, which allows

the local stress to be analysed directly without requiring an SCF or fatigue notch

factor. By assuming plane strain condition at the notch and the von Mises strength

criterion for ductile material, he found for steel a value of r f 1 mm, which may be

¼

applied in a worst-case approach as notch radius, i.e. assuming a sharp notch at the

weld toe. Radaj [11,12] gives also characteristic values for endurable stress ranges.

The approach is frequently applied also in the ﬁnite life range by assuming a typical

slope exponent of the S 2N curve [15,60]. The applicability of the approach to

welded joints in aluminium alloy and the associated micro-structural support effect

have been investigated by Sonsino et al. [61].

Seeger et al. [62,63] (see also [12]) proposed a notch stress approach for welded

joints, which uses also the toe radius of 1 mm at steel; however, he considers this

radius as the mean of values in reality. A large number of welded T- and Y-joints

with plate thickness between 8 and 40 mm was investigated with respect to their

fatigue strength and elastic notch stress, allowing characteristic values of the notch

stress S 2N curve to be derived.

The analysis of the notch stress to be used in the approaches mentioned may be

based on the theory of elasticity or on numerical methods such as FEM or BEM

(ﬁnite or boundary element method). Useful are also SCFs available for standard

cases, which can be found a.o. in [55,64–67]. Further demonstration examples and

applications are described in [11,12,68,69].

The notch stress approach allows certain effects to be considered in a reﬁned way.

Janosch et al. [70,71] show that the weld quality, in particular the weld proﬁle, can be

well assessed by the notch stress approach. For instance, undercuts occurring with

different welding processes can be recorded and subsequently assessed using the

192 W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200

optimised with respect to fatigue, taking all geometrical inﬂuence factors into

account.

Also the effects of multi-axial loading and residual stresses have successfully been

considered in the notch stress approach [70]. Comprehensive investigations of welds

under biaxial constant and variable amplitude loading [72,73] show that in-phase

loading can be treated well by conventional hypotheses, while good fatigue

predictions under out-of-phase loading can be achieved particularly by the so-called

equivalent effective shear stress hypothesis in case of ductile materials such as ﬁne-

grained steel. However, for semi-ductile metals such as aluminium alloys, the

consideration of the plane with the maximum normal/shear stress combination has

shown to be superior to others.

The elastic stress ﬁeld around sharp notches can alternatively be described by the

theoretical solution for V-shaped notches under symmetric and anti-symmetric

loading. Williams showed already 50 years ago the solution for different opening

angles of the V-notch containing the stress singularity, which is well known for

crack-like notches. Verreman and Nie [74] proposed from observations to use the

related notch stress intensity factor (N-SIF) as a parameter describing the crack

initiation life of welds including short crack propagation up to a crack depth of

approx. 0.5 mm. Lazzarin and Tovo [75] quantiﬁed the contributions of the

symmetric and anti-symmetric loading modes for different geometries of welds and

re-analysed experimental data in terms of the new stress ﬁeld parameter. This re-

analysis was extended in [76] and supplemented by various aluminium-welded joints,

yielding a single scatter band for each material when related to the N-SIF approach.

Further applications of the approach demonstrate the limits of the structural stress

approach [77] and of local strain measurements close to the weld toe [78]. On the

other hand, Atzori et al. [79] show that the N-SIF approach can directly be coupled

with the well-established crack propagation approach. Good agreement is achieved

between prediction and published test data when assuming an initial crack length of

0.3 mm for the subsequent crack propagation part.

Contrary to the above, the notch strain approach considers the local elastic–plastic

stress and strain in the notch. The elements of the approach, which has been

successfully applied to notches at base material, include the computation of the local

stress and strain taking into account the elastic support effect of the surrounding

material and the cyclic material behaviour, i.e. the stress–strain relation as well as the

crack initiation life. Data of various materials obtained from tests can be found, e.g.

in [80].

W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200 193

The approach has been applied also to welded joints to predict the crack initiation

life particularly for load cycle numbers less than 10 5, where local plasticity effects are

more pronounced. Lawrence et al. [54] used the approach for the description of the

crack initiation period up to a depth of approximately 0.25 mm. In order to take

local plasticity and cyclic relaxation at the notch root into account, Neuber’s macro-

structural support formula is extended by an additive residual stress term together

with a relation by Jhansale and Topper [81]. The consideration of residual stresses

has been shown to be particularly important [59,82].

The approach has been further developed in respect of its crack initiation aspects

[58,83]. Different models for the prediction of the so-called short crack propagation

phase are discussed by Hou and Charng [84], who compare the calculated ratio

between crack initiation and propagation with observations.

An alternative approach is related to Seeger et al. (described e.g. in [12]), which is

based more on the ‘‘classical’’ elements used in connection with base metal, i.e.

stress–strain relation by Ramberg and Osgood, Neuber’s macro-structural support

effect, stress–strain path approximated according to Masing and strain S 2N curve

according to Manson, Cofﬁn and Morrow or, alternatively, a damage parameter

P 2N curve, where [85] is preferred.

The notch strain approach for welded joints has been further developed by

Sonsino [52] in respect of multiaxial fatigue, modifying Neuber’s macro-structural

support formula in case of mild-notches, introducing an equivalent notch strain to

describe multiaxial low-cycle fatigue and converting the hypothesis of highly stressed

volume into a strain related criterion. Glinka [86] proposed an energy density

approach for the calculation of the localised yielding near notches and cracks.

Applications of the notch strain approach to welded joints can be found a.o. in

[12,54,87,88].

The history of the crack propagation approach for fatigue assessment has been

reviewed by Smith [89] and more recently also by Paris [90], giving some insight into

the dramatic development during the past 40 years. Today, the approach is well

established particularly for the fatigue assessment of welded joints, where the crack

propagation phase is typically longer than the crack initiation phase if failure is

deﬁned, for instance, by a through-thickness crack. By calibrating the initial crack

length, the fatigue assessment of welded joints is sometimes even performed using the

propagation approach only. On the other hand, the approach offers the one and only

way for several cases, such as a ﬁtness for purpose assessment of structural members

with ﬂaws or other crack-like defects.

The elements of the approach are the crack propagation equations, normally

according to Paris and Erdogan, the stress intensity factor including magniﬁcation at

weld toes (M k -factor), the crack shape and path governed normally by mode-I

loading, material parameters and other inﬂuence factors such as mean or residual

stress and sequence effects under variable amplitude loading (recently extensively

194 W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200

and van Straalen [93] give an overview on practical application to welded joints,

presenting fracture mechanics analyses and making reference to the relevant

literature, which has grown very fast. For that reason, the following review

concentrates on certain topics.

Standard handbooks on stress intensity factors (SIFs) are frequently not

applicable to welded joints. Following the work by Maddox in the 1970s (see [8]),

several investigations have been performed on semi-elliptical cracks at T-butt welded

joints varying the geometry and loading parameters [94–101]. Hobbacher presented

SIFs for various types of welded joints [102] including in-plane side gussets [103].

Several results are summarised together with assumptions for material parameters in

the relevant IIW-recommendations [15,104].

The crack path and shape development at welds was investigated a.o. in [105]. Bell

et al. [106,107] as well as Pang and Grey [108] studied the coalescence of multiple

cracks at transverse welds and developed empirical models for its consideration.

The crack propagation approach has been used to investigate the effect of special

geometrical inﬂuence factors on the fatigue life, e.g. the effects of a longitudinal

attachment [109], the misalignment of load-carrying cruciform joints [68] and the

effects of undercuts and residual stresses at misaligned butt-joints [110]. Here, the

undercuts were found to have the most signiﬁcant geometrical effect on the fatigue

strength.

The approach has also been applied to relatively complex structures. Sumi [111]

recommends the weight function method to consider arbitrary load combinations.

The crack propagation may be strongly affected by load-shedding effects, as

exempliﬁed by Xu and Bea [112]. In tubular joints, special methodologies and

geometry functions have been developed to improve the correlation between

predicted and measured aspect ratio patterns of the crack shape [113,114].

Several recent investigations have focussed on the following additional aspects:

One aspect is the effect of crack closure on the propagation rate, which Elber [115]

proposed to consider by an effective range DK eff of the SIF. The major

difﬁculty in practical situations is the estimation of the effective part of the cycle,

which is inﬂuenced by the plastic wake left behind the crack tip. Hou and Lawrence

[83] use a strip-yield model developed earlier by Newman for simulating the crack

closure of welded joints showing typically a steep stress gradient. Frequently, the

ﬁnite element method is applied. McClung [116] addresses in a critical review several

modelling issues regarding crack closure and describes applications to different

problems.

Another aspect is the short crack behaviour, which is related also to the notch

stress and strain approach as well as to crack closure effects. As demonstrated a.o.

by Newman et al. [117], the growth behaviour including threshold value of small

cracks differs considerably from that of large cracks. They introduced a correction of

the effective SIF range for the plastic cyclic zone and a constraint factor accounting

for 3D state-of-stress effects to model the observed trends. The total life prediction

was demonstrated using inclusion-particle sizes. Hou and Charng [84] show that the

short-crack propagation based approach, when it includes crack nucleation, gives

W. Fricke / Marine Structures 16 (2003) 185–200 195

more consistent results compared with experimental data than the local stress

approach.

As an alternative to the effective SIF range DK eff ; a new parameter called re-tensile

plastic zone’s generated load (RPG load) has been proposed by Toyosada and Niwa

[118] determining an effective SIF range ( DK RPG ) corresponding to the load under

which the re-tensile plastic zone appears in the loading process. Based on this

parameter, the crack propagation rate appears to be linear in a wide range from the

region of very slow growth rate to the region of stable crack growth. The physical

meaning is further discussed in [119].

Finally, the aspects of remaining life assessment and damage tolerant design

should be addressed, which have gained in signiﬁcance in the light of severe accidents

and the extended use of ageing structures. In this respect, the crack propagation

approach plays a key role to assess the remaining life and structural redundancy

[104,120,121] and to establish rational inspection planning.

9. Introduction to references

joints’, while speciﬁc topics such as spot-welds, fatigue evaluation and testing,

fatigue loading and the effects of variable amplitudes, environmental effects and

fatigue reliability are excluded or only touched as explained in the Introduction. In

order to further limit the number of references, emphasis is placed on the past 10–15

years. Earlier essential papers are mostly quoted in textbooks, so that the full history

needs not be covered.

References in English as well as those published in Journals are generally

preferred, as well as one key paper in case of similar publications by the same author.

Of special interest might be the books [2–4,7,8,11,12] mentioned also in the

Introduction, providing an overview on the phenomenon of fatigue and the

possibilities for fatigue analyses.

References

[1] Ohtsubo H, Sumi Y, editors. Proceedings of the 14th International Ship and Offshore Structures

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[2] Suresh S. Fatigue of materials, 2nd Ed.. Cambridge: University Press, 2002.

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