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# Name: Honey Lyn T.

## Villamor Date: October 17, 2018

Instructor: Engr. Ryan Art M. Tuling Rating:
Subject: ES7 Soil Mechanics

LABORATORY NO. 5
ONE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW OF WATER TROUGH SOILS

Introduction

One dimensional flow of water trough soils that water changes the soil states in fine-
grained soils; the greater the water content the weaker it is. Soils are porous materials due to
the presence of interconnected void spaces between the solid grains. Hence, particle sizes
and the structural arrangement of the particles influence the rate of flow.
In this activity we are able to value the using of permeability one of the important
physical properties of soil as some of the major problems of soil mechanics are directly
connected with it. Design of highways, airports, earth dams, construction of foundation
below water – table, yield from a well, settlement of foundation etc. depend upon the
permeability of soil. Hence to become a good soil engineer the knowledge of permeability is
very essential. A material is said to be permeable if it contains continuous voids. Since such
voids are contained in all soils including the stiffest clay, all these are permeable. Gravels are
highly permeable and stiff clay is the least permeable soil.

Objective:

This are the general objective of one dimensional flow is to determine the coefficient of permeability of the
soil sample. And to also determine the following:
2. Volume flow rate; and
3. Average velocity of water passing through the soil sample.

## Materials and Procedures

For Heterogeneous Soil Sample
Materials:
 Water
 Recorder
 Camera
 Beaker
 Pipe
 Pipe rack
 Measuring tape
Procedure:
For Heterogeneous Soil Sample
1. Prepare the materials for the process including the air-dried soil sample enough to fill the pipe.
2. Fill the pipe with the soil sample.
3. Place the pipe in an inclined rack.
4. Measure the elevation head or the vertical distance of inlet (h1) and outlet (h2).
5. Install the water source or the container on the inlet which connects to the pipe to allow one dimensional
flow of water.
6. When the water starts to flow in the outlet, record the volume of water obtained in every 1 minute interval
in 5 repetitive times.
7. Record all the data.
For Homogeneous Soil Sample
1. Air dry the soil sample.
2. Sieve the air dried soil sample then collect the obtained soil on the pan (silt).
3. Repeat procedure 5 done in heterogeneous soil samples but only refill the pipe with the silt.
Results and Discussion:
The table below shows the data gathered:

## Time (1 min) Discharge (cm3)

T1 150
T2 156
T3 195
T4 200
T5 200

The mean of tabulated data of discharge for every one minute interval is used to compute the
value of permeability of the heterogeneous sample. These data resulted to volume flow rate of 3 cm3/s. Hydraulic
gradient of 0.435, velocity of 0.037 cm/s and coefficient of permeability of 0.0851 cm/s. Referring the Table 2.7
Coefficient of Permeability for Common Soil Types from Soil Mechanics and Foundation by Muni Budhu, the
computed coefficient of permeability of the sample corresponds to the clean sands, clean sand and gravel mixture.
Computation:
H1= 120 cm, H2 = 80 cm, L= 92 cm

∆𝐻 120𝑐𝑚−80𝑐𝑚
𝑖= = = 0.435
𝑙 92 𝑐𝑚

## Volume Flow Rate

𝑄 180.2 𝑐𝑚
𝑞𝑣 = = = 3 𝑐𝑚3 /𝑠
𝑡 60 𝑠
Average Velocity

𝑞𝑣 3 𝑐𝑚/𝑠
𝑣= = = 0.037 𝑐𝑚/𝑠
𝐴 𝜋(10.16 𝑐𝑚)2
4

Coefficient of Permeability

𝑣 0.037 𝑐𝑚/𝑠
𝑘=𝑖= 0.435
= 0.0851 cm/s

The results for homogeneous silt soil sample specifically the coefficient of permeability, hydraulic
gradient, average velocity and volume flow rate can’t be quantified up to these time due to the days it will take
before discharge takes place. It is said that a homogeneous silt, having a fine texture will take slower
permeability, numerically 0.25 cm/hr. It would take 400 hrs. or 17 days to pass through a 1m x 4” diameter pipe
This statement can be validated with a related literature below.
Review of Related Literature

## Soil permeability relates to soil texture and structure

The size of the soil pores is of great importance with regard to the rate of infiltration (movement of water into the
soil) and to the rate of percolation (movement of water through the soil). Pore size and the number of pores
closely relate to soil texture and structure, and also influence soil permeability.

## Permeability variation according to soil texture

Usually, the finer the soil texture, the slower the permeability, as shown below:

## Soil Texture Permeability

Clayey
Fine
soils
From very slow to
Loamy Moderately fine
very rapid
soils Moderately coarse
Sandy soils Coarse

Example
Average permeability for different soil textures in cm/hour
Sand 5.0
Sandy loam 2.5
Loam 1.3
Clay loam 0.8
Silty clay 0.25
Clay 0.05
Permeability variation according to soil structure

Structure may greatly modify the permeability rates shown above, as follows:

## Structure type Permeability1

- Greatly
overlapping
Platy
- Slightly
overlapping From very slow to
very rapid
Blocky
Prismatic
Granular

1
This may vary according to the degree to which the structure is developed.

It is common practice to alter the soil structure to reduce permeability, for example, in irrigated agriculture
through the puddling of rice fields and in civil engineering through the mechanical compaction* of earthen
dams. Similar practices may be applied to fish-ponds to reduce water seepage.

Documentation

Feel the pipe with the soil sample Place the pipe in slope position to
pass the water into the soil.

Pour water into the pipe of soil Record the water discharge in one
continuously, wait till water infiltrates. minute duration, five times.
Gather the collected water Sieve the homogeneous sample using a
discharged from the pipe of soil. Mechanical shaker for five minutes.

Fill the pipe with the sieved Pour and let the water infiltrate
homogeneous soil sample. through the homogeneous soil.

Conclusion:
As a result, we are able to find the Average velocity of water passing through soil sample, hydraulic
gradient of our soil sample, and the volume of flow rate. It is said that homogeneous silt, having a fine texture will
take slower permeability, numerically 0.25 cm/hr. It would take 400 hours or 17 days to pass through a 1mx4”
diameter pipe. And the heterogeneous sample, it has the volume flow rate of 3𝑐𝑚3 /s. The hydraulic gradient of
the sample is 0.435, velocity of 0.037 cm/s and coefficient of permeability of 0.0851 cm/s. This is based on the
above statement and computations. By this result we can easily determine in the future the importance of soils in
constructing a building that will come up into good results the strong foundation of the building considering the
value of soil test and etc.

Reference:
 https://nptel.ac.in/courses/112104118/lecture-8/8-2_dimen_flow.htm
 https://people.eng.unimelb.edu.au/stsy/geomechanics_text/Ch5_Flow.pdf
 https://smartaau.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/notes1-3.pdf