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Measures of Brand Equity

Author(s) Branding How Nature of Sample Findings
focus measured/conceptualized Study

Aaker Consumer- Four dimensions: brand Conceptual N/A N/A

(1991) based awareness, perceived
brand quality, brand
equity association, brand

Simon & Financial- Assigns objective Empirical Soft drink Constructed a sound
Sullivan based financial value to brand industry financial measure of
(1993) brand name and tracks changes brand equity and showed
equity in value according to impact of marketing
shifts in the market decisions on brand value

Keller Consumer- Two dimensions of Conceptual N/A N/A

(1993) based brand knowledge: brand
brand awareness and brand
equity image

Srivastava Consumer Two dimensions: brand Conceptual N/A N/A

& Shocker and value and brand strength
(1991) financial-

Park & Customer- Brand equity divided Empirical Current Non-attribute component
Srinivasan based into attribute and non- users of plays a more important
(1994) brand attribute-based mouthwash role in determining
equity components and brand equity; brand
toothpaste equity has a significant
brands impact on market share

Lassar, Customer- Five dimensions: Empirical 113 Developed a valid and

Mittal, & based performance, social consumers reliable scale to measure
Sharma brand image, attachment, of athletic consumer-based brand
(1995) equity value, trustworthiness shoes and equity that is comprised
answering of five dimensions
TABLE 2.2 (Continued)
Author Branding How Nature of Sample Findings
focus measured/conceptualized study

Boone, Sport Sport brand‟s financial Empirical Major Majority of team‟s brand
Kochunny, financial- value, attendance League equity was equal or less
& Wilkins based capacity, operating Baseball than unbranded version
(1995) brand expenses, team revenues secondary of team
equity versus unbranded sport data

Gladden & Sport Brand equity was Empirical Major Brand equity and success
Milne financial- measured based on two League were positively related to
(1999) based conceptualizations: Baseball merchandise sales.
brand franchise value and secondary Measure captures long-
equity percentage of filled data term value of brand and
stadium capacity divided consumer‟s willingness
by team success to pay price premium
(winning percentage
over 25 years) and the
average ticket price and
percentage of filled
stadium capacity divided
by team success.

Berry Service Two dimensions: brand Conceptual N/A Customer‟s direct

(2000) brand awareness and brand experience with the
equity meaning service has the most
influence on brand

Yoo, Consumer- Aaker‟s four dimensions: Empirical Students Perceived quality, brand
Donthu, & based brand awareness, from major awareness and brand
Lee brand perceived quality, brand university associations represent
(2000) equity associations, brand distinct components of
loyalty brand equity while brand
loyalty should not be
conceptualized as a
component of brand

Gladden, Consumer- Aaker‟s four dimensions: Conceptual N/A N/A

Irwin, & based perceived quality, brand
Sutton brand awareness, brand
(2001) equity association, brand

Belen del Consumer- Four dimensions of Empirical 1000 Emotional aspects of

Rio, based brand associations: Spanish service brands had more
Vazquez, brand guarantee, personal sport survey impact on behavioral
& Iglesias equity identification, social participants intentions while
(2001) identification, and status. guarantee differentially
impacted goods.
TABLE 2.2 (Continued)
Author Branding How Nature of Sample Findings
focus measured/conceptualized study

Faircloth, Consumer- Image and attitude Empirical 105 The creation of positive
Capella, & based precede brand equity. undergradu brand attitudes and brand
Alford brand Brand equity was ate business image impact brand
(2001) equity measured by the majors from equity for selected
consumer‟s willingness Midwestern products
to pay price premium university
and purchase intentions

Mackay Financial- Utilized market share as Empirical 383 New Market share measure
(2001) based a measure of brand Zealand correlated with
brand equity; compared with credit card consumer-based brand
equity common consumer- consumers equity to exhibit validity
based measures of brand of instrument

Krishnan & Consumer- Brand equity was Empirical 65 Brand equity was not
Hartline based measured by two items undergrad found to be more
(2001) brand that capture the students important for service
equity willingness to pay price products in relation to
premium as well as items traditional goods. The
related to the quality, measure of brand equity
value, trustworthiness, displayed sound
credibility, and psychometric properties
familiarity of the brand

Washburn Consumer- Aaker‟s four dimensions Empirical 272 Future measures of

& Plank based of brand equity: subjects brand equity should
(2001) brand perceived quality, brand differentiate brand
equity associations, brand associations and brand
awareness, brand loyalty awareness. Brand loyalty
and five items that should be considered an
measured consequences outcome of brand equity
of brand equity and not a distinct

Gladden & Brand 16 dimensions of brand Empirical 3,000 The Team Association
Funk association associations were subscribers Model is a
(2002) s identified of weekly psychometrically sound
national model of brand
magazine associations. Experience-
based associations may
be the most important in
consumer evaluations of
a sport brand

Kim, Kim, Consumer/ Four dimensions of Empirical 513 Brand equity understood
& An financial brand equity: perceived consumers as composite of four
(2003) brand quality, brand image, dimensions and impacts
equity brand loyalty. firms performance
TABLE 2.2 (Continued)
Author Branding How Nature of Sample Findings
focus measured/conceptualized study

Robinson Consumer- Gladden et al.‟s (1998) Conceptual N/A Coach Bobby Knight
& Miller based conceptualization of was posited to have a
(2003) brand sport brand equity was direct financial impact
equity utilized on the brand equity of
the Texas Tech
basketball program

Pappu, Consumer- Aaker‟s four dimensions: Empirical 539 The principle

Quester, & based perceived quality, brand Australian contribution of this study
Cooksey brand awareness, brand non-student is the illustration of the
(2005) equity association, brand consumers multi-dimensional nature
loyalty of brand equity

Bamert & Service- Aaker‟s dimensions of Empirical 963 Brand equity in the
Wehrli based brand equity and Yoo et undergrad service context should be
(2005) brand al.‟s items related to students differentiated from
equity consequences of brand traditional goods context

Bauer, Consumer Brand image and brand Empirical 1594 Perceptions of brand
Sauer, & and awareness are measured German image are positively
Schmitt financial- to represent brand soccer fans related to the economic
(2005) based equity. Those measures success of German
brand are correlated with soccer clubs
equity consumer‟s behavioral

Bauer, Consumer- Constructed sport brand Empirical 1268 fans Team history and
Sauer, & based associations based on of German success are not the
Exler brand product-related, non- soccer club primary drivers of fan
(2005) image product, and benefits loyalty. Experiential and
components of brand benefits of sport
associations based on consumption drive brand
Gladden and Funk‟s loyalty

Hseigh Consumer- Introduces the concept of Empirical Secondary This study integrates the
(2005) based measured and data from value added function of
national unmeasured aspects of the brand equity and
brand brand equity automobile consumer perceptions of
equity industry the brand as potential

Ross, Brand 13 dimensions of team Empirical 467 This is the first study to
James, & association brand associations were students qualitatively elicit brand
Vargas derived from direct from associations from
(2006) elicitation of sport Midwestern consumers to construct a
consumers university valid measure of brand
TABLE 2.2 (Continued)
Author Branding How Nature of Sample Findings
focus measured/conceptualized study

Ross Consumer- Two dimensions of Conceptual N/A N/A

(2006) based brand equity: brand
brand awareness and brand
equity associations

Pappu & Consumer- Aaker‟s four dimensions: Empirical 601 Customer satisfaction
Quester based perceived quality, brand shopping impacts the level of
(2007) brand awareness, brand mall retailer equity on behalf
equity association, brand consumers of consumers

Low & Brand Three dimensions of Empirical 400 The three factor brand
Lamb association brand associations: undergradu association model was a
(2007) perceived quality, brand ate students psychometrically sound
image, brand attitude

Ross, Bang Brand Utilized the Team Brand Empirical 349 student The Team Brand
& Lee association Association Scale in the season Association Scale was
(2007) context of intercollegiate ticket found to be a valid and
sports holder for reliable measure in the
collegiate context of intercollegiate
hockey sports

Kaynak, Consumer- Utilized Gladden & Conceptual N/A N/A

Salman, & based Funk‟s conceptualization
Tatoglu brand of brand associations
(2007) equity

Boyle & Consumer- 4 items related to Empirical 109 A sport consumer‟s

Magnusson based quality, success, and undergrad social identity has a
(2007) brand value measured brand students significant impact on a
equity equity team‟s brand equity

Bauer, Consumer- Utilized Gladden and Empirical 1,298 The tangible types of
Sauer, & based Funk‟s conceptualization German brand associations
Exler brand of brand associations soccer fans impact the associations
(2008) equity related to benefits.
Associations related to
benefits impact a
consumer‟s attitude
toward the brand while
their attitudes impacted
their behavioral loyalty

Ross, Brand Two dimensions of Empirical 3,200 NBA N/A

Russell, & awareness brand awareness: season
Bang Identification and ticket
(2008) internalization holders