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ENGINEERS ACADEMY

ME : Fluid Mechanics |1

QUESTION BANK
1. Differential pressure head measured by mercury 7. A barge 30 m long and 10 m wide has a draft
oil differential manometer (specific gravity of of 3 m when floating with its sides in vertical
oil is 0.9) equivalent to a 600 mm difference of position. If its centre of gravity is 2.5 m above
mercury levels will nearly be the bottom, the nearest value of metacentric
(a) 7.62 m of oil (b) 76.2 m of oil height is
(c) 7.34 m of oil (d) 8.47 m of oil (a) 3.28 m (b) 2.78 m
2. A block of aluminium having mass of 12 kg is (c) 1.78 m (d) zero
suspended by a wire and lowered until 8. A cylindrical vessel having its height equal to its
sumbereged into a tank containing oil of relative diameter is filled with liquid and moved
density 0.8. Taking the relative density of horizontally at an acceleration equal to
aluminium as 2.4, the tension in the wire will be acceleration due to gravity. The ratio of the liquid
(take g = 10 m/s2) left in the vessel to the liquid at static equilibrium
(a) 12000 N (b) 800 N condition is
(c) 120 N (d) 80 N (a) 0.2 (b) 0.4
3. A rectangular tank of square cross-section is (c) 0.5 (d) 0.75
having its height equal to twice the length of any 9. Match List-I (Types of flow) with List-II (Basic
side at the base. If the tank is filled up with a idal flows) and select the correct answer using
liquid, the ratio of the total hydrostatic force on the codes given below the lists:
any vertical wall to that at the bottom is List-I
(a) 2.0 (b) 1.5 A. Flow over a stationary cylinder
(c) 1.0 (d) 0.5 B. Flow over a half rankine body
4. The shear stress developed in a lubricating oil, C. Flow over a rotating body
of viscosity 9.81 poise, filled between two parallel
D. Flow over a rankine oval
plates 1 cm apart and moving with relative
velocity of 2 m/s is List-II
(a) 20 N/m2 (b) 196.2 N/m2 1. Source + sink + uniform flow
(c) 29.62 N/m2 (d) 40 N/m2 2. Doublekt + uniform flow
5. A glas tube with a 90° bend is open at both the 3. Source + uniform flow
ends. It is inserted into a flowing stream of oil, 4. Doublet + free vortex + uniform flow
S = 0.90, so that one opening is direct upstream Codes:
and the other is directed upward. Oil inside the A B C D
tube is 50 mm higher than the surface of flowing
(a) 1 4 3 2
oil. The velocity measured by the tube is, early,
(b) 2 4 3 2
(a) 0.89 m/s (b) 0.99 m/s
(c) 1 3 4 2
(c) 1.40 m/s (d) 1.90 m/s
(d) 2 3 4 1
6. The pressure drop in a 100 mm diameter
horizontal pipe is 50 kPa over a length of 10 m. 10. A right circular cylinder is filled with a liquid
The shear stress at the pipe wall is upto its top level. It is rotated about its vertical
axis at such a speed that half the liquid spills
(a) 0.25 kPa (b) 0.125 kPa
out, then the pressure at the point of intersection
(c) 0.50 kPa (d) 25.0 kPa of the axis and bottom surface

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(a) is same as before rotation 4. Skin friction drag
(b) is half of the value before rotation Codes:
(c) is quarter of the value before rotation A B C D
(d) is equal to the atmospheric pressure (a) 2 3 1 4
11. Three immiscible liquids of specific densities , (b) 3 2 4 1
2 and 3 are kept in a jar. The height of the (c) 2 3 4 1
liquids in the jar and at the piezometer fitted to
(d) 3 2 1 4
the bottom of the jar are as shown in the figure
below. 14. The stream function in a 2-dimensional flow field
is given by  = xy. The potential function is

x 2  y2 x 2  y2
(a) (b)
3h  2 2
(c) xy (d) x2y + y2x
1.5h  15. At location-I of a horizontal line, the fluid
H pressure head is 32 cm and velocity head is
h 
4cm. The reduction in area at location-II is such
that the pressure head drops down to zero.
The ratio H/h is.
(a) 4 (b) 3.5
(c) 3 (d) 2.5
12. The convective acceleration of fluid in the x-
direction is given by II
The ratio of velocities at location-II to that at
u v w location-I is
(a) u x  v y  w z
(a) 3 (b) 2.5
u v w (c) 2 (d) 1.5
(b)   16. The critical depth of a rectangualr channel of
t t t
width 4.0 m for a ischarge of 12 m3/s is nearrly
u v w
(c) u x  u y  u z (a) 300 mm (b) 30 nn
(c) 0.972 m (d) 0.674 m
u u u 17. For maximum transmission of power through a
(d) u x  v y  w z
pipeline with total head h, the head lost due
torfriction hf is given by
13. Match List-I with List-II and select the correct
answer using the codes givne below the lists: (a) 0.1H (b) GH/3
List-I (c) H/2 (d) 2H/3
A. Stoke’s law 18. Two pipelines of equal length and with diameters
of 15 cm and 10 cm are in parallel and connect
B. Bluff body
two reservoirs. The difference in water levels in
C. Streamline body the reservoirs is 3 m. If the friction is assumed
D. Karman vortex street to be equal, the ratio of the discharge due to the
List-II larger diameter pipe to that of the smaller
1. Strouhal number diameter pipe is, nearly,
2. Creeping motion (a) 3.375 (b) 2.756
3. Pressure drag (c) 2.25 (d) 1.5
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ME : Fluid Mechanics |3
19. In a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow, C. Weber number
assuming 1/7th power law, the ratio of tiem mean C. Mach number
velocity at the centre of the pipe to the average
List-II
velocity of the flow is
1. Inertia force and elastic force
(a) 2.0 (b) 1.5
2. Inertia force and surface tension force
(c) 1.22 (d) 0.817
3. Inertia force and gravity force
20. Laminar developed flow at an average velocity
of 5 m/s occurs in a pipe of 10 cm radius. the 4. Inertia force and viscous froce
velocity at 5 cm radius is Codes:
(a) 7.5 m/s (b) 10 m/s A B C D
(c) 2.5 m/s (d) 5 m/s (a) 1 2 3 4
21. The velocity distribution in the boundary layer (b) 4 3 2 1
u y (c) 1 3 2 4
is given as U   , where u is the velocity at
 (d) 4 2 3 1
a distance y from the boundary, U is the fre 25. An open channel flow encounters a hydraulic
stream velocity and  is the boundary layer jump as shown in the figure below.
thickness at a certain distance from the leading
edge of plate. The ratio of displacement thickness
to momentum thickness is hA
hB
(a) 5 (b) 4 A X Y B
(c) 3 (d) 2 The following fluid flow conditiosn are observed
u between A and B:
22. For the velocity profile U  , the momentum 1. Critical depth

thickness of a laminar boundary layer on a flat 2. Steady non-uniform flow.
plate at a distance of 1m from leading edge for 3. Unsteady non-uniform flow
air (kinematic viscosity = 2 × 10–5 m2/s) flowing
4. Steady uniform flow
at a free stram velocity of 2 m/s is given by
the correct sequence of the flow conditiosn in
(a) 3.16 mm (b) 2.1 mm
the direction of flwo is
(c) 3.16 m (d) 2.1 m
(a) 1, 2, 3, 4 (b) 1, 4, 2, 3
23. According to blasius law, the local skin friction
(c) 2, 1, 4, 3 (d) 4, 2, 3, 1
coeffiicient in the boundary layer over a flat
plate is given by 226. Consider the following statements pertaiing to a
centrifugal pump:
0.332 0.664 1. the manometric head is the head developed
(a) (b)
Re Re by pump.
2. The suction pipe has, generraly, larger
0.647 1.328
(c) (d) diameter as compared to the discharge pipe.
Re Re
3. The suction pipe is provided with a foot valve
24. Match List-I (Dimensionless numbers) with List- and a strainer.
II (Definition as the ratio of) and select the correct 4. The delivery pipe is provided with a foot
answer using the codes givne below the lists: valve and a strainer.
List-I Which of these statements are correct?
A. Reynolds number (a) 1, 2, 3, and 4 (b) 1 and 2
B. Froude number (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
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227. If a reciprocating pump having a mechanical 1. Francis
efficiency of 80% delivers water at the rate of 2. Kaplan
80 kg/s with a head of 30 m, the brake power
3. Pelton
of the pump is
The sequence of their specific speed in increasing
(a) 29.4 kW (b) 20.8 kW
order is
(c) 15.4 kW (d) 10.8 kW
(a) 1, 2, 3 (b) 3, 1, 2
28. The maximum number of jets generally employed
(c) 3, 2, 1 (d) 2, 3, 1
in an impulse turbine without jet interference
33. A symmetrical stationary vane experiences a
(a) 4 (b) 6
force F of 100 N as shown in the figure below,
(c) 8 (d) 12 when the mass flow rate of water over the vane
29. For a water turbine, running at constant head is 5 kg/s with a velocity ‘v’ of 20 m/s without
and speed, the operating characteristic curves in friction.
the givne figure shown that upto a certain v
discharge ‘q’ both output power and efficiency
remain zero.  F = 100 N

Efficiency P
()  v
The angle  of the vane is
Output
Power (P) (a) zero (b) 30°
(c) 45° (d) 60°
q Discharge at constant 34. In a fluid coupling, the torque transmitted is 50
head and speed
kN-m, when the speed of the driving and driven
The discharge ‘q’ is required to shaft is 900 rpm and 720 rpm respectively. teh
(a) overcoem initial inertia efficiency of the fluid coupling will be
(b) overcoem initial friction (a) 20% (b) 25%
(c) keep the hydraulic circuit full (c) 80% (d) 90%
(d) keep the turbine running at no load 35. Consider the following statements regarding the
30. A ship with hull length of 100 m is to run with fluid coupling:
a speed of 10 m/s. For dynamic simialrity, the 1. Efficiency increases with increase in speed
velocity for a 1 : 25 model of the ship in a ratio.
towing tank should be 2. Neglecting friction the output torque is equal
(a) 2 m/s (b) 10 m/s to input troque.
(c) 20 m/s (d) 25 m/s 3. At the same input speed, higher slip requires
31. A standard 90° V-notch weir is used to measure higher input torque.
discharge. The discharge is Q1 for a height H1 Which of these statements are correct?
above the sill and Q2 is the discharge for a height (a) 1, 2 and 3 (b) 1 and 2
H2 Q2 (c) 2 and 3 (d) 1 and 3
H2. If H is 4, then Q is 36. The level of runner exit is 5 m above the tail
1 1
race, and atmosheric pressure is 10.3 m. The
(a) 32 (b) 16 2 pressure at the exit of the runner for a divergent
(c) 16 (d) 8 draft tube ccna be
32. Consider the specific speed range of the following (a) 5 m (b) 5.3 m
types of turbines: (c) 10 m (d) 10.3 m
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ME : Fluid Mechanics |5
37. Consider the following statements: Assertion (A): The mercury level inside the tube
A surge tank provided on the penstock connected shall rise above the level of mercury outside.
to a water turbine Reason (R): The cohesive force between the
1. helps in reducing the water hammer. molecules of mercury is greater than the adhesive
force between mercury and glass.
2. stores extra water when not needed.
42. Asserion (A): In a pipe line, the nature of the
3. provides increased demand of water.
fluid flow depends entirely on the velocity.
Which of these statements are correct?
Reason (R): Reynolds number depends on the
(a) 1 and 3 (b) 2 and 3 velocity, diameter of the pipe and kinematic
(c) 1 and 2 (d) 1, 2 and 3 viscosity of the fluid.
38. The gross head on a trubine is 300 m. The length 43. Assertion (A): A kaplan turbine is an axial flow
of penstock supplying water from reservoir to reaction turbine with its vanes fixed to the hub.
the turbine is 400 m. the diameter of the penstock Reason (R): Water flows parallel to the axis of
is 1 m and velocity of water through penstock is rotation of the turbine and a part of the pressure
5 m/s. If coefficient of friction is 0.0098, the net energy gets converted to kinetic energy during
head on the turbine would be, nearly its flow through the vanes.
(a) 310 m (b) 295 m 44. In the phenomenon of cavitation, the
(c) 200 m (d) 150 m characteristic fluid property involved is
39. In fluid machinery, the relationship between (a) surface tension
saturation temeprature and pressure decides the (b) viscosity
process of
(c) bulk modulus of elasticity
(a) flow separation (b) turbulent mixing
(d) vapour pressure
(c) cavitation (d) water hammer
45. The capillary rise at 20°C in clean glass tube of
40. A hydraulic coupling transmits 1 kW of power 1 mm diameter containing water is
at an input speed of 200 rpm, with a slip of 2%. kapproximately
If the input speed is changed to 400 rpm, the
(a) 15 mm (b) 50 mm
power transmitted with the same slip is
(c) 20 mm (d) 30 mm
(a) 2 kW (b) 1/2 kW
46. Match List-I (Type of fluid) with List-II
(c) 4 kW (d) 8 kW
(Variation of shear stress) and select the correct
DIRECTIONS: answer using the codes given below the lists:
The following items consists of two statment; List-I
one labelled as ‘Assertion (A)’ and the other as
A. Ideal fluid
‘Reason (R)’. You are to examine these two
statements carefully and select the answers to B. Newtonain fluid
these items using the codes given below: C. Non-newtonian fluid
Codes: D. Bingham plastic
(a) Both A and R are true and R is the correct List-II
explanation of A 1. Shear stress varies linearly with the rate of
(b) Both A and R are true but R is not a correct strain
explanation of A 2. Shear stress does not vary linearly with the
(c) A is true but R is false rate of strain
(d) A is false but R is true 3. Fluid behaves like a solid until a minimum
41. A capillary tube is inserted in mercury kept in yield stress beyond which it exhibits a linear
an open container. relationship between shear stress and the rate
of strain
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4. Shear stress is zero 48. Match List-I (Stability) and List-II (Conditions)
Codes: and select the correct answer using the codes
A B C D givne below the lsits:
(a) 3 1 2 4 List-I
(b) 4 2 1 3 A. Stable equilibrium of a floating body
(c) 3 2 1 4 B. Stable equilibrium of a submerged body
(d) 4 1 2 3 C. Unstable equilibrium of a floating body
47. A dam is having a curved surface as shown in D. Unstable equilibrium of a sumberged body
the figure below. List-II
2 1. Cente of buoyancy belwo the centre of gravity
y=x
4 2. Metacentre above the centre of gravity
3. Centre of buoyancy above the centre of
20 m y gravity
4. Metacentre below the centre of gravity
x Codes:
The height of the water retained by the dam is A B C D
20 m, density of water is 1000 kg/m3. Assuming
(a) 4 3 2 1
g as 9.81 m/s2, the horizontal force acting on
the dam per unit length is (b) 2 3 4 1
(a) 1.962 × 102 N (b) 2 × 105 N (c) 4 1 2 3
(c) 1.962 × 106 N (d) 3.924 × × 106 N (d) 2 1 4 3
49. The drag force exerted by a fluid on a body
immersed in the fluid is due to
(a) pressure and viscous forces
(b) pressure and gravity forces
(c) pressure and surface tension forces
(d) viscous and gravity forces
50. The hydraulic mean depth (where A = area and
P = wetted perimeter) is given by
P P2
(a) (b)
A A

A A
(c) (d)
P P


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ME : Fluid Mechanics |7
ANSWERS AND EXPLANATIONS
1. Ans. (d) 5. Ans. (b)
13.6 × 0.6 = 0.9 × h
v2
 h = 9.06 m of oil =h
2g
2. Ans. (d)
Volume of Aluminium  v= .2  9.81 0.05
12 v = 0.99 m/s
VAI =
2.4 6. Ans. (b)
T + FB = mg
 dP  R 
Buoyancy force  =   
 dx   2 
12
= v Al .g  0.8   10 50  1000  50  10 3
2.4   0.125KPa
10  2
= 40N
7. Ans. (c)
Now,
30
T + 40 = 120
 T = 80N 10
3. Ans. (c)
F1 = force on vertical wall
G
   2a  a  a 3m 2.5m E 1.5m

 2a 3  k

F2 = force at the bottom (10)3


(30)
1 12  2.778m
   a  a  2a  2a 3  BM = 
 30  10  3
F1 Where
 F2 = 1 I = least moment of inertia
and  = displacement
KB = 3/2 = 1.5 m
2a KM = KB + BM
= 2.778 + 1.5 = 4.278 m
GM = KM – KG
a = 4.278 – 2.5 = 1.778 m
a  1.78m
4. Ans. (b) 8. Ans. (c)
du g 1
 =  dy tan  = 
gg 2

2 h 1
 0.981  2
 196.2N / m 2  =  0.5
10 L 2
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to the length perpendicular to the flow direction.
This results in a unique characteristics, that skin
h friction drag is much lower then pressure drag.
 Stoke’s law : Creeping flow also known as stokes
L
flow is a type of fluid flow where advective
inertial forces are small compared with viscous
forces. For this Reynolds number is very low
L
i.e., Re << 1. For this type of flow the inertial
9. Ans. (d) forces are assumed to be negligible and the
(a) Flow over a statinary cylinder  dublet + Navier-stokes equation simplify to give the stokes
unifrm flw equation.
(b) Flow over a half Rankine body  source 14. Ans. (b)
+ uniform flow
d d d d
(c) Flow over a rotating body  Doublet + y , x
free vortex + uniform flow dx dy dy dx
(d) Flow over a Rankine oval  source + sink
+ uniform flow d x2
  x    f (y)
dx 2
10. Ans. (d)
d
Now, dy  f '(y)   y

y2 x 2  y2
 f (y)    
2 2
15. Ans. (a)
By Bernoulli’s equation

Atmospheric Preasure p1 v12 p2 v22


 = 
11. Ans. (c) pg 2g pg 28

3h    1.5h  2  h  3  H  3  0
v 22 v22
 32 + 4 = 0 +   36
h 2g 2g
 0
H
v 22 / 2g
36 v 22
12. Ans. (d) Now, 2 =  9
v1 / 2g 4 v12
dy du du du
ax  u v  
dx dy dz dt v2
 v1 = 3
du
Where = Local or temporal acceleration 16. Ans. (c)
dt
Critical depth (yc) for aconstant unit flow q in a
Remaining terms are called “convective
rectangular channel occur when the specific
acceleration”.
energy is minimum and it is given by
13. Ans. (a)
Bluff body : A bluff body is one in which the q2
yc = 3
length in the flow direction is close to or equal g

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ME : Fluid Mechanics |9
Q 12m 3 / s   5 2 
q=   3 m2 / s  2  5 1    
L 4m   10  
= 7.5 m/s
3
(3)2
yc =  0.972 21. Ans. (c)
9.81

17. Ans. (b)  y  y2  
    1   dy   y   
Power transmitted by the pipe 0   2  0 2
P = gQ(H  h f )
2
 y  y  y  y  
   1    dy        dy
 fL V 2  0     0     
P = gAv  H  . 
 D 2g 

 y2 y 2  
  2 
 2 3  0 6
hf
m *
 H 3
H-hg 
22. Ans. (b)
2 1
Re =  105
 fL v3  2  10 5
= gA  Hv  . 
 D 2g 
5 1
 0.0158
 =
dP 105
for Maximum Power : 0
dv  yy 
 = 0 1     .dy  6
fL v2
 H 3 . =0  d = 2.1 mm
D 2g
23. Ans. (b)
H 0.664
hf = Cfl =
3 Re x
18. Ans. (b) 24. Ans. (b)
Inertia-viscous force ratio  Reynold number
fLv2
hf = Inertia-Gravity force ratio  froude number
2gD
Inertia-Surface tension ratio  weber number
 v  D Inertia-elastic force ratio  Mach number
25. Ans. (b)
5/2
Q1 A1V1  D1  26. Ans. (c)
Now,   (1.5)5/2
Q 2 = A 2 V2  D2 
The head developed by a pump equal to the
19. Ans. (d) work done by impeller on water minus the
frictional losses between pump inlet and outlet.
20. Ans. (a)
This head is known as manometric head.
  r 2 
U = 2U av 1     Vd2
 R  H m  h t  h f 
2g
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27. Ans. (a) 32. Ans. (b)
mgh 80  9.81 30 Characteristics of Pelton wheel
B.P.    29.4 kW
Rm 0.8 (i) Impulse turbine
28. Ans. (b) (ii) High head turbine (300 – 2000 m)
The maximum number of nozzle used is six while (iii) Low specific discharge turbine
four jet pelton wheel widely preferred. (iv) Axial flow turbine
29. Ans. (b) (v) Low specific speed turbine (4 – 70 rpm)
The no load discharge ‘q’ is required to keep the Characteristics of Francis turbine
turbine running under no load condition, to (i) Reaction turbine
overcome the frictional losses.
(ii) Medium head turbine (30 – 500 m)
30. Ans. (a)
(iii) Medium specific discharge
Since the model is tested at a velocity hence the
(iv) Radial flow turbine, but modern francis
similarity is based on Froude model law,
turbine are mixed flow turbine
according to which
(v) Medium specific speed turbine (60m – 400
 V   V  rpm)
  =  
 gL  m  gL  P Characteristics of Kaplan turbine
(i) Reaction turbine
 Lm  1
Vm = VP  L   10 25 (ii) Low head turbine (2m – 70 m)
 P  (iii) High specific discharge
 Vm = 2 m/s
(iv) Axial flow
31. Ans. (a)
(v) High specific speed (300 – 1100) rpm
33. Ans. (d)
n 100 = 5 × 20 cos  × 2
dh H
H-h cos  = 1/2

  = 60°
34. Ans. (c)

H 2 720
Efficiency () = N  900  0.80
1
dQ = 2gh.dA
35. Ans. (a)
 2gh.(b.dh)
b/2
Efficiency ()

 100
tan = (H  h)
2 80
 60
 b = 2(H  h) tan
2 40
 20
dQ = 2(H  h) tan 2gh.dh
2
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
8 
Q =  dQ  2g tan H 5/2 Speed ratio
15 2
5/2
Efficiency-speed ratio curve for a fluid coupling.
Q2  H2 
 45/2  32 The efficiency of fluid coupling is large, usually
Q1 =  H1  in excess of 94 percent. A typical efficiency
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ME : Fluid Mechanics | 11
versus speed ratio curve for a fluid coupling surge tanks are employed in the care of high and
isshown in figure. The efficiency of the fluid medium head hydropower plants where the
coupling starts at zero and increases uniformly penstock is very long, and forebays are suitable
with the speed ratio unitl  = 95 percent and for medium and low head-power plants where
then reduces to zero. the length of the penstock is short.
As the torque transmitted increases, the slip 38. Ans. (b)
increases and the efficiency drops.
fLv2 0.0098  400  (5) 2
36. Ans. (b) hf  
2gD 2  9.8  1
P1
hf = 5m
 Hnet = 300 – 5 = 295m
5m 39. Ans. (c)
Hydrodynamic cavitation describes the process
of vaporization bubble generation and bubble
Patrn implosion which occur in a flowing liquid as a
result of decrease and subsequent increase in
P1 V12 P V2 pressure. The vaporization will occur only if the
  z  atm 
g 2g g 2g pressure drops below the vapour pressure at the
corresponding saturation temperature.
P1 V12 40. Ans. (*)
  5  10.3
g 2g 41. Ans. (d)
Assertion is true but reason is false because, for
P1 V2 capillary rise adhesive force is greater than the
 5.3  1
g 2g cohesive force.
42. Ans. (d)
P1 In a pipe line, nature of the fluid flow depends
If V1 = 0, g  5.3m
entirely on the Reynold number. Which is depends
37. Ans. (d) on velocity, diameter of pipe and kinematicd
viscosity of the fluid.
When the load on the generator decreases the
governor reduces the rate of flow of water 43. Ans. (a)
striking the runner in order to maintain the Kaplan turbine are axial flow turbine in which
constant speed for the runner. But the sudden blades (or vanes) attached to a hub or boss are
reduction of the rate of flow in the penstock so shaped that water flown axially through the
may lead to setting up of water hammer in the runner. Moving blades acts kile nozzle in which
pipe, which may cause excessive inertia in part of pressure head converts into kinetic energy.
pipeline due to which the pipe may burst. Two 44. Ans. (d)
devices viz, deflector and relief valve are thus Vapour pressure plays very important role in
provided to avoid the sudden reduction of the cavitation.
rate of flow in the penstock. But neither of these
45. Ans. (d)
devices are of any assistance when the load on
the generator increases and the turbine is in need At 20°C surface tension of water (contact with
of move water. Thus in order to fulfil both the air) = 0.0736 N/m
above noted requirements, in addition to the  Capillary rise :
above noted devices certai nother devices such
4  0.0736
as surge tank and forebay are usually employed. h=
9.81  103  103
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12 | Junior Engineer
= 0.030 m = 30 mm 47. Ans. (c)
46. Ans. (d) Horizontal force = wAx
du per unit length = 9.81 × 1000 × 20 × 1 × 10
  Newtonian fluid
dy = 1.982 × 106 N/m
48. Ans. (b)
n
 du  (a) Stable equilibrium of floating body :
      Non-Newtonian fluid
 dy  Metacentre above the centre of gravity.
(b) Stable equilibrium of submerged body :
 = 0  Ideal fluid
Centre of buoyancy above the centre of
 du  gravity.
 = constant +     Binghamplastic
 dy  (c) Unstable equilibrium of a body floating :
Metacentre below the centre of gravity.
 Real Solid (d) Unstable equilibrium of a submerged body
lastic
h am P : Centre of buoyancy below the centre of
Bing
Non-Newtonian gravity.
id Fluid 49. Ans. (a)
flu
i an
on Viscous forces and pressure forces are
wt
Ne responsible for drag forces.
deal fluid
50. Ans. (c)
du/dy
Surface area
Hydraulicdepth = wettedperimeter



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