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Engineering Structures

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

Dipti R. Sahoo a , Shih-Ho Chao b,∗

a

Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneswar, Orissa 750013, India

b

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, TX-76019, USA

Article history: This paper presents a performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology for the design of buckling-

Received 21 March 2010 restrained braced frames (BRBFs). The design base shear is obtained based on energy–work balance using

Received in revised form pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism. Three low-to-medium rise BRBFs (3-story, 6-story and 9-

25 May 2010

story) were designed by the proposed methodology and their seismic performance was evaluated through

Accepted 25 May 2010

Available online 17 July 2010

extensive nonlinear time-history analyses using forty ground motions representing the DBE and the MCE

hazard levels. Both isotropic and kinematic hardening characteristics of buckling-restrained braces were

Keywords:

considered in the modeling of their force–deformation behaviors. All BRBFs considered in this study

Buckling-restrained braced frames reached the intended performance objectives in terms of yield mechanisms and target drift levels. Since

Performance-based design PBPD is a direct design method, no iterations were carried out to achieve the performance objectives of

Seismic BRBFs.

Yield mechanism © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Energy–work balance

PBPD

1. Introduction frames (CBFs), such as, sudden degradation in strength and stiff-

ness, reduced energy dissipation capacity, and limited ductility. Be-

Buckling-restrained braced frames (BRBFs) are emerging sys- cause of the nearly symmetrical behavior of BRBs in tension and

tems used as primary lateral load resisting systems for buildings in compression resulting in much smaller unbalanced vertical brace

high seismic areas. The main characteristics of buckling-restrained forces, BRBFs also require smaller beam sections as compared to

braces (BRBs) are enhanced energy dissipation potential, excellent conventional CBFs with chevron bracing configurations [7].

ductility, and nearly symmetrical hysteretic response in tension It is expected that BRBFs will experience large inelastic

and compression. Different types of BRBs have been developed deformation when subjected to major earthquake ground motions.

and tested in United States and elsewhere in recent years [1]. A However, most current seismic design methods are still based on

typical BRB consists of a yielding steel core encased in a mortar- the elastic analysis approach and use indirect ways to account for

filled steel hollow section to restrain buckling, non-yielding and inelastic behavior. As such, the current performance-based design

buckling-restrained transition segments, and non-yielding and un- methodology relies heavily on an iterative ‘‘Assess Performance’’,

restrained end zones (Fig. 1). The length of the buckling-restrained ‘‘Revision Design, and ‘‘Assess Performance’’ process to reach a

(core) segment of BRB is about 60%–70% of the total length between design capable of achieving the intended performance [8]. On

work points (e.g [2,3]). Axial forces in BRBs are primarily resisted the other hand, the proposed design methodology addresses the

need for developing a systematic design approach that results in

by steel cores which are laterally braced continuously by the sur-

predictable and targeted seismic performance of structures under

rounding mortar and steel encasement to avoid their buckling un-

stated levels of seismic hazards. This in turn minimizes, if not

der compressive loads. This allows the steel core to yield in tension

totally eliminates, the assessment and redesign tasks as required

and compression, thereby significantly increasing the energy dissi-

by current code provisions.

pation capacities of BRBs as compared to conventional steel braces.

A more comprehensive background on BRBs can be found else-

2. Objectives and scope

where [4]. Recent analytical and experimental studies [5,6] have

shown that BRBFs can be used to overcome several potential prob-

Since Housner [9] applied the concept of energy into seismic

lems associated with the conventional steel concentrically braced

design of structures, much effort has been made in the field

of energy-based seismic engineering. A recently developed

performance-based plastic design (PBPD) methodology is consid-

∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 817 272 2550; fax: +1 817 272 2630. ered in the present study in which inelastic characteristics of struc-

E-mail address: shchao@uta.edu (S.-H. Chao). tural components are directly considered in the design to achieve

0141-0296/$ – see front matter © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.engstruct.2010.05.014

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factor at ith level and can be expressed as βi = ( j=i wj hj /

Pn

−0.2

wn hn )0.75T ; βi+1 represents the shear distribution factor at (i +

1)th level; wj is the seismic weight at jth level; hi is the height at

ith level from the base; hj is the height at jth level from the base; hn

is the height of roof level from the base; wn is the seismic weight

at roof level. The energy modification factor (γ ) given in Eq. (1) can

be related to structural ductility factor (µs = 1u /1y ) and ductility

reduction factor, Rµ , by the following expression [14]:

Fig. 1. Components of a typical BRB.

Δ

The value of Rµ for a structural system can be determined by

using the Rµ − µs − T relationship, such as an inelastic spectrum

proposed by Newmark and Hall [15], as shown in Fig. 3(a). Several

structural systems exhibit significant reduction in strength and

stiffness resulting unstable and ‘‘pinched’’ hysteresis response at

the higher inelastic deformation levels. This reduction in energy

dissipation capacity can also be accounted in the design by using

an energy reduction factor (η = A1 /A2 ) as shown in Fig. 3(b). Since

BRBFs exhibit full and stable hysteretic response, the value of η can

be assumed as unity in Eq. (1).

Δ

Δ Δ 3.2. Step-by-step design procedure

A step-by-step PBPD procedure of a typical BRBF system is

summarized as follows:

the desired performance objectives of BRBFs. This design method- 1. Select intended target drift ratio, θu , and desired yield

ology has already been successfully applied to various steel struc-

mechanism for expected hazard level. Estimate fundamental

tural framing systems [10–12]. This study presents an application

period (T ) for the system from the mass and stiffness properties.

of PBPD method to low-to-medium rise BRBFs with both chevron

Empirical formulae based on codes (e.g. ASCE 7-05 [16]) can

and X-shaped bracing configurations. The robustness of proposed

design methodology is verified through a series of nonlinear time- also be used to estimate the expected fundamental period of

history analysis using PERFORM-3D [13] for both design basis the system.

earthquake (DBE, 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, re- 2. Compute the plastic drift ratio (θp ) by deducting the yield

turn period = 475 years) and maximum considered earthquake drift ratio (θy ) from the pre-selected target drift ratio (θu ).

(MCE, 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, return period = The upper-bound values of yield drift ratio for BRBFs can be

2475 years) hazard level ground motions. obtained by conventional pushover analysis based on code-

based lateral force distributions. Based on extensive nonlinear

3. Performance-based plastic design (PBPD) dynamic analyses, Sahoo and Chao [17] proposed a simple

expression for yield drift ratio as a function of total height (H)

3.1. Design philosophy of BRBFs and can be expressed as follows:

The detailed underlying methodology of PBPD can be found θy (%) = 0.2 + H /155 (Unit of H is meter). (4)

elsewhere [14]. In summary, PBPD concept uses pre-selected

3. Compute the value of α from the modal properties and the

target drift and yield mechanism as design criteria. In this

plastic drift level using Eq. (2) and estimate the value of γ

method, the design base shear is computed using an energy–work

balance concept where the energy needed to push an equivalent using Eq. (3). Determine the design base shear ratio (V /W ) of

elastic–plastic single-degree-of-freedom system up to the target structure using Eq. (1) and distribute the lateral load at various

drift level is calculated as a fraction of elastic input energy obtained story levels based on a lateral load distribution proposed

from the selected elastic design spectra (Fig. 2). The design base by Chao et al. [18] that accounts the inelastic behavior. The

shear for a structure can be expressed by [14]: magnitude of lateral load at ith story level was obtained as the

q design base shear times (βi − βi+1 ), where βi is defined earlier

V /W = −α + α 2 + 4 (γ /η) Sa2 /2 (1) and βi+1 = 0 at the roof level.

4. Determine brace sizes by resolving the computed story shear

where, V is the design base shear; W is the total seismic weight in the direction of braces for the nominal values of yield

of the structure; Sa is the spectral response acceleration obtained strengths of BRBs. The compressive yield strength of BRBs can

from code design spectrum; α is a dimensionless parameter be conservatively assumed as 10%–25% higher than their tensile

depends on fundamental period (T ), modal properties, and pre- yield strengths [19].

selected plastic drift ratio (θp ) and can be given by:

5. Determine the section sizes for beams and columns (termed

0.75T −0.2 as non-yielding members) of BRBFs based on capacity design

!

w h philosophy for the maximum demand expected from the BRBs

8θp π 2

n

n n at the ultimate states. Check the compactness and lateral

X

α= (βi − βi+1 )hi n . (2)

gT 2

bracing requirements of these members as per the AISC Seismic

wj hj

i=1

P

j=1

Provisions [20].

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a b

Fig. 3. (a) Relationship between Rµ , µs , and T [15]. (b) Definition of energy reduction factor, η.

a b c

Fig. 4. Plan views of study buildings (a) 3-story (b) 6-story (c) 9-story.

original code-compliant design of the 3- and 6-story BRBFs,

Three buildings (i.e., 3-, 6-, and 9-story) were considered for whereas R equal to 7 was used in the original code-compliant

design and evaluation of their seismic performance in this study. design of the 9-story BRBF [20]. However, the change in value of

All buildings were located on firm soil (site classification D) in Los R from 6 to 8 in the design does not change the overall seismic

Angeles. The dimensions and floor masses for both 3- and 6-story performance of BRBFs significantly [5]. For all cases, the occupancy

buildings were exactly matched with those adopted by Sabelli [5] importance factor, I, was assumed as unity for all code-compliant

for braced frame studies. However, plan layout and floor masses for design. Note that, R and I factors are not explicitly required in the

the 9-story building were adopted from Gupta and Krawinkler [21]. PBPD methodology. As expected, the design force level increases

As shown in Fig. 4, typical bay width in each direction of all with the increase in the value of I in an attempt to lower down the

buildings was 9.14 m (30 ft). The 6-story building had a total of drift and ductility demands of structures for a given level of ground

six bays with BRBs in each direction, whereas both 3- and 9-story shaking [22,23]. However, such procedure cannot be considered as

buildings had four bays with BRBs in each direction. All braced a direct design method to achieve the intended purpose, such as

bays were located at the perimeter of buildings. Except for the first damage control. The reduction of potential damage in structures

story height of 5.49 m for the 6- and 9-story buildings, typical story should better be handled by using appropriate drift limitations

height for all buildings was 3.96 m (Fig. 5). Seismic weights for directly. In that regard, the approach for calculating the design

the 3-, 6-, and 9-story buildings were 28 910 kN, 59 295 kN, and base shear in the PBPD method uses target drift as the governing

97 325 kN, respectively. The spectral acceleration values at 0.2 s parameter, which should account for occupancy importance. The

(SDS ) and 1 s (SD1 ) were 1.39 and 0.77g for both the 3- and 6-story values of base shear coefficient, Cs , were 0.174 for the 3- and 6-

BRBFs [5], whereas the corresponding values used for the 9-story story BRBFs and 0.085 for the 9-story BRBF, if designed based

BRBF were 1.11 and 0.61 g [21]. on current code provisions [16]. However, the design base shear

coefficients as per the PBPD methodology were 0.158, 0.100 and

4.1. Design base shear for BRBFs 0.054 for the 3-, 6- and 9-story BRBFs, respectively. Thus, the

PBPD methodology uses smaller design base shear as compared to

Table 1 summarizes various parameters used to compute the current codes with the maximum reduction in design base shear as

design base shear for all BRBFs used in the present study. A 43% and 36% for the 6-story and 9-story BRBFs, respectively. Since

target drift level of 1.75% was selected for all BRBFs leading to the collapse prevention rather than drift control is the governing

structural ductility factor, µs , ranging from 3.94 to 6.25. The performance criteria for structures under MCE hazard level, the

computed range of ductility was smaller than the brace ductility performance of BRBFs designed for DBE level was also investigated

capacities according to prior experimental studies [6,19]. A pinned under MCE ground motions in this study.

beam–column-brace connection, as illustrated in Fig. 5, was

used at all story levels of both 3- and 6-story BRBFs to avoid 4.2. Design of frame members

undesirable connection failures due to induced moments resulted

from unbalanced brace forces [6]. However, for the 9-story BRBF The desired yield mechanism of BRBFs requires that yielding

with X-configuration BRBs, pinned beam-to-column connections should be limited to braces and plastic hinges at the bases of first

were used at the story levels where unbalanced brace forces story columns only (Fig. 2). All frame members were designed

were present, otherwise rigid connections where unbalanced brace based on their nominal material strengths. The maximum axial

forces were absent. force demand on BRBs at the target drift level was obtained from

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Table 1

Design parameters used in the computation of design base shear for PBPD BRBFs.

No. Parameters 3-story 6-story 9-story Note

2 Total frame height (m) 11.9 25.3 37.2 Fig. 5

3 Yield drift ratio, θy (%) 0.28 0.37 0.44 Eq. (4)

4 Fundamental period (s) 0.43a 0.77a 1.03a Ref.: ASCE 7-05 [16], Cu = 1.4

5 Inelastic drift ratio, θp (%) 1.47 1.38 1.31 (5) = (1)−(3)

6 Ductility reduction factor, Rµ 4.79 4.78 3.94 Fig. 3(a)

7 Structural ductility factor, µs 6.25 4.78 3.94 (7) = (1)/(3)

8 Energy modification factor, γ 0.51 0.38 0.44 Eq. (3)

9 Spectral acceleration, Sa 1.39 1.00 0.59

10 Base shear coefficient, V /W 0.158 0.100 0.054 V = 1170 kN (3-story); 1005 kN (6-story);

1350 kN (9-story)

a

Based on computer analysis, fundamental periods are 0.65 s. (3-story), 1.03 s (6-story), and 1.44 s (9-story).

Table 2

Details of BRBs and structural sections used in PBPD BRBFs.

Members Story 3-story 6-story 9-story

2nd 937 885 942

3rd 624 833 907

4th – 729 856

BRBs (Tensile yield strengths, kN) 5th – 572 789

6th – 364 703

7th – – 596

8th – – 464

9th – – 296

1st–2nd W14 × 90 W14 × 145 W14 × 233

3rd–4th W14 × 90 W14 × 145–W14 × 74 W14 × 145

Column sections

5th–6th – W14 × 74 W14 × 90

7th–9th – – W14 × 61

Beam sections – W14 × 34 W14 × 30 (1st–3rd) W16 × 40

(All floors) W14 × 26 (4th–6th) (All floors)

and compression by applying material overstrength factor (Ry ),

compression adjustment factor (β ) and tension adjustment factor

(ω) to the nominal yield strength values. Since these values depend

on the type of braces used in BRBFs, two different sets of values

were considered in this study. For 3- and 6-story BRBFs, the values

of Ry , β , and ω were considered as 1.3, 1.1, and 1.4, respectively.

The corresponding values of Ry , β , and ω for 9-story BRBF were

1.1, 1.22, and 1.45, respectively [25]. For all cases, nominal yield

strength of materials used in beams and columns was 50 ksi with

the value of Ry as 1.1. Due to the introduction of pinned beam-to-

column connection (i.e., beam splice), all columns of BRBFs were

designed for axial loads only. It was later shown in nonlinear

time-history analyses that additional moments induced by column

bending have negligible effect on the overall seismic behavior.

Table 2 summarizes the details of BRBs and beams and columns at

various story levels of BRBFs. Chao et al. [18] showed that relative

story shear distribution for a braced frame using a lateral load

distribution factor of 0.75 represents an upper bound to nonlinear

dynamic analysis results and leads to more uniform deformations

of elements as well as stories over the height of the structure as

compared to a factor of 0.50. Hence, all members of BRBFs in this

Fig. 5. BRBFs and their brace-beam–column connections (a) 3-story (b) 6-story (c)

9-story. study are designed for a load distribution factor of 0.75.

the expected story shear by using a lateral force distribution 5. Seismic performance of BRBFs

proposed by Chao et al. [18]. Fig. 6 shows a step-by-step procedure

for design of frame members of BRBFs with chevron bracing 5.1. Modeling and analysis

configuration. Similar procedure with minor modifications in brace

unbalanced forces can be followed for design of BRBFs with braces The seismic performance of BRBFs was evaluated by nonlinear

in X-configuration. Brace sizes were determined by assuming analysis using a computer program PERFORM-3D [13]. Beams and

nominal yield strength of braces as 36 ksi and strength reduction columns were modeled as standard frame elements with plastic

factor of 0.9 for both tension and compression [24]. However, the hinges lumped at both ends. Both axial-moment (P-M-M) and

maximum force demands on beams and columns was computed moment–rotation hinges were assigned to all beam and column

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Fig. 6. Flowchart for design of BRBFs with chevron bracings (Note: φt = φc as per AISC Specifications [24]; α = Angle of inclination of brace with horizontal; Pyt and Pyc are

BRB yield strengths in tension and compression; Put and Puc are BRB ultimate strengths in tension and compression; Fh and Fv are horizontal and vertical loads on beams;

Ptransverse = Axial load on column from transverse direction; Pbeam = Axial load on column from beam gravity loading; Vstoryshear = Design story shear; Abrb = Cross-sectional

area of BRB).

elements assuming that they would carry significant axial force end segments of BRBs were assumed as 160% and 220% of the

with biaxial bending. However, since all analyses were carried area of the core segment, respectively. Similarly, the length of

out on two dimension frame models, there would be no biaxial transition and end segments were assumed as 6% and 24% of the

bending of frame members. For the 9-story BRBFs, beam-to- total length of BRB [2]. Considering the variation of cross-sectional

column connections were assumed as rigid where BRBs and gusset area along the length of brace, the effective axial stiffness of BRB

plates were present; otherwise these connections were assumed (Keff ) should consider stiffness of all segments and can be expressed

as pined. For both 3- and 6-story BRBFs, moment releases were as follows [2].

used at beam ends to simulate the presence of beam splice (Fig. 5).

(Keff ) = EAc Aj At /(Ac Aj Lt + Lc Aj At + Ac Lj At ). (5)

Addition of the beam splice can eliminate the moment-frame

action and prevent failure in the gusset regions [3,26]. All columns Elastic modulus of steel was considered as 200 GPa to compute the

were assumed to be perfectly fixed to the ground. axial stiffness of BRBs. The post-yield stiffness of BRBs in tension

P-Delta effect due to gravity loads resulted from gravity frames can be different from that in compression depending on the type

was modeled by an equivalent continuous column representing of outer casing and confining material used for lateral support to

all gravity columns associated with the frame. The magnitude of brace core [19,27]. In this study, the post-yield stiffness of core

axial load in these equivalent columns was computed from the segments in tension and compression was assumed as 3% of their

total building weight (exclusive of tributary gravity load to the initial stiffness. It should be noted that, in practice, the presence

braced frames) and the number of braced frames along a particular of gusset plates may alter the lateral stiffness of BRBFs to some

direction. Lateral stiffness and strength of these columns at each extent [3]. Both isotropic and kinematic hardening characteristics

story level represent the sum of respective values of all gravity were considered in the modeling of force–deformation response of

columns at that story level assuming their weak axis bending. BRBs. Various hardening parameters were obtained by comparing

These columns were pinned at their bases and constrained to the hysteretic response of a typical BRB from PERFORM-3D [13]

match the frame displacement at each floor level by using pin- with the component test results [19] as shown in Fig. 7(b). To

ended rigid beams. For time-history analyses, Rayleigh damping of monitor the magnitude of plastic displacements of BRBs under

2% was used in all modes of structures. various ground motions, the values of maximum ductility of BRBs

Standard BRB elements were chosen to model all braces of were assumed as 15 and 25 for DBE and MCE level analyses,

BRBFs in PERFORM-3D [13]. In general, the area of transition respectively. Similarly, the respective values of cumulative plastic

(elastic) and end zones of BRBs are larger than that of the core displacement of BRBs were fixed as 200 and 400 times their yield

(restrained yielding) segment to limit the yielding to the core displacements. These ductility values are quite conservative since

segment only. As shown in Fig. 7(a), the area of transition and component test results showed that BRBs can have maximum

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Fig. 7. (a) Modeling of different segments of BRBs (b) Calibration of force–deformation characteristics of BRBs in PERFORM-3D (1 kips = 4.448 kN; 1 in. = 25.4 mm).

ductility and cumulative ductility capacities of 26 [6] and fairly uniform over the building height for 9-story BRBF. The larger

1700 [19], respectively, without any degradation in their strength interstory drifts at the lower stories of 9-story BRBF indicated

and stiffness. that BRBs at these story levels dissipated relatively larger seismic

As stated earlier, the seismic response of BRBFs was evalu- energy than those at upper stories.

ated under two earthquake hazard levels, namely, design basis Fig. 8(b) also shows the interstory drift response of BRBFs

earthquake (DBE) and maximum considered earthquake (MCE). under MCE level ground motions. The maximum value of mean

Two suites of ground motions records developed by Somerville interstory drift ratio was about 3.5% for 3-story BRBF. Similarly, 6-

et al. [28] for a hypothetical site in downtown Los Angeles with a story BRBF showed the maximum value of mean interstory drift

probability of exceedance of 10% and 2% in 50 years were selected ratio of 3.83% at the second story level which reduced to 2.08%

for nonlinear time-history analysis. These acceleration time histo- at the sixth story level. The maximum value of mean interstory

ries were derived from historical recordings or from physical simu- drift ratio of 9-story BRBF was 4.3% observed at the second story

lations and were modified such that their mean response spectrum level and reduced to 1.31% at the roof level. Thus, BRBs in the

matches the 1997 NEHRP design spectrum. A total of forty records lower stories of both 6- and 9-story BRBFs were subjected to larger

were obtained from twenty ground motions in both fault-parallel drift demands under MCE level ground motions. However, since

and fault-normal orientations. The magnitude of earthquakes var- the collapse prevention rather than controlling maximum drift of

ied from 6 to 7.4 with the hypocentral distance of earthquakes var- BRBFs is the governing performance criteria for MCE level ground

ied from 1.2 to 36 km. motions, the large values of interstory drift ratios did not hinder the

applicability of BRBFs as primary seismic resisting systems since

BRBFs with the beam–column-brace configuration shown in Fig. 5

5.2. Analysis results and discussion

have exhibited excellent seismic performance and sustain only

minor yielding at story drift ratio up to 4.8% [6]. Hence, all BRBFs

Nonlinear time-history analyses were carried out to evaluate

exhibited accepted overall performance of under MCE level ground

the seismic performance of BRBFs, in terms of interstory drift ratio,

motions even though they were designed for DBE level only.

residual drift ratio, yield mechanism and displacement ductility.

Fig. 9(a) shows the residual drift ratio response of BRBFs under

Interstory (or residual) drift ratio was defined as the ratio of

DBE level ground motions. The mean values of residual drift

the interstory (or residual) displacement to the corresponding

ratio for 3-story BRBF varied from 0.45% to 0.70%. The 6-story

story height. Due to well-controlled drifts realized by the PBPD

BRBF exhibited mean residual drifts ranging from 0.36% to 0.61%.

approach, no additional design force was used in the design to

For both 3- and 6-story BRBFs, the residual drift response was

account for the P-Delta effect. A statistical analysis was carried out fairly uniform over the building height under DBE level ground

to evaluate the mean and standard deviation of drift ratios for all motions. Similarly, the 9-story BRBF showed mean values of

BRBFs. Fig. 8(a) shows the interstory drift response of all BRBFs residual drift ranging from 0.27% to 0.67%. Similar to the interstory

under DBE level ground motions. The maximum value of interstory drift distribution, the residual drift distribution in 9-story BRBF

drift ratio for 3-story BRBF was 3.0% observed for LA13 ground was not uniform over the height. As shown in Fig. 9(b), both 3-

motion. The mean and mean-plus-standard deviation values of and 6-story BRBFs under MCE level ground motions showed the

interstory drift ratios for the 3-story BRBF varied from 1.44% to mean values of residual drift ratio as about 1.7%. The maximum

1.62%, and 2.0% to 2.33%, respectively. Similarly, 6-story BRBF value for mean residual drift ratio was 2.28% for 9-story BRBF.

exhibited a maximum interstory drift ratio of 3.3% observed for It should be noted that the distribution of residual drift ratio in

LA09 ground motion. The mean and mean-plus-standard deviation 9-story BRBF under the MCE level ground motions was different

values of interstory drift ratios for the 6-story BRBF varied from from that under DBE level ground motions and the BRBs at the

1.15% to 1.73%, and 1.56% to 2.36%, respectively. The maximum lower stories dissipated significant amount of energy due to large

interstory drift ratio for 9-story BRBF was 2.82% for LA03 ground deformations under MCE level earthquakes.

motion, whereas the mean and mean-plus-standard deviation No plastic hinges were formed in beams and columns except the

values of interstory drift ratios ranging from 1.03% to 1.72%, and yielding at column bases in BRBFs under DBE level ground motions.

1.37% to 2.35%, respectively. The average values of maximum Thus, the intended yield mechanism was achieved under the DBE

interstory drift ratio for 3-, 6- and 9-story BRBFs were 1.71%, hazard level. Under MCE level earthquakes, flexural yielding of

1.73% and 1.83%. Hence, all BRBFs reached the target drift level of beams and columns at different story levels of 9-story BRBFs

1.75% under DBE level ground motions even without any design was noticed because of larger strength and deformation demand.

iteration. Since drifts were well controlled by considering inelastic However, these members did not reach their ultimate deformation

behavior directly in the design of these BRBFs, the P-Delta effect and load-carrying capacity which prevented these BRBFs from

had no appreciable influence on their overall behavior. Unlike 3- their complete collapse. Braces did not reach their maximum

and 6-story BRBFs, the distribution of interstory drift ratio was not ductility and cumulative displacement ductility limits of 15 and

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a b

200, respectively, for all BRBFs under DBE level ground motions. motions, respectively. However, this may not be an indication of

The mean values of maximum ductility demand of BRBs were 7.3, failure of BRBs because most prior isolated BRB tests [6] were

8.0, and 9.3 for 3-, 6-, and 9-story BRBFs, respectively. Similarly, the carried out under smaller maximum ductility demand (10–25) and

mean values of cumulative displacement ductility demand of BRBs high cumulative ductility demand (approximately 300–1600), as

under the DBE level ground motions were 24.5, 21.8, and 32.7 for 3- opposed to the smaller cumulative ductility demand (43.6–144.1)

, 6-, and 9-story BRBFs, respectively. BRBs in all BRBFs also did not but higher maximum ductility demand (29.4–35.6) observed in the

exceed their cumulative ductility demand of 400 under the MCE time-history analyses under MCE ground motions.

level ground motions. The mean values of maximum cumulative

displacement ductility demands were 43.6, 48.7, and 47.2 for 3-, 6. Summary and conclusions

6-, and 9-story BRBFs, respectively, under MCE level ground

motions. Similarly, the mean values of maximum ductility demand A direct design methodology, called performance-based plastic

of BRBs of 3-, 6-, and 9-story BRBFs under the MCE level ground design (PBPD), based on energy–work balance, pre-selected target

motions were 17.2, 17.6, and 16.0, respectively, which indicates drift and yield mechanism was developed in this study to achieve

that mean values of maximum ductility demand of BRBs did not predictable behavior of BRBFs by incorporating the inelastic

reach their maximum ductility limits of 25. The absolute maximum characteristics of components in the design. The PBPD design

value of maximum ductility demand of BRBs of 3-story and 6-story procedure is not too different from what is done in current practice,

BRBFs were about 32.1 and 32.3 under LA 18 and LA 16 ground yet it can be readily incorporated within the context of broader

Author's personal copy

a b

Performance-Based Earthquake Engineering (PBEE) framework. 1. BRBFs designed as per PBPD methodology can successfully

It does differ from the way PBEE is practiced currently, which limit the maximum drifts within the pre-selected target drift

usually starts with an initial design according to conventional level (1.75%), as well as achieve the intended yield mechanism

elastic design procedures using applicable design codes, followed under the DBE hazard level. The maximum drifts are generally

by cumbersome and time-consuming iterative assessment process uniformly distributed along the building height.

by using inelastic static or dynamic analyses till the desired 2. Mean values of maximum story drift ratios of the study BRBFs

performance objectives are achieved. The iterations are carried under the MCE hazard level are approximately 4%. However,

out in a purely trial-and-error manner. No guidance is provided

previous experimental studies have shown that a well-detailed

to the designer as to how to achieve the desired goals such as,

BRBF will experience minor damage at this drift level.

controlling drifts, distribution and extent of inelastic deformation,

etc. In contrast, the PBPD method is a direct design method, which 3. No iteration is required to achieve the desired performance

generally requires no evaluation after the initial design because objectives of all BRBFs since the inelastic characteristics of

the nonlinear behavior and key performance criteria are built structural components and target drift ratio are directly

into the design process from the beginning. In this study, this considered in the design. Further, due to well-controlled drift,

design methodology is applied to three low-to-medium rise BRBFs it is possible to achieve the desired seismic performance by

and the robustness and versatility of this method was evaluated neglecting additional force due to P-Delta effect in the design

by the seismic performance of these BRBFs under forty recorded for simplicity.

ground motions representing the DBE and the MCE hazard levels. 4. The PBPD design base shears for the 3-, 6-, and 9-story BRBFs are

Following conclusions are drawn from the present study: 91%, 57%, and 64% of that calculated based on the modern codes.

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