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TUGAS NERACA MASSA DAN ENERGI

BUKU : HIMMELBLAU

1.1 Carry out the following conversions ( Syarif Wahyu Hidayah/3335170028 )

a. How many meter kubik are there in 1.00 mil kubik?


Answer: 1 m kubik= 2,399 x 10-10mil kubik

1 Mil3= 1/ 2,399 x 10-10m3/ mil3

= 4,16 x 109M3

b. How many gal/min correspond to 1.00 ft3 /s

Answer : 1 gal = 0,134 ft3

1 ft3 / s = 1/ 0,134 gal/ ft3 = 7,46 gal/s

7,46 gal/s = 60 s/min

= 447,76 gal/min

EXAMPLE 1.1 Dimensions and Units

Add the following:

a. 1 foot + 3 seconds
b. 1 horsepower + 300 watts

Solution:

The operation indicated by

1 ft + 3 s

Has no meaning since the dimensionsof the two terms are not the same. One foot has the
dimension of length, whereas 3 seconds has the dimensions of time. In the Case of.

1 hp + 300 watts
The dimensions are the same ( energi per unit times), but the units are different, you must
transform the two quantities into like units, such as horsepower or watts, before the addition
can be carried out, since 1 hp = 746 watts,

746 watts + 300 watts = 1046 watts

1.2 Convert ( Hasan Rhouf/3335170031 )

(a) 0.04 g/(min)(m3) to lbm/(hr)(ft3)

(b) 2 L/s to ft3/day

(c) 6(in)(cm2)/(yr)(s)(lbm)(ft2)

Solution
(a) 0.04 g/(min)(m3) X 1 lbm/454 g X 60 min X 35.31 m3 = 1,5 10-4lbm/(hr)(ft3)
(b) 2 L/s X 1 ft3/28.32 L X 86400 / day = 6.1 X 103ft3/day
(c) 1.14 X 10-4 (m)/(kg)(s2)

Example 1.2

(a) Convert 2 km to miles


(b) Convert 400 in.3/day to cm3/min

Solution

(a) 1.61 km = 1 mile

2 km X 1 mile/ 1.61 km = 1.24 mile

(b) 1 in. = 2,54 cm


1 day = 1440 min

400 in.3/day X 2,54 cm3/ 1 in.3 X 1 day/ 24 hr X 1hr/ 60 min = 4.55 cm3/min

1.4 One hundred pounds of water is flowing through a pipe at the rate of 10.0 ft/s. What is the
kinetic energy of this water in (ft) (lbf)? ( Aldi Abdullah/3335170096 )

Kinetic energy = K = ½ mc2


Assume that the 100 lb of water means the mass of the water
K= ½|100 lbm|(10 ft)2/s|32.174 (ft) (lbm)/(sec2)(lbf)=155(ft)(lbf)

1.5 What is the potential energy in (ft)(Ibf) ofa 100-lb drum hanging 10ft above thesurface of
the earth with reference to the surface of the earth? ( Dimas Alamudin/3335170063 )

Solution:

potential energy = P = mgh

Assume the 100lb means 100 Ib mass; g = acceleration of gravity = 32.2 ft/sec2.

100 lbm 32.2 ft 10 ft


P= × × × = 1000(𝑓𝑡)(𝑙𝑏𝑓)
𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 (𝑓𝑡)(𝑙𝑏𝑚)
32.174
(𝑠𝑒𝑐 2 )(𝑙𝑏𝑓)

Notice that in the ratio of g/gc,or 32.2 ft/sec2 divided by 32.174 (ft/sec2)(lbm/lbf ) the numerical
values are almost equal. A good many people would solve the problem by saying 100lb× 10 ft =
1000 (ft)(Ib) without realizing that in effect they are canceling out the numbers in the g/gc ratio.

1.6 What is the difference in the weight in Newtons of a lOO-kg rocket at height of10 km
above the surface of the earth, where g =. 9.76 m/sec2 , as opposed to its weighton the surface
of the earth, where g = 9.80 m/sec2? ( Yoga Raharja/3335170084 )

Solution:
The weight in Newtons can be computed in each case from Eq. (1.1) with a =!:
if we ignore the tiny effect of centripetal acceleration resulting from the rotation of
the earth (less than 0.3 percent):

weight difference : 100 kg (9.80-9.76)m 1N = 4.00 N

sec2 (Kg)(m)

sec2

1.7 a. How many g mol are represented by 100 g of CO2?

b. calculate the weight in pounds of 3.5 g mol of nitrogen. ( Hilda frihandini/3335170045)

Solution
𝑔
a. Mr CO2: 44𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙

100 𝑔
𝑔 = 2.2727 g mol
44
𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙

𝑔
b. Mr N2: 28𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙
𝑔 1 𝑙𝑏
3.5 g mol . 28 𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙 . 454 𝑔 = 0.2158 lb

1.8 From Parade Magazine, August 31, 1997, page 8 by Marilyn Voss Savani :

Can you help with this problem? Suppose it takes one man 5 hours to paint a house, and it
takes another man 3 hours to paint the same house. If the two men work together, how many
hours would it take them? This is driving me nuts . Calculate the answer. ( Kirana Dian
Lestari/3335170067 )

Answer :

1.8 Let tAbe the time for A to paint one house;

tBfor B , A does a house in 5 hours, or 1 house/5 hr. B does one house in 3 hours, or 1 house/3
hr.

1 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑡𝐴 ℎ𝑟 1 ℎ𝑜𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑡𝐵 ℎ𝑟
+ = 1 house
5 ℎ𝑟 3 ℎ𝑟

3 5 8
Also tA= tAso that 15 𝑡𝐴 + 𝑡𝐴 = 1 𝑜𝑟 𝑡𝐴 = 1
15 5

15
𝑡𝐴 = ℎ𝑟 = 𝑡𝐵 = 1.875 ℎ𝑟 𝑜𝑟 112,5 min.
8
EXAMPLE 1.8 Retention of Significant Figures

If 20.100 kg is subtracted from 22.400 kg ,is the answer of 2.300 kg good to four
significant figures ?

Solution

If you note that 22.400 , 20.100 , and 2.300 have no decimal points after the righthand zero
,how many significant figures can you attribute input to 22.400 and 20.100 ? By applying the
absolute error concept you can conclude that the number of significant figures is three .
Scientific notation makes this decision clearer

2.24 × 104kg

-2.01 × 104kg

0.23 × 104kg

And the result retains two significant figures .

On the other hand if a decimal point were placed in each number thus, 22.400 and
20.100 . indicating that the last zero was significant , then the answer of 2.300 . would be valid
to four significant figures .

From the viewpoint of relative error , 22.400 has an error of about ½% (1/224) as does
20.100 (1/201) , whereas 2.300 has an error of about 5% (1/23) . Should relative error have
been used to establish the number of significant figures to be retained ? Can you add a 0 to the
right of 0.23 to give a relative error of (1/230) or about ½% ? No. But what about giving the
answer as 230 x 10 ?

1.9 Two scales are shown, a balance (a) and a spring scale (b). (Jessica
Mellinda/3335170061 )
In the balance calibrated weights are placed in one pan to balance the object to be weighted in
the other pan. In the spring scale, the object to be weighted is placed on the pan and a spring is
compressed that moves a dial on a scale in kg.

State for each device whether it directly measures mass or weight. Underline your
answer. State in one sentencefor each the reason for your answer.

Jawab :

(a) Massa, karena massa itu stabil


(b) Berat, karena gaya yang di berikan mendorong pegas
EXAMPLE 1.9 Micro-dissection of DNA

A Stretch-and-positioning technique on a carrier layer can be used for dissection and


acquisition of a electrostatically positioned DNA strand. A device to do the micro-dissection
consist of a glass substrate on which a sacrificial layer, a DNA carrier layer, and a pair of
electrodes are deposited. The DNA is electrostatically stretched and immobilized onto the
carrier layer with one of its molecular ends aligned on the electrode edge. A cut is made
through the two layer with a stylus as a knife at an aimed portion of the DNA. By dissolving the
sacrificial layer, the DNA fragment on the piece if carrier can be recovered on a membrane
filter. The carrier piece can then be melted to obtain the DNA fragment in solution.

If the DNA is stretched out to the length of 48kb, and a cut made with a width of 3 µm, how
many base pairs (bp) should be reported in the fragment ? note : 1 kb is 1000 base pairs (bp)
and 3 kb = 1 µm.

Jawab :
3 𝑘𝑏 1000 𝑏𝑝
3µm = 9000 bp
1𝜇𝑚 1 𝑘𝑏

Namun, karenapengukuranjumlahmolekul-molekuldalamfragmen DNA


dapatditentukanuntuk 3 atau 4 tokohpentingdalamribu, dan
3μmuntukmemotongmungkinjugamemilikilebihdari yang terkait, ketepatandalamnilai 9000
mungkinbenar-benarmenjadilebihbaikjikamemilikinilaiμm3.0 atau 3.00μm

1.10 In the American Engineering of units, the viscosity can have the units of (lb f)(hr)/ft2, while
in a handbook the units are (g)/(cm)(s). convert a viscosity of 20.0 (g)/(m)(s) to the given
American Engineering units S2. ( Artika Sari Septiazis/3335170100 )
Answer :

20.0 𝑔 1 𝑙𝑏𝑚 0.3048 𝑚 3600 𝑠 1 (𝑙𝑏f)(S2) 1 (ℎ𝑟)2


(𝑚)(𝑠) 453.6 𝑔 1 𝑓𝑡 1 ℎ𝑟 32.174 (𝑙𝑏𝑚)(𝑓𝑡) (3600)2 𝑆2
(𝑙𝑏𝑓)(ℎ𝑟)
= 1.16 x 10-7 𝑓𝑡2

1.11 Thermal conductivity in the american egineering system of unit. ( Maulana


Akbar/3335170040 )

Btu
k
(hr) (ft2) (°f/ft)

Change this to

KJ

(day) (m3) (°C/cm)

Answer

1.0 btu 24 hrs/ 1 day x 1 ft2/ 12 in2 x 1 in2 /2,54 cm2 x 100 cm2 / 1°c x 2,54 cm / in

(hr)(ft2)(f°/ft)

252 cal / 1 btu x 12 in / 1 ft x 4,184 J/ 1 cal x 1 kj / 1000 j

= 1,49 x 104 kj

(day)(m2)(°c/cm)

Contoh soal :

2.11 a. 4 g mol mg cl2 x (95,23)g MgCl2/ gmol MgCl2 = 380,9 g

b. 2 lb mol c3H8 x 44,09 lb c3H8 / lb mol C3H8 x 45 g C3H8 / 1 lb c3H8 = 4 x 104 g c3H8
1.12 Air mengalir melalui pipa berdiameter 2 inci dengan kecepatan 3 ft / s. ( Dessyana
Puspitasari/3335170098 )
(𝑓𝑡)(𝑙𝑏𝑓)
(a) Berapa energi kinetik air di ?
(𝑙𝑏𝑚)
(b) Berapa laju alirannya di gal/min?

Solutions

Basis : 1 lb H2O

1 1 1 𝑙𝑏𝑚 3 𝑓𝑡 (𝑠3 )(𝑙𝑏𝑓)


a. KE = 2 mv2 = 2 ( )³ 32.174 (𝑓𝑡)(𝑙𝑏𝑚) = 0,14 (ft)(lbf)
𝑠
b. Biarkan A = area pipa dan V = kecepatan air. Laju alirnya adalah
𝜋𝐷²
q = Av = ( )(v)
4

𝜋 (2 𝑖𝑛)² (1 𝑓𝑡)² 3 𝑓𝑡 60 𝑠 7,48 𝑔𝑎𝑙


=4 = 29,37 gal/min
(12 𝑖𝑛)² 𝑆 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 1 𝑓𝑡³

Contoh soal Nanotechnology

1.3 Bahan nanosized telah menjadi subyek penyelidikan intensif dalam dekade terakhir karena
penggunaan potensial mereka di semikonduktor, obat-obatan, detektor protein, dan
transportasi elektron. nanoteknologi adalah istilah umum yang mengacu pada sintesis dan
aplikasi partikel kecil tersebut. contoh semikonduktor adalah ZnS dengan diameter partikel 1,8
nanometer. Ubah nilai ini menjadi (a) dm (b) inchi

Solusi :

1.8 𝑛𝑚 10−9 𝑚 10 𝑑𝑚
(a) = 1.8 x 10−8 𝑑𝑚
1 𝑛𝑚 1 𝑚
1.8 𝑛𝑚 10−9 𝑚 39.37 𝑖𝑛
(b) 1 𝑛𝑚 1𝑚
= 7.09 x 10−8 𝑖𝑛

1.13 Isi paket itu sering berlabel dalam bentuk “ berat bersih 250gram “ apakah benar label
paket tersebut? ( Celista Falah Hariansyah/3335170017 )

Answer : tidak juga, namun biasanya seseorang tidak membedakan antara massa dan berat.

Contoh Soal

Contoh 1.4 Konversi Melibatkan lbm dan lbf

Solusi
Hal pertama yang harus di lakukan adalah membaca masalah dengan hati-hati, Hal apa saja
yang jumlahnya tidak diketahui? Energi Potensial yang tidak diketahui. Hal apa saja yang
jumlahnya tidak diketahui? Massa dan tinggi drum diketahui. Bagaimana mereka dapat terkait?
Anda harus menghubungkannya kecuali jika anda mengingat dari fisika :

Energi Potensial = P = mgh

Asumsikan bahwa 100lb berarti 100lb massa ; g = percepatan gravitasi = 32,2 ft/s². Gambar E1.4
adalah sketsa dari sistem.

Sekarang subsitusikan nilai-nilai numerik variabel ke dalam persamaan dan melakukan konversi
unit yang diperlukan.

100𝑙𝑏𝑚 32.2 𝑓𝑡 10𝑓𝑡 (𝑠2 )(𝑙𝑏𝑓)


P= = 1000 (ft) (lbf)
𝑠2 32.174 9𝑓𝑡) (𝑙𝑏𝑚)

Perhatikan bahwa dalam rasio 32.2 ft/𝑠 2 dibagi dengan 32.174 [(ft)(lbm)]/[(𝑠 2 )(lbf)], nilai
numerik dengan angka tersebut hampir sama. Banyak insinyur akan mengatasi masalah
tersebut dengan mengatakan bahwa 100lb x 10ft = 1000 (ft)(lb) tanpa menyadari bahwa,
berlaku, keluar angka dalam rasio g/gc dan biasanya lb berarti lbf.

1.14 What is meant by a scale that shows a weight of “21.3 kg”? ( Natasya Diwa
Milenia/3335170047 )

Jawaban :
Sebuah benda memiliki massa 21,3 kg.

Example 1.5 (Conversion of Units Associated with Biological Materials)

In biological systems, enzymes are used to accelerate the rates of certain biological reactions.
Glucoamylase is an enzyme that aids in the conversion of starch to glucose (a sugar that cells
use for energy). Experiments show that 1µg mol of glucoamylase in a 4% starch solution results
in a production rate of glucose of 0.6 µg mol/(mL)(min). Determine the production rate of
glucose for this system in the units of lbmol/(ft3)(day).

Dalam system biologi, enzimdigunakanuntukmeningkatkantingkatreaksibiologis.


Glukoamilaseadalahsebuahenzim yang mengubahamilummenjadiglukosa.
Eksperimenmenunjukanbahwa 1 µg molglukoamilasedalam 4%
larutanamilummenunjukkanhasiltingkatproduksiglukosa 0,6µg mol/(mL)(min).
Tentukantingkatproduksiglukosadalam system dalam lm mol/(ft3)(day)

Jawaban :
0.6 µg mol 1 𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙 1 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑜𝑙 1000 𝑚𝐿 1𝐿 60 𝑚𝑖𝑛 24 ℎ𝑟 𝑙𝑏 𝑚𝑜𝑙
= 0.0539 (𝑓𝑡 3 )(𝑑𝑎𝑦)
(𝑚𝐿)(min) 106 µg mol 454 𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑙 1𝐿 3.531 x10−2 𝑓𝑡 3 ℎ𝑟 𝑑𝑎𝑦

1.15 A tractor pulls a load with a force equal to 800 lb (4,0 kN) with a velocity of 300 ft/min (1,5
m/s). what is the power required using the given American Engineering system data? The SI
data? ( Noviana Putri M/3335170078 )

Dik : F = 800 lb (4,0 kN)  1 Kn = 1000 N

v = 300 ft/min (1,5 m/s)

Dit : daya (P) dalam satuan SI ?

Jawab :

P=Fxv

𝑘𝑔𝑚/𝑠2 𝑓𝑡 𝑚/𝑠
= 800 lb . 4000 x 300 𝑚𝑖𝑛 . 1,5
𝑙𝑏 1 𝑓𝑡/𝑚𝑖𝑛

= 32x105 kgm/s2 x 450 m/s


1 𝐽/𝑠
= 1440x106 kgm2/s3 x 1 𝑘𝑔𝑚2 /𝑠3

P = 1440x106 J/s
1.16 what is the kinetic energy of a vehicle with a mass of 2300 kg moving at the rate of 10.0
ft/sec in Btu? (1 btu = 778,2 (ft)(lbf). ( Destiana Ramadhanti/3335170077 )

Answer

Mass : 2300 kg

V : 10.0 ft/sec = 3,048 m/s

EK = ½ . m . v2

= ½ . 2300 kg . (3,048 m/s)2

= 10683,8496 J

=10, 12633556173 Btu

1.7 interesting example of dimensional consistency

Explain without differentiating why the following differentiation cannot be correct:

𝑑 𝑥2 2𝑎𝑥
√1 + ( 2 ) =
𝑑𝑥 𝑎 𝑥2
√1 + ( 2 )
𝑎

Where x is length and a is a constant

Solution

𝑥2
Observe that x and a must have the same units because the ratio must be
𝑎2
dimensionless (because 1 is dimensionless)
1
Thus, the lefthand side of the equation has units of 𝑥 (from d/dx). However, the
righthand side of the equation has units of 𝑥 2 (the product of ax).

Consequently, something is wrong as the equation is not dimensionally consistent.

1.8 Jika 20.100 kg dikurangidari 22.400 kg.apakahJawaban 2.300 kg Baikuntuk 4


angkapenting? ( Reza suci rahayu/3335170103 )
penyelesaian

jikaAndaperhatikanbahwa 22.400, 20.100 amd 2.300


tidakmemilikiangkadesimalsetelahnol di sebelahkanan, berapabanyakangkasignifikan yang
dapatAndaatribusikanke 22.400 dan 20.100?
denganmenerapkankonsepkesalahanmutlakAndadapatmenyimpulkanbahwajumlahangkasignifika
nadalahtiga. ilmiahmembuatkeputusaninilebihjelas.

2.24 X 104

-2.01 X 104

0.23 X 104

Dan hasilnyamempertahankanduaangkapenting di sisilainjikatitikdesimalditempatkan di


masing-masingnomordemikian, 22.400 dan 20.100 menunjukkanbahwanolterakhirsignifikan.
makajawabannya 2,300. akanberlakuuntukempatangkapenting

Dari sudutpandangkesalahanrelatif, 22.400 memilikikesalahansekitar 1/2% (1/224)


sepertihalnya 20.100 (1/201).dimana 2,300 memilikikesalahansekitar 5% (1/23),
apakahkesalahanrelatiftelahdigunakanuntukmenetapkanjumlahangkapenting yang
akandipertahankan? dapatkahAndamenambahkan 0 di sebelahkanan 0,23
untukmemberikankesalahanrelatif (1/230) atausekitar 1/2%?
Tidak.Tapibagaimanadenganmemberikanjawabansebagai 230 x 10?

2.17. Basis : 1g molsetiapsenyawa.

gMol mw g 𝜌 (g/cm3) V (cm3)

Pb 1 207.21 207.21 11.33 18.3

Zn 1 65.38 65.38 7.14 9.16

C 1 .12.01 12.01 2.26 5.31

Berdasarkanrumus ;
𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 (𝑔)
V = 𝑑𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑡𝑦 (𝑔/𝑐𝑚3

Makanomor 2 adalahjawaban yang benar