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# 1.

0 Objectives:

## To calculate the coefficient of thermal conductivity for a good

conductor, plus, to find the rate of heat transfer.

2.0 Theory:

The science that deals with the determination of the rates of energy
transfers is the heat transfer. Heat can be transferred in three different ways:
conduction, convection, and radiation. All modes of heat transfer require the
existence of a temperature difference.
In the lab we studied the conduction method, which is the transfer of
energy from the more energetic particles of a substance to the adjacent less
energetic ones, as a result of interaction between particles.

The rate at which heat is transferred (Q) can be calculated using the
following expression:

## Q = kA ∆T/∆x, in watts (W).

Where;
• Q: is the rate of heat transfer by conduction.
• k: is the thermal conductivity coefficient.
• A: is the area of the surface through which heat is transferred, and is
always perpendicular to the direction of transfer.
• ∆T/∆x: is the temperature gradient.

## 3.0 Calculations & Results:

3.1) to calculate the thermal conductivity coefficient for the two specimens,
stainless steel & aluminum, we use:

## k = {J*m*L(Tout – Tin)} / {A*t(T4 – T3)}, in W/m.K.

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Where;
• k: is the thermal conductivity.
• J: is the specific heat for water at constant pressure (CP) = 4.186 kJol.

• m/t: is the mass flow rate, which equals, here, 5*10-7 kg/s.
• Tin: is the inlet water temperature (OC).
• Tout: is the outlet water temperature (OC).
• A: is the area of the specimen’s surface (m2).
• T3: is the thermocouple temperature, the cold end (OC).
• T4: is the thermocouple temperature, the hot end (OC).
• L: is the distance between the thermocouples, and is 0.05 (m).

## ksteel = 0.147 W/mK.

kCu = 0.030 W/mK.

3.2) to calculate the rate of heat transfer through out the two specimens:

## Q = (x1 – x2) / (L1/Ak1) + (L2/Ak2).

Where;
• x1: temperature at the element’s end, (oC).
• x2: temperature at the water’s end, (oC).
• L1: is the length of the short element, (m).
• L2: is the length of the long element, (m).
• A1 & A2: is the area of the short element, which equals the area of the
other element (A2), (m2).
• k1: is the thermal conductivity for the short element, (W/mK).
• k2: is the thermal conductivity for the long element, (W/mK).

Q = 0.026 W/mK.

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4.0 Conclusion:

• As expected (k) for the steel is higher than that for the copper.
• For good results a steady state should first be reached.
• Isolation is very important in the experiment, as it is the only way to
force the heat to move in one direction