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HEURISTICS 6.

Use 11 characteristics to describe goals

OBJECTIVES THE 11 CHARACTERISTICS

 To be able to define heuristics and apply the concept 1. Written


in process equipment design 2. Are in the context of here and now, now and
 To identify the advantages and disadvantages of then
heuristics applied to chemical process design 3. Are problems/goals, not symptoms
 To know different techniques to expedite process 4. Have owners
equipment design applicable to the plant design 5. Have stakeholders
6. Have goals, criteria, and resources which are
project
achievable and consistent
“We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking 7. Written in observable unambiguous terms
8. Measurable
we used when we created them.” – Albert Einstein
9. Expressed as “results” not actions
10. Achievable in that resources of time, talent, and
HEURISTICS
money which are actually available
 Coined by Rene Descartes 11. Flexible in the sense that they can be changed
 Based on Greek word “heurisko” which means “a when conditions change
discovery aid”
RULES OF THUMB ABOUT THE CONTEXT FOR A
 Involving or serving as an aid to learning, discovery,
CHEMICAL PROCESS: PHYSICAL AND THERMAL
or problem–solving by experimental and especially
PROPERTIES
trial–and–error methods (Merriam – Webster)
 Any approach to problem solving, learning, or
1. Vapor pressure doubles every 20℃.
discovery that employs a practical method, not 2. The latent heat of vaporization of steam is five times
guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, that of most organics
but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal 3. If two liquids are immiscible, the infinite dilution
(Wikipedia) activity coefficient is >8
 “Rules of Thumb” (Nisbett and Ross, 1982) 4. 10% salt in water doubles the activity coefficient of a
 Educated guesses, intuitive judgments, or simply dissolved organic
common sense 5. Infinite dilution is essentially <1000 ppm of
dissolved organic
RULES OF THUMB 6. Dissolving 2-20% organic solute usually reduces the
interfacial tension
 Numerical values and suggestions that are reasonable 7. The Prandtl number for gases is approximately 1; for
to assume based on experience (Donald R. Woods) liquids, 1 to 3
 Help us judge the reasonableness of answers 8. For distillation, the condenser cooling water usage is
 Allow us to assess quickly which assumptions to 1.5 L/kg of steam to the reboiler
apply 9. Polymer melts can be classified based on their
 Allow us to supply rapid–order–magnitude estimates viscosity:
 Low viscosity melts – polyacylamide,
Examples on the context of batch vs. continuous (for a polyethylene, polypropylene
chemical process)  Medium viscosity melts – cellulose acetate,
styrene butadiene
 Batch if < 0.1 kg/s product  High viscosity melts – polycarbonate,
 Batch if too difficult to scale up process
polypropylene oxides, polyvinyl chlorides
 Batch for multi–product
RULES OF THUMB ABOUT THE CONTEXT FOR A
CONTEXT OF THE THINKING PROCESS
CHEMICAL PROCESS: CORROSION
1. We function better if we have goals about what we
1. The strength of materials depends totally on the
want to achieve
2. Carefully define specific goals environment in which the materials function
3. Clearly differentiate between symptom, cause, issues, 2. All engineering solids are reactive chemicals – they
solutions and goals corrode
4. Know when your goal has been achieved 3. The 8 usual forms of material failure by corrosion:
5. Be willing to spend at least half the allotted time in a) Uniform corrosion
b) Stress corrosion
defining the real goal
c) Pitting
d) Intergranular corrosion  For vacuum operation, design pressures are 15 psig
e) Erosion and full vacuum
f) Crevice  Minimum wall thickness for rigidity:
g) Selective leaching or dealloying  0.25 inch for diameter up to 42 inches
h) Galvanic Corrosion  0.32 inch for diameter 42 – 60 inches
4. >70% of stress corrosion cracking is related to  0.38 inch for diameter > 60 inches
residual (not applied) stresses  Corrosion allowance
5. The penetration of stress corrosion cracking as a  0.35 inch for known corrosive conditions
function of time depends on the following:  0.15 inch for non – corrosive streams
 Alloy composition  0.005 in for steam drums and air receivers
 Structure  Allowable working stresses are one – fourth of the
 pH ultimate strength of the material
 Environmental species present
 Stress TIPS IN DESIGNING VESSELS
 Temperature
 Electrochemical Potential  Select holding time
 Calculate volume vessel
RULES OF THUMB ABOUT THE THINKING PROCESS:  Select vessel type and orientation
ENVIRONMENT, WASTE MINIMIZATION, SAFETY  Select L/D ratio
 Calculate vessel diameter and length
1. Use HAZOP (Hazard and Operability Study)
2. Identify the target or goal HEURISTICS FOR CONVEYORS OF PARTICULATE
3. Eliminate the source: eliminate, substitute, recycle SOLIDS
4. Minimize the source: intensify, substitute
5. Minimize the impact SCREW CONVEYORS
6. Isolate the source
7. Isolate the impact  Are suited to transport of even sticky and abrasive
solids up to inclines of 20°
HEURISTICS FOR DESIGN OF VESSELS
 Limited to distances of 150 ft or so because of shaft
STORAGE TANKS: torque strength
 A 12” diameter conveyor can handle 1000 – 3000
 For less than 1,000 gallons, use vertical tanks on legs ft3/hr at speeds ranging from 40 to 60 rpm
 Between 1,000 and 10,000 gallons, use horizontal
tanks on concrete supports BELT CONVEYORS
 Beyond 10,000 gallons, use vertical tanks on concrete
 For high capacity and long distances (up to a mile)
foundations
 Liquids subject to breathing losses may be stored in and up to a maximum of 30° incline
 A 24” wide bell can carry 3000 ft3/hr at a speed of
tanks with floating or expansion roofs
 Freeboard: <500 gal = 15%; >500 gal = 10% 100 ft/min
 30 days capacity is often specified for raw materials  Power consumption is relatively low
and products (may depend on connecting
BUCKET ELEVATORS
transportation equipment schedules)
 Capacities are at least 1.5 times the size of connecting  Are suited to vertical transport of sticky and abrasive
transportation equipment materials
 Holding time for most intermediate storage vessels,  With 20” x 20” buckets capacity can reach 1000 ft3/hr
half – full, is 10 minutes at a speed of 100 – 300 ft/min
 Holding time for feed tank to a furnace, half full, is
30 minutes REDLER CHAIN (DRAG TYPE) CONVEYORS
 Optimum L/D ratio is 3; 2 – 5 is common
 Are suited to short distances in any direction and are
PRESSURE VESSELS completely enclosed
 Units range in size from 3 square inches to 19 square
 Design temperature between -20℉ and 650℉ is
inches
50℉ above operating temperature; higher safety  May travel from 30 ft/min (fly ash) to 250 ft/min
margins are used if temperature is >650℉ (grains)
 The design pressure is 10% or 10 – 25 psi over the  High power requirements
maximum pressure, whichever is greater
 Design pressure for vessels operating at 0 – 10 psig PNEUMATIC CONVEYORS
and 600 – 1000℉ are 40 psig
 Are for high capacity, short distance (400 ft) transport
simultaneously from several sources to several
destinations
 Either vacuum or low pressure is employed (6 – 12
psig)
 Air velocities from 35 to 120 ft/s
 Air requirements from 1 to 7 ft3/ft3 of solid
transported

HEURISTICS FOR EVAPORATORS

 Long tube vertical evaporators with either natural or


forced circulation are most popular. Tubes are 19 –
63mm (0.75–24.8 in.) in diameter and 3.66–9.14m
(12–30 ft) long
 In forced circulation, linear velocities in the tubes are
in the range of 4.57–6.09 m/s (15–20 ft/s)
 When the boiling point rise is appreciable, the
economic number of effects in series with forward
feed is 4–6
 When the boiling point rise is small, minimum cost is
obtained with 8–10 effects in series.

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