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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes

Transfer Lab Manual


Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

SEPARATION PROCESSES
LAB MANUAL
_______________________________________________________

B.Sc. Chemical Engineering

WAH ENGINEERING COLLEGE

Lab Incharge: Mr. Rashid Javed


Lab Engineer: Engr. Aasia Farrukh
Lab Assistant: Shahnawaz Akram

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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List of equipment
1. Batch Distillation Column
2. Continuous Distillation Column
3. Liquid Liquid Extraction Unit

List Of Experiments

1. To determine the pressure drop of the distillation column as function of boil-up rate in
batch distillation for batch distillation column.
2. To determine plate-to-plate temperature profiles along the column as a function of boil-up
rate for batch distillation column.
3. To observe the degree of formation of flooding on trays for each power increment for batch
distillation column.
4. To determine column efficiency as a function of boil-up rate, at total reflux for batch
distillation column.
5. To construct McCabe-Thiele diagram of operating line for batch distillation column.
6. To determine variation of top product composition with time at constant reflux ratio for
batch distillation column.
7. To determine the pressure drop of the distillation column as function of boil-up rate in
batch distillation for continuous distillation column.
8. To determine plate-to-plate temperature profiles along the column as a function of boil-up
rate for continuous distillation column.
9. To observe the degree of formation of flooding on trays for each power increment for
continuous distillation column.
10. To determine column efficiency as a function of boil-up rate, at total reflux for continuous
distillation column.
11. To construct McCabe-Thiele diagram of operating line for continuous distillation column.

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Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

12. To determine variation of top product composition with time at constant reflux ratio for
continuous distillation column.

Program Learning

Outcome: This Lab is designed in conjunction with the following PLOs.

PLO-1: Engineering Knowledge: An ability to apply knowledge of


mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals and an engineering
specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems.
PLO-4: Investigation: An ability to investigate complex engineering
problems in a methodical way including literature survey, design and
conduct of experiments, analysis and interpretation of experimental data,
and synthesis of information to derive valid conclusions.
PLO-8: Ethics: Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and
responsibilities and norms of engineering practice.

PLO-12 Lifelong Learning: An ability to recognize importance of and pursue


lifelong learning in the broader context of innovation and technological
developments.

Course Learning

Outcome (CLO): Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to:

CLO-1: Implement various theoretical phenomena of separation processes (for


example diffusion, gas absorption, drying etc) to perform experiments.

CLO-2: Analyze and Interpret the experimental data and verify the different
behaviours and trends on the empirical relations relations to above mentioned
phenomena also contemplate through experimentation.

CLO-3: Adapt ethical responsibilities in data reporting that come with


conducting experimentations.

CLO-4: Formulate research literature to analyze and design the open-ended


experiment in accordance with the concept to pursue lifelong learning in the
broader context of innovation and technological developments.

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Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

Mapping of PLO Domains:

Course Learning Program Learning


Outcome Outcome Learning Domain

CLO-1 PLO-1 Psychomotor


(Level: P-2)
Cognitive
CLO-2 PLO-4 (Level: C-2, C-4)
Affective
(Level: A-5)
CLO-3 PLO-8 Psychomotor
(Level: P-5)
CLO-4 PLO-12 Cognitive
(Level: C-4, C-6)

List of possible hazards in Environmental Engineering Lab


Following are the potential hazards and their remedies

S. No. Potential hazard Mitigation

Electrical hazard Circuit breakers are installed with the


1 units to avoid any personnel or
equipment damage
Chemical hazard 1. Latex gloves and lab coat is
1. Acid/alkali solutions are strongly corrosive recommended to avoid any
2 2. Acid may splash vigorously contact with these chemicals
2. Slow addition of acid drops in
water is recommended
Biological hazard
Immediate draining of jars is
3 Retained water in the standard test jar may allow
recommended
the growth of water borne microbes

4 Injury from sharp glass objects First aid kit is recommended for lab

Fire
5 1. ATU, diphenyl carbazone, Calmagite and EDTA CO2 type Fire extinguisher
can cause chemical fire at high temperature. is recommended
2. Electrical short circuiting (class C fire)

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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1. Immediate evacuation of lab is


recommended if release is severe
2. Acid/ alkali must be neutralized
Accidental acid or alkali release with its counterpart
6
3. Spillage must be confined in
affected area only

List of Chemicals for Mass Transfer Lab

S. No. Chemicals

1 Methanol

CLEANLINESS AND SAFETY GUIDELINES

Cleanliness
The Chemical Reaction Engineering Laboratory contains equipment that uses water
or chemicals as the fluid. There are “housekeeping” rules that students are required to clean up
their area at the conclusion of the performance of an experiment. Cleanup will include
 Removal of spilled water (or any liquid) or chemicals
 Wiping the table top on which the equipment is mounted

The lab should always be as clean as or cleaner than it was when you entered.
Cleaning the lab is your responsibility as a user of the equipment.

Safety
This is to serve as a guide and not as a comprehensive manual on safety. Every
staff/student has, at all time, a duty to care for Health and Safety of himself/herself and
of all people who may be affected by his/her action.
 Lab coat or Jackets MUST is worn all times.
 Rubber gloves should be worn when handling corrosive materials,

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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 Heat proof gauntlets when discharging any equipment involving heat.


 Wear fully covered shoes with strong grip.
 Goggles must be used whenever necessary especially when dealing with high
pressure equipment and chemicals
 Sometimes the floor may be wet. Therefore, care is essential.
 Always switch off power before removing plugs from sockets.
 Cables must be suspended and not lying on the floor.
 All cables and hoses should be routed to avoid walkways.
 This should be disposed of in the glass bin, not in the usual waste bin.
 Breakage should also be reported to the Instructor in charge.

Any appropriate instruction sheets should be studied before starting the experiment.
Particular attention should be given to the recommended precautions, startup procedure
and sequence of operation.
There should be NO Eating, No Smoking is strictly prohibited in all laboratories

In case of emergency, report to the Instructor, in charge or doctor/ambulance/fire fighter

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Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

Batch distillation unit

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017


Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

BATCH DISTILLATION EXPERIMENTS


Objectives

The objectives of this experiment, which involves batch distillation to separate alcohol from a
mixture of alcohol and water, are:

 To determine the pressure drop of the distillation column as function of boil-up rate in
batch distillation.
 To determine plate-to-plate temperature profiles along the column as a function of boil-
up rate
 To observe the degree of formation of flooding on trays for each power increment
 To determine column efficiency as a function of boil-up rate, at total reflux
 To construct McCabe-Thiele diagram of operating line
 To determine variation of top product composition with time at constant reflux ratio
 To compare performance parameters (e.g. pressure drop, plate efficiency etc.) between
packed column and sieve plate column.
Introduction

Distillation is defined as a process in which liquid or vapor mixture of two or more substances is
separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat.
Distillation is based on the fact that the vapor of a boiling mixture will be richer in the
components that have lower boiling points, therefore when this vapor is cooled and condensed
the condensate will contain more volatile components. At the same time, the original mixture
will contain more of the less volatile material.
Distillation is in fact the most common separation technique used in industry, it consumes
enormous amounts of energy (both in terms of cooling and heating requirements), and it can
contribute to more than 50% of plant operating costs. The best way to reduce operating costs of
existing units is to improve their efficiency and operation via process optimisation and control.
To achieve this improvement, a thorough understanding of distillation principles and how

Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017


Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

distillation systems are designed is essential. An example of a common distillation unit operation
is the separation of a solution containing water and alcohol. The alcohol is normally present in
greater quantities in the vapour. In most cases the component that is in the vapour in the greatest
quantities is the component with the lowest boiling point, although there are some cases when
this is not true. The fact that one component 'prefers' to be in the vapour is used to design
distillation columns which separate two or more substances based on differences in their
volatility.
There are many types of distillation column, each designed to perform specific types of
separation, and each differs in terms of complexity;
I. Batch column: In batch operation, the feed to the column is introduced batch-wise.
That is, the column is charge with a `batch` and then the distillation process is carried
out. When the desired task is achieved, a next batch of feed is introduced.
II. Continuous column: In contrast, continuous columns process a continuous feed
stream. No interruptions occur unless there is a problem with the column or
surrounding process unit.
They are capable of handling high throughputs and are the most common of the two types, trays
column and packed column;
a. Tray column(internal) – where trays (e.g. bubble cap, sieve tray etc.) of various design are
used to hold up the liquid to provide better contract between vapor and liquid
b. Packed column – where instead of trays `packings` (e.g. rasching rings) are used to
enhance contact between vapor and liquid.
Distillation columns are made up of several components, each of which is used either to transfer
heat energy or enhance material transfer. A typical distillation (figure 1) contains several major
components:
I. A vertical shell (or column) where the separation of fluid components is carried out.
II. Column internals such as trays/plates or packings which are used to enhance components
separations.
III. A reboiler to provide the necessary vaporization for the distillation process.

Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017


Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

IV. A condenser to cool and condensed the vapor leaving the top of the column
V. A reflux drums to hold the condensed vapor from the top of the column so
that liquid (reflux) can be recycled back to the column.

Figu: A schematic layout of Batch Distillation Column.

Operation and terminology; the liquid mixture that is to be processed is known as the feed and
this is introduced usually somewhere near the middle of the column to a tray known as
the feed tray. The feed tray divides the column into a top (enriching) section and bottom
(stripping) section. This applies to the continuous distillation, whereas for batch distillation the
feed is poured direct to the reboiler. Heat is supplied to the reboiler to generate vapor. The source
of heat input can be any suitable fluid, although in most chemical plants this is normally stream.
In vapor raised in the reboiler is re-introduced into the unit at the bottom of the column. The
liquid removed from the reboiler is known as the bottom product.

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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The vapor moves up the column, and as it exits the top of the unit, it is cooled by a
condenser. The condensed liquid is stored in a holding vessel known as the reflux drum. Some of
this liquid is recycled back to the top of the column and this is called the reflux. The condensed
liquid that is removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product.
Thus, there are internal flows of vapor and liquid within the column as well as external flows of
feeds and product streams, into and out of the column.

Theory

One of the most common calculation methods used for distillation columns is McCabe-Thiele
method. It involves finding compositions and flows for the top (rectifying) and bottom
(stripping) sections of the column, and graphically determining the proper number of stages as
well as the appropriate feed stage. This graphical method is performed on a y-x (composition in
vapour phase vs. composition in liquid phases) equilibrium plot. The compositions of the
distillate, xD, and bottoms, xB, are plotted on the graph, and operating lines for the rectifying and
stripping sections are derived from these conditions. The McCabe-Thiele method can also be
used when side-withdrawal or multiple feeds are in use.
This experiment deals with a slightly different method, as it involves a batch distillation process.
While it is not commonly found in industry, it is still a very useful learning tool as it operates on
most of the same principles as continuous distillation columns. The column in the laboratory also
operates using total reflux. At total reflux, the mass balance over the column is:

… (1)

At steady state (temperatures are constant), the molar liquid flow rate is equal to the molar
vapour flow rate everywhere in the column, so yn=xn+1. This should result in an operating line
that is straight; co-incident with the y = x line. Therefore, determining the theoretical number of
plates is done by measuring the steady-state compositions at the top and bottom of the column.

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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The initial batch (liquid) composition is not directly involved, so it should be excluded from
calculations.
A useful quantity when studying distillation columns is the Murphree Efficiency (ηM). It is
measure of the efficiency of each individual tray. The Murphree Efficiency assumes that
complete mixing takes place between the liquid on the tray is of constant composition and is of
the same composition as the liquid entering the next tray below [2]. It can be calculated
numerically by using the following equation:

… (2)
where yn ≡ vapour mole fraction for vapour leaving plate n-1
yn-1 ≡ vapour mole fraction for vapour leaving plate n-1
yn* ≡ vapour in equilibrium with liquid leaving plate n
The overall plate efficiency for the column is found using the following formula:

… (3)
where Nt = number of theoretical (ideal) plates which can be calculated by different methods, i.e.
McCabe-Thiele graphical analysis, Fenske equation etc.
Na = number of actual plates.
Overall and Murphree efficiencies can be related by a simple expression assuming linear
selection involving phase equilibria and uniform Murphree efficiency across the column [4].

… (4)
Where: m = slope of equilibrium line

Batch Distillation with Reflux

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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The operation of a batch column can be analyzed using a McCabe-Thiele diagram, with the same
operating-line equation that was used for the rectifying section of a continuous distillation
expressed as,
𝑅𝐷 𝑥𝐷
𝑦𝑛+1 = 𝑥𝑛 + … (5)
𝑅𝐷 +1 𝑅𝐷 +1

where RD=L/D, is the ratio of the reflux to the overhead product.


The system may be operated to keep the top composition constant by increasing the reflux ratio
as the composition of the liquid in the reboiler changes. The McCabe-Thiele diagram for this
case would have operating lines of different slipe positioned such that the same number of ideal
stages was used to go from xD to xB at any time. A typical diagram is shown in figure 2 for a still
with five ideal stages including the reboiler. The upper operating line is for the initial conditions,
when the concentration of low boiler in the still is about the same as the charge composition.
(The concentration xB is slightly lower than xF because of the holdup of liquid on the plates.).
The lower operating line and the dashed line steps show conditions when about one-third of the
charge has been removed as overhead product.
One way of operating a batch distillation is to fix the reflux ratio and let the overhead product
purity vary with time, stopping the distillation when the amount of product or the average
concentration in the total product reaches a certain value. To calculate the performance of the
still, operating lines of constant slope are drawn starting at different values of x D, and the actual
number of stages is stepped off to determine xB. The total number of moles left in the still is then
calculated by integration of following equation,
𝑥1 𝑑𝑥 𝑛1
∫𝑥 = 𝑙𝑛 … (6)
0 𝑦−𝑥 𝑛𝑜

where xD is equal to y and xl is equal to xB.

Equipment

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A schematic layout of the batch distillation rig is shown in figure 2. The core equipment is a 75
mm diameter plate distillation column containing 8 sieve plates and downcomers. Every plate
includes a temperature sensor positioned to measure accurately the temperature of the liquid on

Figure: A schematic layout of a batch distillation column system.


each plate. The sheaths of each plate temperature sensor are not more than 4 mm diameter, to
ensure rapid dynamic response. A 50mm packed column supplied as a separate item, but readily
interchangeable with the plate column by the user, for comparative studies of the two types of
distillation column.
An electrically (4.5 kW) heated reboiler of sufficient capacity (15 Liters) for 1-2 hours of batch
operation. The heater is regulated to provide vapors at 0.25 kW, 0.5 kW, and 0.75 kW and so on
up to 4.5 kW.

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

An overhead condenser is used to condense vapors by pumping in with measured and adjusted
cooling water. A condensate collecting vessel, equipped with overflow weirs and exit pipes
allows separation of immiscible liquids. A reflux return valve, solenoid operated, to provide for
0%-100% reflux, is adjustable by electrical signal.
A U tube differential manometer connected to the top and bottom of the column, serves purpose
of monitoring column pressure drop. Sampling points throughout the system are provided for
composition analysis.
The materials of construction for surfaces in contact with the process fluids are; glass, stainless
steel, PTFE or similar solvent resistant materials. Lagging is provided to prevent heat loss from
column and the condenser.
Sieve Plate Column Details:
o Column length = 1000mm
o Column dia = 80mm & inner dia=74mm
o No of plates = 08
o Each plate thickness = 12mm
o Plate to plate distance = 95mm
o Hole size = 3mm (Triangular)
o Plate to temperature sensor distance = 60mm
o Down comer glass tube dia = 10mm
o Weir height = 5mm
Packed Column Details:
o Wall thickness = 3mm
o Inner ɸ = 59mm
o Outer ɸ = 65mm
o Column length = 1000mm
o Vapour pressure point from bottom = 230mm
Thermocouple Display:

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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Thermocouples are used to measure the temperature at various points in the


column. They are numbered from T1 to T9, Numbers 1-8 measure temperature in the column
while number 9 measure the temperature in the Reboiler.
Reflux Valve Control:
The reflux ratio is controlled using a solenoid valve which has two positions;
Open – all the condensed liquid is returned to the column.
Closed- all the condensed liquid goes to the overhead product.
The reflux ratio is determined by the ratio of the time the valve is open to the time the valve is
closed. If the valve is open for twice as long as it is closed then the reflux ratio is 2. The digital
dual timer is used to set the ratio of the time the valve is open to the time the valve is closed and
therefore the numbers appear on the display represents the actual reflux ratio. When the timer is
at zero for closed the valve will be open all the time. The timer turns the reflux valve on and off.
Reboiler Power Rating:
To obtain a range of boil up rate, a variable resistance is used to vary the
Reboiler power. Selection of current (A) in accordance to the desired heating power For stable
operation, the system should be operated below 1.2 kW power.

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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Operating Procedure
1. Check that all vent lines are open and all drain valves are closed.
2. Turn on the overhead condenser cooling water supply.
3. Charge the Reboiler (spherical vessel) up to the equator with a methanol/water mixture of
known concentration.
4. Find the composition of the initial charge by gravimetric analysis.
5. Turn on the switch of the heating source.
6. Wait for the column to settle down to uniform operation under total reflux (check the
thermometer readings under total reflux)
7. Set the reflux timer to the desired reflux ratio and switch on the timer.
8. At regular time interval (say after 15 minutes) , carry out the following steps:
o Record the thermometer readings of the Reboiler and the plates.
o Take samples from the top product sampling valve and analyze their compositions. (Find
the composition of the Reboiler from its temperature using the equilibrium data for
methanol/water system).
9. Continue the distillation until uniform operation has been reached.
10. Turn off the heating mantle and the reflux timer.
11. Find the average comopstion of the total distillate collected.
12. Turn off the condenser cooling water supply when boiling has stopped.

Treatment of Results:
The student should produce plots of column position against temperature and methanol
concentration against column position as a function of time, for each reflux ratio used. These
plots will be obtained as a function of boil up rate. Sketch the graphs are shown below:

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
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Batch distillation unit

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Transfer Lab Manual
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Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017


Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

BATCH DISTILLATION EXPERIMENTS


Objectives

The objectives of this experiment, which involves batch distillation to separate alcohol from a
mixture of alcohol and water, are:

 To determine the pressure drop of the distillation column as function of boil-up rate in
batch distillation.
 To determine plate-to-plate temperature profiles along the column as a function of boil-
up rate
 To observe the degree of formation of flooding on trays for each power increment
 To determine column efficiency as a function of boil-up rate, at total reflux
 To construct McCabe-Thiele diagram of operating line
 To determine variation of top product composition with time at constant reflux ratio
 To compare performance parameters (e.g. pressure drop, plate efficiency etc.) between
packed column and sieve plate column.
Introduction

Distillation is defined as a process in which liquid or vapor mixture of two or more substances is
separated into its component fractions of desired purity, by the application and removal of heat.
Distillation is based on the fact that the vapor of a boiling mixture will be richer in the
components that have lower boiling points, therefore when this vapor is cooled and condensed
the condensate will contain more volatile components. At the same time, the original mixture
will contain more of the less volatile material.
Distillation is in fact the most common separation technique used in industry, it consumes
enormous amounts of energy (both in terms of cooling and heating requirements), and it can
contribute to more than 50% of plant operating costs. The best way to reduce operating costs of
existing units is to improve their efficiency and operation via process optimisation and control.
To achieve this improvement, a thorough understanding of distillation principles and how

Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017


Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

distillation systems are designed is essential. An example of a common distillation unit operation
is the separation of a solution containing water and alcohol. The alcohol is normally present in
greater quantities in the vapour. In most cases the component that is in the vapour in the greatest
quantities is the component with the lowest boiling point, although there are some cases when
this is not true. The fact that one component 'prefers' to be in the vapour is used to design
distillation columns which separate two or more substances based on differences in their
volatility.
There are many types of distillation column, each designed to perform specific types of
separation, and each differs in terms of complexity;
III. Batch column: In batch operation, the feed to the column is introduced batch-wise.
That is, the column is charge with a `batch` and then the distillation process is carried
out. When the desired task is achieved, a next batch of feed is introduced.
IV. Continuous column: In contrast, continuous columns process a continuous feed
stream. No interruptions occur unless there is a problem with the column or
surrounding process unit.
They are capable of handling high throughputs and are the most common of the two types, trays
column and packed column;
a. Tray column(internal) – where trays (e.g. bubble cap, sieve tray etc.) of various design are
used to hold up the liquid to provide better contract between vapor and liquid
b. Packed column – where instead of trays `packings` (e.g. rasching rings) are used to
enhance contact between vapor and liquid.
Distillation columns are made up of several components, each of which is used either to transfer
heat energy or enhance material transfer. A typical distillation (figure 1) contains several major
components:
I. A vertical shell (or column) where the separation of fluid components is carried out.
II. Column internals such as trays/plates or packings which are used to enhance components
separations.
III. A reboiler to provide the necessary vaporization for the distillation process.

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Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

IV. A condenser to cool and condensed the vapor leaving the top of the column
V. A reflux drums to hold the condensed vapor from the top of the column so
that liquid (reflux) can be recycled back to the column.

Figu: A schematic layout of Batch Distillation Column.

Operation and terminology; the liquid mixture that is to be processed is known as the feed and
this is introduced usually somewhere near the middle of the column to a tray known as
the feed tray. The feed tray divides the column into a top (enriching) section and bottom
(stripping) section. This applies to the continuous distillation, whereas for batch distillation the
feed is poured direct to the reboiler. Heat is supplied to the reboiler to generate vapor. The source
of heat input can be any suitable fluid, although in most chemical plants this is normally stream.
In vapor raised in the reboiler is re-introduced into the unit at the bottom of the column. The
liquid removed from the reboiler is known as the bottom product.

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Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

The vapor moves up the column, and as it exits the top of the unit, it is cooled by a
condenser. The condensed liquid is stored in a holding vessel known as the reflux drum. Some of
this liquid is recycled back to the top of the column and this is called the reflux. The condensed
liquid that is removed from the system is known as the distillate or top product.
Thus, there are internal flows of vapor and liquid within the column as well as external flows of
feeds and product streams, into and out of the column.

Theory

One of the most common calculation methods used for distillation columns is McCabe-Thiele
method. It involves finding compositions and flows for the top (rectifying) and bottom
(stripping) sections of the column, and graphically determining the proper number of stages as
well as the appropriate feed stage. This graphical method is performed on a y-x (composition in
vapour phase vs. composition in liquid phases) equilibrium plot. The compositions of the
distillate, xD, and bottoms, xB, are plotted on the graph, and operating lines for the rectifying and
stripping sections are derived from these conditions. The McCabe-Thiele method can also be
used when side-withdrawal or multiple feeds are in use.
This experiment deals with a slightly different method, as it involves a batch distillation process.
While it is not commonly found in industry, it is still a very useful learning tool as it operates on
most of the same principles as continuous distillation columns. The column in the laboratory also
operates using total reflux. At total reflux, the mass balance over the column is:

… (1)

At steady state (temperatures are constant), the molar liquid flow rate is equal to the molar
vapour flow rate everywhere in the column, so yn=xn+1. This should result in an operating line
that is straight; co-incident with the y = x line. Therefore, determining the theoretical number of
plates is done by measuring the steady-state compositions at the top and bottom of the column.

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The initial batch (liquid) composition is not directly involved, so it should be excluded from
calculations.
A useful quantity when studying distillation columns is the Murphree Efficiency (ηM). It is
measure of the efficiency of each individual tray. The Murphree Efficiency assumes that
complete mixing takes place between the liquid on the tray is of constant composition and is of
the same composition as the liquid entering the next tray below [2]. It can be calculated
numerically by using the following equation:

… (2)
where yn ≡ vapour mole fraction for vapour leaving plate n-1
yn-1 ≡ vapour mole fraction for vapour leaving plate n-1
yn* ≡ vapour in equilibrium with liquid leaving plate n
The overall plate efficiency for the column is found using the following formula:

… (3)
where Nt = number of theoretical (ideal) plates which can be calculated by different methods, i.e.
McCabe-Thiele graphical analysis, Fenske equation etc.
Na = number of actual plates.
Overall and Murphree efficiencies can be related by a simple expression assuming linear
selection involving phase equilibria and uniform Murphree efficiency across the column [4].

… (4)
Where: m = slope of equilibrium line

Batch Distillation with Reflux

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The operation of a batch column can be analyzed using a McCabe-Thiele diagram, with the same
operating-line equation that was used for the rectifying section of a continuous distillation
expressed as,
𝑅𝐷 𝑥𝐷
𝑦𝑛+1 = 𝑥𝑛 + … (5)
𝑅𝐷 +1 𝑅𝐷 +1

where RD=L/D, is the ratio of the reflux to the overhead product.


The system may be operated to keep the top composition constant by increasing the reflux ratio
as the composition of the liquid in the reboiler changes. The McCabe-Thiele diagram for this
case would have operating lines of different slipe positioned such that the same number of ideal
stages was used to go from xD to xB at any time. A typical diagram is shown in figure 2 for a still
with five ideal stages including the reboiler. The upper operating line is for the initial conditions,
when the concentration of low boiler in the still is about the same as the charge composition.
(The concentration xB is slightly lower than xF because of the holdup of liquid on the plates.).
The lower operating line and the dashed line steps show conditions when about one-third of the
charge has been removed as overhead product.
One way of operating a batch distillation is to fix the reflux ratio and let the overhead product
purity vary with time, stopping the distillation when the amount of product or the average
concentration in the total product reaches a certain value. To calculate the performance of the
still, operating lines of constant slope are drawn starting at different values of x D, and the actual
number of stages is stepped off to determine xB. The total number of moles left in the still is then
calculated by integration of following equation,
𝑥1 𝑑𝑥 𝑛1
∫𝑥 = 𝑙𝑛 … (6)
0 𝑦−𝑥 𝑛𝑜

where xD is equal to y and xl is equal to xB.

Equipment

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A schematic layout of the batch distillation rig is shown in figure 2. The core equipment is a 75
mm diameter plate distillation column containing 8 sieve plates and downcomers. Every plate
includes a temperature sensor positioned to measure accurately the temperature of the liquid on

Figure: A schematic layout of a batch distillation column system.


each plate. The sheaths of each plate temperature sensor are not more than 4 mm diameter, to
ensure rapid dynamic response. A 50mm packed column supplied as a separate item, but readily
interchangeable with the plate column by the user, for comparative studies of the two types of
distillation column.
An electrically (4.5 kW) heated reboiler of sufficient capacity (15 Liters) for 1-2 hours of batch
operation. The heater is regulated to provide vapors at 0.25 kW, 0.5 kW, and 0.75 kW and so on
up to 4.5 kW.

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An overhead condenser is used to condense vapors by pumping in with measured and adjusted
cooling water. A condensate collecting vessel, equipped with overflow weirs and exit pipes
allows separation of immiscible liquids. A reflux return valve, solenoid operated, to provide for
0%-100% reflux, is adjustable by electrical signal.
A U tube differential manometer connected to the top and bottom of the column, serves purpose
of monitoring column pressure drop. Sampling points throughout the system are provided for
composition analysis.
The materials of construction for surfaces in contact with the process fluids are; glass, stainless
steel, PTFE or similar solvent resistant materials. Lagging is provided to prevent heat loss from
column and the condenser.
Sieve Plate Column Details:
o Column length = 1000mm
o Column dia = 80mm & inner dia=74mm
o No of plates = 08
o Each plate thickness = 12mm
o Plate to plate distance = 95mm
o Hole size = 3mm (Triangular)
o Plate to temperature sensor distance = 60mm
o Down comer glass tube dia = 10mm
o Weir height = 5mm
Packed Column Details:
o Wall thickness = 3mm
o Inner ɸ = 59mm
o Outer ɸ = 65mm
o Column length = 1000mm
o Vapour pressure point from bottom = 230mm
Thermocouple Display:

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Thermocouples are used to measure the temperature at various points in the


column. They are numbered from T1 to T9, Numbers 1-8 measure temperature in the column
while number 9 measure the temperature in the Reboiler.
Reflux Valve Control:
The reflux ratio is controlled using a solenoid valve which has two positions;
Open – all the condensed liquid is returned to the column.
Closed- all the condensed liquid goes to the overhead product.
The reflux ratio is determined by the ratio of the time the valve is open to the time the valve is
closed. If the valve is open for twice as long as it is closed then the reflux ratio is 2. The digital
dual timer is used to set the ratio of the time the valve is open to the time the valve is closed and
therefore the numbers appear on the display represents the actual reflux ratio. When the timer is
at zero for closed the valve will be open all the time. The timer turns the reflux valve on and off.
Reboiler Power Rating:
To obtain a range of boil up rate, a variable resistance is used to vary the
Reboiler power. Selection of current (A) in accordance to the desired heating power For stable
operation, the system should be operated below 1.2 kW power.

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Operating Procedure
13. Check that all vent lines are open and all drain valves are closed.
14. Turn on the overhead condenser cooling water supply.
15. Charge the Reboiler (spherical vessel) up to the equator with a methanol/water mixture of
known concentration.
16. Find the composition of the initial charge by gravimetric analysis.
17. Turn on the switch of the heating source.
18. Wait for the column to settle down to uniform operation under total reflux (check the
thermometer readings under total reflux)
19. Set the reflux timer to the desired reflux ratio and switch on the timer.
20. At regular time interval (say after 15 minutes) , carry out the following steps:
o Record the thermometer readings of the Reboiler and the plates.
o Take samples from the top product sampling valve and analyze their compositions. (Find
the composition of the Reboiler from its temperature using the equilibrium data for
methanol/water system).
21. Continue the distillation until uniform operation has been reached.
22. Turn off the heating mantle and the reflux timer.
23. Find the average comopstion of the total distillate collected.
24. Turn off the condenser cooling water supply when boiling has stopped.

Treatment of Results:
The student should produce plots of column position against temperature and methanol
concentration against column position as a function of time, for each reflux ratio used. These
plots will be obtained as a function of boil up rate. Sketch the graphs are shown below:

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ICATION EQUIPMENT
The most obvious form of humidification equipment is the spray chamber. Here, the contacting
liquid is sprayed as a mist into the gas stream. Gas velocity is kept low so that the contact time is
high so that there will be only small amount of liquid physically entrained in the gas stream. These
units are usually restricted to the small-scale operations and are frequently used in humidity control
of a room or plant where either humidification or dehumidification of the inlet air is required.
Types of cooling towers
Cooling towers are generally used for humidification operations. Cooling towers fall into two main
sub-divisions: natural draft and mechanical draft. Natural draft designs use very large concrete
chimneys to introduce air through the media. Due to the tremendous size of these towers (500 ft high
and 400 ft in diameter at the base) they are generally used for water flow rates above 200,000
gal/min. Usually these types of towers are only used by utility power stations. Mechanical draft
cooling towers are much more widely used. These towers utilize large fans to force air through
circulated water. The water falls downward over fill surfaces that help increase the contact time
between the water and the air. This helps maximize heat transfer between the two. The experimental
setup for UG lab uses mechanical draft cooling tower, which is shown in Fig.1.

Figure 1: Mechanical Draft Counterflow Tower

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CALCULATIONS FOR HUMIDIFICATION AND DEHUMIDIFICATION OPERATIONS


The design of equipment to carry out humidification and dehumidification operations depends upon
the concepts of the direction of the transfer processes and their rates (determined by writing enthalpy)
and material balance equations and rate equations by combining these equations into the applicable
design equations. In this section, these concepts will be applied to the special conditions surrounding
the operation of humidification and dehumidification equipment.
In a dehumidification process, a warm vapor gas mixture is contacted with a cool liquid. Vapor
condenses from the gas phase, the gas phase cools, and the liquid is warmed. Both sensible and latent
heat are transferred toward the liquid phase. In the normal convention, the gas phase is chosen as the
system, and heat and mass-transfer rates and quantities are positive when transfer is toward the gas
phase. This sign convention is equivalent to measuring distance in the direction toward the gas phase.
Then, heat- and mass-transfer quantities for this physical situation will be negative.
In a water-cooling process, warm water is contacted by a cooler gas-vapor mixture. Mass and heat
are transferred toward the gas phase. As a result, the signs of the driving-force terms and transfer
rates are positive based upon the convention described above.

The physical arrangement is shown in Fig.2. The subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the bottom and top of the
column.
On the basis, for a tower of constant cross section, an overall material balance gives

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a material balance for the condensable component gives

and an enthalpy balance gives

Most commonly, the column will operate nearly adiabatically with q→0. The approach to adiabatic
operation will be closer the larger the column diameter. For this situation, similar balances for the
differential height (dz) will be written. The condensable component balance becomes

The corresponding enthalpy balance is

If the rate of solute transfer between phases is small compared to the total flow stream, an average
value of L may be used, and the change in enthalpy of the liquid phase may be expressed as if it
resulted solely from the change in temperature at constant specific heat. Thus,

where

For the change in gas–phase enthalpy, the expression in terms of temperature is rigorous if c is
h
constant.

Rate equations for heat and mass transfer can also be written. Here, however,
complications arise because of the fact that heat is transferred from the bulk of the liquid
phase to the liquid-gas interface entirely as a result of the temperature potential, but from
the interface to the bulk of the gas phase, heat is transferred as the result by two
mechanisms. On the gas-phase side of the interface, heat is transferred as the result of a
temperature potential, and the latent heat associated with the mass transfer is transferred by
these two mechanisms are separated as the two terms on the right side of the equation (8).
With these ideas, equations for the heat- transfer processes indicated in equations (6) and (8) can be
written separately. For the liquid phase transfer

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Development of the Design Equation


The enthalpy-balance equations are the rate equations given above can be combined to give a
design equation. These equations will relate the change in gas-phase temperature and molal
humidity to the rates of heat and of mass transfer to, or from, the gas-phase. Thus, combining
equation (8) with equations (10) and (11).

for the gas phase. Separating k a from the right side of the equation and designating h /k c as r, the
y c y h
psychrometric ratio, give

In putting r into this equation for h a/ k ac , the assumption is made that a, the area per unit
c y h
volume of tower, is the same for heat transfer as it is for mass transfer. This will be true only at such
high liquid rates that the tower packing is completely wet. If r is equal to 1, as it is for the air-water
system under normal conditions, the terms within parentheses in equation (13) are enthalpies as
defined by equation (13a).

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Equation (15) is a design equation; the driving force is expressed as an enthalpy difference. Enthalpy
is an extensive thermodynamic property. As such, it cannot be a driving force for any transfer
operation. Thus, the mathematical treatment that leads to equation (15) should be examined. First,
in the energy balances, the total flow per unit time is fixed. The enthalpy terms are then “specific
enthalpy”, based upon a fixed mass of material. Second, in the basic design equation, Equation (13),
the driving force is a function of T and Y, the quantities that would be expected to control rates of
heat and of mass transfer. Only in the fortuitous case that r=1 can H be substituted for these T and
Y functions. In all other cases, Equation (15)would be written as

Integration of the Design Equation


1
Integration indicated by equation (15) is usually performed by values of V and k a averaged over the
y
column height. This introduces small error in light of the low concentration of water vapor in the gas
stream. Beyond this, knowledge of the relation between the enthalpy in the main gas phase and that
at the gas-liquid interface is necessary. Such a relation can be obtained by now considering the
transfer process on the liquid side of the interface. Combining the enthalpy balance (Equation (5))
with the liquid transfer rate (Equation (9)) gives

and combining this equation with Equation (14) gives

Equation (18) applies at any point in an air-water contacting device. From it, the
temperature and the enthalpy of the interface can be determined at any point for which the
liquid temperature (T ), the gas enthalpy (H ), and the ratio of the liquid-phase heat transfer
L V
coefficient to the gas- phase heat transfer coefficient to the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient
based upon mole-ratio driving forces are known.

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The interface conditions can be obtained through equation (18) using a graphical method.
A plot is drawn with coordinates of liquid-phase temperature versus enthalpy of the gas phase. On it,
the locus of interface H and T values can be plotted by realizing that at the interface the vapor phase
i i
will be saturated at the interface temperature if the assumption that equilibrium exists at a phase
boundary is tenable. From the saturation curve on the air-water humidity chart, the saturation molal
humidity can be obtained for any desired temperature. The saturation, or interface, enthalpy can then
be calculated or read from the humidity chart.
On the same plot, an “operating line” of H versus T can be plotted by combining equations (5) and
V L
(6) and integrating. This curve represents the path of bulk-phase conditions as the fluids pass through
the unit. Thus,

where the limits again refer to the bottom and top of the column. Integrating,

And rearranging,

1
This equation gives the slope of the H versus T “operating” line as L C /V . For the air-water
V L aV L
system and for most other dilute gas-solution systems, this ratio is constant over a moderate
humidity range, and the straight H versus T line can be determined from knowledge of the liquid-
V L
and gas-phase flow rates and the conditions of both streams at one end of the column, or
alternatively the line can be located from the conditions at both ends of the column.

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Figure 3: Graphical representation of adiabatic gas-liquid contacting operation


Fig.3 shows graphical representation of adiabatic gas-liquid contacting operation (humidification
operation). The equilibrium curve represented on it was obtained from data on the air-water
psychometric chart. On this curve are located all possible conditions of T , H throughout the column.
i i
Line ABC is the operating line containing all values of H corresponding to liquid temperature (T )
V L
throughout the column. This line could have been obtained from knowledge of the two end
1
conditions, (T , H ) and (T , H ), or from either one of these two plus the slope (L C /V ). On
L1 V1 L2 V2 aV L
this line, point B represents an arbitrary point in the column at which the liquid temperature and gas
enthalpy have the values of T and H . The interface conditions at this point can be found by using
Ln Vn
Equation (18). Thus, a tie line starting at point B and having a slope equal to – h a / k a will intersect
L Y
the equilibrium curve at the interface conditions corresponding to point B. Point l represents the
interphase conditions designated by (T , H ). In this way, interphase conditions can be found
in in
corresponding to any point between A and C on the operating line. Of course, values of k a and h a
Y L
applicable to the column conditions are necessary. Usually, these values must be obtained
experimentally.

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From this construction, Equation (15) can now be integrated graphically. The necessary driving force
in terms of enthalpy is determined for representative points throughout the column. For point B on
1
Fig.3, this would be (H – H ). Values of V /SK a(H – H ) are then plotted against H and the area
in Vn Y i V V
under this curve determined between the limits of H and H in order to find the column height (z).
V1 V2

Psychrometric chart is shown in appendix at the end of this report. From the wet bulb and dry bulb
temperature of the air, other air properties like absolute humidity, relative humidity, enthalpy of
saturated and unsaturated air can be found out from the psychrometric chart and are used for
estimating the tower height.

Procedure:
1. Start the fan.
2. Start water pump and adjust the flow rate to a desired value.
3. Start the water heater and set the inlet temperature to a desired value.
4. Measure wet bulb temperature and dry bulb temperature of outlet water.
5. Wait till the steady state is obtained. The attainment of the steady state is confirmed by the
constancy in the outlet temperature.
6. Measure air velocity by anemometer.
7. Measure inlet temperature and outlet temperature of air.
8. Repeat steps 2 to7 by changing water flow rate or inlet temperature of water.

Calculations:
1. Verify the overall material and energy balance
2. Calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients by a graphical method described above.
Safety precautions:
1. Ensure the valve V (cooling tower inlet water valve) in partly open position and remaining
1
valves in fully open position.
2. Restrict the flow rate of inlet water to cooling tower to 100 LPM.
3. Don’t touch any electrical connections.
4. Don’t put hands in any rotating equipment like fan, pump shaft etc.
5. If any equipment malfunctions, turn off electric mains immediately.
Nomenclature:
L = liquid flow rate into the top of the column, lb mole/hr (or mol/s)
2
V = flow rate of gas phase entering the column, lb mole/hr (or mol/s)
1
1
V = flow rate of solvent, or “dry” gas, lb mole/hr (or mol/s)
Y = mole ratio of solute to solvent gas at the top of the column
2

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H = enthalpy of gas phase entering the column, Btu/lb mole of “dry” gas
V1
(or joule/mol)
H = enthalpy of liquid phase entering the top of the column, Btu/lb mole of liquid
L2
(or joule/mol)
q = heat transferred to the column from its surroundings, Btu/hr (or joule/s)
T , T = temperature of liquid and gas phases, respectively
L v
dz = a differential height of column packing, ft (or m)
2 2
A = interfacial surface, ft (or m )
2 3 3
a = interface area, ft /ft of column volume (or m2/m of column volume)
2 2
S = tower cross section, ft (or m )

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Cooling Tower
Experiment No 12
Objective:
To determine average heat and mass transfer coefficients and to estimate the tower height

Theory:
When a component is transferred from a gas phase to solution in a liquid phase, the latent heat
associated with the condensation is evolved. In the operations where mass transfer proceeds by
equimolar counter diffusion, as in distillation or in operations where latent heat effect are small, as in
liquid –liquid extraction, gas absorption in dilute solutions, and leaching, heat transfer is of minor
importance as a rate controlling mechanism. In others, particularly where there is a net transfer of
mass from gas phase to condensed phase or vice versa, the heat transfer rate is important. In these
cases, heat transfer significantly limits the rate at which mass can be transferred.
Of those operations where both heat transfer and mass transfer affect the rate, humidification and
dehumidification involve two components and two phases. The liquid phase, most often water, is
single component, and the gas phase consists of a non-condensable gas, usually air, in which some
vapor from the liquid phase is present.
HUMIDIFICATION: INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS
Humidification process may be carried out to control the humidity of a space or, more usually, to
cool and recover water by contacting it with low humidity air. The water that has lost heat to the
atmosphere can then be reused in heat exchanger throughout a plant. Alternatively, the water could
be cooled in the surface heat exchanger. The choice is one of economics, with the designer balancing
the loss of cooling water inherent in the air- water contact cooler against the cost of supplying and
handling the cooling source to the surface cooler and the higher cost of surface units.

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HUMIDIFICATION EQUIPMENT
The most obvious form of humidification equipment is the spray chamber. Here, the contacting
liquid is sprayed as a mist into the gas stream. Gas velocity is kept low so that the contact time is
high so that there will be only small amount of liquid physically entrained in the gas stream. These
units are usually restricted to the small-scale operations and are frequently used in humidity control
of a room or plant where either humidification or dehumidification of the inlet air is required.
Types of cooling towers
Cooling towers are generally used for humidification operations. Cooling towers fall into two main
sub-divisions: natural draft and mechanical draft. Natural draft designs use very large concrete
chimneys to introduce air through the media. Due to the tremendous size of these towers (500 ft high
and 400 ft in diameter at the base) they are generally used for water flow rates above 200,000
gal/min. Usually these types of towers are only used by utility power stations. Mechanical draft
cooling towers are much more widely used. These towers utilize large fans to force air through
circulated water. The water falls downward over fill surfaces that help increase the contact time
between the water and the air. This helps maximize heat transfer between the two. The experimental
setup for UG lab uses mechanical draft cooling tower, which is shown in Fig.1.

Figure 1: Mechanical Draft Counterflow Tower

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CALCULATIONS FOR HUMIDIFICATION AND DEHUMIDIFICATION OPERATIONS


The design of equipment to carry out humidification and dehumidification operations depends upon
the concepts of the direction of the transfer processes and their rates (determined by writing enthalpy)
and material balance equations and rate equations by combining these equations into the applicable
design equations. In this section, these concepts will be applied to the special conditions surrounding
the operation of humidification and dehumidification equipment.
In a dehumidification process, a warm vapor gas mixture is contacted with a cool liquid. Vapor
condenses from the gas phase, the gas phase cools, and the liquid is warmed. Both sensible and latent
heat are transferred toward the liquid phase. In the normal convention, the gas phase is chosen as the
system, and heat and mass-transfer rates and quantities are positive when transfer is toward the gas
phase. This sign convention is equivalent to measuring distance in the direction toward the gas phase.
Then, heat- and mass-transfer quantities for this physical situation will be negative.
In a water-cooling process, warm water is contacted by a cooler gas-vapor mixture. Mass and heat
are transferred toward the gas phase. As a result, the signs of the driving-force terms and transfer
rates are positive based upon the convention described above.

The physical arrangement is shown in Fig.2. The subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the bottom and top of the
column.
On the basis, for a tower of constant cross section, an overall material balance gives

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a material balance for the condensable component gives

and an enthalpy balance gives

Most commonly, the column will operate nearly adiabatically with q→0. The approach to adiabatic
operation will be closer the larger the column diameter. For this situation, similar balances for the
differential height (dz) will be written. The condensable component balance becomes

The corresponding enthalpy balance is

If the rate of solute transfer between phases is small compared to the total flow stream, an average
value of L may be used, and the change in enthalpy of the liquid phase may be expressed as if it
resulted solely from the change in temperature at constant specific heat. Thus,

where

For the change in gas–phase enthalpy, the expression in terms of temperature is rigorous if c is
h
constant.

Rate equations for heat and mass transfer can also be written. Here, however,
complications arise because of the fact that heat is transferred from the bulk of the liquid
phase to the liquid-gas interface entirely as a result of the temperature potential, but from
the interface to the bulk of the gas phase, heat is transferred as the result by two
mechanisms. On the gas-phase side of the interface, heat is transferred as the result of a
temperature potential, and the latent heat associated with the mass transfer is transferred by
these two mechanisms are separated as the two terms on the right side of the equation (8).
With these ideas, equations for the heat- transfer processes indicated in equations (6) and (8) can be
written separately. For the liquid phase transfer

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Development of the Design Equation


The enthalpy-balance equations are the rate equations given above can be combined to give a
design equation. These equations will relate the change in gas-phase temperature and molal
humidity to the rates of heat and of mass transfer to, or from, the gas-phase. Thus, combining
equation (8) with equations (10) and (11).

for the gas phase. Separating k a from the right side of the equation and designating h /k c as r, the
y c y h
psychrometric ratio, give

In putting r into this equation for h a/ k ac , the assumption is made that a, the area per unit
c y h
volume of tower, is the same for heat transfer as it is for mass transfer. This will be true only at such
high liquid rates that the tower packing is completely wet. If r is equal to 1, as it is for the air-water
system under normal conditions, the terms within parentheses in equation (13) are enthalpies as
defined by equation (13a).

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Equation (15) is a design equation; the driving force is expressed as an enthalpy difference. Enthalpy
is an extensive thermodynamic property. As such, it cannot be a driving force for any transfer
operation. Thus, the mathematical treatment that leads to equation (15) should be examined. First,
in the energy balances, the total flow per unit time is fixed. The enthalpy terms are then “specific
enthalpy”, based upon a fixed mass of material. Second, in the basic design equation, Equation (13),
the driving force is a function of T and Y, the quantities that would be expected to control rates of
heat and of mass transfer. Only in the fortuitous case that r=1 can H be substituted for these T and
Y functions. In all other cases, Equation (15)would be written as

Integration of the Design Equation


1
Integration indicated by equation (15) is usually performed by values of V and k a averaged over the
y
column height. This introduces small error in light of the low concentration of water vapor in the gas
stream. Beyond this, knowledge of the relation between the enthalpy in the main gas phase and that
at the gas-liquid interface is necessary. Such a relation can be obtained by now considering the
transfer process on the liquid side of the interface. Combining the enthalpy balance (Equation (5))
with the liquid transfer rate (Equation (9)) gives

and combining this equation with Equation (14) gives

Equation (18) applies at any point in an air-water contacting device. From it, the
temperature and the enthalpy of the interface can be determined at any point for which the
liquid temperature (T ), the gas enthalpy (H ), and the ratio of the liquid-phase heat transfer
L V
coefficient to the gas- phase heat transfer coefficient to the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient
based upon mole-ratio driving forces are known.

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The interface conditions can be obtained through equation (18) using a graphical method.
A plot is drawn with coordinates of liquid-phase temperature versus enthalpy of the gas phase. On it,
the locus of interface H and T values can be plotted by realizing that at the interface the vapor phase
i i
will be saturated at the interface temperature if the assumption that equilibrium exists at a phase
boundary is tenable. From the saturation curve on the air-water humidity chart, the saturation molal
humidity can be obtained for any desired temperature. The saturation, or interface, enthalpy can then
be calculated or read from the humidity chart.
On the same plot, an “operating line” of H versus T can be plotted by combining equations (5) and
V L
(6) and integrating. This curve represents the path of bulk-phase conditions as the fluids pass through
the unit. Thus,

where the limits again refer to the bottom and top of the column. Integrating,

And rearranging,

1
This equation gives the slope of the H versus T “operating” line as L C /V . For the air-water
V L aV L
system and for most other dilute gas-solution systems, this ratio is constant over a moderate
humidity range, and the straight H versus T line can be determined from knowledge of the liquid-
V L
and gas-phase flow rates and the conditions of both streams at one end of the column, or
alternatively the line can be located from the conditions at both ends of the column.

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Figure 3: Graphical representation of adiabatic gas-liquid contacting operation


Fig.3 shows graphical representation of adiabatic gas-liquid contacting operation (humidification
operation). The equilibrium curve represented on it was obtained from data on the air-water
psychometric chart. On this curve are located all possible conditions of T , H throughout the column.
i i
Line ABC is the operating line containing all values of H corresponding to liquid temperature (T )
V L
throughout the column. This line could have been obtained from knowledge of the two end
1
conditions, (T , H ) and (T , H ), or from either one of these two plus the slope (L C /V ). On
L1 V1 L2 V2 aV L
this line, point B represents an arbitrary point in the column at which the liquid temperature and gas
enthalpy have the values of T and H . The interface conditions at this point can be found by using
Ln Vn
Equation (18). Thus, a tie line starting at point B and having a slope equal to – h a / k a will intersect
L Y
the equilibrium curve at the interface conditions corresponding to point B. Point l represents the
interphase conditions designated by (T , H ). In this way, interphase conditions can be found
in in
corresponding to any point between A and C on the operating line. Of course, values of k a and h a
Y L
applicable to the column conditions are necessary. Usually, these values must be obtained
experimentally.

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From this construction, Equation (15) can now be integrated graphically. The necessary driving force
in terms of enthalpy is determined for representative points throughout the column. For point B on
1
Fig.3, this would be (H – H ). Values of V /SK a(H – H ) are then plotted against H and the area
in Vn Y i V V
under this curve determined between the limits of H and H in order to find the column height (z).
V1 V2

Psychrometric chart is shown in appendix at the end of this report. From the wet bulb and dry bulb
temperature of the air, other air properties like absolute humidity, relative humidity, enthalpy of
saturated and unsaturated air can be found out from the psychrometric chart and are used for
estimating the tower height.

Procedure:
1. Start the fan.
2. Start water pump and adjust the flow rate to a desired value.
3. Start the water heater and set the inlet temperature to a desired value.
4. Measure wet bulb temperature and dry bulb temperature of outlet water.
5. Wait till the steady state is obtained. The attainment of the steady state is confirmed by the
constancy in the outlet temperature.
6. Measure air velocity by anemometer.
7. Measure inlet temperature and outlet temperature of air.
8. Repeat steps 2 to7 by changing water flow rate or inlet temperature of water.

Calculations:
1. Verify the overall material and energy balance
2. Calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients by a graphical method described above.
Safety precautions:
1. Ensure the valve V (cooling tower inlet water valve) in partly open position and remaining
1
valves in fully open position.
2. Restrict the flow rate of inlet water to cooling tower to 100 LPM.
3. Don’t touch any electrical connections.
4. Don’t put hands in any rotating equipment like fan, pump shaft etc.
5. If any equipment malfunctions, turn off electric mains immediately.
Nomenclature:
L = liquid flow rate into the top of the column, lb mole/hr (or mol/s)
2
V = flow rate of gas phase entering the column, lb mole/hr (or mol/s)
1
1
V = flow rate of solvent, or “dry” gas, lb mole/hr (or mol/s)
Y = mole ratio of solute to solvent gas at the top of the column
2

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H = enthalpy of gas phase entering the column, Btu/lb mole of “dry” gas
V1
(or joule/mol)
H = enthalpy of liquid phase entering the top of the column, Btu/lb mole of liquid
L2
(or joule/mol)
q = heat transferred to the column from its surroundings, Btu/hr (or joule/s)
T , T = temperature of liquid and gas phases, respectively
L v
dz = a differential height of column packing, ft (or m)
2 2
A = interfacial surface, ft (or m )
2 3 3
a = interface area, ft /ft of column volume (or m2/m of column volume)
2 2
S = tower cross section, ft (or m )

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0 He alth
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Re activity

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Section 2: Composition and Information on Ingredients

Composition:

Name CAS # % by Weight

Sodium chloride 7647-14-5 100

Toxicological Data on Ingredients: Sodium chloride: ORAL (LD50): Acute: 3000 mg/kg [Rat.]. 4000 mg/kg [Mouse].
DERMAL (LD50): Acute: >10000 mg/kg [Rabbit]. DUST (LC50): Acute: >42000 mg/m 1 hours [Rat].
Section 3: Hazards Identification

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Potential Acute Health Effects: Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of
ingestion, of inhalation.
Potential Chronic Health Effects:
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. Mutagenic for
bacteria and/or yeast. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available. Repeated or
prolonged exposure is not known to aggravate medical condition.

Material Safety Data Sheet


Sodium chloride MSDS
Section 1: Chemical Product and Company Identification
Product Name: Sodium chloride Contact Information:
Sciencelab.com, Inc.
Catalog Codes: SLS3262, SLS1045, SLS3889, SLS1669,
SLS3091 14025 Smith Rd.
Houston, Texas 77396
CAS#: 7647-14-5
US Sales: 1-800-901-7247
RTECS: VZ4725000 International Sales: 1-281-441-4400

TSCA: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Sodium chloride Order Online: ScienceLab.com

CI#: Not applicable. CHEMTREC (24HR Emergency Telephone), call:


1-800-424-9300
Synonym: Salt; Sea Salt
International CHEMTREC, call: 1-703-527-3887
Chemical Name: Sodium chloride
For non-emergency assistance, call: 1-281-441-4400
Chemical Formula: NaCl
Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention.

Skin Contact:
Wash with soap and water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Get medical attention if irritation
develops. Cold water may be used.

Serious Skin Contact: Not available.

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Section 5: Fire and Explosion Data


Flammability of the Product: Non-flammable.
Auto-Ignition Temperature: Not applicable.
Flash Points: Not applicable.
Flammable Limits: Not applicable.
Products of Combustion: Not available.
Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not applicable.
Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances:
Risks of explosion of the product in presence of mechanical impact: Not available. Risks of explosion of the product in
presence of static discharge: Not available.
Fire Fighting Media and Instructions: Not applicable.
Special Remarks on Fire Hazards: When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes.
Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards:
Electrolysis of sodium chloride in presence of nitrogenous compounds to produce chlorine may lead to formation of explosive
nitrogen trichloride. Potentially explosive reaction with dichloromaleic anhydride + urea.

Section 6: Accidental Release Measures

Small Spill:
Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. Finish cleaning by spreading water on
the contaminated surface and dispose of according to local and regional authority requirements.
Large Spill:
Use a shovel to put the material into a convenient waste disposal container. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the
contaminated surface and allow to evacuate through the sanitary system.
Section 7: Handling and Storage

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Precautions:
Keep locked up.. Do not ingest. Do not breathe dust. Avoid contact with eyes. Wear suitable protective clothing. If ingested,
seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. Keep away from incompatibles such as oxidizing
agents, acids.
Inhalation:
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give
oxygen. Get medical attention if symptoms appear.

Serious Inhalation: Not available.


Ingestion:
Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to
an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical
attention if symptoms appear.

Serious Ingestion: Not available.

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Section 9: Physical and Chemical Properties


Physical state and appearance: Solid. (Solid crystalline powder.)
Odor: Slight.
Taste: Saline.
Molecular Weight: 58.44 g/mole
Color: White.
pH (1% soln/water): 7 [Neutral.]
Boiling Point: 1413°C (2575.4°F)
Melting Point: 801°C (1473.8°F)
Critical Temperature: Not available.
Specific Gravity: 2.165 (Water = 1)
Vapor Pressure: Not applicable.
Vapor Density: Not available.
Volatility: Not available.
Odor Threshold: Not available.
Water/Oil Dist. Coeff.: Not available.
Ionicity (in Water): Not available.
Dispersion Properties: See solubility in water.
Solubility:
Easily soluble in cold water, hot water. Soluble in glycerol, and ammonia. Very slightly soluble in alcohol. Insoluble in
Hydrochloric Acid. Section 10: Stability and Reactivity Data
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Stability: The product is stable.


Storage: Keep container tightly closed. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Hygroscopic

Section 8: Exposure Controls/Personal Protection


Engineering Controls:
Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation, or other engineering controls to keep airborne levels below recommende
exposure limits. If user operations generate dust, fume or mist, use ventilation to keep exposure to airborne contaminants
below the exposure limit.
Personal Protection:
Splash goggles. Lab coat. Dust respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Gloves.
Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill:
Splash goggles. Full suit. Dust respirator. Boots. Gloves. A self contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid
inhalation of the product. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this
product.
Exposure Limits: Not available.

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Instability Temperature: Not available.


Conditions of Instability: Incompatible materials, high temperatures.

Incompatibility with various substances: Reactive with oxidizing agents, metals, acids.

Corrosivity: Not considered to be corrosive for metals and glass.

Special Remarks on Reactivity:


Hygroscopic. Reacts with most nonnoble metals such as iron or steel, building materials (such as
cement) Sodium chloride is rapidly attacked by bromine trifluoride. Violent reaction with lithium.

Special Remarks on Corrosivity: Not available.


Polymerization: Will not occur.

Section 11: Toxicological Information

Section 12: Ecological Information

Ecotoxicity: Not available.


BOD5 and COD: Not available.
Products of Biodegradation:
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Possibly hazardous short term degradation products are not likely. However, long term degradation products may arise.
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Routes of Entry: Inhalation. Ingestion.


Toxicity to Animals:
WARNING: THE LC50 VALUES HEREUNDER ARE ESTIMATED ON THE BASIS OF A 4-HOUR EXPOSURE. Acute oral toxicity
(LD50): 3000 mg/kg [Rat.]. Acute dermal toxicity (LD50): >10000 mg/kg [Rabbit]. Acute toxicity of the dust (LC50): >42000
mg/m3 1 hours [Rat].
Chronic Effects on Humans: MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. Mutagenic for bacter
and/ or yeast.
Other Toxic Effects on Humans: Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation.
Special Remarks on Toxicity to Animals: Lowest Published Lethal Dose (LDL) [Man] - Route: Oral; Dose: 1000 mg/kg
Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans:
Causes adverse reproductive effects in humans (fetotoxicity, abortion, ) by intraplacental route. High intake of sodium
chloride, whether from occupational exposure or in the diet, may increase risk of TOXEMIA OF PREGNANCY in susceptible
women (Bishop, 1978). Hypertonic sodium chloride solutions have been used to induce abortion in late pregnancy by direct
infusion into the uterus (Brown et al, 1972), but this route of administration is not relevant to occupational exposures. May
cause adverse reproductive effects and birth defects in animals, particularly rats and mice (fetotoxicity, abortion,
musculoskeletal abnormalities, and maternal effects (effects on ovaries, fallopian tubes) by oral, intraperitoneal,
intraplacental, intrauterine, parenteral, and subcutaneous routes. While sodium chloride has been used as a negative
control n some reproductive studies, it has also been used as an example that almost any chemical can cause birth defects
experimental animals if studied under the right conditions (Nishimura & Miyamoto, 1969). In experimental animals, sodium
chloride has caused delayed effects on newborns, has been fetotoxic, and has caused birth defects and abortions in rats an
mice (RTECS, 1997).
May affect genetic material (mutagenic)
Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans:
Acute Potential Health Effects: Skin: May cause skin irritation. Eyes: Causes eye irritation. Ingestion: Ingestion of large
quantities can irritate the stomach (as in overuse of salt tablets) with nausea and vomiting. May affect behavior (muscle
spasicity/contraction, somnolence), sense organs, metabolism, and cardiovascular system. Continued exposure may
produce dehydration, internal organ congestion, and coma. Inhalation: Material is irritating to mucous membranes and
upper respiratory tract.

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Section 15: Other Regulatory Information


Federal and State Regulations: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Sodium chloride
Other Regulations: EINECS: This product is on the European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances.
Other Classifications:
WHMIS (Canada): Not controlled under WHMIS (Canada).
DSCL (EEC):
R40- Possible risks of irreversible effects. S24/25- Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
HMIS (U.S.A.):
Health Hazard: 1
Fire Hazard: 0
Reactivity: 0
Personal Protection: E
National Fire Protection Association (U.S.A.):
Health: 1
Flammability: 0
Reactivity: 0
Specific hazard:
Protective Equipment:
Gloves. Lab coat. Dust respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Splash goggles.
Section 16: Other Information

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References:
-Hawley, G.G.. The Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11e ed., New York N.Y., Van Nostrand Reinold, 1987. -SAX, N.I. Dangerous
Properties of Indutrial Materials. Toronto, Van Nostrand Reinold, 6e ed. 1984. -The Sigma-Aldrich Library of Chemical Safety
Data, Edition II.
Other Special Considerations: Not available.
Created: 10/11/2005 12:33 PM
Special Remarks on the Products of Biodegradation: Not available.

Section 13: Disposal Considerations

Waste Disposal:
Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental control regulations.

Section 14: Transport Information

DOT Classification: Not a DOT controlled material (United States).


Identification: Not applicable.
Special Provisions for Transport: Not applicable.

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Last Updated: 05/21/2013 12:00 PM

The information above is believed to be accurate and represents the best information currently available to u
However, we make no warranty of merchantability or any other warranty, express or implied, with respect to suc
information, and we assume no liability resulting from its use. Users should make their own investigations
determine the suitability of the information for their particular purposes. In no event shall ScienceLab.com be liab
for any claims, losses, or damages of any third party or for lost profits or any special, indirect, incidenta
consequential or exemplary damages, howsoever arising, even if ScienceLab.com has been advised of th
possibility of such damages.

0 He alth
1 0 Fire

Re activity

Pe rs onal
Prote ction

Section 3: Hazards Identification

Potential Acute Health Effects: Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of eye contact (irritant), of ingestion,
of inhalation.
Potential Chronic Health Effects:
CARCINOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. MUTAGENIC EFFECTS: Mutagenic for mammalian somatic cells. Mutagenic for
bacteria and/or yeast. TERATOGENIC EFFECTS: Not available. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY: Not available. The substance may
be toxic to blood, cardiovascular system. Repeated or prolonged exposure to the substance can produce target organs
damage.

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Material Safety Data Sheet


Potassium chloride MSDS
Section 1: Chemical Product and Company Identification

Section 2: Composition and Information on Ingredients

Composition:

Name CAS # % by Weight

Potassium chloride 7447-40-7 100

Toxicological Data on Ingredients: Potassium chloride: ORAL (LD50): Acute: 2500 mg/kg [Guinea pig]. 2600 mg/kg [Rat].
mg/kg [Mouse].
1500

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Product Name: Potassium chloride Contact Information:


Sciencelab.com, Inc.
Catalog Codes: SLP3334, SLP5143, SLP2317, SLP4126
14025 Smith Rd.
CAS#: 7447-40-7 Houston, Texas 77396
RTECS: TS8050000 US Sales: 1-800-901-7247
International Sales: 1-281-441-4400
TSCA: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Potassium chloride
Order Online: ScienceLab.com
CI#: Not available.
CHEMTREC (24HR Emergency Telephone), call:
Synonym: 1-800-424-9300

Chemical Name: Potassium Chloride International CHEMTREC, call: 1-703-527-3887

Chemical Formula: KCl For non-emergency assistance, call: 1-281-441-4400

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Check for and remove any contact lenses. In case of contact, immediately flush eyes with plenty of water
for at least 15 minutes. Cold water may be used. Get medical attention.

Skin Contact:
Wash with soap and water. Cover the irritated skin with an emollient. Get medical attention if irritation
develops. Cold water may be used.

Serious Skin Contact: Not available.

Section 5: Fire and Explosion Data


Flammability of the Product: Non-flammable.
Auto-Ignition Temperature: Not applicable.
Flash Points: Not applicable.
Flammable Limits: Not applicable.
Products of Combustion: Not available.
Fire Hazards in Presence of Various Substances: Not applicable.
Explosion Hazards in Presence of Various Substances:
Risks of explosion of the product in presence of mechanical impact: Not available. Risks of explosion of the product in
presence of static discharge: Not available. Slightly explosive in presence of oxidizing materials.
Fire Fighting Media and Instructions: Not applicable.
Special Remarks on Fire Hazards: Not available.
Special Remarks on Explosion Hazards: May result in explosion with potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid.

Section 6: Accidental Release Measures

Small Spill:
Use appropriate tools to put the spilled solid in a convenient waste disposal container. Finish cleaning by spreading water on
the contaminated surface and dispose of according to local and regional authority requirements.
Large Spill:
Use a shovel to put the material into a convenient waste disposal container. Finish cleaning by spreading water on the
contaminated surface and allow to evacuate through the sanitary system.
Section 7: Handling and Storage

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Precautions:
Do not ingest. Do not breathe dust. If ingested, seek medical advice immediately and show the container or the label. Keep
away from incompatibles such as oxidizing agents, acids, moisture.
Storage: Keep container tightly closed. Keep container in a cool, well-ventilated area. Hygroscopic
Inhalation:
If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If breathing is difficult, give
oxygen. Get medical attention.

Serious Inhalation: Not available.


Ingestion:
Do NOT induce vomiting unless directed to do so by medical personnel. Never give anything by mouth to
an unconscious person. Loosen tight clothing such as a collar, tie, belt or waistband. Get medical
attention if symptoms appear.

Serious Ingestion: Not available.

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Section 9: Physical and Chemical Properties


Physical state and appearance: Solid.
Odor: Odorless.
Taste: Saline. (Strong.)
Molecular Weight: 74.55 g/mole
Color: White.
pH (1% soln/water): Not available.
Boiling Point: 1420°C (2588°F)
Melting Point: 770°C (1418°F)
Critical Temperature: Not available.
Specific Gravity: 1.987 (Water = 1)
Vapor Pressure: Not applicable.
Vapor Density: Not available.
Volatility: Not available.
Odor Threshold: Not available.
Water/Oil Dist. Coeff.: Not available.
Ionicity (in Water): Not available.
Dispersion Properties: See solubility in water.
Solubility:
Soluble in cold water, hot water. VerySection
slightly soluble in methanol,
10: Stability andn-octanol.
Reactivity Data

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Stability: The product is stable.


Instability Temperature: Not available.
Conditions of Instability: Incompatible materials
Incompatibility with various substances: Reactive with oxidizing agents, acids.

Section 8: Exposure Controls/Personal Protection


Engineering Controls:
Use process enclosures, local exhaust ventilation, or other engineering controls to keep airborne levels below
recommended exposure limits. If user operations generate dust, fume or mist, use ventilation to keep exposure to airborne
contaminants below the exposure limit.
Personal Protection: Safety glasses. Lab coat. Dust respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator o
equivalent. Gloves.
Personal Protection in Case of a Large Spill:
Splash goggles. Full suit. Dust respirator. Boots. Gloves. A self contained breathing apparatus should be used to avoid
inhalation of the product. Suggested protective clothing might not be sufficient; consult a specialist BEFORE handling this
product.
Exposure Limits: Not available.

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Corrosivity: Non-corrosive in presence of glass.

Special Remarks on Reactivity:


Hygroscopic. Incompatible with KMnO4, H2SO4, BrF3, and BrCl3. May react violently with BrF3.

Special Remarks on Corrosivity: Not available.


Polymerization: Will not occur.

Section 11: Toxicological Information

Section 12: Ecological Information

Ecotoxicity: Not available.


BOD5 and COD: Not available.
Products of Biodegradation:
Possibly hazardous short term degradation products are not likely. However, long term degradation products may arise.
Toxicity of the Products of Biodegradation: The product itself and its products of degradation are not toxic.
Special Remarks on the Products of Biodegradation: Not available.

Section 13: Disposal Considerations

Waste Disposal:
Waste must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state and local environmental control regulations.

Section 14: Transport Information

Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017


DOT Classification: Not a DOT controlled material (United States).
Signature: ____________________
Identification: Not applicable.
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

Routes of Entry: Inhalation. Ingestion.


Toxicity to Animals: Acute oral toxicity (LD50): 1500 mg/kg [Mouse].
Chronic Effects on Humans: May cause damage to the following organs: blood, cardiovascular system.
Other Toxic Effects on Humans: Slightly hazardous in case of skin contact (irritant), of ingestion, of inhalation.
Special Remarks on Toxicity to Animals: Not available.
Special Remarks on Chronic Effects on Humans:
May affect genetic material. Passes through the placental barrier in animal.
Special Remarks on other Toxic Effects on Humans:
Actute Potential Health Effects: Skin: May cause skin irritation Eye: Dust may cause eye irritation. Inhalation: Dust may caus
respiratory tract irritation. Low hazard for usual industrial handling Ingestion: May affect behavior (coma, change in motor
activity, listlessness, vertigo, mental confusion, paresthesias, general weakness, flaccid paralysis), metabolism, blood (chang
in clotting factor, electrolytic imbalance), cardiovascular (hypotension, circulatory disturbances, cardiac arrhythmias, heart
block), and respiratory, gastrointestinal (irritation of GI tract, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, purging), a
urinary(impairment of renal function) systems. Acute potassium intoxication by mouth is rare because large single doses
usually induce vomiting, and because in the absence of pre-existing kidney damage potassium is rapidly excreted. Maximal
nontoxic oral dose of KCl in man varies from 0.2g to 1 g of potassium/kg/day depending upon efficiency of individual
excretory mechanism; lower doses sometimes cause impairment of renal function as shown by reduced inulin, and urea
clearance.
Chronic Potential Health Effects: May affect blood and cardiovascular system.
Special Provisions for Transport: Not applicable.

Section 15: Other Regulatory Information

Section 16: Other Information


References: Not available.
Other Special Considerations: Not available.
Created: 10/10/2005 08:49 PM
Last Updated: 05/21/2013 12:00 PM

The information above is believed to be accurate and represents the best information currently available to us.
However, we make no warranty of merchantability or any other warranty, express or implied, with respect to such
information, and we assume no liability resulting from its use. Users should make their own investigations to
determine the suitability of the information for their particular purposes. In no event shall ScienceLab.com be liable
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possibility of such damages.
Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017
Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

Federal and State Regulations: TSCA 8(b) inventory: Potassium chloride


Other Regulations:
OSHA: Hazardous by definition of Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200). EINECS: This product is on the
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances.
Other Classifications:
WHMIS (Canada): Not controlled under WHMIS (Canada).
DSCL (EEC):
R36- Irritating to eyes. S26- In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
S39Wear eye/face protection.
HMIS (U.S.A.):
Health Hazard: 1
Fire Hazard: 0
Reactivity: 0
Personal Protection: E
National Fire Protection Association (U.S.A.):
Health: 1
Flammability: 0
Reactivity: 0
Specific hazard:
Protective Equipment:
Gloves. Lab coat. Dust respirator. Be sure to use an approved/certified respirator or equivalent. Safety glasses.

Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017


Signature: ____________________
Department of Chemical Engineering Separation Processes
Transfer Lab Manual
Wah Engineering College, WahCantt.

Prepared by: Aasia Farrukh Date: 09-08-2017


Signature: ____________________