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saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi

Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumi

samecniero konferencia

Sua saukuneebis qarTuli naqargoba:


tradicia da Tanamedrove
tendenciebi

30-31 ianvari

2018
proeqtis xelmZRvaneli: mariam gvelesiani

samecniero redaqtori: gulnaz baraTaSvili

redaqtori: nino nadaraia


eTnografia/eTnologia

nanuli azikuri*
* ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti
ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriisa da eTnologiis instituti
universitetis q. 2. korpusi 11, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo
elfosta: nanuliazikuri9@gmail.com

termini qvilTi da misi qarTuli


Sesatyvisobani

sityva qvilTi inglisuria da daliandagebul gadasafarebels niSnavs. teqstilis spe-


cialistebi amgvari qsovilis kervis teqnikasac qvilTs uwodeben.
Zvelad qvilTis teqnikiT, umTavresad, sabnebi da sawolis gadasafareblebi ikereboda. am-
Jamad ki am teqnikis gamoyenebiT, anu ori an sami fena qsovilis nakuwTa kombinaciiT, Seker-
il yvelanair nawarms _ sabnebs, gadasafareblebs, muTaqisa da baliSis pirebs, CanTebs,
aseve kedlis samSven mxatvrul panoebsac ase moixsenieben, mag., qvilTis pano, qvilTis sa-
bani, qvilTis CanTa da a. S.
sityva qvilTi qarTvel mxatvarTa da xalxuri rewvis ostatTa sityvaxmarebaSi ufro me-
tad mas Semdeg damkvidrda, rac qarTuli teqstilis jgufis prezident, xelovnebaTm-
codne nino yifSiZis iniciativiT qvilTis amerikelma specialistma karen misgreivma qarT-
vel SemoqmedT am teqnikis demonstrirebiT waukiTxa leqcia qvilTis Sesaxeb.
sainteresoa, icnobdnen Tu ara qvilTis teqnikas xelsaqmis uZvelesi tradiciebis mqone
saqarTveloSi?
jer kidev 2000-iani wlebis dasawyisSi [azikuri n. 2002; azikuri n. 2004] xazgasmuli mqonda
CvenSi qvilTis analogiuri teqnikis arsebobis tradiciuloba. axlac msurs gavimeoro _
es teqnika qarTveli xalxisTvis uZvelesi droidanve iyo cnobili. es dasturdeba eTno-
grafiuli masaliT [azikuri n. 1989]. rogorc gairkva, saqarTveloSic sabnebs sami fena
qsovilis kombinaciiT keravdnen. qvil­Tisgan cotaTi gansxvavebulia zogierTi saxeobis
qarTuli kostiumis gawyobis teqnika. aseT samoss orfena qsovilisgan keravdnen, mesame
fenad ki mZivebsa da kilitebs iyenebdnen. Aamgvari teqnikis tradiciulobas adasturebs
qarTuli xalxuri, umTavresad, mTis (xevsureTis, fSaveTis, TuSeTis, aWaris, raWis) mo-
saxleobis samosi, romlis gasamSveneblad uxvad da uSurvelad iyenebdnen ferad-feradi
qsovilis kombinacias. es samoss alamazebda da esTetikurad mimzidvel iers aZlevda. ze-
moT dasaxelebul xelnawer naSromSi [azikuri n. 2002] vrclad maqvs ganxiluli qarTuli
samosis gawyobis teqnikac.
eTnografiuli masalis garda, saqarTveloSi qvilTis msgavsi teqnikis arsebobis da-
dasturebaa aq aRmoCenili arqeologiuri nivTebi. jer kidev 1877 wels sofel ste-
fanwmindasTan aRmoCenilsa da specialur literaturaSi yazbegis ganZad wodebul­
­[ Амиранашвили Ш.1950: 62] ganaTxar masalasTan erTad napovnia fexsacmlis fragmenti, ro-
melic gawyobili iyo naqsov-nakeri fenebiT, naqargobiTa da kilitebiT. fexsacmlis es

4
fragmenti Zalian hgavs Zvel xevsurul TaTebs. maTs msgavsebaze samarTlianad miuTiTebda
eTnologi c. yaraulaSvili [yaraulaSvili c. 1971: 33]. yazbegis ganZi daTariRebulia Zv. w.
VI_V ss-iT [ qse. 1986: 10 ].
cxadia, am teqnikiT kervis aseTi Zveli tradiciis mqone saqarTveloSi misi aRmniSvneli
terminic iarsebebda. rogorc wesi, terminis warmoSobas ganapirobebs Tavad am terminiT
gamoxatuli saqmianobis arsebobis xangrZlivoba. wlebis ganmavlobaSi eqspediciebSi yof-
nis dros, mxatvruli qsovilebis kvlevisas, Cemi yuradReba miipyro ojaxebSi jer kidev
SemorCenilma, feradi qsovilebis nakuwebisagan Sekerilma nawarmma: sabnis gulebma, sabneb-
ma, sawolebisa da magidis gadasafareblebma, baliSisa da muTaqis pirebma, bavSvis sabnebma
(sur. 1), abanosa da mziTvis boxCebma (sur 2), panoebma da. a. S. bunebrivia, velze muSaobisas
maTi aRmniSvneli terminebic davafiqsire, mag., Tikvi. rogorc gairkva, Tikvi TuSeTSi qso-
vilis nakuws niSnavs, misgan damzadebul nawarms aq, Sesabamisad, Tikvis safens uwodeben.
Tikvis safenis damzadebis teqnika nawilobriv qvilTis teqnikas hgavs. am ukanaskneliT na-
ker nawarms samcxe-javaxeTSi CanaWruls uwodeben. CanaWrulis teqnikiT sabnisa da baliSis
pirebia nakeri. samwuxarod, am sityvas leqsikonebSi ver mivakvlie. 2006 wels sof. Tmogv-
Si diasaxlisma maCvena ulamazesi sabani da baliSis piri. misi ganmartebiT, es CanaWruli
iyo. faqtobrivad, me aq, samcxe-javaxeTSi, qvilTis teqnika vixile [azikuri n.­2006]. amis
Semdeg, ojaxebSi Sesvlisas, ukve maT vTxovdi, eCvenebinaT CanaWrulebi. isinic xan sabnebs
miCvenebdnen, xan ki- baliSebs.
rogorc gairkva, guriaSi gavrcelebuli yofila WinWis sabani. is Wreli CiTis nakuwebisa-
gan ikereboda da misi kervis teqnika zustad Seesatyviseboda qvilTis teqnikas. gurul di-
aleqtSi WinWia yvelanairi qsovilis nakuwi, abreSumis garda. qarTlsa da kaxeTSi qvilTis
analogiuri teqnikis aRsaniSnavad iyenebdnen sityva babls, mag., bablis sabani. am tipis sab-
nad unda miviCnioT aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTSi XIX s-is dasasrul da XX s-is 20-ian
wlebSi aqa-iq SemorCenili sabnis tipi, e. w. maJdagis sabani. es iyo erTmaneTze abmuli maJd-
agebi, anu batknis tyavebi, dakerebuli tolis-Sinnaqsovi Salis qsovilze. babli, zogadad,
mravalferovnebis, siWrelis gamomxatvelia. es sityva erT xalxur gamocanaSic gvxvdeba:
“abli, babli, oqros taxti
mziT aviRe, mTvariT davdgi”.
qarTuli enis ganmartebiT leqsikonSi babli amgvaradaa ganmartebuli: “babli (bablisa)
kuTx. (qarTl. Kkax.). 1. sabanze Sekerili samkuTxa saxe. 2. sabnis Tavsa da boloSi mokerebuli
naWrebi (sxva qsovilisa). 3. samkuTxa qsovili, romlisganac ikereba sabani (e. w. naWrebis
sabani). bablis sabani [qegl. 1950].
qarTul folklorSi gvxvdeba bablis mandilic:
“erTi bablisa mandili
orTav zed dagvaxurao” [mWedliSvili el. 1932: 31].
Bbablis mandils mxolod leqsis am TuSur variantSi mivakvlie. SesaZloa, sabani aq Sec-
domiT mandilad migveCnia, magram, YTu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom TuSi qalebi Savi feris
did mandils kideebze buzmentebiT gaawyobdnen, albaT aq swored erTmaneTze dakerebuli
kantebi igulisxmeba. mas Cveni winaprebi babls uwodebdnen. amitom am SemTxvevaSi marTebu-
lia, vixmaroT bablis mandili.
maRla aRvniSne, rom terminis arseboba da misiT aRniSnuli saqmianoba uSualod ukavSird-
eba erTmaneTs. amitom, imis gamo, rom XX s-Si qarTveli qalebi am teqnikiT, anu ori da U
sami fenis kombinaciiT, Seqmnil nawarms, umTavresad, ukve aRar keravdnen, misi aRmniSvneli

5
terminebic nel-nela miiviwyes. dRes ki msoflioSi qvilTis teqnikiT nakeri nivTebis erT-
gvarma popularobam da farTod gavrcelebam qarTul realobaSic daamkvidra es nawarmi
da misi aRmniSvneli ucxo warmoSobis termini. amJamad saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi
(nafareuli, qvemo alvani, nukriani, axalcixe, axalqalaqi, aspinZa) qvilTis teqnikiT xalx-
uri rewvis saxelosnoebSi sxvadasxvagvari nawarmi iqmneba. iq ikereba sabnebi, sawolis ga-
dasafareblebi, muTaqisa da baliSis pirebi (sur.3), CanTebi, qalis kostiumis detalebi.
maT garda am teqnikas warmatebiTY iyeneben xalxuri rewvis ostatebi da mxatvrebi. am teqni-
kiT kervis tradiciis aRorZinebis gaTvaliswinebiT, sasurveli iqneboda, qvilTis nacv-
lad dagvemkvidrebina am teqnikis analogiuris aRmniSvneli qarTuli termini CanaWruli.
am sityviT zustadaa gamoxatuli teqnikis specifika _naWrebisagan Sekerva. qvilTisa da
CanaWrulis teqnikaTa analogiurobis garda, am mosazrebis marTebulobas adasturebs am
sityvis arseboba cocxal qarTul (samcxe- javaxeTSi) metyvelebaSi. umniSvnelovanesi ar-
gumentia isic, rom es sityva bunebrivia qarTulisTvis (paralelisTvis gavixsenoT sityve-
bi_ Cagviristebuli, CanaoWebuli, Caxoxbili). aqve davZen, rom CanaWruli (imave qvilTis)
teqnikiT nakeri sabnisYaRmniSvnelad Tu vixmarT CanaWrul sabans, nakuwebisagan Sekeril
sabans SeiZleba vuwodoT bablis sabani.
amrigad, qvilTis teqnikiT Sesrulebuli nawarmis aRmniSvnel terminad unda aRvadginiT
da davamkvidroT qarTuli sityvebi _ babli an CanaWruli. savsebiT SesaZlebelia, isini
iqcnen zogad terminebad, radgan sasurvelia teqnikur terminologiaSi qarTuli warmoma-
vlobis terminTa Semotana, raTa ar daikargos qarTuli enis simdidre da mravalferovneba.

Nanuli Azikuri
Ivane Javakhishvili Institute of History and Ethnology
The Term “Quilt” and its Georgian Correspondences

The word “Quilt” is English and literally notes the blanket. Then it became the term used to describe the tech-
nique of sewing the blankets and thus becoming universal. Currently under the term “Quilt” is meant any
product produced by combination of two or three layers of fabric placed one above the other - blankets,
bedcovers, sofa covers, decorative diapers, bags, details of the garments, etc.
The terms used for denoting quilt techniques are various in Georgian language. In some regions of the country,
the object produced by this technique has following names: “Babli”, “Tikvi”, “Chinchi” (“shred”), “Chanachruli”
(“piece cut of cloth”). There is known a “Babli blanket” in Kartli and Kakheti, “Chinchis Sabani” ( “blanket made
from shreds” - in Guria), “Mazhdagis Sabani” (Tusheti), “Tikvi” (Pshavi, Khevsureti), “Tikvis Sapheni (diaper)”
(Tusheti), “Chanachruli” (Samtskhe- Javakheti). We find “Babli Shawl” in Georgian folk poetry as well.
The word “Chanachruli” used in Samtskhe-Javakheti is a general term to describe these types of products. It
corresponds to the quilt technique and is organic for the Georgian language system (“Chagviristebuli”, “Chak-
hokhbili”), as well as the “Babli” sewing technique.
We can use the “Babli” or “Chanachruli” to describe the products made with quilt techniques as they can be
turned into general terms.

6
Lbibliografia
Aazikuri n. 2004: qarTuli xalxuri safenebi (Tikvis safenebi TuSeTidan). Mmse. t. XXVI. Ggv. 19-
21. Tbilisi.
Aazikuri n. 2002: nafTuli da Tikvi qarTul xalxur qsovilebsa da Sesamoselze (xelnaweri).
Aazikuri n. 1989: 1989 wels qarTlsa da kaxeTSi Cawerili eTnografiuli masalebi (xel-
naweri).
Aazikuri n. 2006: samcxe-javaxeTSi mivlinebis masalebi (xelnaweri).
mWedliSvili Eel. 1932: TuSeTis mcxovrebTa Sroma-saqmianoba da zne-Cveuleba. Tbilisi.
YyaraulaSvili c. 1971: qsovilis ori fragmenti yazbegis ganZidan. .Jur. “mecniereba da te-
qnika”. # 8. gv. 33-35. Tbilisi.
Амиранашвили Ш. 1950 : История грузинского искусства. Москва.

ilustraciebis aRweriloba
sur. 1. bavSvis sabani. XIX s-is meore naxevari. sof zemo xodaSeni, kaxeTi
sur. 2. mziTvis boxCa. XIX s-is meore naxevari. sof. giorgiwminda, kaxeTi
sur.3. baliSis piri. XXI s. sof. qvemo alvanis xalxuri rewvis saxelosno, kaxeTi

SemoklebaTa ganmarteba
Mmse_ masalebi saqarTvelos eTnografiisaTvis
qegl – qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni
qse_ qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia

7
sur.1. Fig.

8
sur.2. Fig.

sur.3. Fig.
9
xelovnebaTmcodneoba

gulnaz baraTaSvili
saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi
Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumi
l. gudiaSvilis q. 1, 0105, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo
gulnaz baratashvili@yahoo. com

Nnikorwmindis dafarnebis saxismetyvelebiTi Taviseburebani

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumSi


daculia dafarnaTa sakmaod didi koleqcia, magram sruli kompleqtis saxiT sul ramden-
imea SemorCenili. maTgan yvelaze adreulia kompleqti raWidan – nikorwmindis eklesiidan
(sur. 1,2,3), romelic dRemde ar gamxdara specialuri kvlevis obieqti. K giorgi boWoriZe
da eqvTime TayaiSvili gvTavazoben naqargobis am nimuSTa mokle aRwerilobasa da maTze
arsebul berZnul-qarTul (asomTavrul) warwerebs [boWoriZe g. 1994: 117; TayaiSvili eq.
1963: 94-95]. warwerebi liturgiuli xasiaTisaa da maTSi araa gamJRavnebuli mqargvelisa
Tu qtitoris vinaoba. Tumca sruliad aSkaraa, rom misi damkveTi didgvarovanTa wridan-
aa, radgan Zvirfasi liTonis ZafebiT (oqrosa da vercxlis Tma, oqromkedi, vercxlmkedi,
zezi) mosiTvul saeklesio-saritualo nimuSebs samefo ojaxisa da maRali wris warmomad-
genlebi swiravdnen eklesiebs, Erac araerT nimuSze warwerebiTaa damowmebuli. dafarnaTa
es kompleqti 1930 wels monawileobda germaniis qalaqebSi mowyobil gamofenaSi [Tchubi-
naschwili G. 1930: 29].
gviani Sua saukuneebis (XVI-XVIII ss.) saeklesio daniSnulebis mxatvrul qargulobaSi daw-
yebuli SemoqmedebiTi Ziebani, xelovnebis sxva dargebis analogiurad, ikonografiis cv-
lilebebisa da ganaxlebisaken iyo mimarTuli. Zveli ikonografiuli formebis gameorebis
paralelurad xdeboda axlis Ziebac, rac, umTavresad, istoriul memkvidreobas emyarebo-
da. imavdroulad, qarTuli naqargoba iTvisebda da erovnul niadagze amuSavebda aRmosav-
lur da dasavlur kulturაTა miRwevebs. yovelive es, garkveulwilad, aisaxa nikorwmin-
dis eklesiis dafarnebzec, romlebic, warweris Tanaxmad, 1667 welsaa moqarguli. mxat-
vruli RirsebebiT, qargvis teqnikis daxvewilobiTa da Sesrulebis ufaqizesi ostatobiT
gamorCeul naqargobis am nimuSebze warmodgenili saxismetyvelebiTi programa organul
kavSirSia taZris moxatulobis ideur SinaarsTan. samive maTganze asaxulia saRmrTo
liturgia, romelic sruldeba yvela eklesiaSi da dafarnaTa morTulobis ideis ganmsaz-
Rvrelia. scenebi damoukidebeli, dasrulebuli kompoziciuri gadawyvetiT xasiaTdeba,
ZiriTadi yuradReba, tradiciulad, centrSi warmodgenil kompoziciazea gamaxvilebuli,
sadac wamyvani adgili `msxverplsa~ da `ziarebaze~ mimaniSnebel wminda WurWels (barZimi,
feSxumi) aqvs daTmobili.
sxva dafarnaTa analogiurad, am dafarnebzedac `msxverplisa~ da `uflis didebis~ ide-
iT gaerTianebuli liturgiuli Temebia gamosaxuli, romlebic samiveze sxvadasxva mxat-
vruli niuansiTaa gadmocemuli. Ppereqelebze, anu mcire dafarnebze `wminda msxverpli~
tradiciuli ikonografiiTaa gamosaxuli: erTgan feSxumzea, meoregan - barZimSi, mesame
- did dafarnaze ki - `didi zraxvis angelozis~ saxiT. `msxverplisa~ da wminda WurWlis

10
– barZimisa da feSxumis gamosaxva TavisTavad gulisxmobs taZarSi aRsrulebul liturg-
ias da mianiSnebs `ziarebis~ saidumloebaze, romelic ase aqtualuria dafarnaTa saxism-
etyvelebiTi programisaTvis. orivePpereqelze kompozicia diagonaluradaa agebuli, riT-
ac isini gamoirCeva da gansxvavdeba Cven mier moZiebuli qarTuli Tu ucxouri am tipis
naqargobis yvela nimuSisagan.
cisfer atlasze, zedxedSi gamosaxulia oqros TmiT mosiTvuli feSxumi kamariT (sur. 1)1.
kamaris qveS dabrZanebulia kompoziciis mTavari figura - `msxverpli~ yrma iesos saxiT -
simbolo sefiskveridan amokveTili tarigisa, romelic gvTavazobs Tavis xorcs: `miiReT
da WameT, ese ars xorci Cemi~ [maTe 26:26; mark. 14:22; luka 22:19]. aqve berZnulad Sesrule-
buli daqaragmebaa ieso qristes saxelisa: IC XC.
`msxverpli~ 2-3 wlis Cvilis saxiTaa warmodgenili. marjvena xeli kurTxevad aqvs aRmarTu-
li, marcxena ki - sxeulis gaswvriv sworad daSvebuli, fexebi – gadajvaredinebuli. mkerdi-
sa da diafragmis formebi zogadadaa miniSnebuli; misi mogrZo saxe, morkaluli yavisferi
warbebi, amave feris Tmebi, warbze `mibmuli~ cxviris konturi, wiTeli abreSumis ZafiT
moniSnuli patara tuCebi da, saerTod, mTeli figura sasiamovnod aRiqmeba oqrosfer feS-
xumze. gamorCeul yuradRebas iqcevs Cvili iesos mSvidi, azriani da cocxali Tvalebi.
kuTxeebSi, vercxlis TmiT dafarul wris meoTxedebSi, ganTavsebulia oqros TmiT mosiT-
vuli angelozTa figurebi, romlebic zustad imeoreben erTmaneTs: macxovris marjvniv
da marcxniv diagonalurad gamosaxulia saydarni, zemoT da qvemoT – serafim-qerubimi
Tanmdevi berZnul-qarTuli (asomTavruli) samwmindaobis warweriT: `w(mid)a ars, w(mid)a
ars, w(mid)a ars, ufali sabaoT.~ berZnuli warwerac imave Sinaarss gadmoscems, oRond `sa-
baoTis~ nacvlad weria `ufali~ [margiSvili r. 2003: 85].
saydarni, tradiciulad, gamoisaxeba erTmaneTze gadaWdobili cecxlovani borblebis sax-
iT, mravalricxovani TvalebiTa da frTebiT garSemortymuli. borblebს, romlebsac mra-
vali Tvali da frTa aqvT da gaumrudeblad win
miiweven, ebraelebi `gelgels~ uwodeben, rac `brunvasa~ da `gamocxadebas~ niSnavs [ezek.
10:15]. `cecxlovani da RvTissaxovani borblebi maradmoZravi ZvriT brunaven erTi da imave
keTilis irgvliv da `gamocxadebasac~ floben, ramdenadac dafaruls asaCinoeben~ [dion-
ise areopageli. 1983: 9].
serafimis wminda wodeba ki gulisxmobs `damwvels~ an `gamacxelebels~. esaia winaswarme-
tyvelis xilvis mixedviT, maT adamianis saxe da eqvsi frTa aqvT, romelTagan oriT fexebs

1 feSxumi (berZ. diskos _ mrgvali TefSi) – im TefSis simboloa, romelic macxovarma gamoiyena saidum-
lo serobaze. Mmisi simrgvale qristianuli eklesiis mudmivobis gamoxatulebaa. liturgiis pirvel nawilSi
- kveTis Sesrulebisas feSxumi niSnavs casa da beTlemis bagas. igi aseve simboloa samarisa, sadac macxovris
cxedari daasvenes. feSxumis sadgami SeerTebuli `wiaRTan,~ macxovris orbunebovnebis gaerTianebas aRniSnavs.
qveda nawili macxovris miwieri, adamianuri bunebaa, zeda _ RvTiuri. igi aseve Seesatyviseba qristianul ekl-
esiaSi zeciurisa da miwieri yofis gaerTianebas, mWidrod dakavSirebuls erTmaneTTan, magram ara Sereuls
[Настольная книга священнослужителя. 1983: 86-89].
P proskomidiis damTavrebis Semdeg varskvlavs jvrulad dadeben feSxumze sityvebiT: `da aha, varskvlavi igi,
romeli ixiles aRmosavleTiT... da daadgra adgilsa mas, romelsa iyo yrma igi~ [maTe 2:9]. varskvlavi (varsk-
vlavs meorenairad kamarasac uwodeben. k. kekeliZe. Eetiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan. XIV.
Tb. 1986. gv. 206) iseTnairad daideba, rom centrSi tarigi moxvdes, rac simbolurad macxovris Sobisas beTle-
mis Tavze aRmobrwyinebul varskvlavs niSnavs, romelic mogvebs gzas uCvenebda. varskvlavi Tavisi ori mkla-
viT macxovris orbunebovnebis gamoxatulebaa. misi jvruli forma mianiSnebs iaraRs, romliTac ieso qristem
daRupvisagan ixsna kacobrioba. rogorc varskvlavis mklavebi, asevea macxovris Soba da jvarcma erTmaneTTan
dakavSirebuli. saziarebel ZRvenze dasmuli varskvlavi liturgiis sawyis nawils inkarnaciisa da Sobis sim-
bolod aqcevs [Schulz H.J. 1964: 37]. varskvlavs praqtikuli daniSnulebac aqvs: icavs feSxumze moTavsebul wm.Nna-
wilebs pereqelis Sexebisagan. liturgiaSi varskvlavis gamoyeneba wm. ioane oqropirs ukavSirdeba [Настольная
книга священнослужителя. 1983: ст. 90].

11
ifaraven, oriT - saxes RmrTeebrivi didebulebis brwyinvalebasTan siaxlovis gamo, oriT
– frenen da RvTis siyvaruliT anTe-
bulni, ufals ganuwyvetliv angelozTa sagalobels ugaloben. qer-
ubimis wminda wodeba ki gulisxmobs `codnis siuxves~, anda `sibrZnis gadmoRvras~ [saekle-
sio leqsikoni. 2008: 121, 152]. esaia winaswarmetyvelis TqmiT, maT mravali Tvali aqvT, rac
sibrZnesa da RmrTis saidumloebaTa Wvretaze mianiSnebs. isinic gars ertymian uflis
taxts, `romeli zis zeda qerobinTa~ [fs. 98:1].
angelozTa cxra dasidan saydarni, qerubimni da serafimni ganekuTvnebian umaRlesi ier-
arqiis pirvel dass, romlebic ufalTan yvelaze axlo myofi
pirveli mwyobria da maradiulad RvTis garSemo mkvidroben. qargulobaSi qerubimebi da
serafimebi xSirad erTmaneTis msgavsad gamoisaxebian. Tumca gvxvdeba frTebiT fexebdau-
faravi qerubinTa gamosaxulebebi, ZiriTadad, enqerebze (sur. 4,5,6)2.
zemoaRweril pereqelze warmodgenil kompoziciaSi saydarni da qerubim-serafimebi
gansazRvraven scenis Teofaniur xasiaTs, aseve gamoxataven kavSirs rogorc saRmrTo
liturgiasTan, ise `gankiTxvis dRis~ saRmrTo ganzraxvasTan; samwmindaobis sagalobeli
ki esqatologiur mniSvnelobas aniWebs scenas da gamoxatavs kavSirs ziarebis saidumloe-
basTan [Протоиерей Серафим Слободский. 1987: 656].
rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, saydarni da serafim-qerubimebi ganlagebulni arian
vercxlis TmiT mosiTvuli wris meoTxediT gamoyofil kuTxeebSi. wris meoTxedebi cis-
fer miwarze qmnis jvars, romelic, feris (cisferi) simbolikidan gamomdinare, zecas,
zesamyaros mianiSnebs. cis gamosaxuleba daY`zecad gamoCinebuli~ jvari ki dakavSirebulia
RvTis xilvis scenebsa da `meored mosvlasTan~ [Lexikon der christlichen Ikonographie. 1994: 695].
`meored mosvlis Jams jvari kvlavac pirveli gamocxaddeba didiTa didebiTa zecad,
mravalricxovan angelozTa dasiTurT~, gvafrTxilebs efrem asuri [efrem asuri. 1991:
141]. aRniSnuli Tema gansxvavebuli ikonografiuli variantiTaa gadmocemuli amave peri-
odis ucnobi piris mier moqargul dafarnaze (89x69 sm)3, romelic, savaraudod, kaxeTida-
naa (sur. 7). masze naqargoba gansxvavebuli feris qsovilebzea Sesrulebuli. D centralur,
rombis formis cisfer atlasze (23x20 sm) gamosaxulia scena, romlis kompoziciuri da
ideuri centri gankiTxvis dRis upirvelesi simbolo, golgoTaze aRmarTuli rvamklavi-
ani margalitebiT gamSvenebuli jvaria4. jvars axlavs wamebis iaraRebi (maxvili, Rrubeli)
da asomTavruli warwera - `i(es)À q(rist)e Zleva~. jvris orive mxaresETiTo serafimia pro-
filiT - ukan `gaqneuli~ frTebiTa da, Tayvaniscemis niSnad, jvrisken midrekili TavebiT.
golgoTaze adamis Tavisqala da oTxi Zvalia.
centralur scenas Sinaarsobrivad ukavSirdeba wiTeli feris atlasze, grafikulad Ses-
rulebul rombula badeebSi Cawerili qerubim-serafimTa gamosaxulebebi. meored mosvlis
Jams `gamoCndebian dasni angelozTani da ganewyobian mTavarangelozni, qerubimni, se-
rafimni da mravalricxovani Zalni SehRaRadeben: wm. ars, wm. ars, wm. ars ufali RmerTi,
yovlisa mpyrobeli, romeli iyo da romeli ars da romeli marad ars~ [efrem asuri. 1991:

2 sxm/n # 1441, 2882, 3682. enqerebi daculia Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumSi.
3 sxm/n # 3784.

4 margalitis simbolika mravalSriania: igia kosmosuri sicocxlisa da RvTiurobis mistikur-relig-


iuri cnobiereba, mxsneli macxovari, uflis sityva, aseve simboloa `qalwulis Sobisa~. `Zvirfasi margaliti~
adamianis wyalSi sanaTlavad `STaflvis~ gamoxatulebaa... fiqrobdnen, rom margaliti maSin iSva, roca
moluskian niJaras elvam dahkra da moxda ori stiqiis – wylisa da cecxlis SeerTeba, orive maTgani ki nayofis
momcemi Zalaa da arseboben Sobisa da ganaxlebisaTvis [Cooper F. 1986: 136].

12
76-84]. nemsmxatvrobiT xilulad warmoCenil efrem asuris am sityvebSi, saRmrTo litur-
giis paralelurad, gacxadebulia `uflis didebisa~ da `meored mosvlis~ idea.
centralur kompozicias irgvliv Semosdevs qarTul-berZnuli identuri Sinaarsis
warwerebi, romelTac CarCoze or-ori gverdi aqvT daTmobili [margiSvili r. 2003: 85]5. te-
qsti Seicavs fragments 91-e fsalmunis pirveli muxlidan. qarTul warweras, gansxvavebiT
berZnulisagan, amTavrebs TariRi - 1667 weli. gankveTilobis niSania sami wertili6:
u:. sufevs:. Sveniereba:. Seimosa:. Seimosa:. un:. Zali:. da:. gare :. Seirtya:. qki :. Sqiz:.
(sic).
`u(fali) sufevs Sveniereba Seimosa, Seimosa u(falma)n Zali da gare Seirtya q(oroni)
k(on)i Sqiz~ (sic).7
zemoxsnebuli teqsti fragmentia im locvisa, romelsac, ioane oqropiris li-
turgiis Tanaxmad, mRvdeli warmoTqvams Jamiswirvisas, rodesac feSxumze moTavsebul
wminda ZRvens afarebs pereqels.
`msxverpli fF eSxumze~ - am ikonografiuli scenis Camoyalibeba da damkvidreba qristianul
ikonografiaSi, gadmocemis Tanaxmad, gamoiwvia faqtma, romelic aRwerilia liturgisti
mamis – basili didis apokriful cxovrebaSi, sadac moTxrobilia, Tu rogor gaqristianda
`vinme ebraeli~, roca man liturgiis dros ixila mRvdeli, romelic SubiT gmiravda saocari
silamazis yrmas. aRniSnuli scena, saxelwodebiT - `wm. basilis liturgia~ (sur. 8), gamosaxu-
lia XV s-is feSxumis pereqelze (51X52,5 sm.), romelic daculia kremlis muzeumSi [Маясова
Н. 1984: 409]. oqrosferi atlasis dedaareze amoqargulia erTmaneTze gadawnuli xuTi
medalioni. centralur medalionSi gamosaxulia trapezi feSxumiTa da barZimiT. trape-
zTan marcxniv dgas liturgisti mama - basili didi, mTeli taniT, odnav dadrekili TaviT,
romelsac samosiT dafarul marcxena xelSi yrma macxovari uWiravs, marjvenaSi ki - laxvari.
gverdiT medalionebSi gamosaxulni arian diakvnis samosiT mosili liturgiaSi monawile
mTavarangelozebi – miqaeli da gabrieli samweroblebiT xelSi, zeda da qveda medalioneb-
Si ki wminda mamebi - nikoloz saswaulTmoqmedi da ioane oqropiri centrisaken mimarTuli
TavebiTa da makurTxeveli marjveniT, marcxenaSi – daxuruli wigniT. medalionTa Soris,
kuTxeebSi, erTmaneTis sapirispirod dganan mociqulebi: wm. petre gragniliT, wm. pavle –
wigniT. aqve arian arqidiakvnebi - stefane da filipe sacecxlurebiT, TavebiT wrisaken. maT
zemoT qerubimebi da serafimebia. yvela pirovnebis aRmniSvneli warweriTaa. zemoaRweril
dafarnaze azrobrivad da kompoziciurad gansakuTrebuli da gamorCeuli adgili basili
didis figuras uWiravs, romelsac xelT gasakveTad gamzadebuli yrma macxovari upyria. mis
irgvliv ganTavsebuli yvela sxva personaJi am ZiriTadis xazgasmas emsaxureba.
aRniSnuli dafarnis mkvlevari n. maiasova aRniSnavs, rom siuJetis sworad gansazRvri-
saTvis mas daexmara novgorodis arqiepiskopos genadis mier suzdalis episkopos nafon-

5 berZnuli warwerebis Targmani r. margiSvilisa.


6 AgankveTilobis niSnad sami wertilis gamoyeneba freskul mxatvrobaSi XII s-is damlevidanaa dafiqsire-
buli, rogoricaa varZiis taZarSi istoriul pirTa aRmniSvneli warwerebi, xelnawerebSi ki pirvelad gvxvdeba
aleqsandre mefis 1428 wliT daTariRebul sigelSi, asevea mariamiseul `qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da mogviano xa-
nis TiTqmis yvela xelnaweri, xolo XVI s-dan sityvaTa gayofa sami wertiliT ukve savsebiT damkvidrebulia
[amiranaSvili S. 1961: 66]. rac Seexeba naqargobas, sityvaTa gamijvna sami wertiliT pirvelad erTiani saqarT-
velos ukanaskneli mefe giorgi VIII–is (1446-1466 ww.) gardamoxsnaze Segvxvda.
7 qoronikonSi `S~-s nacvlad unda iyos `C~. analogiur Secdomas aqvs adgili sof. xotevis (raWa) daax-
loebiT amave periodis macxovris saxelobis eklesiis interieris saamSeneblo warweraSi, sadac `C~-s nacvlad
`S~ weria [kacitaZe d. 1983: 58]. Aamgvari Secdomis analogiuroba badebs azrs, rom, SesaZlebelia, qoronikonis
damweri erTi da igive pirovnebaa.

13
tenisadmi gagzavnili werili, sadac igi novgorodel eretikosebs bralad sdebda Semdegs:
“А зде се обретох икону у Спаса на Ильине улици - Преображение з деянием, ино в праздницех
обрезание написано – стоит Василие Кисарийский, да у Спаса руку да ногу отрезал, а на подписи
написано: Обрезание господа нашего Иисуса Христа” [Маясова Н. 1984: 410].
An. Mmaiasova zemoaRweril werilTan dakavSirebiT gvTavazobs g. Ppopovisa da n. Gგoleizovskis
mosazrebebs, rom gamosaxulebaze, romlis winaaRmdegac gailaSqra novgorodis arqiepis-
koposma, saqme gvaqvs ara eresul-mwvaleblur SexedulebasTan, rogorc es novgorodis ar-
qiepiskopos genadisa da misi Tvalsazrisis gamziarebel mkvlevrebs hgoniaT, aramed ru-
seTSi iSviaT, magram balkaneTSi sakmaod cnobilsa da gavrcelebul kompoziciasTan, ro-
goricaa `basili didis msaxureba~, sadac evqaristiuli aqti – qristes sxeulTan ziareba
- dayvanilia ukidures materializmamde da aq gamosaxulia ara ebraelTa veragoba, aramed,
piriqiT, am xalxis mimarT uazro, cilismwamebluri polemikis uaryofis mcdeloba. XV s-is
dasasruls, roca dasavleTSi mwvave brZola gaCaRda ebraelTa winaaRmdeg, am siuJets iy-
enebdnen rogorc antieretikuls, rac RmerTis gankacebis ideasa da qristianuli rwmenis
ganmtkicebas emsaxureba. rogorc Cans, arqiepiskoposi genadi, romelic winaaRmdegi iyo
qristianul ikonografiaSi yovelgvari siaxlisa, SecdomaSi Seiyvana dafarnaze arsebuli
gamosaxulebis iSviaTobam, Tumca igi `evqaristiis saswaulis~ savsebiT kanonikuri mxat-
vruli interpretaciaa da igi unda miviCnioT samociqulo eklesiis damkvidrebis demon-
strirebad da eretikosebis winaaRmdeg mimarTul aqtad. qarTul dafarnebze analogi-
uri siuJeti arsad Segvxvedria. igi rusuli qargulobisTvisac ki iSviaTia, rogorc amas
samarTlianad SeniSnavs statiis avtori - n. Mmaiasova [Маясова Н. 1984: 405].
qarTul naqargobaSi `mamaTa msaxurebis~ mxolod erTi SemTxvevaa gamovlenili, isic ze-
moaRwerilisagan gansxvavebuli. esaa 1710 wliT daTariRebuli sabuxarTa wyvili daviT
garejidan [meliqiSvili i. 2000: 104]. erT sabuxarze gamosaxulia liturgisti mama - wm.
basili samkveTlos win gaSlili wigniT xelSi (sur. 9). samkveTloze, kamarian feSxumze dab-
rZanebulia `msxverpli~ yrmis saxiT - miniSneba `xorciT ziarebaze~, Mmeore sabuxarze wm.
ioane oqropiric samkveTlosTanaa (sur. 10), Mmasac xelSi yrmisaken mimarTuli gaSlili
wigni uWiravs. samkveTloze `msxverpli~ jvarze gakruli macxovris saxiTaa warmodgeni-
li. misi ferdidan or nakadad gadmomavali sisxli Caedineba maRalfexian barZimSi - miniS-
neba `sisxliT ziarebaze.~ amdenad, sabuxarTa am wyvilze warmodgenilia liturgiis damd-
geneli mamebis - wm. Bbasilisa da wm. ioane oqropiris msaxureba. rac Seexeba `msxverplisa~
da `msxverplis Tayvaniscemis~ siuJetebs, mciredi gansxvavebebiT, saqarTveloSi sakmaod
gavrcelebulia. Ggvxvdeba: bugeulis (XVI s,), gelaTis (XVI s.), axali SuamTis (XVI s.), gremis
(XVI s.) moxatulobebSi. aman gavlena iqonia naqargobazec da XVII s-dan dafarnaTa saxism-
etyvelebaSi wamyvani adgili daimkvidra. aRniSnuli Tema sakmaod xSirad gvxvdeba rogorc
qarTul, ise sxva marTlmadidebeli qveynebis pereqelebze.
nikorwmindis barZimis pereqelzedac `msxverpli~ da `msxverplis Tayvaniscemaa~ warmod-
genili. naqargoba oqrosfer atlaszea ganTavsebuli (41x39,3 sm)8. Kkompozicia aqac diago-
naluradaa agebuliA(sur. 2). kompoziciuri da azrobrivi centria `sisxliT ziarebaze~ mi-
maniSnebeli wminda WurWeli – oqros TmiT mosiTvuli, mdidrulad gaformebuli barZimi
da masSi myofi Cvili macxovari9. barZimi `sagangebodaa gamoWedili~ da dekoratiulad ga-

8 sxm/n # 3844; Kkompleqtebi, tradiciulad, erTi saxeobisa da feris qsoviliT ikereboda. feSxumis
pereqelis cisferi atlasi feriT gansxvavebulia kompleqtis sxva nimuSebisagan, rac mqargvelma gamiznulad,
garkveuli dafaruli azris, kerZod, `meored mosvlis~, warmosaCenad gamoiyena.
9 barZimi (berZ. potir), feSxumis analogiurad, warmomavlobiT saidumlo serobasTanaa dakavSirebuli.
igi is WurWelia, romelic qristem mowafeebs miawoda sityvebiT: `suT amisagan yovelTa, ese ars sisxli Cemi~
[maTe 26:27-28; markoz 14,:23; luka 22:20]. barZimi simboloa qristes gaxvretili neknisa, saidanac warmodinda

14
formebuli. misi `wiaRi~ morTulia jvars mimsgavsebuli oTxfurcla yvaviliT. arsebuli
masalis mixedviT, barZimis pirveli gamosaxuleba qarTul mxatvrul qargulobaSi kacxis
sabuxarebze (XII s-is bolo, XIII s-is dasawy.) warmodgenil `ziarebis~ kompoziciaSia damowme-
buli [meliqiSvili i. 1995: 55]. dafarnebze ki igi pirvelad winamdebare pereqelze Segvxvda. DA
barZimSi myof msxverpls orive xeli kurTxevad aqvs ganpyrobili, mosavs
oqros TmiT mosiTvuli kvarTi da himationi10. saxe da qsoviliT daufaravi xelebi pirisfe-
ri zeziTaa moqarguli, Tma da saxis nakvTebi - yavisferi abreSumiT, tuCebi miniSnebulia
wiTeli abreSumis ZafiT.
macxovris amqveynad xorcielad movlinebis saxeba xazgasmulia barZimze gamosaxuli yva-
viliT. ioane sabanisZe, saxarebis Tanaxmad, qristes yvavils uwodebs: `rameTu Ziridan ie-
suisa yvavilad aRmoscenda, eklesiisa wmidisa qalwulisa mariamisagan xorcielad, xolo
sulnelebiTa RmrTeebisa¡Ta suli igi madlisa¡ mohfina Cven zeda~11.
centraluri gamosaxulebis irgvliv ganawilebulia frontalurad warmodgeni-
li mTavarangelozebi TaviT macxovrisaken, romelTac axlavT pirovnebis aRmniSvneli be-
Znul-qarTuli (asomTavruli) warwerebi:
m~xil gab~l raf~l uri~l
`m(i)x(a)il, gab(rie)l, raf(ae)l, uri(e)l~
angelozebs mosavT oqrosa da vercxlis TmiT mosiTvuli loratuli sakosebi da xelT la-
barumebi uWiravT. moCarCoebis rols aqac kilouris teqnikiT moqarguli berZnul-qarTuli
(asomTavruli) warwera asrulebs, ganTavsebuli cisferi zeziT mosiTvul miwarze:

dafarna :. cani :. Svenierebaman:. Senman:. d:. qebiTa:. misiTa:. aRivso:. qveyana:. qki :.
Sqiz (sic).
`dafarna cani Svenierebaman Senman d(a) qebiTa misiTa aRivso qveyana. q(oroni)k(on)i
Sqiz~ (sic).
E s gaxlavT nawyveti locvisa, romelsac RmrTis msaxuri warmoTqvams pereqeliT barZimis
e
daburvis dros. teqsti Seicavs nawyvets ambakumis winaswarmetyvelebidan [ambakum 3:3].
berZnul-qarTuli warwera SinaarsiT emTxveva erTmaneTs, mxolod qarTulSi aqac naqargo-
bis Seqmnis TariRia (1667 w.) damatebuli.
saxviT xelovnebaSi mTavarangeloz miqaels xSirad maxviliTa da fariT gamosaxaven. aris
SemTxvevebi, roca javSniT Semosili mTavarangelozi SubiT gmiravs gveleSaps, rac boro-
tisa da keTilis maradiul brZolaze miuTiTebs. mis farze gamosaxul samkuTxedSi Caxatu-
li Tvali ki wminda samebis yovlismxilvel Tvals aRniSnavs.

sisxli da wyali. masSi ziarebisTvis gankuTvnili wyliT ganzavebuli Rvino macxovris sisxlad gardaiqmneba.
barZimsac feSxumis analogiuri simboluri datvirTva aqvs. barZimis sadgami, SeerTebuli `wiaRTan,~ macxovris
orbunebovnebis gaerTianebas aRniSnavs. qveda nawili macxovris miwieri, adamianuri bunebaa, zeda _ RvTiuri.
igi aseve Seesatyviseba qristianul eklesiaSi zeciurisa da miwieri yofis gaerTianebas, mWidrod dakavSire-
buls erTmaneTTan, magram ara Sereuls [Настольная книга священнослужителя. 1983 : 88].
10
analogiuri ikonografia gvxvdeba berZnuli da balkanuri barZimebis pereqelebze. erT-erTi maTgania 1659
wliT daTariRebuli pereqeli, romelzedac barZimSi myofi yrma samosiTaa, gansxvavebiT rusuli Zeglebisagan,
sadac macxovari yovelTvis Seumosavia. [Катасонова Е. 2007:11].
11 Zveli qarTuli agiografiuli literaturis Zeglebi. t. I. gv. 53.

15
mTavarangelozi gabrieli, dideba da simtkice uflisa, keTili macnea da xarebis mTava-
rangelozi. igi adamianebs rwmenas ganumtkicebs da uxsnis RvTis gangebis saidumlos. `xa-
rebis~ scenaSi es angelozi xSirad TeTri SroSanebiT gamoisaxeba, zogjer - palmis rtoTi
xelSi. SroSani keTili uwyebis, siwmindisa da qalwulobis, ubiwod Casaxvis simboloa, pal-
mis rto ki - codvebsa da xorciel vnebebze gamarjvebisa.
mesame mTavarangeloz rafaels adamis modgmasTan moaqvs zeciuri, RvTaebrivi kurnebani.
amitom xSirad gamoisaxeba TasiT, romelic RvTis wyalobaTa da kurnebaTa WurWelia.
meoTxe angelozi urieli, igive cecxlovani angelozi, gamoisaxeba cecxlovani maxviliT.
igia RvTismetyvelTa da monazonTa mfarveli, Tavisi naTliT adamianebs gonebas unaTebs,
Seacnobinebs RmerTsa da wminda werils, mfarvelobs monanul codvilebs.
nikorwmindis pereqelze ki angelozebi cota sxvagvarad arian gamosaxulni. gabrielsa da
miqaels marjvena xelSi oTxfurcla yvavilis formis labarumebi uWiravT, marcxena ki
zemoT aqvT aRmarTuli, niSnad uflis sityvis miReba-aRsrulebisa. rafaelsa da uriel-
sac marjvenaSi analogiuri formis labarumebi uWiravT, mkerdTan mitanil marcxenaSi ki
- mrgvali, sferosmagvari sagani yovelgvari gamosaxulebis gareSe. Tanaxmad Zveli ikono-
grafiuli tradiciisa, bizantiur, qarTulsa da rusul xelovnebaSi sferoze, rogorc
samyaros simboloze, gamoisaxeboda `golgoTis jvari~ sqematuri saxiT, xolo dasavleT
evropis qveynebis qristianuli xelovnebis nimuSebze angelozebs xelSi eWiraT mrgvali
sferoebi `uflis beWdis~ gareSe, e. w. sarkeebi, romelTa saSualebiT SeeZloT daenaxaT da
amoekiTxaT uxilavad dawerili brZanebani uflisa (rusi mkvlevari n. maiasova `uflis be-
Wdian~ sferosac sarkes uwodebs) [Маясова Н. 1971: 35]. Tqmulebam sarkeebis jadosnuri
Zalis Sesaxeb, romlis saSualebiT farda exdeboda momavals, uZvelesi droidan Sua sau-
kuneebamde moaRwia [amiranaSvili S. 1971: 250]. es ki aisaxa am periodis raWul Zeglebze, ro-
gorebicaa xonWioris RvTismSoblis xati,12 nikorwmindis CrdiloeT timpanze gamosaxuli
mTavarangelozebi [amiranaSvili S. 1971: 250-251], da naqargobis winamdebare nimuSi. amde-
nad, dasavleT evropis xelovnebis gavleniT, pereqelze gamosaxul angelozebs xelSi sar-
keebi uWiravT, romelTa saSualebiT unda enaxaT da amoekiTxaT uxilavad dawerili brZan-
ebani uflisa da ganeWvritaT momavali.
caÁze anu did dafarnaze naqargoba oqrosfer atlaszea Sesrulebuli13. aqac scenis ageba
mkacri da gawonasworebulia. centralur RerZze Saravandmosili emanuelis naxevarfigu-
ra oTxsxivian mrgval mandorlaSia gamosaxuli. .`msxverpli~ frTebgaSlili, frontalu-
ri angelozis saxiTaa, ganze gaziduli makurTxeveli xelebiT, mosavs oqrosferi, farTo
saxeloebiani kvarTi. Ggamosaxulebas axlavs asomTavruli daqaragmeba ieso qristes sax-
elisa: i~e q~e. misken mimarTuli diakvnis samosiT mosili mTavarangelozebi - miqaeli da
gabrieli Tanabari manZiliT arian macxovrisgan daSorebuli, xelSi qristesaken mimarTu-
li samweroblebi uWiravT samwmindaobis warweriT, rac xazs usvams da aTvalsaCinoebs maTs
rols saerTo saxismetyvelebiT programaSi rogorc saRmrTo liturgiaSi monawileTa da
zeciur saRmrTo msxverplSewirvis aRmasrulebelTa.
centraluri scenis irgvliv, kuTxeebTan, mrgval medalionebSi maxarebelTa simboloebia
ganawilebuli: zeda mxares maTesa (angelozi) da ioanes (arwivi) gamosaxulebebia amoqar-
guli, qvemoT – markozisa (lomi) da lukasi (xari), romelTac `Zvirfasi qvebiT mooWvili~
saxarebebi macxovrisaken mowiwebisa da Tayvaniscemis niSnad aqvT mimarTuli.
maxarebelTa simboloebiT gamosaxvas safuZvlad winaswarmetyvel ezekielis xilva [1-10]

12 eqvTime TayaiSvili sferoebs ratomRac burTebs uwodebs [TayaiSvili eq. 1963: 31, 53].

13 sxm/n # 3845 zoma: 62x43,2 sm

16
da ioane RvTismetyvelis `gamocxadeba~ [4-7] daedo. `eklesiis mamebma isini gaiazres axal
aRTqmasTan kavSirSi, Seusabames calkeul maxarebels da Tavidanve saxarebas daukavSires.
Llomi gamoxatavda saxarebis samefo (sameufo) koncefcias, xari mis ieratiul aspeqts us-
vamda xazs, angelozi – adamians mimsgavsebuli simbolo - gankacebul logoss gamoxatavda,
xolo arwivi – suliwmindis warmomavlobas~ [qavTaria n. 2007: 66-67]. TumcaRa, dafarnaze
maxarebelTa amgvar gamosaxulebebs damatebiT sxva simboluri mniSvnelobac aqvT: isini,
rogorc apokalifsuri cxovelebi, `meored mosvlis~ mauwyeblebi da monawileni arian.
macxovari angelozis saxiT ikonografiaSi cnobilia `didisa zraxvisa angelozis~ an `di-
disa ganzraxvisa angelozis~ saxeliT, romelsac Zveli aRTqmis teqstebSi uwodeben `gza-
vnils~, rac berZnulad `angelozs~ niSnavs, magram saxelwodeba `angelozi~ misi msaxurebis
aRmniSvnelia da ara bunebis. [Успенский Л. 1997: 360-361]. igi winasaxea macxovrisa, igive lo-
gosi gankacebamde, samebaSi uflis ganzraxvis ganmcxadebeli [xuskivaZe i. 2005: 281-282].
angelozis saxiT macxovris gamosaxva emyareba wm. esaiasa da malaqias winaswarmetyvelebas:
`rameTu yrma iSva Cuenda Ze, da mogueca Cuen, romlisa mTavroba¡iqmna mxarsa
zeda missa da rqvan saxeli misi – didisa ganzraxvisa angelozi, sakvirveli Tanaganmzraxi,
RmerTi Zlieri, xelmwife, mTavari mSvidobisa, mama mermeTa saukunosa~ [esaia 9:6].
`aha, gamovavlino angelozi Cemi da moixilos gza¡ pirisa Cemisa¡ da meysa Sina movides taZ-
rad Tvissa ufali, romelsa Tquen eZiebT da angelozi aRTqmisa¡, romeli Tqven gnebavsye.
aha, movals, - ityvis ufali yovlisa mpyrobeli~ [malaqia 3:1].
saeklesio naqargobaSi macxovris analogiuri gamosaxuleba iSviaTad Segvxvedria. moZie-
buli masalis mixedviT sul ramdenime magaliTis moxmobaa SesaZlebeli. aseTia stavro-
nikitas monastris (aToni) XVI s-is epitraqili da enqeri (XVIII s.) patmosidan [Patmos. Treasures
of the Monastery 1988: 197]. qarTul naqargobaSi aRniSnuli gamosaxuleba mxolod dafarneb-
ze Segvxvda. erTi maTgani zugdidis dadianebis sasaxleTa istoriul-arqiteqturul mu-
zeumSia daculi, ori ki – saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis
xelovnebis muzeumSi14.
`didisa zraxvisa angelozis~ ikonografiuli saxe uSualod ukavSirdeba moqmed litur-
gias. kerZod, liturgiis pirvel nawilSi, kveTis dros, barZim-feSxumze didi dafarnis
mesamed daburvisas mRvdeli aRavlens saidumlo locvas, romlis pirvel nawilSi moce-
mul fsalmunis sityvebSi - `safarvelsa frTeTa SenTasa damifare me~ [fs. 16:8], liturgiis
Semswavlel TeologTa azriT, swored macxovari - `didisa zraxvisa angelozis~ saxea gaa-
zrebuli~ [CixlaZe n. 2002: 118-125], rac srulad esadageba dafarnis, rogorc liturgiaSi
uSualod monawilis, saxismetyvelebiT arss. amitom, sruliad bunebrivia, locvis swored
es sityvebi (qarTulsa da berZnul enaze) aCarCoebdes winamdebare dafarnas:
amire Cn Ro safarveliTa frTeTa SeniTa Cngan raden yni mterni da mbrZlni
daamSvide cxoreba Cni ui .
`(d)ami(fa)re C(ue)n R(merT)o safarveliTa frTeTa SeniTa C(ue)ngan ra(o)den y(ovel)ni
mterni da mbrZ(o)lni daamSvide cxoreba C(ue)ni u(fal)i~.
teqstis bolo nawili - `ba Cni ui~ moCarCoebidan gadadis kompoziciis centralur nawi-
lSi `didi zraxvis Aangelozis~ TavTan. iqmneba STabeWdileba, rom ase mqargveli gamiznu-
lad moiqca, riTac (qaragmebis gaxsniT) macxovris sxva saxeli mianiSna: `ba(toni) C(ue)ni
u(fal)i.~ amis Tqmis uflebas gvaZlevs winadadebis bolo sityvis uCveulo forma, wodebi-
Tis nacvlad naxmaria saxelobiTi brunva.

14 sxm/n # 1415, 2222,.

17
amdenad, dafarnaTa kompleqtis mqargveli, simbolikis paralelurad, ostaturad iyenebs
kompoziciursa da dekoratiul xerxebs mTavaris, dafarulis warmosaCenad. samive nimuS-
ze `msxverplis Tema~ Serwymulia `uflis didebisTan~. RmerTSemosili gonieri arsebebi
qebas asxamen `saTayvanebel, yovelgvar qebaze aRmatebul da yovladsaqebel RmerTs~: `ga-
nicadeT da ixileT, qriste ars ufali, romeli CvenTvis msgavs Cvenda, qmnili movida da
kvalad momaval ars da erT gzis Tavi Tvisi Seswira, viTarca msxverpli Tvisisa mamisa
da maradis daikvlis ganwmendad mimRebTa misTa~.15
ciur ZalTa amdagvari ganawilebiTa da samwmindaobis sagalobliT mqargvelma gaaerTi-
ana saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi dafarnebisaTvis SemuSaebuli Teologiurad ucvleli iko-
nografiuli Temebi: `ziareba~, `wm. Mmsxverplis dideba~ da `meored mosvla~. samwmindaobis
sagalobeli esqatologiur mniSvnelobas aniWebs scenas da gamoxatavs kavSirs `ziarebis~
saidumloebasTan, xolo qerubim-serafimebi da mTavarangelozebi gansazRvraven scenis
Teofaniur xasiaTs da gamoxataven kavSirs rogorc saRmrTo liturgiasTan, aseve `gankiTx-
vis dRis~ saRmrTo ganzraxvasTan [Протоиерей Серафим Слободский. 1987: 656], rac feSxumze
warmodgenili `zecad gamoCinebuli~ cisferi jvriTaa gamyarebuli, rogorc miniSneba gan-
kiTxvis dRes misi gamocxadebis erT-erT pirvel niSanze.
ostatma uamrav teqnikur saxeebTagan ZiriTadad `Tevzifxuri~ da `sada siTvi~ SearCia da
figurebi ureliefo siTviT, e.w. `moyinuliT~ moqarga, masalad ki
oqrosa da vercxlis uwvrilesi Tma gamoiyena, rac sakmaod Sromatevadia da mqargvelisagan
did daxelovnebasa da sifaqizes moiTxovs, magram, sanacvlod, sinatife da momxibvlelo-
ba SesZina naqargobas. Kkoloriti, ZiriTadad, oqrosferia. mxolod feSxumis pereqelis mi-
waria cisferi, isic, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, garkveuli dafaruli azris gadmosacemad.
`feri mxatvruli enis umniSvnelovanesi komponentia, romlis mxatvrul-saxviTi da sim-
boluri mniSvneloba ganuyofelia. yovel konkretul nawarmoebSi ferTa SerCevisa da
maTi dakavSirebis wesi swored maT simbolur gaazrebazea dafuZnebuli. sazeimo xasiaTis
oqrosferi da vercxlisferi Tavisi arsiT RvTaebrivi naTlis ideiT aerTianebs warmod-
genil gamosaxulebebs rogorc mxatvrulad da azrobrivad, aseve simbolurad da siuJets
maradiul, uJamo xasiaTs sZens da `saRmrTo liturgiis~ paralelurad pirdapir mianiSnebs
wmindanTa sauflos, zeciur ierusalims (gamocx. 21:18). feris meSveobiTaa gansazRvruli
warmodgenili saxismetyvelebiTi programis ideuri mimarTuleba~ [didebuliZe m. 2007: 79].
Nnaqargobis warmodgenil nimuSebze naTladaa asaxuli gviani Sua saukuneebis qarTuli
xelovnebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli stiluri niSnebi: figurebi moklebulia plastikuro-
bas, naxati mSralia da sqematuri, pozasa da moZraobaSi igrZnoba pirobiToba. figuraTa
varcxniloba yavisferi abreSumis ZafiT martivad, paraleluri xazebiTaa gadawyvetili,
tuCebi ki ori mcire zomis wiTeli ZafiTaa miniSnebuli. figurebi brtyeli da gamomsax-
velobas moklebulia, samosic sqematuri, naoWebi umTavresad swori, paralelurad gavle-
buli xazebiTaa gadmocemuli, romlebic mxolod sxeulis zogad formebs asaxavs. ferTa
SezRudulobisa da qargvis teqnikuri xerxebis simciris miuxedavad, nikorwmindis dafar-
nebi mxatvruli RirsebebiT, daxvewilobiTa da ufaqizesi ostatobiT Seqmnili araCveule-
brivad mdidruli nawarmoebia, romelic mxatvruli TvalsazrisiTac, udavod gamorCeuli
da daxvewilia. Sesrulebis maRali done mJRavndeba rogorc mTeli kompoziciis organize-
baSi, ise calkeuli detalis damuSavebaSi.
Aamdenad, nikorwmindis dafarnaTa saxismetyvelebiTi programis ganxilva cxadyofs, rom
sagangebod SerCeuli yvela figura Tu detali garkveuli ideis matarebelia. azrobrivad

15 locvebi ziarebis win. galoba, T. sZlispiri.

18
da ikonografiulad wina planze liturgiuli samsaxuris misteriuli gaazrebaa wamoweu-
li. kompoziciur gadawyvetasa da gaformebaSi Cans ostatis SemoqmedebiTi midgoma epoqis
mxatvruli moTxovnebisa da qargulobis tradiciebis mimarT. maTi saxiT ostatma Seqmna
erT ideas damorCilebuli, erTiani saxismetyvelebiTi programis mqone nawarmoebi, rom-
lis winaswargansazRvruli da mizandasaxuli Sinaarsobrivi erTianoba liturgiuli war-
werebiTaa damowmebuli.

Gulnaz Baratashvili
Georgian National Museum Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of Fine Arts
The Set of Aers (communion chalice cloth) from Nikortsminda

The set of Aers from Nikortsminda deserves exceptional attention amongst the rich collections of embroidery
objects housed in Georgian National Museum Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of Fine Arts. Distinguished with
artistic qualities, refined technique and elaborate craftsmanship, these artorks exhibit both deep theological
thought and decorative treatment.
All these three pieces bear liturgical themes unified by the concept of the “Victim” and “Lord’s Glory of Christ”
presented by diverse artistic nuances. Surounded by angels, the “Sacred Victim” is rendered in accordance of
traditional iconography: on one piece his image is shown on paten while on another is depicted seated in cha-
lice, and the third, large one represents him as an “Angel of Great Council“ .
The depiction of the „Victim“ as well as of sacred vessels – paten and chalice implies the liturgy performed in
the temple and indicates the Eucharist mystery, a theme being so actual for Aers’ paradigmal program. The
precious metal threads, gold and silver hair and bullion have been used as embroidery materials.

bibliografia
amiranaSvili S. 1961: SoTa rusTavelis portreti ierusalimis j
­ vris monasterSi. Tbilisi.
amiranaSvili S. 1971: qarTuli xelovnebis istoria. Tbilisi.
boWoriZe g. 1994: raWa-leCxumis istoriuli Zeglebi da siZveleebi. Tbilisi.
didebuliZe m. 2007: yincvisis wm. nikolozis taZris XIII s-is damdegis moxatulobis fe-
radovneba. saqarTvelos siZveleni. # 11. Ggv. 78-104. Tbilisi. (red-ebi: n. vaCeiSvili, i.
xuskivaZe)
dionise areopageli. 1983: ciuri ierarqiis Sesaxeb. saRvTismetyvelo krebuli. t. 3. Tbilisi.
efrem asuri. 1991: sityva sayovelTao aRdgomaze, sinanulsa da siyvarulze da uflisa
Cvenisa ieso qristes mosvlaze. sityva marTlisa sarwmunoebisa. t. II. Tbilisi.
efrem asuri. 1991: sityva uflis mosvlisaTvis soflis aRsasrulisa antiqristes gamoCe-
nisaTvis. sityva marTlisa sarwmunoebisa. t. III. Tbilisi.
TayaiSvili eq. 1963: arqeologiuri mogzauroba raWaSi. Tbilisi.
kacitaZe d. 1983: sofel xotevis istoriidan. Zeglis megobari. # 62. Tbilisi. kekeliZe k.
1986: Eetiudebi Zveli qarTuli literaturis istoriidan. XIV. Tb.
margiSvili r. 2003: saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumSi daculi enqerebisa da dafarnebis ber-
Znuli warwerebi. narkvevebi. t. VIII. Tbilisi. gv. 78-91. (red-ebi: n. lomouri, g. marsagiSvili).

19
meliqiSvili i. 1995: naqargobis uZvelesi nimuSi kacxidan. narkvevebi. t. I. Tbilisi. Ggv. 27-
36. (red-ebi: n. Llomouri, g. yifiani).
meliqiSvili i. 2000: sabuxarTa wyvili daviT garejis udabnos ioane naTlismcemlis mo-
nastridan. narkvevebi. t. VI. Tbilisi. Ggv. 104-110. (red-ebi: n. Llomouri, g. marsagiSvili).
saeklesio leqsikoni. 2008: Tbilisi.
qavTaria n. 2007: gelaTis oTxTavi. G saqarTvelos siZveleni. # 11. Ggv. 59-71. Tbilisi.
CixlaZe n. 2002: macxovari - `didisa zraxvisa angelozis~ gamosaxulebebi qarTul xelovne-
baSi. iv. javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo unuversitetis xelovnebis isto-
riisa da Teoriis kaTedris samecniero Sromebis krebuli (xelovnebaTmcodneoba), # 3.
Tbilisi.
xuskivaZe i. 2005: xobis taZris XVII saukunis moxatuloba. saqarTvelos siZveleni. # 7-8.
Tbilisi.
Cooper F.G. 1986: Lexikon alter Symdole. Leipzig.
Катасонова Е.Ю. Материали к иконоиконорафии покровцов в лицевом шитье. `Убрус»” № 8, 2007.www.
ubrus. ru.
Маясова Н. А. 1971: Древнерусское шитье. Москва.
Маясова Н. А. 1984: Об одном редком изображении в шитье XV в. Памятники культури Новые открытия.
Ленинград.
Настольная книга священнослужителя. т. 4. Москва. 1983.
Протоиерей Серафим Слободский. 1987: Закон Божии. США.
Tchubinaschwili G. 1930: Georgische Kunst. Katalog der Ausstelung der deutschen Gesellschaft zum Studium
Osteuropas und des Volksbildungskommissariats der SSR Georgien in Berlin, Koln, Nurnberg, Munchen, Wien
im Ost-Europa-Verlag. Berlin.
Успенский Л.А. 1997: Богословие иконы православной церкви. Москва.
Patmos. 1988: Treasures of the Monastery. Athenon.
Schulz H.J. 1964: Die byzantinische Liturgie. Freiburg.

ilustraciebis aRweriloba
sur. 1. feSxumis pereqeli nikorwmindidan. 1667 w.
sur. 2. barZimis pereqeli nikorwmindidan. 1667 w.
sur. 3. dafarna (caÁ) nikorwmindidan. 1667 w.
sur. 4. enqeri qerubimis gamosaxulebiT. XVI s.
sur. 5. enqeri qerubimis gamosaxulebiT. XVII s.
sur. 6. enqeri qerubimis gamosaxulebiT. XVII s,
sur. 7. dafarna kompoziciiT - `meored mosvla~. XVII s.
sur. 8. dafarna kremlis muzeumidan. XV s.
sur. 9. sabuxari kompoziciiT - `wm. Bbasilis msaxureba~. 1710 w.
sur. 10. sabuxari kompoziciiT - `wm. ioane oqropiris msaxureba~. 1710 w.
20
sur. 1 Fig.

sur. 2 Fig.

21
sur. 3 Fig.

sur. 4 Fig.

22
sur. 5 Fig.

sur. 6 Fig.

23
sur. 7 Fig.

sur. 8 Fig.

24
sur. 9 Fig.

sur. 10 Fig.

25
xelovnebaTmcodneoba

lili beraia

dadianebis sasaxleTa istoriul-arqiteqturuli muzeumi


zviad gamsaxurdias gamziri 1, zugdidi, saqarTvelo
elfosta: beraialili@mail.ru

warweriani naqargobis nimuSebi dadianebis sasaxleTa


istoriul-arqiteqturuli muzeumidan

dadianebis sasaxleTa istoriul-arqiteqturuli muzeumis qsovilebisa da naqargobis


sacavSi daculia saeklesio daniSnulebis mxatvruli qargvis nimuSebi. mravali maTgani
yuradRebas ipyrobs mwyobrad agebuli kompoziciiT, maRali ostatobiT Sesrulebuli
ikonografiiT, saintereso istoriuli cnobebis Semcveli warwerebiT, gemovnebiT SerCeul
ferTa SexamebiTa da daxvewili teqnikiT.
es mniSvnelovani istoriuli da mxatvruli Rirebulebis mqone Zeglebi, ZiriTadad,
samegrelos mTavris, levan II dadianis, mTavrobis periodSia Seqmnili. rogorc cnobilia,
misi taxtze asvlis Semdeg samTavroSi, xelovnebis sxva dargebis paralelurad, mZlavrad
ganviTarda qarTuli oqromWedlobisa da qargvis xelovneba.
aA mjerad warmogidgenT saeklesio daniSnulebis qargulobis ramdenime nimuSs, romlebzedac
daculia kanonikuri da saqtitoro xasiaTis warwerebi. esenia: sabuxarebi, dafarna,
enqerebi da gardamoxsna, romelTa u
A mravlesoba moxseniebuli aqvs eq. TayaiSvils caiSisa da
walenjixis siZveleTa aRwerilobaSi [TayaiSvili eq. 1913-1914: 181-187, 236].
sabuxari sasuliero pirTa samosis detalia. aA qvs trapeciis forma, RvTismsaxurebis dros
ikeTeben majaze da ikraven or mxares dakerebul liTonis rgolebSi gayrili zonrebiT. misi
daniSnuleba fesvedi samosis damagrebaa, raTa sasuliero pirs gauadvildes RvTismsaxureba.
simbolurad ki is Tokia, riTac macxovars xelebi dauborkes.
sabuxarTa erT-erTi wyvili caiSidan (sur. ## 1,2.@qs. # 244-243) gamoqveynebulia xelovnebis
muzeumis `narkvevebSi~ i. meliqiSvilis mier [meliqiSvili i. 1996: 130].
sabuxarze `xarebis~ tradiciuli kompoziciaa gaSlili, mosiTvuli oqromkediTa da
vercxlmkediT. marcxena xelis sabuxarze warmodgenilia fexze mdgomi maxarebeli angelozis
– wm. gabrielis figura odnav gaSlili frTebiTa da win gadadgmuli nabijiT, marjvena xeli
kurTxevis niSnad win aqvs gawvdili, xolo Zirs daSvebul marcxena xelSi RvTismSoblisken
gawvdili yvavili uWiravs, romelic marjvena sabuxarze maRalzurgian taxtzea
dabrZanebuli. kompozicia gaSlilia arqiteqturuli nagebobis fonze. aqvea asimetriulad
ganlagebuli ,,varskvlava~ yvavilebi da orstriqoniani asomTavruli saqtitoro warwera,
romelic grZeldeba marjvena xelis sabuxarze.
a. mM arcxena xelis sabuxaris warwera:
Ⴜ: ႫႤ ႸႣ ႳႶႨႰႱႫႬ ႢႳႪႵႠႬႠႫ ႸႤႥႠႩႤႰႬႤ ႱႡႾႰႤႡႨ ႤႱႤ ႣႠ ႫႨႥႰႧႥႨ ႫႼႨႢႬႡႰႧ
ႳႾucesis
b. marjvena xelis sabuxaris warwera:

26
ႻႤႱ ႩႭႦႫႠႬႱ Ⴐ ႸႤႬႣႭႡႠ ႤႷႭႴႣႧ ႭႣႤႱ ႨႢႨ ႸႣႢႱ ႳႱႨႱႾႪႱႠ ႫႱႾႰႮႪႱႠ
,,w. me y(ovld uRirsm(a)n gulqanam Sevaker(vi)ne sabux(a)rebi ese da miv(a)rTvi mwign(o)
barT uxucesis Zes, kozmans, r(aTa) Sendoba eyofdeT, odes igi S(eu)dges usisxl(o)sa
msx(ve)rplsa.”
meore wyvil sabuxarzedac (sur. ## 3,4. qs. #242-245) `xarebis“ tradiciuli siuJetia
gamosaxuli. mM arcxena xelis sabuxarzec mTavarangelozi gabrielia warmodgenili, xolo
marjvenaze _ yovlad wminda RvTismSobeli. orives axlavs pirovnebis aRmniSvneli
asomTavruli warwerebi:
`g(a)briel~
`y(ovla)d w(mid)a~.O
sabuxarTa am wyvilze kanonikuri da saqtitoro asomTavruli warwera moCarCoebazea
ganawilebuli. zeda da qveda horizon-talur kideebze warwera SemorCenilia fragmentulad,
xolo vertikaluri gverdebi CamoWrilia. amitom am adgilebSi warweris wakiTxva SeuZlebelia
da, samwuxarod, CvenTvis ucnobi rCeba qtitoris vinaoba. am mdgomareobaSi unaxavs sabuxarTa
es wyvili eq. TayaiSvilsac XX s-is dasawyisSi [TayaiSvili eq. 1913-1914: 187].
gTavazobT warweris gadarCenil fragmentebs:
a. marcxena xelis sabuxaris warwera:
ႾႤႪႧႠ ႸႤႬႧႠ ႸႤႫႵႬႤႱ ႣႠ ႣႠ (ႫႡႠႣႤႱ)
ႼႭ: ႫႧႥႰႠႬႢႤႪႭႦႭ: ႫႤႭႾ ႤႷႠႥ
`xelTa SenTa Semqmnes da da[mbades] (G fs. 118-73)
`w (mida)o mT(a)v(a)rangelozo meox eyav~...… …
b.Mmarjvena xelis sabuxaris warwera:
ႫႠႰႿႥႤႬႠ ႸႤႬႨ: Ⴓ Ⴍ: ႣႨႣႤ(ႡႳႪ ႠႰႱ)
ႼႭ ႶႱ: ႫႸႭႡႤႪ Ⴍ ႫႤႾ ႤႷႠ
`marjvena Seni u(fal)o dide(bul ars)
w(mida)o R(mrTi)s mSobelo me(o)x eya(v)~...
warmodgenili sabuxarebi saxismetyvelebiTi da stiluri analiziT, saerTo mxatvruli
xasiaTiT XVII s-s ganekuTvneba.
XVII s-iTaa daTariRebuli amave muzeumis sacavSi arsebuli didi dafarna, anu caΩ (sur. 5),
romelic walenjixis eklesiidanaa [TayaiSvili eq. 1913-1914:236].
d
D afarna marTkuTxa formisaa. miwaris centrSi, Tormetsxivian mrgval medalionSi,
gamosaxulia Saravandmosili emanuelis naxevarfigura frTebgaSlili angelozis saxiT,
romelic ikonografiaSi cnobilia `didisa zraxvisa angelozis~ an `didisa ganzraxvisa
angelozis~ saxeliT. medalions Semosdevs erTstriqoniani asomTavruli warwera, romelic
dazianebulia da cudad ikiTxeba.
Ⴕ : ႱႨႡႰ Ⴛ ႬႤ ႶႠ ႫႭ Ⴅ Ⴃ ႦႤႺႨႧ ႱႨႲႷႥႠ ႻႪႨႤႰႨ ႣႠ ႾႤႪႫႼႨႴႤ ႣႠ ႣႨႣႨႱႠ ႦႰႠႾႥႨႱႠ Ⴀ
,,q. sibrZne R(mrTis)a mov(e)d zeciT, sityva Zlieri da xelmwife da didisa zraxvisa
a(min)’’...…
wris meoTxediT SemosazRvrul d D afarnis kuTxeebSi gamosaxulia qerubim-serafimTa
figurebi Tanmdevi samwmindaobis warweriT. aqedan sami asomTavrulia, erTi - berZnuli.

27
1. Ⴜ ႠႰႱ: Ⴜ ႠႰႱ: Ⴜ ႠႰႱ: ႳႴႠႪႨ
,,w(mida) ars, w(mida) ars, w(mida) ars ufali“.
2. Ⴜ ႠႰႱ: Ⴜ ႠႰႱ: Ⴜ ႠႰႱ: ႳႴႠႪႨ ႱႠႡႠႭ
,, w(mida) ars, w(mida) ars, w(mida) ars ufali sabao(T)“.
3. Ⴜ ႠႰႱ: Ⴜ ႠႰႱ,: Ⴜ ႠႰႱ: ႳႴႠႪႨ ႱႠႡႠႥ
,, w(mida) ars, w(mida) ars, w(mida) ars ufali sabav(oT)“.
4. meoTxe berZnuli warwera ki ase iTargmneba:
,,wmidao RmerTo, xeliTa ...winamZRvari“.1
dafarnas CarCod Semosdevs vercxlmkediT Sesrulebuli asomTavruli kanonikuri warwera.
aqvea moxsenebuli `juaris mama nikifore kaxi~. warwera mTlianad Zveli safuZvlianadaa
aWrili da gadatanili axal qsovilze:
ႣႠႫႨႴႠႰႤႬ ႹႬ ႶႭ, ႱႠႴႠႰႥႤႪႨႧႠ ႴႰႧႤႧႠ ႸႤႬႧႠႧႠ ႷႭႣႥႤ ႠႼ Ⴃ (ႫႠႰႠႣႨႱ) ႸႤႬႧႠႧႠ
ႼႠႰႣႤႥႬႬ ႹႥႤႬgႬ ႷႭႥႤႪႬႨ
ႫႲႤႰႬႨ ႣႠ ႫႡႰႻႭႪႬႨ ႹႬႬႨ ႣႠႫႸႥႨႣႤ ႺႾႭႰႤႡႠ ႹႬႨ ႣႠ ႱႭႴႤႪႨ ႣႠ ႠႺႾႭႥႬႤ ႱႳႪႬႨ ႹႬႨ ႥႠ
ႱႠႾႨႤႰႨ ႾႠႰ ႣႠ ႩႠႺႧႫႭႷႥႰႤ ႫႭႨႾႱႤႬႤ ႳႴႠႪႭ ႿႨႱ ႫႫႠ ႬႨႩႨႴႭႰႤ ႩႠႾႨ: ႱႱႳႴႤႥႤႪႱႠ ႸႬႱႠ
,,damifaren C(ue)n R(merT)o, safarveliTa frTeTa SenTaTa, yo(vla)dve aw d(a) maradis
SenTaTa war(s)devn(e)n C(ue)ngan yovelni mterni da mbrZolni C(ue)nni, da(a)mSvide
cxoreba C(ue)ni da sofeli da acxovne sulni C(ue)ni, v(iTarc)a saxieri xar da kacTmoyv(a)
re. moixsene ufalo, juaris m(a)ma nikifore kaxi s(a)sufevelsa Sensa“.2
dafarna moqarguli unda iyos warweraSi moxseniebuli `juaris mama nikifore kaxis~,
imave nikifore ColoyaSvil-irbaxis dakveTiT. igi levan dadianis mTavrobis dros xobis
episkoposi yofila da 1632-1657 wlebSi mTavris karze moRvaweobda. amdenad, dafarna levan
II dadianis mmarTvelobis (1611-1657 ww.) periodSia moqarguli.
amave muzeumSia daculi enqeri caiSidan (sur. 6. qs. # 246) kompoziciiT - „dideba uflisa“.
mwvane abreSumis qsovilis centrSi diagonalurad warmodgenilia oqromkediT (oqroTi)
`moWedili xati~, romelzedac gamosaxulia qriste-pantokratoris 2/3 figura, flankirebuli
mTavarangelozebiT, romelTac xelSi wignebi uWiravT da Tayvaniscemis niSnad macxovrisaken
arian midrekilni. `xatis~ zemoTac moTayvane angelozis naxevarfiguraa samwerobliT xelSi.
mM is sapirispirod, qvemoT, diagonalurad, luka maxareblis simboluri gamosaxuleba – xaria
saxarebiT xelSi.
centralur kompozicias irgvliv or striqonad Semosdevs asomTavruli warwera:
Ⴕ:. ႳႫႠႶႪႱႭ ႺႠႧႠႭ ႣႠ ႳႼႫႨႬႣႤႱႭ ႵႤႰႠႡႨႫႧႠႭ ႺႠႨႸႨႱႠ ႤႬႵႤႰႨ ႤႱ (Ⴄ ႫႤ) ႫႨႵႤႪႠႻႨႱ
ႠႱႫႠႬ ႮႠႲႰႭႬႫႠႬ ႱႤႥႣႨႠႫ ႻႨႱႠ ႹႤႫႨႱႠ ႣႠႣႨႠႬႨ ႩႠႺႨႠႱ ႱႳႪႨႱ ႱႠႾႱႰႠႣ ႣႠ ႱႠႾႠႣ:.
ႣႠႫႩႥႨႣႰႤ ႫႠႰႧႠႧႠ ႧႬႠ
„q. umaRl(e)so caTao da uwmindeso qerubimTao, caiSisa R(mr)TismSobelo, maradis
qalwulo mariam, Semogwire enqeri ese me, miqelaZis asulman, patronman sevdiam, Zisa
Cemisa dadiani kacias sulis saxsrad da sa(o)xad. daamkvidre marTa(l)Ta Tana“.
warweraSi moxseniebuli miqelaZis asuli sevdia samegrelos faqtobriv mmarTvel giorgi
(lipartianis) I-is meuRle iyo, romelsac 1681 wels gaeyara, xolo 1714 wels xelmeored

1 berZnulidan Targmani ekuTvnis T. yauxCiSvils [yauxCiSvili T. 1999: 54].


2 Eeq. TayaiSvils kanonikuri warweris mxolod fragmenti aqvs amokiTxuli.

28
iqorwina masze. unda vivaraudoT, rom warwera gakeTebulia xelmeore qorwinebis Semdeg,
1714 wels. aqedan gamomdinare, enqeri XVIII s-is pirveli naxevriT unda daTariRdes.
meore enqeric caiSidanaa (sur. 7. qs. # 238). bambis qsovilis miwarze diagonalurad,
vercxlmkediTa da oqromkediT `axali aRTqmis samebaa~ amoqarguli. warmodgenilia
saydarze mjdomiMmama RmerTi, Ze RmerTi d, maT Soris ki, zemoT - suli wminda mtredis saxiT.
mM ama RmerTs erT xelSi jvari upyria, meore xeli mkerdTan aqvs mitanili. gverdiT mjdom
macxovars marcxena xelSi gadaSlili saxareba uWiravs warweriT: ,,me var naTeli’’... marjvena
ki kurTxevad aqvs aRmarTuli. sam kuTxeSi maxareblebis (luka, maTe da markozi) simboluri
gamosaxulebebia ganTavsebuli. Tavisufali are Sevsebulia mcenareuli ornamentiT.
moCarCoebis SigniT, kompoziciis irgvliv, mxedruliT Sesrulebuli kanonikuri warweraa,
romelic ramdenime adgilas kveTs moCarCoebas:
,,Seib maxvili Seni welTa SenTa Zliero, SuenierebiTa SeniTa da sikeTiTa SeniTa da
gardaacu da waremarTe da sufevdi WeSmaritebisaTvis da simSvidisa da simarTlisa da
giZRodis Sen sakvirvelad marjvenaTa Seni“F(fs. 44 -4).
qargvis teqnikiTa da warweris paleografiuli TaviseburebebiT Zegli XVII s-iT TariRdeba.
zugdidis muzeumis sakuTrebaa aseve levan II dadianis qtitorobiT Sesrulebuli 1653
wliT daTariRebuli gardamoxsna caiSidan (sur. 8. qs@# 239)3. Sindisferi atlasis miwarze
vercxlmkediTa da oqromkediT amoqargulia `macxovris datirebis~ mravalfiguriani
kompozicia. centrSi gamosaxulia moklefoCebian ardagze dabrZanebuli, jvridan
gardamoxsnili macxovari. skamze mjdom mwuxare RvTismSobels qristes Tavi kalTaSi udevs.
iqve eqspresiulad xelebawvdili mariam magdalineli, sxva momtirali dedebi da momxdariT
SeZruli wm. ioane RvTismetyvelia. qQ ristes fexebTan gamosaxuli ioseb arimaTieli qsovils
amzadebs macxovris Sesagragnad. mM is ukan nikodimosia kibiT. ukan jvaria wamebis iaraRebiTa
da eklis gvirgviniT. zemoT momtirali angelozebi, mze da mTvarea. A qvemoT kalaTa da
suraa nelsacxeblisaTvis. centralur kompozicias irgvliv Semosdevs mxedruli warwera,
romelic eq. TayaiSvilsa da v. beriZes gamoqveynebuli aqvT TavianT naSromebSi [TayaiSvili
eq. 1913-1914: 236;DberiZe v. 1983: 20]. dazianebis miuxedavad, warwera srulad ikiTxeba:
,,q. h
H oi, saidumlo sakvirveli, rameTu cisa RrubeliT ixilvebi, hoi uRToTa, r(aT)
a Senzeda Sekreba, romelman zRvasa mewamulsa ganavline mose da erisa israelisasa
uZRodi udabnosa mas sicxisasa RrubliTa naTlisaTa agrilobdi. hoi sicofe usjuloTa
da ugulisÃmoTa maT uriaTa, viTar ara gulis Ãma yues R(mr)Taeba Seni, aramed ioseb da
nikodimos armenaksa wmidasa wargragnes uxrwneli guami Seni, qriste, surnelebiTa
Semurvili axalsa saflavsa dagdves da dagfales. daflviTa cani da qveyana mgloviare
iqmnnes, xolo me mona Seni da Ze mÃevlisa Senisa Ãelmwife dadiani patroni levan
vadideb jvarcmasa Sensa, q
Q riste, Tayvanis vscem gardamoÃsnasa Sens da surviliT ambors
uyof patiosansa xatsa Sensa, romeli ese vakervine xalasad saÃsrad sulisa Cemisa
da sadRegrZelod ZeTa da asulisa wasamarTebelad, kualad Tanamecxedrisa Cuenisa
dedoflisa patronisa nestan-darejanisa sulisa saÃsrad da saoÃad. Sen Seiwire caiSisa
R(mr)TisSobelo, msaxureba ese Cemi, amin. Seikera q(oroni)k(on)sa tma“ (1653 w.).
warweridan irkveva, rom levan II dadians es gardamoxsna caiSis monastrisaTvis daukveTavs.
zugdidis muzeumSi daculi da aq warmodgenili saintereso warwerebiani qargulobis nimuSebi
organuli nawilia mravalsaukunovani qarTuli saeklesio naqargobis maRalmxatvruli
xelovnebisa, romelSic aisaxa Cveni winaprebis RvTismosaoba, gemovneba da ubrwyinvalesi
ostatoba.

3 dReisaTvis sakmaod dazianebuliGgardamoxsna sarestavracioa.

29
Lili Beraia
Dadiani Palaces Historical and Architectural Museum
Embroidery Collection of the Dadiani Palaces Historical and Architectural Museum in Zugdidi

The patterns of ecclesiastical embroidery which are preserved in the storage rooms of textile and embroidery
collections housed in the Dadiani Palaces Historical and Architectural Museum, date back to the 17th-19th
centuries. Many of them attract attention by their composition, dynamic and subtle design, iconography,
inscriptions containing considerable data, refined color palette and exquisite technique. Among the ancient
most samples of the embroidery collection a purple Shroud, one of the distinguished artifacts of Levan
Dadiani’s epoch merits special attention.
It is to be noted that although the collection consists of only nine objects of embroidery, each of them greatly
contributes to study of the region or country’s history. In this respect should be mentioned the cuffs from
Tsaishi with the inscription referring to “Gulqana” and “Mtsignobartukhutsesi”.

Generally, examination of the samples of embroidery housed in the Dadiani Palace as well as their technique
of execution can contribute considerably to study of Georgian ecclesiastical art.

bibliografia
beriZe v. 1983: qarTuli naqargobis istoriidan- gardamoxsnebi. Tbilisi.
TayaiSvili eq. 1913-1914: arqeologiuri mogzaurobidan samegreloSi. Zveli saqarTvelo.
t. III.
meliqiSvili i. 1996: zugdidis muzeumSi daculi sabuxaris gadaTariRebisaTvis. narkveve-
bi. t. II. Ggv. 130-135. Tbilisi (red-ebi: n. lomouri, g. yifiani).
yauxCiSvili T. 1999: saqarTvelos berZnuli warwerebis korpusi. Tbilisi.

ilustraciebis aRweriloba

sur. 1 mM arcxena xelis sabuxari. mTavarangelozi gabrieli `xarebis~ kompoziciidan. caiSi. XVII s.
sur. 2 marjvena xelis sabuxari. wm. Mmariami `xarebis~ kompoziciidan. caiSi. XVII s.
sur. 3. Mmarcxena xelis sabuxari. mTavarangelozi gabrieli `xarebis~ kompoziciidan.
caiSi. XVII s.
sur. 4. marjvena xelis sabuxari. wm. Mmariami `xarebis~ kompoziciidan. caiSi. XVII s.
sur. 5. dafarna kompoziciiT `didi zraxvis angelozi~. walenjixa. XVII s.
sur. 6. enqeri kompoziciiT - „dideba uflisa“. caiSi.. XVII s.
sur. 7. enqeri kompoziciiT - `axali aRTqmis sameba~. caiSi. XVIII s.
sur. 8. gardamoxsna `macxovris datirebis~ kompoziciiT. caiSi. 1653 w.

30
sur. 1. Fig.

sur. 2. Fig.

31
sur. 3. Fig.

sur. 4. Fig.

32
sur. 5. Fig.

sur. 6. Fig. sur. 7. Fig.

33
sur. 8. Fig.

34
eka berelaSvili
saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi
Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumi
l. gudiaSvilis q. 1, 0105, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo
elfosta: kato_009@yahoo.com

saeklesio naqargobaze daculi mosaxsenebeli da


miZRvniTi warwerebi
“Zvelis-Zvelisdaganve RvTisnier qarTvelebsa da imaT mefeebs Cveuleba hqoniaT,
rom, TavianT sulis mosaxseneblad, anu raime saqmeSi gasamarjveblad, mamuls, fuls,
Zvirfas nivTs Seswiravdnen xolme monastrebsa da an eklesiebs.”
ilia WavWavaZe

saeklesio nivTTa Tu mRvdelmsaxurTa Cvenamde moRweul naqarg samosze kanonikur


liturgikul warwerasTan erTad xSirad ganTavsebulia istoriuli cnobebis Semcveli
miZRvniTi da pirTa mosaxsenebeli warwerebic. maTSi gadmocemulia naqargi Zeglis e. w.
Tavgadasavali. amis gamo es warwerebi mniSvnelovania ara marto gansazRvruli nivTis,
aramed qarTuli saeklesio naqargobis kvlevisTvisac. winamdebare werilis mizania XIII-XIX
ss-is qarTul naqargobaze ganTavsebuli (gamouqveynebeli Tu gamoqveynebuli) zogierTi
warweris ganxilva da maTi saistorio mniSvnelobis warmoCena1. saeklesio naqargobis
warwerebis amokiTxvasa da maTSi moxseniebul istoriul pirTa identifikaciaSi didi
wvlili miuZRviT mecnierebs: eqvTime TayaiSvils, giorgi boWoriZes, vaxtang beriZes,
gulnaz baraTaSvils : [TayaiSvili eq. 1914; boWoriZe g. 1994; beriZe v. 1983; baraTaSvili g.,
berelaSvili e. ...., 2011] .
saeklesio naqargobaze sami sxvadasxva saxis warwera gvxvdeba: wmindanTa saxelebi da
saRvTo scenebis saxelwodebebi, liturgikuli teqstebi da pirTa mosaxsenebeli warwerebi
[Johnstone P. 1967:52]. qarTuli saeklesio naqargobis warwerebi ZiriTadad asomTavruliTaa
Sesrulebuli. XVII s-dan gvxvdeba nusxuri da mxedruli warwerebic. ramdenime nimuSze gvaqvs
berZnuli warwerac2, Tumca berZnulia ara saqtitoro, aramed gamosaxul pirTa vinaobis
aRmniSvneli saxelebi, warmodgenili scenis saxelwodeba da liturgikuli teqstebi
[margiSvili r. 2003 :78].Aam ukanaskneliT saeklesio naqargoba (dafarnebi, gardamoxsnebi,
enqerebi, sabuxarebi) tradiciulad moCarCoebulia. im SemTxvevaSi ki, rodesac warwera
`CarCo-dekoris” SigniTaa moTavsebuli, maTTvis, iSviaTi gamonaklisis garda, winaswar
kargad gaazrebuli adgilia SerCeuli.
ierarqTa da liturgikul nivTTa Sesamoselze warmodgenili saqtitoro an mosaxsenebeli
warwerebi erT-erTi saintereso mowmobaa saeklesio da saero pirTa urTierTobisa. am
warwerebis saSualebiT aseve vigebT nivTis daniSnulebis3, Seqmnis droisa da adgilis,
qveyanaSi arsebuli istoriuli viTarebisa da zogjer im nivTebis Sesaxebac ki, romelTac
Cvenamde ver moaRwies sxvadasxva mizezis gamo. Ees warwerebi zogjer Seicavs informacias

1 Nnaqargobaze daculi saqtitoro warwerebi, sxva sakiTxebTan erTad, mimoxiluli aqvs m. kecxovels. [kecxoveli m.
2000: 96].

2 enqerebi: sxm/n ## 2228, 2874, 2882, 208, dafarnebi: sxm/n ## 3844, 3845, 3846.
3 mag; e.w. TuTas dafarnebi, sxm/n: ## 928, 3690, 3769.

35
nivTis damkveTis an mflobelis, avtoris, Semsruleblis, momxatvelisa da ganmaaxleblis,
maTi ojaxis wevrebis Sesaxeb. maT mier liturgikul nivTTa Sesamoslis Sewirva eklesiisTvis
Tu romelime RvTismsaxurisTvis, Semwirvelis RvTismosaobis Taviseburi tradiciis
gamoxatuleba iyo.
rogorc Cans, qarTuli saeklesio naqargobis saqtitoro warwerebi yvelaze met msgavsebas
xatebis warwerebTan poulobs. Nn. WiWinaZe qarTuli xatebis warwerebis kvlevisas
aRniSnavs, rom, kedlis mxatvrobis vrceli saqtitoro warwerebisgan gansxvavebiT, xatebis
warwerebi lakoniuria da „Seicavs mxolod vedrebisa da Sewyalebis Sesabamis standartul
formulebs“ [WiWinaZe n. 2000:23]. qarTuli xatweris nimuSebze iSviaTia aseve qtitorTa
gamosaxva. igive SeiZleba iTqvas qarTul naqargobazec, sxva marTlmadidebluri qveynebis
saeklesio naqargobisgan gansxvavebiT, sadac xSiradaa warmodgenili qtitori mTeli
ojaxiT [Johnstone P. 1967; Millet G. 1916]. qarTul naqargobaze mxolod orjeraa Semwirveli
gamosaxuli da orivejer gardamoxsnaze - manuCar dadianis asulis, dedofalT-dedofal
mariamis4 (XVIIs.) mier Sewirul gardamoxsnasa (sur.1) da vaxtang V Sahnavazis asul Tamarisa
da misi Tanamecxedre givi amilaxvris mier Sewirul gardamoxsnaze (XVIIs.), romelic
mariamiseuli gardamoxsnis TiTqmis analogiuria [beriZe v. 1983: 36, 38]. amgvari msgavseba
gasakviri araa, radgan orive gardamoxsna erTi ojaxis mier aris dakveTili - mariami
Sahnavazis meuRle iyo, Tamari ki- Sahnavazis asuli da mariamis geri.
marTalia, qtitoris gamosaxuleba araa, magram yuradsaRebi warweraa mariamis gazrdilis,
amave ojaxis kidev erTi wevris, zilfijanis mier Sesrulebul gardamoxsnaze5: „w. me, friad
uRirsma, mariam dedoflis gazrdilman, zilfijan Sevkere gardamoxsna ese da davsdev
Cemis patronis yaflanisSvilis aslanis da Tanamecxedris batonis Tamaris saxlSi
sulisa wmidisa saoxad da Svilebisa maTisa sadRegrZelod” [beriZe v. 1983:27-28]. warwera
sainteresoa imdenad, ramdenadac gvamcnobs gardamoxsnis momqargvelis - zilfijanis
saxels. frazebi, romlebic qarTul saeklesio naqargobaze gvxvdeba: „Sevkere“, „TiTTa
CemTa naRvawi“, „vimuSake“, „muSaki amisi“, miuTiTebs, rom naqargoba uSualod warweraSi
moxseniebuli pirovnebis mier aris Sesrulebuli.
rogorc saqtitoro warwerebidan xdeba cnobili, saeklesio nivTTa da sasuliero pirTa
Sesamoseli xSirad iqargeboda mefeTa uSualo brZanebiT. Cvenamde moRweuli, uZvelesi
gardamoxsnis6 warwera gvauwyebs: „saflavad dadeba mxsnelisa Cuenisa iesos qristesi

4 mariam dadiani (1632–1682 ww.) levan meore dadianis da, rostom mefis meuRle, Zalze gavleniani, cno-
bili da lamazi qalbatoni iyo, razec misi ramdenime portreti da cxovrebis istoriac metyvelebs. didia mari-
amisa da rostomis wvlili imdroindeli kulturis Zeglebis movla-patronobis saqmeSi, isini aRadgendnen da
aRaSenebdnen eklesia-monastrebs, swiravdnen maT soflebsa da yma-mamulebs, uwesebdnen maT sagadasaxado Se-
RavaTebsa da a.S. Mmariam dadiani mTeli cxovrebis ganmavlobaSi Tavis qveyanaSi qristianobis Tanmimdevrulad
damcveli da masze mzrunveli iyo, rac saTanado gavlenas axdenda mis gvirgvinosan mahmadian meuRlezec da
didad ganapirobebda TviT rostomis Semwynareblur damokidebulebas qristianuli religiisadmi [koSoriZe
i. 2011 :32]. misi xelSewyobiTa da uSualo monawileobiT aigo da SekeTda mravali eklesia-monasteri, gadai-
wera `qarTlis cxovreba” [qarTlis cxovreba. 1973 :373, 336; Кондаков Н.; Бакрадзе Д. 1890 :171]. XVII s-Si moRvawe
kaTolike misioneris, pietro avitabiles, Tanaxmad: „am dros qarTlSi rac gakeTebula erovnuli kulturis
dargebis gamococxlebis xaziT, yvelaferi mariam dedoflis unariT da guliswadiliTaa Sesrulebuli“ [don
pietro avitabile. 1977 : 17]. rostom mefis gardacvalebis Semdeg Sahma mariamis iranSi gagzavna moiTxova Tavisi
haremisaTvis. Tumca ukve asakovanma da sasowarkveTilma dedofalma mravali Suamavlis, oqro-vercxlis ZRve-
nis gagzavnis meSveobiT Sahs es ganzraxva gadaafiqrebina da male ispahanidan Sahis brZaneba movida, rom mariami
haremSi gagzavnis nacvlad rostomis SvilobilisTvis - SahnavazisaTvis (vaxtang V) mieTxovebinaT [koSoriZe
i. 2011: 35]. mariam dedoflis mier Senawiri araerTi nivTi inaxeba erovnuli muzeumis Salva amiranaSvilis sax-
elobis xelovnebis muzeumSi: gardamoxsna, didi da mcire omoforebi, dafarnebi da oTxi enqeri: sxm/n # # 1357,
1447, 1360, 2948, 356, 208, 301, 3416, 3667.
5 sxm/n # 855.

6 sxm/n # 1354.

36
Seimzada didisa mefeTa mefisa aleqsandres Zisa mefeTa mefisa giorgis brZanebiTa”7
[beriZe v.1983:13]. gamorCeuli silamazis, mxatvrulad gaformebuli kaligrafiiTaa
Sesrulebuli asomTavruli warwera imereTis mefe bagrat mefis (1510-1565 ww.) mier
dakveTil gardamoxsnaze8. (sur.2). gardamoxsnis warweris mixedviT, mefeT mefe bagrat
mesames: „ama gardamoxsnis surviliT Semamkobels“…....,…… „meored aRuSenebia cixeni,
saydarni, monasterni da eklesiani da Seumkia xatebiTa“ [beriZe v. 1983:15].
imereTis mefe aleqsandre V-is (1721-1752 ww.) saxels ukavSirdeba dafarna9 kompoziciiT
- „nu mtir me dedao“, romelic mefes Tanamecxedre mariamis sulis saoxad Seuwiravs: `q.
dafarna cani SuenerebiTa SeniTa Cven mefeT mefeman aleqsandre SemogwireT saburveli
zeSTa siwmindisa, saoxad meuRlisa Cvenisa dedoflisa mariamisa“. (sur. 3).
sxvadasxva drois sigel-gujrebi, mziTvis wignebi da sxva istoriuli wyaroebi araerTgzis
miuTiTebs, rom saRvTismsaxuro qmnilebebis qargva - „Semkoba“ odiTganve didgvarovanTa
saqmianobad iTvleboda, romlebic eklesias an romelime xats uxv Senawirs uZRvnidnen
madlierebis niSnad ukve gaweuli an momavali daxmarebis, mfarvelobisa da meoxebis imediT.
es bunebrivicaa, radgan Zvirfasi qsovili, oqrosa Tu vercxlis Zafi, siZvirisa da qargvis
teqnikis sirTulis gamo, mxolod didgvarovani qalbatonebisa da dedoflebisaTvis iyo
xelmisawvdomi [Johnstone P. 1967:53]. sabednierod, ara erTi dedoflis saxeli Semogvinaxa
Cvenamde moRweulma saeklesio samosma: `viRvawe xeliTa CemiTa wmida ese dafarna
qarTlisa dedofalman anna-xanum ~ 10; `me, saqarTvelos mefis asulma gaianem vimuSake
samni ese dafarnani saÃsrad sulisaTvis Cemisa 11~ da a.S.
erT-erTi mitris12 (XVIIIs.) caze moTavsebuli mTavari xatis irgvliv asomTavrul warweraSi
vkiTxulobT: „Sevamke mitra ese da Semogwire Sen cagerisa RmrTis mSobels me qarTvelT
mefis asulman elisabed sulisa Cemisa saoxad.“ dedofalTa ganswavlulobisa da
originaluri azrovnebis erT-erTi TvalsaCino magaliTia saqarTvelos mefe vaxtangis
VI-is asulisa da batoniSvilis Teimurazis Tanamecxedre Tamaris mier sagarejos wm.
Nninos eklesiisadmi Sewiruli dafarna13 (1718w.) (sur.4). `ikonografiuli TaviseburebebiT
da sagangebod misTvis SemuSavebuli simboluri mniSvnelobis ornamentuli dekoriT”
[baraTaSvili g. 2000 :111].
rogorc warweridan xdeba cnobili, Teimuraz II-is Tanamecxedre, qarTlis dedofal ana-
xanumis (1746-1788 ww.) Semoqmedebaa sionis taZrisadmi Sewiruli dafarnaTa kompleqti,
„romelTa Sesrulebis maRali done adasturebs, Tu ramdenad kargadaa dauflebuli
dedofali qargvis teqnikas. igi aseve SesaniSnavad erkveva Teologiasa da qristianul
simbolikaSic“ [baraTaSvili g. 2007 : 162].
samcxis aTabag yvaryvare I-is asuli, dedofalT-dedofali naTelia omoforis Semwirveli,
romelsac ori gansxvavebuli periodis - XIV da XVII ss-is warwera axlavs14. XIV s-is warweris
mixedviT, omofori „anCeli TeofanesaTvis aris Sekeruli“. saintereso informacias

7 warweraSi moxseniebulia aleqsandre didis Ze giorgi VIII (1446-1466 ww).

8 sxm/n # 1355.

9 sxm/n # 853.

10 sxm/n # 3668.
11 sxm/n ## 3803, 3768.
12 sxm/n # 4894.

13 sxm/n # 3776.

14 sxm/n # 1362.

37
Seicavs amave omoforis meore - XVII s-is warwera, romelSic vrcladaa moTxrobili omoforis
Tavgadasavali: caiSis episkoposs daviT jolias agarianelebis (TaTrebis) mier gaZarculi
omofori Seusyidia da ganuaxlebia: „viyideT da vigulismodgineT da SevakervineT dasa
Cemsa Tamars xelaxlaT da SevamkeviT TvliTa da margalitiTa“. Tumca Tval-margaliti
amJamad aRaraa SemorCenili omoforze (sur. 5).
vaxtang V Sahnavazis (XVIIs.) Tanamecxedre rodams mouqargavs omofori15 sauflo
dResaswaulebis scenebiT. Mmisi sakmaod vrceli da saintereso warwera gvauwyebs, rom
omofori dedofalma Tavisi xeliT moqarga episkopoz romanozisTvis - „xelvyav wmidis
omoforis keTebas….... viTarca me Sevamkev episkopozi Seni romanoz…....“- „TvliTa da
margalitiT Seamko“ da wilknis RmrTismSoblis xats Seswira - Teklas sulis mosaxseneblad
da anukas usjuloTa xelTagan dasaxsnelad16. warweraSi moxseniebuli Tekle da anuka
rodamisa da vaxtang mexuTis qaliSvilebi arian. warweridan: „miec sulsa Cemsa adgili
savanesa mas TeklasTana“ vigebT, rom Tekla omoforis Seqmnis dros ukve gardacvlilia,
anuka ki „usjuloTa xelSia“. igi Sah-abas II-es miaTxoves, Sahma ki 1668 wels loris xans
gadauloca: - „ ixsen Cemi anuka usjuloTa xelTagan da nu gardaiyvaneb mcnebaTa
SenTagan,“- SesTxovs dedofali wilknis RmrTismSoblis xats. sayuradReboa mefe erekle
I-is (1688-1703 ww.) dedis - elenes dakveTiT alaverdis wm. giorgis saxelobis taZrisaTvis
Sewiruli gardamoxsnis17 warwerac, romelic gardamoxsnis sarCulis qveSaa moTavsebuli.
TeTr mitkalze basmiT Sesrulebuli nusxuri warweris Tanaxmad gardamoxsna moqargulia
ruseTSi : `Cven mefeT mefeman patronman ereklem es kaxeTis batonis Cvenis dedis
dedofalT dedoflis elenesagan ruseTs gakeTebuli gardamoxsna wmidas giorgis
Seswira da radgan uxanom sofelma maTi amier sofliT mifarva moaxdina Cven maTi
anderZi aRar movSaleT da wmidis giorgis davasveneT isi” [meliqiSvili i. 1999 :149].
erekle I-is asuli elene dedofali unda iyos rogorc Semwirveli, aseve Semkerveli
erTi gardamoxsnis. rogorc vaxtang beriZe aRniSnavs Tavis wignSi, is platon ioselianis
cnobiT, jer sveticxovelSi, 1812 wlis Semdeg ki tfilisis sionSi inaxeboda. pl. ioselianis
Tanaxmadve, gardamoxsna saqarTvelos egzarxos varlams Camoutania ruseTidan, radgan
tfilisSi ukeTesi gardamoxsna ar hqoniaT. d. baqraZes igi sionSi unaxavs. amJamad ucnobia
gardamoxsnis adgilsamyofeli. misi warwera v. beriZis wignSi moxmobili fotosuraTidan
ase ikiTxeba:
„ ..... meufeo qriste RmerTo, daicev orTave cxovrebaTa Sina dedofali elene, asuli
mefeTmefisa ereklesi, ZiT da asuliT, Semkerveli amisi, amin. Qqoronikonons uid” (1726)
[beriZe v. 1983:30].
mefeTa da dedofalTa garda, saeklesio naqargobis saqtitoro warwerebSi xSirad vxvdebiT
qarTvel didebulTa gvarebs, magaliTad, cotne dadianis mSoblebis mier Sewiruli enqeri
Cvenamde moRweuli yvelaze adreuli nivTia (XIIIs.), romelzec qtitoria moxseniebuli: „q:
dadiansa: Sergils: da: naTels: mosavsa: martvilsa: didsa: dadians Seundon RmerTman
18
.“
cxadia, saeklesio naqargobis SeqmnaSi garkveuli wvlili miuZRodaT sxvadasxva ierarqiis
sasuliero pirebsac, romelTaTvisac mzaddeboda gansazRvruli Sesamoseli amitom
warwerebSi mefeebsa da didebulebTan erTad gvxvdeba mRvdelmTavrebis, mitropolitebis,

15 sxm/n # 1447.

16 masTan erTad Seswira dedofalma aseve „olari, sabeWuri, sabuxreebi, enqeri da yovelive iaraRi asreve
Sekeruli filoni da stixari“, aq CamoTvlil SesamoselTagan Cvenamde mxolod Zvirfasi Tval-margalitisgan
gaZarculma omoforma moaRwia.
17 sxm/n #857
18 sxm/n #1699
38
arqiepiskoposebisa da mTavarepiskoposebis saxelebic, Mmag: Cvenamde SemorCenili yvelaze
adreuli (XVI-XVII ss.) mitris [berelaSvili e. 2007:118]. gvirgvinis Sida mxares amotvifrulia
Semdegi warwera: „moixsene ufalo mona Seni mitrofane mRrdelT mTavari, romlisa ars
gvirgvini ese da romelman Seamkobina ese da Tvisni da megobarni misni“ 19. e.w. mitrofanes
mitris aRniSnul warweras ufro sainteresos xdis informacia imis Sesaxeb, rom misma
mflobelma mitrofanem mitrasTan erTad sxva samRvdelmTavro Sesamoselnic - „megobarni
misnic“ Seamkobina, anu moaqargvina. samwuxarod, maT Cvenamde ar mouRweviaT. kidev erTi
mitris (XVIII s.) warweris mixedviT, is mTavarepiskoposis dakveTiTaa Seqmnili: „me yovlad
uRirsman mTavarefiskoposman besarion gavakeTebine mitra ese miZinebis xatisa saoxad
sulisa Cemisa“ 20 (sur. 6).
mxedruliTaa Sesrulebuli daviTgarejis erT-erTi sabuxaris sarCulze warwera: „ese
sabuxari xuces monazonisa sabasi aris. 1793 w.“ daviTgarejis monasterSi mxolod berebi
cxovrobdnen. amitom gamoTqmulia azri, rom Tavis sabero samoss TviTonve amzadebdnen
da sabuxarebic daviTgarejeli beris – vinme sabas mieraa moqarguli [baraTaSvili g.,
berelaSvili e.….., 2011 : 281].
XVII s-is meore naxevriT daTariRebuli olaris warweraSi vkiTxulobT: `q. vinebe olaris
amis Sekerva me Zeman dadianis beJanisaman Wyondidel mitropolitman grigol”
21
. fraza – „vinebe amis Sekerva” niSnavs, rom TviTon man Sekera. SekveTis SemTxvevaSi
naTqvami iqneboda _ `Sevakervine” [kecxoveli m. 2000:97]. moxmobili magaliTebidan
Cans, rom qalebis paralelurad kacebic qargavdnen. cnoba mamakaci mxatvar-mkervalis
Sesaxeb qarTul werilobiT wyaroSic moipoveba, Mmag; 1767 wlis gujarSi, romelic exeba
erekle mefis dis- elisabedis gaTxovebas kacia dadianze, moxseniebuli arian „mxatvari
ioane da mkervali ivane“ [Jordania T. 1967 : 297]. cnobilia, rom evropaSi, qalebis garda,
mamakacebic qargavdnen. maTi ojaxis wevrebi gansakuTrebuli uflebebiT sargeblobdnen
[kecxoveli m. 2000 : 97]. mamakacebi qargavdnen aziaSic, mag; sparseTsa da indoeTSi Zvirfas
Tirma Salebs mxolod mamakacebi qargavdnen [Верховская А. 1961 : 5]. qargvas „qalis samuSaod“
arc bizantiaSi miiCnevdnen. albaneTSi, tiranas nacionalur muzeumSi, inaxeba gardamoxsna,
romlis warweraSi moxseniebulia patroni episkoposi kalistosi da oqromqargveli giorgi
arianitesi [Woodfin W. 2012 : xxvii-xxviii]. SemorCenilia aseve vinme ber arseniusis mier
XVII s-Si moqarguli ori gardamoxsna [Johnstone P. 1967 : 60]. maqmanis qsovis ostati kacebi
seriozul konkurencias uwevdnen qalebs ruseTSic [Якунина Л. 1955 : 35].
ramdenime naqargis warweraSi aRniSnulia, rom mqargveli, imavdroulad, siuJetis
Semqmneli da momxatvelicaa. 1664 wliT daTariRebul gardamoxsnaze, romelic quTaisis
muzeumSia daculi da Sewirulia vinme qaixosros asul TinaTinis mier, vkiTxulobT:
„saxlis batonis qaixosros asulman TinaTin xelvyav gardamoxsnisa amis moxatvad da
Semkobad“ [beriZe v. 1983 :24]. SemorCenili masala mowmobs, rom xSirad qargvas iwyebda
erTi adamiani da amTavrebda meore, vinaidan es sakmaod Sromatevadi saqme did drosa da
energias moiTxovda: 1747 wliT daTariRebul gardamoxsnaze22 vkiTxulobT: „q. adidos
RmerTman saqarTvelos dedofali Tamar asuli mefis vaxtangisa romelman iwyo kervad
wmidai gardamoxsna ese wmidis samebis saydrisaTvis xolo TviT miicvala winaSe
uflisa da raodeni daSTa mxevalman misman imedisseulman Seasrula da mosaxseneblad
Seswira” [beriZe v. 1983 : 101]. (sur.7). 1806 wels moqarguli gardamoxsnis warwera ki Semdegi

19 sxm/n # 3938.
20 sxm/n # 4892.
21 sxm/n # 3386.
22 sxm/n 781

39
Sinaarsisaa: `....me msasoebelman Senman abaSiZis asulman qeTevan vimuSake uxrwnelisa
guamisa Senisa gardamoxsna.......qriste Seiwyale muSaki amis janverdi“ [beriZe v. 1983 : 31].
rogorc Sinaarsidan xdeba naTeli, gardamoxsna orma adamianma moqarga - qeTevan abaSiZem,
romelic, imavdroulad, Semwirvelicaa da aseve, savaraudod, misma msaxurma janverdim.
Aamaze migvaniSnebs sityva „vimuSake“. erT-erTi xatis fardis qargva, rogorc Cans, daiwyo
erisTavis asulma elenem, romelmac veRar moaswro misi moqargva da daamTavra CvenTvis
ucnobma pirovnebam: „hoi, yovlad wmida dedao qriste RmerTisa Cvenisao, romelica
maqunda sur¬vili xelTa CemTa naRvawisa morTmevad da ara macada uwyaloman
sikvdilman da awca – gevedrebi, miiRe es Sesawiravi sulisa Cemisa saoxad da eqvsTa
ZeTa da asulTa CemTa aRsazrdelad Tanamecxedre SanSe erisTavis kneina elene 1815
wels“ 23. erT-erT mitraze (XIXs.) mocemuli warweridan ki irkveva, rom mitris Semwirveli
da „Semkerveli“ erTi da igive pirovnebaa: „viRvawe da Sevkere es RvrTis sadideblaT da
saxseneblaT sulisaT. lalu“ 24.
rogorc iTqva, saeklesio Sesamoslis warwerebSi maTi ganmaaxleblebic moixsenebian: „q.
monaman uRirsman ..... kaTalikozman: besarion: da Zeman erisTavisman da asulis: mefis
Sobilman: ganvaaxle: olari25: ese sulTa CemTa saoxad RmerTo: Seiwyale darejan amin“
[baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e. …, 2011 : 394]. aleqsandre WavWavaZis asulis, ekaterine
WavWavaZis saxels ukavSirdeba anton Wyondidelis samRvdelmTavro Sesamoslis (sakosi,
enqeri, sabuxari, omoforebi)26 ganaxleba: „ mTavrina ekaterinam ganuaxle omfori ese
martvilis eklesias welsa Cymz (1847w.) Wyondidisasa antoni dadianis Zisa“ (sur.
8). sayuradRebo warwera aqvs 1661 wliT daTariRebul gardamoxsnas, romelSic misi
Tavgadasavalia moTxrobili. warweridan vigebT, rom gardamoxsna27 saxlTuxuces rostom
CxeiZes „TaTrisgan dauxsnia.. as oc m (anaTis) sanacvloT“. rostom CxeiZes gardamoxsnis
warweridan misi Tavdapirveli Semwirveli amouSlia da mis nacvlad Tavisi saxeli Cauweria
[ beriZe v. 1983 : 23; baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e. ….., 2011: 48].
rogorc wesi, rodesac romelime nivTze araa aRniSnuli TariRi, mis stilur-ikonografiul
TaviseburebebTan erTad misi warweris paleografiuli niSnebi da Sinaarsi gvexmareba mis
daTariRebaSi. cxadia, nivTis XIX saukuneSi Seqmnaze miuTiTebs iseTi warwerebi, sadac
qarTveli didebulebis gvarebi rusulisaTvis saxasiaTo daboloebiTaa warmodgenili
: `mamao wminda nikoloz Semogwire daviT cicianovis kneinam falavandovisasT(?)
tasiam~ 28 an `Semogwire Sen tirZnisis taZarsa w(m)i(da)sa R//TismSobelisasa mcire ese
naSromi TiTTa CemTa me Tavadis // manuCaris Tumanovis asulma da meuRlema aznauris
daviT // sulxanovisama salomem saoxad sulisa Cemisa da sadRegr//Zelod meuRlisa
da SvilTa CemTa” 29 da a.S. saintereso informacias gvawvdis kneina avaliSvilis mier
moqarguli xatis fardis warwera: „pirdapir xatidan aris gadmoRebuli elene giorgi
favleniSvilis asulis kneina avaliSvilisagan.~30 xatis fardebis qargvis tradicia
saqarTveloSi saberZneTidan da ruseTidan Semovida, sadac xSirad qargavdnen ferweruli
xatebis aslebs da am qsovilebs xatebis safenebad da fardebad iyenebdnen. garda mxatvrul-

23 sxm/n # 3786.
24 sxm/n # 4289.
25 sxm/n # 4390
26 sxm/n # 3840, 3842, 2208, 2209,1688.
27 sxm/n # 933.
28 sxm/n # 3694.
29 sxm/n # 2630.
30 sxm/n # 4067.

40
stiluri niSnebisa, am naqargobis TariRis gansazRvraSi gvexmareba termini „kneinac“,
rac migvaniSnebs, rom xatis farda XIX-XX ss-is mijnazea Sesrulebuli [GbaraTaSvili g.,
burWulaZe n. 2012 : 324].
damkveTebisa da Semsruleblebis saxelebis garda, warwerebi gvauwyebs, Tu konkretulad
romeli taZrisadmia esa Tu is nivTi miZRvnili: mxedruliT Sesrulebuli warweris
mixedviT tfilisis sionis taZrisaTvis moqarga 1773 wels kretsabmeli31, qsnis erisTav
daviTis dedam qeTevanma, erekle meoris mamidaSvilma: „Sen ZiriT ieseiT aRyvavebulsa
magas qalwulsa dedasa mxsnelsasa tfiliss sionTa RvTismSobels giZRueni meca
qvrivi viTarca mwulilsa deda qsnis erisTavis daviTisa qeTevan fardasa amas saoxad
sulisa misisa da ZeTa misTa aRsazrdelad agvistos (id) 14 welsa 1773.~ [baraTaSvili g.,
berelaSvili e.……..., 2011:179 ]. (sur. 9). vaxtang V-is vaJis - levanis mier misi meuRlis sulis
mosaxseneblad Sewirulma ramdenime nivTma (dafarnaTa kompleqti32, olari33, sartyeli34)
moaRwia Cvenamde. warweris mixedviT, isini sveticxovlis taZrisadmia Sewiruli: `w.
moixsene ufalo batoniSvili levan da Tanamecxedre Cveni sulkurTxeuli gurielis
asuli batoniSvili TuTa. romelman SemogwireT olari ese samarxsa da saflavsa
Cvensa sveticxovels, vinc gamoswiros isimc risxavs“. TuTa gurieli gardaicvala 1678
wels. 1680 wels ki levani meored daqorwinda giorgi avaliSvilis asul TinaTinze. amitom
iTvleba, rom samosi 1678-1680 wlebSi unda iyos Sesrulebuli [baraTaSvili g. 2003 :68].
Sinaarsis Taviseburebis gamo, SeiZleba calke gamoiyos xelovnebis muzeumSi daculi
XVIII-XIX ss-Si moqarguli saflavis qvis safareblebis warwerebi [sulxaniSvili e. 2004:105].
gardacvlili pirovnebis gamosaxulebis fexebTan moTavsebuli warwerebi Sesrulebulia
rogorc qarTuli asomTavruliTa da mxedruliT, aseve rusulad. bunebrivia saflavis
safarebeli pirovnebis gardacvalebis Semdeg iqargeboda, Tumca maTs warwerebSi ara
qtitori an mqargveli, aramed TviT gardacvlili gviyveba mis istorias: „ra viyav Tavadis
daviT abaSiZis asuli Tamar da meuRle podpolkovnikis da kavaleris Tavadis qsnis
erisTavis Zis mirmanozisa mSobelni umemkvidroni hyofden xedviTa CemTa Suebasa da
dauteve sanugeSod maTda asuli Cvili wlisa a (1) 35 “ [sulxaniSvili e. 2004 :109]. an kidev: „ ......
romelica viyav Reneral maioris Tavadis Tamaz orbelianis asuli nina, SobiTgan wlisa
19-isa da meuRle Tavadisi ioane erisTavisa, romelmanca dauteve mSobelni Zmani da dani
godebiT. garna aq deda Cemikneina qeTevan Seiqms saxisa Cemisa niSansa......“ 36 [sulxaniSvili
e. 2004 : 109]. (sur. 10). „saflavsa amas Sina mdebare mosavi jvarisa gevedrebi qarTvelTa
da kaxTa mefis dedofali ana locva yovelTa CvenTvis gviboZe”37 [sulxaniSvili e.
2004 : 107]. sakmaod vrceli da saintereso warwera iyo elisabed batoniSvilis saflavis
safarebelze, romelic dedamisma - Teimuraz II-is Tanamecxedrem, qarTlis dedofalma
ana-xanumma (1746-1788 ww.) elisabedis gardacvalebasTan dakavSirebiT 1770 wels¬moqarga38.

31 sxm/n # 5054.
32 sxm/n # 928, 3690, 3769.
33 sxm/n # 1361
34 sxm/n # 3730
35 sxm/n # 3675
36 Msxm/n # 3790; mxedrul warweraSi moxseniebulia Tamaz orbelianis asuli da ioane erisTavis meuRle
nina, romelic 1857 wels gardaicvala.
37 Msxm/n # 3408;

38 dedofal ana-xanumis mier Sewiruli kidev erTi saflavis safarebeli inaxeba xelovnebis muzeumSi.
(sxm/n # 3806); masze gamosaxulia „aRyvavebuli jvari“. warweris mixedviT, safarebeli dedofalma erekle me-
fisa da dedofal darejanis, maTi Svilebis da Tavisi, ese igi, cocxalTa `sulis saoxad” Seswira wminda ninos

41
saflavis safarebeli cageris mxareTmcodneobis muzeumSi inaxeboda da xanZris Sedegad
daiwva 1997 wels. SemorCenilia mxolod misi Sav-TeTri fotosuraTi. centraluri
gamosaxulebis irgvliv mxedruli warweraa, romelic elisabedis gardacvalebis Sesaxeb
mogviTxrobs39. elisabed batoniSvilis gardacvalebis Semdgomdroindeli cnobebidan
cxadi xdeba, rom mas Svili ar darCenia. elisabedi gardaicvala qorwinebidan meoTxe wels:
„Sobasa zeda yrmisasa”. daukrZalavT cageris eklesiaSi [TayaiSvili eq. 1914:78]. rogorc
vnaxeT, safareblebi gardacvlilTa dedebis mier aris didi gulistkiviliT moqarguli an
Sewiruli: „garna aq ....... Semwuarqmnili deda muxranis batonis svimonis asuli salome
Semiqms Svenierebisa Cemisa aCrdilebrivsa saxisa niSansa,-“ 40 vkiTxulobT erT-erT
safarebelze [sulxaniSvili e. 2004 : 112].
udavoa, rom naqargoba saimperatoro patronaJis sapatio da sakmaod mniSvnelovani
xelovnebis dargi iyo, romelsac sazRvrebs gareT iyenebdnen diplomatiuri ZRvenis
saxiT [Woodfin W. 2012 : xxix]. qarTlis cxovrebis mixedviT, XI s-Si saqarTvelos patriarqi
melqisedeki konstantinepolSi mogzaurobis Semdeg samSobloSi dabrunda imperator
romanoz III-is (1028-1034 ww.) mier boZebuli xatebiT, jvrebiTa da saeklesio samosiT
[jobaZe v. 2006 :52]. cnobilia, rom bizantiis imperatorebi qarTvel didebulebs garkveuli
mizniT xSirad asaCuqrebdnen samosiT, mag., iahia antioqielis cnobiT, 979 wels romanoz II-m
uzurpator bardas winaaRmdeg brZolaSi warmatebuli daxmarebisaTvis tao-klarjeTis
mefe daviTs insigniebi, Sesamoslebi da kurapalatis wodeba uboZa [jobaZe v. 2006 : 141].
qarTvelebs Soris pirvelad aseTi ZRveni miiRo lazTa mefe waTem, romelsac mianiWes
gvirgvini, TeTri qlamindi, daqarguli stiqaroni, sparsul yaidaze momargalitebuli
wiTeli wuRebi da aseTive oqros sartyeli [jobaZe v. 2006 :141].
Tavis mxriv, qarTveli didebulebic uamrav Sesawirs swiravdnen sazRvargareT arsebul
monastrebs. rasac mowmobs aTonis mTaze daculi mravalricxovani qarTuli saeklesio
naqargoba. movixmob ramodenime maTgans: 1525-1527 wlebSia moqarguli gardamoxsna, romlis
sakmaod vrceli asomTavruli warwera gvauwyebs, rom ierusalimSi gasagzavni gardamoxsna
saxelovani mefeTmefe konstantine yofili-kiriles Zis, giorgis mier gaRebuli „didi
safasiTa“ da misi dis, asTandaris `xelovnebiT” aris moqarguli, es ukanaskneli warweraSi
ambobs: „xelovnebiTa…....... vigulismodgine da warmovgzavne wmida ese gardamoxsna wmidad
qalaqad ierusalims“. v. jobaZis azriT, warweraSi moxseniebuli mefeT-mefe konstantine
aris konstantine II (1478-1505 ww.). giorgi ki aris konstantine II-is vaJi- qarTlis mefe (1525-
1527) giorgi IX, romelic berobaSi iwodeboda gerasimed.41 [lomiZe d. 1987 :168]
aTonis mTaze inaxeba aseve XVIII s-iT daTariRebuli enqeri, romlis asomTavrul warweraSi

saflavs 1765 wels.


39 „ ...... saqarTvelos mefis cxebulis Teimurazis Tana memcxedre dedofali annaxanum viwyeb msmenelno
moTxrobad Tqvenda ro¬mel mca sawuToma uri¬cx¬vi bed keTiloba: simdidre da didebani: ze gar¬da-mma¬ta
ufros nilosisa massa ma¬Se¬na ede¬msa maukvdebrivsa velsa mas sawadi¬nel¬o¬sisa miorga nergi mulRazriT
var¬jovani armwyazrebiT nawvarTi Cemda sico¬cxled sulad qonebuli da mWvretTa ga-nsa¬kv¬i¬rvoi odiS
leCxumTa dedofali Tana memcxedre kacia dadianisa saxemziani elisa¬bed dedisa gulTa ganmcxro¬mi: magra
iCqiTad Semaxo brWyali sawuToma Tvisi Tvis¬dave ukunlvad mimiRo dideba da simdidre Cemi. ganmeRama gu-
gaTa TvalTa naTe¬li da esdenTa sixa¬ruliTa da ZvirfasTa unjTagan. calierad miteva mwydari us¬u¬¬lo
deda mtye¬bare Svilsa zeda sasurvelsa, romeli ese Znel bedman mSobelman mi¬¬s¬¬m¬¬¬an mzisa Cemisa saxisa
wil. aCrdili ese mis uebrosa saxisa vimuSake mis ki¬pa¬rozisa tanisa marRvis samarisa lodisa saburvelad da
Suenierebad mxilvelno da msme¬nelno vaebiT da siwyaluliT mogvigonebdeT mSobelsa SobiliTurT; Tvesa
agvis¬tosa. qks unÀ qristes aqeT CRT“ [ barnaveli s. 1940 : 205].

40 Msxm/n # 3675

41 v. jobaZis daTariRebas d. lomiZec iziarebs [lomiZe d. 1987 :168].

42
moxseniebulia “enqeris Semkerveli batoniSvilis gamdeli gulqana“. 42 (sur. 11).
dafarna, asomTavruli warweris mixedviT, 1743 SeuwiravT batoniSvil mamukasa da mis
Tanamecxedre dadianis asul darejans (sur. 12). aSoTan batoniSvilis mier aTonis
portaitisas RvTismSoblis xatisadmia Sewiruli karavi (qolga), romlis analogi CvenTvis
ar aris cnobili: `w: Cuen bagrationman RvTiv gvirgvinosanT qarTvelT mefis giorgis
biZaSvilman batoniSvilman aSoTan Semogwire karavi ese mTa wmidas portaitisa
RvTismSobels sulsa Cvensa saxsrad da codvaTa Sesandoblad.... vinc warikiTxoT
SendobiT mogvixsenebdeT.“ (sur. 13). mariam dadianis mier aris Sewiruli (XVII s.) enqeri
da omofori, romlebic asomTavruli warweris mixedviT, „dedofal mariam dadianis
brZanebiT Seikera“ da tfilelma mTavarepiskoposma iosebma „Seakervina sulisa
saxsrad da saoxad“ (sur. 14). aTonze daculi kidev erTi enqeris warweraSi moxseniebulia
molareTuxucesi qaixosro (1701-1702 ww.); tfileli episkopos elises mier aris Sewiruli
epitraqili samenovani - asomTavruli, berZnuli da arabuli warwerebiT. 1681 wliT
daTariRebul epitraqilze mxolod ganmartebiTi asomTavruli warwerebia. 1681 wliT
daTariRebuli omoforis warweraSi moxseniebuli erisTavis asuli, Sahnavazis rZali,
batoniSvil luarsabis Tanamecxedre mariami TavisTavze Semdegs gviyveba: „Rirs viqmen
Semkobad omoforisa amis odes patroni Cven luarsab yeenTan wabrZanda xorasans
da misad? manglel yofils gabriels moZRvarsa da oris Svilis momnaTlavsa Cvens
qoronikonsa . codvaTa CvenTa Sesandoblad.“; aTonze inaxeba dedofal ana-xanumis mier
moqarguli zemoT xsenebuli dafarnis asli. dafarnis Sesrulebis teqnikuri Taviseburebebi
gvafiqrebinebs, rom is aTonze unda iyos Sesrulebuli. dafarnis asomTavrul warweraSi
naTqvamia : `giZRveni dafarna amis pereqelebiTurT. 1747w.“ Tumca pereqelebi araa
gamoqveynebuli, vfiqrobT, amis mizezia is, rom maTze araa qarTuli warwera IERA KEIMHLIA
TOU PANAGOU TAFOU. AFvH ][v NA. 2006;]. (sur. 15).
q. tobolskSi daculi gardamoxsnis warwera aqvs amokiTxuli a. xaxanaSvils. masSi
moxseniebulia kaxTa mefe aleqsandre I meuRliTa da SvilebiT [beriZe v. 1983:32].
amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis qalaq detroitis xelovnebis institutSi inaxeba XVI s-is
bolo meoTxediT daTariRebuli gardamoxsna, romlis warweraSi moxseniebulia kaxTa
mefis, levanis vaJis - xosros asuli, elene-yofili ekaterine, Tanamecxedre farsadan
fanaskertelisa da maTi asuli monazoni anastasia. samwuxarod, CvenTvis ucnobia rogor
aRmoCnda es gardamoxsna amerikaSi43 [beriZe v. 1983:18]. gardamoxsnis asomTavrul warweraSi
vkiTxulobT:
„ q. SewevniTa RmrTisaTa xel-vyav me, friad codvilman kaxTa mefisa patronis xosros
asulman elene - yofilman ekaterine, Tanamecxedreman fanaskertelisa, patronisa
farsadanisaman, Semkobad wmidisa amis qristes RmrTisa Cvenisa gardamoxsnisa, saxsrad
da meoxad sulisa CvenTasa, sadRegrelod ZeTa da asulTa CvenTaTvis. asulman Ceman
monazonman anastasia xel-yo xatvad da Semkobad amisa. Seewie da Seiwyale amin.“ es
warwerac sainteresoa imiT, rom masSi dasaxelebulia gardamoxsnis momxatveli da Semkobi
(Semsrulebeli) monazoni anastasia.
inglisSi, kerZo koleqciaSi, inaxeba XVIII s-is naqargi qsovili wm. estates gamosaxulebiT,

42 aTonze daculi qarTuli saeklesio naqargobis warwerebi kompiuteridan amoikiTxa qalbatonma


gulnaz baraTaSvilma.
43 a. veibelsa da moris briers, romelTac gamoaqveynes es gardamoxsna, warweris wakiTxvaSic zogi ram
gaurkveveli darCaT da verc moxseniebul istoriul pirTa vinaoba daadgines. 1960 wels veibelma weriliT
mimarTa g. CubinaSvils da Txova misTvisa da brierisTvis gaugebari sakiTxebis garkveva. g. CubinaSvilis sapa-
suxo werilSi dadgenilia istoriul pirTa vinaoba: xosro levan kaxTa mefis Ze iyo, romelic cota xans yofila
mefed [beriZe v. 1983: 18].

43
romelic mflobelma sotbis auqcionze SeiZina. qsovili Seiswavla qarTvelologma david
lengma da 1964 wels gamoaqveyna. masSi mkvlevari aanalizebs gamosaxulebas, masze daqargul
vrcel (mxedrul) warweras da gvTavazobs teqstSi naxsenebi pirovnebebis identifikacias.
d. lengi srulad gvawvdis qsovilis warweras: „q: eha, mowameTa Soris brwyinvaled
mnaTobo. romelis saswauliTa da kurnebiTa ididebi maradis. mowameo q(rist)eso
evstaTi. Segimkev knini es TiTTa mier Sromili me. f(ria)d msasoebelman Senman sruliad
saqarTuelos mefis iraklis pirmSosa Zisa giorgis asulman da Tanamecxedreman
Tarxnis-Svilis luarsabisaman sofio. miiRe ese mwulilebr {qurivisa?} da nacuald
guage farvaSi mrCoblisa Sina cxovrebasa meuRliT da SviliT CemiT uke: agvistos kb
qks upb.“ [https://www.cambridge.org].
warweraSi moxseniebuli arian istoriuli pirebi: qarTl-kaxeTis mefe erekle II (1744-98 ww.),
misi memkvidre giorgi XII (1798-1800 ww.) da giorgis qaliSvili sofio (1771-1838 ww.) sofio iyo
mefe giorgi XII -isa da misi pirveli meuRlis - qeTevan andronikaSvilis meoTxe Svili, romelic
1792 an 1793 wels daqorwinda luarsab TarxniSvilze ..... sofiosa da luarsabs hyavdaT oTxi
Svili, romelTagan pirvels wm. evstaTis pativsacemad daarqves estate. swored amis gamo
miuZRvnes naqargobis nimuSi mis mfarvel wmindans. warweris fraza: „Segimkev knini es TiTTa
mier Sromili me“ _ miuTiTebs, rom naqargoba uSualod sofios mieraa Sesrulebuli
[baraTaSvili g., burWulaZe n. 2012 : 320]. sofios kidev erTi naxelavi dafarna inaxeba
xelovnebis muzeumSi. mis saqtitoro warweraSi naTqvamia: „q. wmindao samebao da RmerTo
Cveno Seiwire mcire ese Sesawiravi Cemi uRirsis mefis giorgis asulis sofiasagan Cemis
ZeebiT da asulebiT Cemisa “ [baraTaSvili g., burWulaZe n. 2012 : 323].
sakuTriv naqargobaze warmodgenili warwerebis garda eklesiisTvis Sewiruli naqargobis
Sesaxeb cnobebi werilobiT wyaroebSic moiZebneba. Cvens xelT arsebuli masalis mixedviT,
pirveli werilobiTi wyaro eklesiisaTvis Sewiruli naqargobis Sesaxeb bagrat IV
kurapalatis 1040 wlis gujaria, sadac sxva nivTebTan erTad dasaxelebulia: „Sesamoseli
samRvdelmoZRvro oqsino (oqroqsovili xaverdi) uRliTa anaforiTa xatovanTa
„oqrovanTa“ [Jordania T. 1967 : 181]. 1532 wliTaa daTariRebuli malaqia kaTalikosis
nusxurad dawerili tyavis sigeli, romelSic mis mier Sewiruli samRvdlo Sesamoselia
CamoTvlili: “Sevswire da movaxsene Cem mier naRuawi da CemiTa RonisZiebiTa mogebuli:
enqeri, igica mZimed Sekerili, Semkobili TvaliTa da margalitiTa: samklaveni
igica miTive wesiTa nakeravi da Semkobili TvaliTa da margalitiTa: stiqari mZimed
oqro-qsovili TeTrisa qamxisai“ [kecxoveli m. 2000 :100]. ierusalimis jvris eklesiis
Sewirulobis wignSi aRniSnulia, rom 1558 wels konstantine mefem Seswira am savanes
sxvadasxva nivTi: „anu oqro, anu vercxli, anu naqsovi“ [istoriuli dokumentebi imereTis
samefosa da guria-odiSis samTavroebisa. 1446-1770 ww. 1959:16]. 1584 wlis itriis taZris
tyavis sigelis mixedviT, am eklesias, sxvadasxva saeklesio nivTTan erTad, giorgim simon
mefis pirmSom Seswira: „pereqeli ori sami xeli oqromkediT Sekeruli. amis feSqaSad
mimirTmevia erTi mZime sirmiT Sekeruli omofori, Semkuli TvliTa da margalitiTa
da misis Tormeti saufloTa“ [saqarTvelos siZveleni. 1910 :124].
1712 wels Sedgenili urbnisis taZris gujris mixedviT, vaxtang VI-s ganuaxlebia: „saydris
iaraRi: `pereqeli sami xalasad nakeri, omofori xasisa, erTi filoni yviTlis badilisa,
erTi stixari atlas-bambisa“ [Jordania T. 1967 : 45].
1712 wels daviTgarejSi arsebuli masala Seagrova da aRwera daviTgarejis winamZRvarma
onofre maWutaZem: `wmidao daviT-garejelo, viRvawe d vimuSake kninni eseni da SevsZine
wmidasa samarxosa sensa, raTa meox meqmna winaSesa RvTisa dResa mas didsa gankiTxvisasa“
[Jordania T. 1903 :47]. aRweraSi moxseniebulia sxvadaxva qsovilisagan (diba, farCa, zara,
zarbabi da sxv.) Sekerili oTxi sartyeli, oTxi enqeri, aTi sabuxari, eqvsi dafarna, aTi

44
pereqeli, karis farda, trapezis safarebeli da a.S [kecxoveli m. 2000 : 101].
rogorc warweraTa ganxilvam dagvanaxa, maTSi asaxulia Suamdgomlobisa da Sewevnis
Txovna „orsav Sina cxovrebasa Semweobis misaRebad da warsamarTavad“. Zvirfas ZRvens
swiravdnen „codvaTa Sesandoblad da ZeTa warsamarTeblad da aRsazrdelad.“ „sulis
salxineblad“, „gankiTxvis dRes Semweobis misaRebad“. „pirmSoTa sadRegrZelod“,
maradiul samyaroSi maTi da maTi ojaxis wevrebis sulebis simSvidisaTvis.
Mmosaxsenebeli da miZRvniTi warwerebi werilobiT wyaroebTan erTad mowmobs, rom
eklesias Zvirfas Senawirs uZRvnidnen rogorc mefeebi da dedoflebi, aseve didebulebi,
sasuliero pirebi da dabali socialuri fenis warmomadgenlebic. Semwirvelis socialuri
mdgomareoba da finansuri SesaZlebloba gansazRvravda Sewirulobis zomasa da saqargavi
masalis simdidres. donoris ganaTlebis done aisaxeba aseve nivTis ikonografiul
programasa da mis Teologiur SinaarsSi [http://www.academia.edu].
vfiqrob, yovelive Tqmulis gaTvaliswinebiT, cxadi gaxda, Tu ramdenad mniSvnelovania
TiToeul eqsponatze arsebuli warwera Cveni qveynis istoriis jer kidev ucnobi
furclebis Sesavsebad da imeds vitovebT, rom Tanamedrove mqargvelebi da qtitorebi
gaiTvaliswineben am faqts da maT mier moqargul nivTebze Tavis saxelsac dautoveben
STamomavlobas.

Eka Berelashvili
The Georgian National Museum, Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of fine Arts
1 L. Gudiashvili St. 0105 Tbilisi, Georgia
E-mail: kato_009@yahoo.com

Dedicatory Inscriptions on Georgian Ecclesiastical Embroidery

Georgian cclesiastical embroidery is an organic and original part of Christian art in which is perfectly reflected
embroidery artist’s refined taste and mastery, profound knowledge of the Christian liturgy as well as canonical
symbolism and iconographic schemes and technical skills without which such highly artistic pieces of Christian
art could not be created. Embroiderers were equally mastered in monumental (Epitaphios, curtains, big
omophorions), as well as in tiny (reliquaries, cases for icon, an adornments for bishop’s vestment) embroidery
methods. The objects of cclesiastical and secular embroidery collection preserved in our museum are attractive
by their harmoniously created, dynamic and elegant compositions, original iconographic programme, and
significant historical inscriptions containing interesting historical data.
The inscriptions fall into three distinct categories: 1. the short titles identifying the name of a saint or scene
2. the quotations from the scriptures or the liturgy; 3. the dedicatory inscriptions which name a donor and
sometimes a church to which the gift was dedicated.
Dedicatory inscriptions depicted on hierarchical and liturgical cloth bear witness to ecclesiastical and secular
individuals’ relationship and patronage.
Many of donors recorded their names and sometimes the date of their gift, asking at the same time for
forgiveness of their sins, for divine grace for themselves and their families, or for God’s mercy on the soul of a
departed relative.

45
Depicted inscriptions give us a chance to learn about task of the artwork, the date and place of its creating,
about historical background and sometimes about those objects which have been lost for different reasons;
also about donor or owner, author and their family members.
Donation of liturgical cloth by them to the church or any priest, was an expression of the peculiar traditional
piety

Bbibliografia:

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Tbilisi (red-bi: n. lomouri, g. marsagiSvili).
baraTaSvili g. 2007: dedofal ana-xanumis dafarnebi. saqarTvelos siZveleni. #11. გვ.161-
175. Tbilisi (red-bi: n. vaCeiSvili, i. xuskivaZe).
baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e., kecxoveli m., meliqiSvili i., nadaraia n., sulxaniSvili
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ww. naw.1. 1959 : Tbilisi.
Kkecxoveli m. 2000: zogierTi sakiTxi qarTuli saeklesio naqargobis istoriidan.
Nnarkvevebi. t. VI. Ggv. 93-103. Tbilisi ( red-ebi: n. lomouri, g. marsagiSvili).
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da saxviTi xelovneba. XVI-XIX saukuneebi. Tbilisi.
lomiZe d. 1987: ucxoeTidan miRebuli zogierTi masala saqarTvelos istoriis Sesaxeb.
mravalTavi. me-14. Ggv. 166-176. Tbilisi. (red. el. metreveli).
margiSvili r. 2003 : xelovnebis muzeumSi daculi enqerebisa da dafarnebis berZnuli
warwerebi. Nnarkvevebi. t.VIII. gv. 78-91. Tbilisi (red-ebi: n. lomouri, g. marsagiSvili).
meliqiSvili i. 1999: elene dedofliseuli gardamoxsna. narkvevebi. t.V. gv. 149-162.
Tbilisi (red-ebi: n. lomouri, g. marsagiSvili).
Jordania T. 1903 : qarTl-kaxeTis monastrebisa da eklesiebis istoriuli sabuTebi.

46
Sekrebili T. Jordanias mier. foTi. Eepiskoposi aleqsandres gamocema.
Jordania T. 1967: qronikebi da sxva masala saqarTvelos istoriisa da mwerlobisa,
Sekrebili, qronologiurad dawyobili da axsnili T. Jordanias mier (1700 wlidan me-19
saukunis 60-ian wlebamde). w. 3 Tbilisi.
sulxaniSvili e. 2004: saflavis qvis safareblebi. narkvevebi. t. IX. gv. 104-112. Tbilisi
(red-ebi: n. lomouri, g. marsagiSvili).
qarTlis cxovreba. 1973: Tbilisi.
WiWinaZe n. 2000: Sua saukuneebis qarTuli ferweruli xatebis damkveTTa vinaobisaTvis.
Jur. `religia”. # #1-2-3. gv. 22-31. Tbilisi.
jobaZe v. 2006 : adreuli Sua sukuneebis qarTuli monastrebi istoriul taoSi,
klarjeTsa da SavSeTSi. Tbilisi.
Верховская А. 1961: Западно- европейская вышивка 12- 19 веков в Эрмитаже. Ленинград.
Кондаков Н., Бакрадзе Д., 1890: Опись памятниковь древности в некоторых храмах и монастырях грузии.
Петербург.
Якунина Л. 1955: Русское щитье Жемчугом. москва.
Johnstone P. 1967: Byzantine Tradition in Church Embroidery. London.
Millet G. 1916: Recherches sur l’iconographie de l’Evangile au 14_e, 15-e et 16-e siecles d’ après les monuments de
Mistra de la Macedoine et du Mont-Athos. Paris.
Woodfin W.T. 2012 : Embodied icon. Liturgical vestments and sacramental power in Byzantium. Oxford
University press. New York.

IERA KEIMHLIA TOU PANAGOU TAFOU. 200;6;: AFvv[]HNA.


http://www.academia.edu- Sophia Kalopissi-Verti. 2006: Patronage and Artistic Production in Byzantium
during the Palaiologan Period”, in S. Brooks, ed. Byzantium: Faith and Power (1261-1557). Perspectives on Late
Byzantine Art and Culture. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Symposia, . pp. 76-97. New York.
https://www.cambridge.org- Lang D. M. 1964: A Georgian Embroidery Panel in Hull. p. 612-619.

47
ilustraciebis aRweriloba

sur. 1. manuCar dadianis asul dedofalT-dedofal mariamisa (1632-1682 ww.) da vaxtang V-is
asul Tamaris (1678-1694 ww.) gamosaxulebebi gardamoxsnebze.
sur. 2.BimereTis mefe bagrat III –is mier Sewiruli gardamoxsna. XVIs.
sur. 3. imereTis mefe aleqsandre V-is mier Sewiruli dafarna kompoziciiT „nu mtir me
dedao“. XVIII s.
sur. 4. vaxtangis VI-is asulisa da Teimuraz II-is Tanamecxedre Tamaris mier sagarejos wm.
Nninos eklesiisadmi Sewiruli dafarna. 1718w.
sur. 5. samcxis aTabag yvaryvare I-is asulis, dedofalT-dedofali naTelis, mier Sewiruli
omofori anCidan. 1358w.
sur. 6. episkopos besarionis mitra. XVIII s.
sur. 7. vaxtang VI-is asulisa da Teimuraz II-is Tanamecxedre Tamaris mier moqarguli
gardamoxsna. 1747w.
sur. 8. ekaterine WavWavaZis mier ganaxlebuli samRvdelmTavro Sesamoseli –sakosi,
omoforebi, enqeri, sabuxari. XVIII s.
sur. 9. sionis taZrisadmi Sewiruli kretsabmeli. 1773 w.
sur.10. ioane erisTavis meuRle-ninas saflavis qvis gadasafarebeli. 1857 w.
sur.11. aTonis iveronis monastrisadmi Sewiruli enqeri. XVIIIs.
sur.12. aTonis iveronis monastrisadmi Sewiruli dafarna. 1743w.
sur.13. aSoTan batoniSvilis mier aTonis portaitisas RvTismSoblis xatisadmi Sewiruli
karavi. XVII s.
sur. 14. aTonis iveronis monastrisadmi Sewiruli omofori. XVII s.
sur. 15. aTonis iveronis monastrisadmi ana-xanumis mier Sewiruli dafarna. XVIII s.

LIST OF ILLUSTARTIONS

Fig.1 Two Epitaphios. Depicted Queen Mariam (1632-1682) and Queen Tamar (1678-1694).
Fig. 2 Epitaphios. Donored by King Bagrat III. XVIc.
Fig. 3 Aer with composition “Man of Sorrows”. Donored by King of Imereti Aleqsandre V. XVIIIc.
Fig.4 Aer. Donored by Queen Tamar daughter of King Vaxtang VI and spouse of Teimuraz II.
Fig. 5 Omophorion from Ancha. Donated by Queen Natela, daughter of Samckhe Atabeg Kvarkvare. 1358.
Fig. 6. Mitra belonged to Episkopos Besarion. XVIIIc.
Fig. 7. Epitaphios embroidered by Tamar, daughter of Vaxtang VI and Teimuraz II’s wife.
Fig. 8. Omophorion renovated by Ekaterine Chavchavadze. XVIII c.
Fig. 9. Podea (Door curtain) dedicated to Sioni Church, Tbilisi. 1773.
Fig. 10. Pall. Ioane Eristavis’s wife Nina. 1857.
Fig. 11. Epigonation. Dedicated to the monastery of Iviron (Athos). XVIII c.
Fig. 12. Aer. Dedicated to the monastery of Iviron (Athos). 1743
Fig. 13.Umbrella for the Athoni’s portaitissa Virgin Icon. donated by Ashotan Batonishvili. (Athos). XVIIc.
Fig. 14. Omophorion Dedicated to the monastery of Iviron (Athos). XVIIc.
Firg. 15. Aer donored by Anna-Khanum queen of Kartli, to the monastery of Iviron (Athos). XVIII c.
48
sur. 1 Fig. sur. 2 Fig.

sur. 3 Fig.

49
sur. 4 Fig.

sur. 5 Fig.

50
sur. 6 Fig.

sur. 7 Fig.

sur. 8 Fig.

51
sur. 9 Fig.

sur. 10 Fig.

52
sur. 11 Fig.

sur. 12 Fig. sur. 13 Fig.

53
sur. 13 Fig.

sur. 15 Fig.

sur. 14 Fig.

54
gliptika

irma kopaliani*
*apolon quTaTelaZis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo samxatvro akademia
0108 Tbilisi, saqarTvelo, griboedovis quCa #22
elfosta: kopaliani_irma@yahoo.com

gulqan lorTqifaniZis sabeWdavi mwvane sakosTan


mimarTebaSi

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumis


naqargobisa da qsovilebis fondSi daculia mwvane sakosis saxeliT cnobili samRvdelmTavro
Sesamoseli (sur.1-2). masze arsebuli saqtitoro warweridan gamomdinare, mas abaSiZeebis
sakossac uwodeben. is erTaderTia Cvenamde moRweul sakosTa Soris, romelzec uxvadaa
naqargi bibliuri scenebi da figuratiuli gamosaxulebani, kerZod, mis orive (wina da
ukana) kalTasa da saxeloebze gamosaxulia ,,aTormeti dResaswaulis’’ kompoziciebi,
simboluri da wmindanTa figurebi. miCneulia, rom ,,samRvdelmTavro samosis daqargvis
amgvari stili damaxasiaTebelia rogorc bizantiisa da siria-kabadokiis, aseve gviani
drois evropuli da rusuli qristianuli samyarosTvis’’ [baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e.
... 2011: 197]. garda amisa, am samosis Semkobisas gamoyenebulia Zvirfasi qvebi. es tradicia ki
ufro intensiurad XVII-XVIIIss-is saeklesio samosze vlindeba [baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili
e. ... 2011: 194]. sakvlevi sakosic am periodSia Seqmnili. mwvane, anu abaSiZeebis sakosi Tavisi,
amgvari Taviseburebebis gamo, ara marto qarTul, aramed bizantiuri da postbizantiuri
xanis unikalur sakosTa Soris ikavebs adgils.
Tavad sityva sakosi (ebr. sakk, rus. вретище. рубище- jvalo, ZonZi) gviCvenebs, rom igi
iudevelTaganaa aRebuli da, Tavdapirvelad, mzaddeboda uxeSi qsovilisagan, radgan
simbolurad gamoxatavda mwuxarebas, monaniebas, marxvas. mogvianebiT igi iqca simbolod
qlamidisa, romliTac qriste jvarcmis win Semoses dacinvis mizniT [Настольная книга для
священнослужителя. 1983: 144].
sakosi mwvane xaverdisaa, xolo gulispiris da sabeWuris, igive samxaris miwari _
endrosferi zeziTaa moqarguli. maRalmxatvruli da teqnikurad srulyofilad
Sesrulebuli dekori naqargia oqromkediT, vercxlmkediT, zeziTa da feradi abreSumis
ZafiT. Zvirfasi qvebi gamoyenebulia samosis yvelaze mniSvnelovan nawilSi _ sabeWurze
(samxareze) ganTavsebul ,,vedrebis’’ kompoziciaSi (sur.3). aq warmodgenil taxtze mjdom
macxovars amkobs margalitebiT mooWvili Saravandi (sur.4), xolo gulze damagrebuli aqvs
oqros budeSi Casmuli oTxkuTxa zurmuxtis qva (sur.5). Fferis qristianuli simbolikidan
gamomdinare, ,,mwvane feriT xazgasmulia macxovris maradiuli sicocxle’’ [baraTaSvili
g., berelaSvili e. ... 2011: 200]. zurmuxtis qvaze mxedruli asoebiT amokveTilia
warwera, romelic sarkiseburad ikiTxeba: `lorTqif(i)niZis qali gulq(a)n~.1 amdenad,
samRvdelmTavro samosze dekoris erT-erT elementad gamoyenebulia yofiT-praqtikuli
daniSnulebis nivTi _ gulqan lorTqifaniZis sabeWdavi beWedi.
qarTuli sfragistikis mkvlevarT ZiriTadad istoriul dokumentebSi daculi anabeWdebis

1 warweris amokiTxvaSi damexmara b-ni Temo jojua, risTvisac did madlobas movaxseneb.

55
mixedviT uwevT sabeWdavebze msjeloba, radgan Cvenamde moaRwia mxolod beWdebis
anabeWdebma, TviT sabeWdavebi ki dakargulia. saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis simon
janaSias saxelobis istoriis muzeumis gliptikis fondsa da saqarTvelos xelovnebis
muzeumis saganZurSi daculia qarTuli beWdebis mcirericxovani koleqciebi. maTSia
qarTulwarweriani beWdebic. aRsaniSnavia, rom TiTo-orola aqvT kerZo pirebs [baqraZe a.
1978: 4]. amis gamo, cxadia, gulqan lorTqifaniZis sabeWdavis mniSvneloba izrdeba qarTuli
sfragistikis istoriisaTvis. aqamde ki is SeumCneveli iyo mecnierTaTvis.
sabeWdavebs hqondaT yofiTi daniSnuleba. mas iyenebdnen sigelebis dasamowmeblad,
brZanebis wignis, wyalobis, mamulebis, ymebis gayidva _ yidvis damadasturebeli sabuTis
gacemisas, sigelTa pirebis Semowmebisas da sxv. yvela sabuTi am dros damowmebulia
beWdebiT. sabeWdavebs xmarobdnen qonebis, ganZeulobis Senaxvis drosac, raTa SesaZlebeli
yofiliyo misi xeluxleblobis Semowmeba [barnaveli s. 1965: 77]. beWeds, rogorc utyuarobis
simbolos, sabuTs usvams is piri, romelic garkveulad dakavSirebulia sabuTSi aRniSnul
iuridiul aqtTan [baqraZe a. 1978: 10]. gansakuTrebuli dacvis mizniT karis klitesac beWeds
asvamdnen [barnaveli s. 1965: 78].
istoriul dokumentebSi uZvelesi qarTuli anabeWdebi XV s-dan gvxvdeba. am droidan
qarTuli beWdebi sabuTebSi sistematurad gamoiyeneba [baqraZe a. 1978: 15]. Semonaxulia
mefeebis, dedoflebis, batoniSvilebis, saqarTvelos mTavrebis, feodalTa, maTi ojaxis
wevrebis, moxeleTa, moqalaqeTa, vaWar-xelosanTa da sasuliero pirTa beWedTa anabeWdebi.
qarTul sabuTebSi didgvarovan qalTa 15 da dedofalTa 50-mde anabeWdia. cnobilia, rom
qalebs hqondaT sakuTari qoneba, romelic mziTvSi miiRes an nasyidobiT SeiZines, rogorc
moZravi, aseve uZravi. am meurneobis warmoebas ki saTanado dokumentacia esaWiroeboda,
rac gaformebuli unda yofiliyo iuridiulad da sabeWdavebis dasmiT [baqraZe a. 1988: 11].
gulqan lorTqifaniZis beWdis anabeWdi jerjerobiT vercerT dokumentSi ver moviZieT
da misi gamoyenebis Sesaxeb raimes Tqma ar SegviZlia. abaSiZeebis sakosTan dakavSirebiT ki
saintereso mosazreba ikveTeba.
rogorc ukve aRiniSna, sakosis dekoris erT-erTi kompoziciis - ,,vedrebis’’ mTavar figuras
amkobs sabeWdavi. oqros budeSi Casmuli zurmuxtis qva oqromkediT, vercxlmkediT,
zeziTa da feradi abreSumis ZafiT Sesrulebuli naqargobis mxatvrul saxesa da macxovris
Saravandze arsebul margalitebs Taviseburad exmianeba, aseve samosis ZiriTadi miwaris
mwvane fers. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, qvis mwvane _ zurmuxtis feri, qristianuli
simbolikidan gamomdinare, macxovris maradiul sicocxles mianiSnebs. sabeWdavi, formis
gamo, macxovris gul-mkerdze wminda wignad, misi ikonografiis erT-erT detalad,
aRiqmeba. garda amisa, igi ukavSirdeba esqatologiuri SinaarsiT gajerebul ,,vedrebis’’
ikonografiul Temas: ,,rameTu yovelnive wardgomad varT winaSe saydarTa qristesTa’’
[rom. 14.10]. udidesi meoxni uflis winaSe kacobriobisaTvis wminda RvTismSobeli da
ioane naTlismcemelia. cxadia, isini uflis winaSe im pirovnebis sulis xsnis meoxadac
warmogvidgebian, vinc sabeWdavis warweraSia xsenebuli _ lorTqifaniZe gulqani. amdenad,
miuxedavad sabeWdavis zemoT xazgasmuli upirvelesi yofiTi daniSnulebisa, mwvane sakosis
dekorSi igi mis mxatvrulsa da ikonografiul mTlianobas araa mowyvetili.
aRsaniSnavia, rom samosis dekorisaTvis gamoyenebuli piraduli nivTis arseboba kidev
or nimuSze dasturdeba: XVII s-is samRvdlo stiqarsa2 (sur. 6, 7) da XVII s-is e.w. gelaTis
mitraze (sur. 8,9). pirvelze kameaa adamianis biustis gamosaxulebiT. igi samosis qobas
amkobs sxvadasxva Zvirfas qvasTan erTad, xolo mitraze mraval Zvirfas qvaTagan firuzi

2 gamoTqmulia varaudi, rom igi warmoadgens ara stiqars, aramed saero daniSnulebis samoss. aRniSnuli mosazrebis
ganmtkiceba Cemi momavali kvlevis sagania.

56
gamoirCeva. romelzedac qarTuli asomTavruli warweraa daqaragmebuli ( ,,b~qi’’ ).3
savaraudod es qvac sabeWdavia. maszec warwera sarkiseburad ikiTxeba.
amrigad, or saeklesio samosze arsebuli sabeWdavi beWdebi Cvenamde moRweul mcirericxovan
sxva sabeWdavebTan erTad unikaluri nivTebia. isini Zvelad maRali socialuri fenis
TiTqmis yvela warmomadgenelsa Tu ubralo moxeles hqonda. maTi arsebobis kvali ki
anabeWdebis saxiT istoriuli sabuTebis gverdebsRa SemorCa.
gulqan lorTqifaniZis kavSiri mwvane sakosTan marto am sabeWdaviT ar amoiwureba. igi
samosis saxeloebis mosavlebze mxedruli asoebiT amoqargul saqtitoro warweraSic
ixsenieba ojaxTan erTad: ,,Rm(erT)o acxone abaSiZe giorgi, gan(a)Zliere Ze misi levan,
beJan da malaqia, Rm(erT)o acxone abaSiZe giorgi da meuRle misi gulqan’’. isini XVII-
XVIII ss-Si imereTSi moRvawe pirovnebebi arian. giorgi abaSiZe 1638 Tu 1656 wels an am wlebis
axlo dros dabadebula [soselia o. 1966: 200], malaqiad saxeldebuli, is erT xans berad iyo
Semdgari, Zmis gardacvalebis Semdeg saero cxovrebas daubrunda da sakmaod gavleniani
mmarTveli gaxda imereTisa. 1703-1707 wlebSi ki giorgi |-abaSiZe imereTis taxtze aRzevda
[batoniSvili v. 1902: 62-63]. mas xuTi vaJi da oTxi asuli esva: finezi, paata, levani, beJani,
malaqia, Tamari, anika, elene da mariami. warweraSi mesame meuRlesTan _ gulqansa (romelic
1698 wels Tu mis axlo xans SeirTo [soselia o. 1966: 202] ) da maT saerTo SvilebTan (levani,
beJani, malaqia) erTadaa moxseniebuli.
gulqani mefis molareTuxucesisa da ,,quTais qalaqis’’ mourav beJan lorTqifaniZis asuli
iyo. mis gavlenian mdgomareobaze kacxis gulanis anderZi gvauwyebs: ,,me uRirsman didis
warCinebulis lorTqifaniZis mefis molareTuxucesis, quTais qalaqis mouravis, didis
gedevan gaenaTelis Zmis beJanis asulman, kaTalikosis grigolis da nikoloz gaenaTelis
daman, erisTavis SoSitas dedaman da didis giorgi abaSiZis Tanamecxedreman da meuRleman
gulqan SemogwireT..’’ [saqarTvelos saxelmwifo muzeumis qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba
(Q). 1958: 85]. Tavdapirvelad, gulqan lorTqifaniZe iyo raWis erisTav papuna II-is meuRle
da misgan hyavda xelnaweris anderZSi naxsenebi SoSita, igive SoSita III, raWis erisTavi.
daqvrivebis Semdeg ki is giorgi abaSiZes gahyva colad.
sakosis saxeloebis warweraSi giorgi abaSiZe da gulqan lorTqifaniZe gardacvlilebad,
maTi saerTo Svilebi ki cocxlebad ixseniebian. Sesabamisad, samosis donorebic isini arian.
SesaZloa, maT mSobelTa sulis saoxad daukveTes es samosi an mSobelTa dawyebuli dakveTa
Svilebma daasrules da warweramac sabolood arsebuli viTareba asaxa.
aA mrigad, samosis naqargoba dasrulebul saxes miiRebda giorgisa da gulqanis gardacvalebis
Semdeg. cnobilia, rom giorgi abaSiZe gardaicvala 1722 wlis 15 oqtombers [batoniSvili v.
1902: 76], xolo gulqanis gardacvalebis zusti TariRi ucnobia. levan abaSiZis Sewirulobis
wignidan irkveva, rom meuRlis gardacvalebis Semdeg gulqani Semonazonda ninos saxeliT.
wyalobis wignis TariRia 1734 weli [kakabaZe s. 1921: 147-148]. amdenad, naqargobis Seqmna 1734
wlis Semdeg dasruldeboda. sabeWdavic gulqanis gardacvalebis Semdeg aRmoCndeboda
samosze. igi piradi Sinaarsisaa da sxva mas verc gamoiyenebda.
sainteresoa agreTve im mRvdelmTavris vinaobis dadgena, visTvisac aseTi Zvirfasi
samosi Seiqmna da romelzec qalis saxelobiT _ legendiani beWedi ganaTavses. zusti
wyaros ararsebobis gamo am sakiTxis Sesaxeb mxolod varaudis gamoTqmaa SesaZlebeli.
amis safuZvels gvaZlevs precedenti samosze sabeWdavis arsebobisa. iqmneba STabeWdileba,
rom sabeWdavi gadaprialebis gareSe savsebiT gaazrebulad aRmoCnda samosze damkveTisa
da misi mflobelis nebiT, visTvisac qalis saxelobiT _ legendiani beWdis ganTavseba

3 masalebi momawoda q-nma gulnaz baraTaSvilma, risTvisac did madlobas movaxseneb.

57
samRvdelmTavro Sesamoselze raime uxerxulobas ar qmnida. swored es faqti qmnis
STabeWdilebas, rom gulqansa da samosis mflobel mRvdelmTavars Soris gansakuTrebuli
damokidebuleba arsebobda, rac, savsebiT SesaZlebelia, maTi ojaxur _ naTesauri
kavSiriT iyos ganpirobebuli.
rogorc cnobilia, gulqans maRalierarqiuli sasuliero wridan hyavda: biZa, mamamisis-
beJanis Zma gedeon gaenaTeli, Zmebi _ grigol kaTalikosi da nikoloz gaenaTeli.
samosis mflobelad gedeon an nikoloz gaenaTelebis miCnevas gamoricxavs maTi moRvaweobis
wlebi: gedeoni gardaicvala 1682 wels [lominaZe b. 1955: 47], nikolozis gardacvaleba ki
ivaraudeba 1683-1691 wlebSi [gafrindaSvili b. 2015: 136]. garda amisa, nakleb savaraudoa,
rom samosis mflobeli yofiliyo romelime episkoposi, radgan aRniSnul epoqaSi mxolod
ramdenime privilegirebul episkoposs hqonda sakosis tarebis ufleba. savaraudod,
maTi sakosebi SemkulobiT iseTi gamorCeuli ar iqneboda, rogoric mwvane sakosia. aseTi
mdidruli sakosi, uTuod, kaTalikoss ekuTvnoda.
amrigad, gamoikveTa varaudi, rom mwvane sakosi romelime kaTalikoss ekuTvnoda da is
kaTalikosi savsebiT SesaZlebelia, gulqanis Zma _ grigol lorTqifaniZe iyo. grigolis
kaTalikosobis wlebi ( 1696-1742 ww. ) Seesabameba [lominaZe b. 1954: 139] samosis Seqmnis
savaraudo TariRs. erTi istoriuli movlenac amyarebs am varauds. cnobilia, rom grigol
lorTqifaniZem umaRlesi sasuliero xarisxi swored gulqanisa da ,,SewevniTa abaSiZisaTa’’
miiRo [batoniSvili v. 1902: 57]. savsebiT SesaZloa, rom maT ezrunaT kaTalikosis mTavari
samosis Seqmnazec.
mwvane sakosis masStaburi naqargobis Seqmnas, cxadia, didi dro dasWirdeboda. grigol
lorTqifaniZis kaTalikosobis dro gvexmareba, ganvsazRvroT, Tu rodis miiRebda
mwvane sakosis naqargoba dasrulebul saxes. zemoT samosis dekoris dasrulebis qveda
sazRvrad gulqanis monazvnobis weli davasaxeleT, zeda sazRvrad ki grigol kaTalikosis
gardacvalebis wels miviCnevT, anu samosis dekori dasrulebul saxes miiRebda 1734-1742
wlebs Soris.
amrigad, mwvane sakosis unikalurobas gansazRvravs ara marto misi mxatvrul-istoriuli
Rirebuleba, aramed isic, rom mis dekorSi gamoyenebulia Cvenamde mcire raodenobiT
moRweuli sabeWdavebis erTi nimuSi. misi warwera gvauwyebs, rom igi ekuTvnoda gulqan
lorTqifaniZes. sabeWdavsa da qtitorebTan dakavSirebuli istoriuli monacemebis
safuZvelze ki savaraudoa, rom sakosis dekori dasrulebul saxes miiRebda 1734-1742
wlebs Soris da misi mflobeli iyo gulqan lorTqifaniZis Zma _ dasavleT saqarTvelos
kaTalikosi _ grigol beJanis Ze lorTqifaniZe.

58
Irma Kopaliani
Tbilisi Apolon Kutateladze State Academy of Arts

Seal (Signet Ring) of Gulqan Lortkipanidze –Green Sakkos

Most of the Middle Ages Georgian seals are lost and therefore the basic materials for the research are the prints
that are found in Georgian historical documents. The investigation has shown that almost every representative
of high social rank including women, owned seals. Among a few survived signet rings is the one belonging to
Gulqan Lordkipanidze, the spouse of Giorgi Abashidze, an influential nobleman of Imereti. It is a square-shaped
ring studded with emerald and attached to the Archbishop vestment known under the name of the“Green
Sakkos”. The legend engraved in the Mkhedruli script reads: “Lordkip<i>(a)nidze’s daughter Gulq(a)n”. The
same name is embroidered in the donor’s inscription placed on the sleeves, where she is referred to together
with her husband and children.

The existence of a woman’s signet ring on the archbishop vestment and historical data about donors gives us
an opportunity to suggest a date of the object and to identify its owner archbishop’s name.

The uniqueness of the green Sakkos is determined not only by the existence of the signet ring of practical use
but by the fact that it is the only medieval-period Sakkos which bears the Christological cycle scenes so lavishly
adorned with the figures of saints, symbolic images and decorative motifs. Set on the most important place –
on a piece of cloth worn over the shoulders, the signet ring embelishes the Savoir’s breast in the scene of the
Deesis. Despite of the function of the Sakkos, the attached seal in no ways violate the artistic-ideological
integrity of the vestment’s décor.

Thus, the signet ring of Gulaqan Lordkipanidze on the green Sakkos is an significant object not only from the
sfragistic point of view but also in connection with the vestment.

Bbibliografia

baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e., kecxoveli m., meliqiSvili i.,


nadaraia n., sulxaniSvili e. 2011: qarTuli naqargoba. Tbilisi.
barnaveli s. 1965: saqarTvelos sabeWdavebi da sxva gliptikuri masalebi. Tbilisi.
batoniSvili v. 1902: imereTis istoria 687-1744/aRwerili batoniSvilis vaxuStis mier.
Tbilisi.
baqraZe a. 1978: masalebi qarTuli sfragistikis istoriisaTvis, katalogi, naw.1, Tbilisi.
baqraZe a. 1988: masalebi qarTuli sfragistikis istoriisaTvis, katalogi, naw. 2, Tbilisi.
gafrindaSvili b. 2015; raWa-imereTis saepiskoposoebi (gelaTi, xoni, nikorwminda) 1529-
1820 ww. Tbilisi.
kakabaZe s. 1921; dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio sabuTebi: wigni I. Tbilisi.
lominaZe b. 1955; gelaTi. Tbilisi.
lominaZe b. 1954; masalebi dasavleT saqarTvelos XVII-XVIIIss-Ta istoriis
qronologiisaTvis. Mski. nakv. 31. gv. 129-143. Tbilisi.
soselia o. 1966: feodaluri xanis dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriidan: saTavadoebis
sistema. Tbilisi.

59
xelnawerTa aRweriloba. 1958: qarTul xelnawerTa aRweriloba axali (Q) koleqciisa.
t. II: Sedgenilia da dasabeWdad damzadebuli T. bregaZis, n. kasraZis, el. metrevelis, l.
quTaTelaZis da qr. SaraSiZis mier, ilia abulaZis redaqciiT. Tbilisi.
Настольная книга для священнослужителя. 1983: т. 4. Москва

ilustraciebis aRweriloba

sur. 1. mwvane sakosi (wina kalTa). XVIII s.


sur. 2.Mmwvane sakosi (ukana kalTa).
sur. 3. mwvane sakosis sabeWuri (samxare). ,,vedrebis’’ kompozicia.
sur. 4. margalitebiT mooWvili macxovaris Saravandi. ,,vedrebis’’ kompoziciis detali.
sur. 5. mwvane sakosis sabeWdavi.
sur. 6. samRvdlo stiqari. XVIII s.
sur. 7. kamea samRvdlo stiqarze
sur. 8. gelaTis mitris ca XVIII s.
sur. 9. sabeWdavi gelaTis mitraze.

60
სur. 1 Fig. sur. 2 Fig.

სur. 3 Fig.

61
სur. 4 Fig.

სur. 5 Fig.

62
სur. 6 Fig.

სur. 7 Fig.

63
სur. 8 Fig .

სur. 9 Fig.

64
eTnografia/eTnologia
mariam xinTibiZe
saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi
simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumi
rusTavelis gamziri 3, 0105, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo
khint.tex@gmail.com

socialur-asakobrivi aspeqtebi
aWareli qalis CacmulobaSi
aWaruli tansacmeli qarTuli samosis originaluri saxeobaa. miuxedavad osmaluri kul-
turis gavlenisa, aWaras ar gauwyvetia kontaqtebi saqarTvelosTan da SeinarCuna qarTuli
kulturisa da yofis yvela mniSvnelovani elementi [samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos kul-
turisa da yofis sakiTxebi. 1973: 4].
XX s-is meore naxevridan tradiciuli aWaruli samosis zogierT models ukve aRar moix-
mardnen, Sesabamisad, maTi aRmniSvneli terminebi da aRwerilobac mxolod eTnografiul
masalaSi SemorCa [samsonia i. 2009: 417]. maRali wodebis aWareli qalis kostiumis sruli
kompleqti daculia saqarTvelos simon janaSias saxelobis muzeumSi. aWareli qalisa da
mamakacis samosis mravali kompleqti inaxeba aWaris saxelmwifo muzeumis fondebSic.
aWareli qalis samosi moxmareba-daniSnulebis mixedviT iyo Sin saxmari, anu sacveTi da
sagareo, anu sanamuso. isini erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdeboda qsovilis xarisxiT, feriTa da
SemkulobiT, Tumca orive erTnairi Targis mixedviT iyo gamoWrili. sacveT kabad, rogorc
wesi, gadaiqceoda moZvelebuli sanamuso tansacmeli. sagareo kabas ki icvamdnen qorwi-
lebsa da sxva saxis dReoba-dResaswaulebis dros [samsonia i. 2005: 57].
aWareli qalis kostiumis Semadgenloba aseTia: datexili kaba, romelic ori - zeda da qveda
nawilisagan Sedgeba (sur. 1); zeda samoseli – sixma (sur. 2) da saTbilobeli samosi – salta.
am ukanasknelis nimuSi ar Semonaxula da mis Sesaxeb mxolod eTnografiuli Canawerebi-
dan gvaqvs informacia. aWarul samoss srulyofil iers aZlevs ferTa mravalferovnebiT
gamorCeuli sartyeli (sur 3) da samkauli (sur. 4), romliTac irkveoda mflobelis social-
uri da ojaxuri mdgomareoba. samosis aucilebeli atributi iyo Tavsaburavic. Tavdauxu-
ravi qalis gareT gamosvla did sircxvilad iTvleboda, miT umetes, Tu is gaTxovili iyo.
aWarul samosSi misi mflobelis socialuri kuTvnileba, ZiriTadad, masalis xarisxiTa
da Zvirfasi samkauliT ganirCeoda. samosis kompleqtis nawilebi ki identuri iyo rogorc
saxelwodebiT, aseve TargiT [gvaTua n. 1967: 19].
aWaraSi tansacmlis Sesakerad gamoiyeneboda Salis, abreSumisa da bambis Sinnamzadi qso-
vilebi, romelTa damzadebis tradiciebi xalxur feiqrobaSi axlo warsulamde SemorCa.
didi mniSvneloba eniWeboda ferebis Sexamebas. z. WiWinaZis aRniSvniT, osmaluri gavleniT
cvlileba ganicada qalis ara mxolod Tavxurvis wesebma (leCaqis nacvlad fesis tareba;
Cadri yvelasaTvis savaldebulo gaxda), aramed ferTa Sexamebamac. upiratesoba mieniWa
ufro Ria fers – wiTelsa da yviTels [WiWinaZe z. 1913: 86]. Tumca, XX s-Si Sekrebili eTno-
grafiuli masaliT irkveva, rom ferebis Sexamebisas didi mniSvneloba hqonda qalis asaksa
da ojaxur mdgomareobas. axalgazrda, gasaTxovari qalebi ufro Ria, naTeli feris samoss
atarebdnen, xanSi Sesuli mandilosnebi ki muqi feris tansacmels aniWebdnen upiratesobas.
gansxvaveba iyo kabis SemkulobaSic. `cocxali” ferebiTa da uxvi ornamentebiT moqarguli

65
kabebiT ufro axalgazrdebi imosebodnen, asakovani qalbatonebi ki gaurbodnen kabis Sem-
kobas da sada tansacmels atarebdnen [samsonia i. 2005: 57-58]. ferebisadmi msgavsi damokide-
buleba zogadqarTuli tendenciaa. analogiurad, aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTaSic xanSi
Sesuli mandilosnebi eridebodnen feradi samosis Cacmas da ufro Talxi feris samosiT
imosebodnen.
aWaris regionSi kabis originaluri varianti iyo e.w. datexili kaba, romelsac qalebi XX
s-is 20-ian wlebamde atarebdnen. datexili kaba welzeda da welqveda nawilisagan Sedge-
boda. orive nawils cal-calke keravdnen da Semdeg aerTebdnen. datexili kaba grZeli da
naoWiani iyo. igi tanze mWidrod unda yofiliyo morgebuli. Cveulebriv, mis dasamzade-
blad wiTeli, yviTeli, mwvane da alisferi qsovilebi gamoiyeneboda. ferebis aseTi SerCeva
ufro gaadvilda aWaraSi manufaqturuli qsovilebis Semotanis Semdeg, romlebic advilad
dasamuSavebeli iyo da xasiaTdeboda simsubuqiTa da ferTa simravliT. amis gamo amgvari
qsovilebisgan datexili kabis Sekerva ufro martivi iyo. garda amisa, momxmarebels Tavad
SeeZlo, sakuTari gemovnebiT SeerCia sasurveli feris qsovili [samsonia i. 2005: 54].
aWareli qalis zedakabaSi erT-erTi saintereso elementi iyo sixma, romelic fabrikuli
qsovilisagan mzaddeboda da Sesrulebis maRali doniT gamoirCeoda. mis fers arCevdnen
gemovnebisa da asakis mixedviT. axalgazrdebi wiTel, mwvane da Sav sixmas xmarobdnen, xolo
xanSi Sesulebi yovelTvis muqi ferisas amjobinebdnen.
gavrcelebuli iyo ori saxis sixma: gulamoWrili (sur. 2) da guldaxuruli (sur. 5). gu-
lamoWrili sixmis Sesamkobad iyenebdnen sxvadasxva feris Zafsa da yaiTans, guldaxu-
ruli sixma ki, umetesad, nakerebiT iyo gaformebuli. igi, ZiriTadad, mTian regionSi iyo
gavrcelebuli da xanSi Sesuli qalebi xmarobdnen [samsonia i. 2005: 63-65].
sixma gamoirCeva ornamentTa nairgvarobiT. erT-erT eqsponatze (sur. 6), mcenareuli da
geometriuli ornamentebis garda, gvxvdeba jvris iribi gamosaxulebac. aWaraSi osmalTa
batonobis gamo adgilobrivebi ase niRbavdnen jvrebs. jvris mklavebi, perpendikularuli
gadakveTis nacvlad, diagonalurad iyo gadajvaredinebuli. msgavsi wesiT gamosaxavd-
nen isini jvris ornaments sakulto nagebobebzec [varSalomiZe j. 1979: 39]. jvari samosis
saerToqarTuli ornamentia. jvrebis simravliTa da mravalferovnebiT gansakuTrebiT
gamoirCeva xevsuruli samosi [bardaveliZe v., Citaia g. 1939: 2]. aWareli qalis samosze am
ornamentis arseboba ki aq qarTuli tradiciuli ornamentis SenarCunebaze miuTiTebs.
socialuri gansxvavebis erT-erTi niSania kabis zemodan Casacmeli saTbilobeli samosi
salta, romelsac mxolod maRali wodebis qalbatonebi atarebdnen. igi, ZiriTadad, ikere-
boda maudisagan da hqonda gaxsnili gulispiri Sesabnevis gareSe. samwuxarod, saltas ni-
muSi, rogorc ukve iTqva, Cvenamde ar Semonaxula da masze informacia mxolod XX s-is eT-
nografTa CanawerebSi moipoveba [samsonia i. 2005: 69].
samosis mniSvnelovani atributi iyo samkauli, romliTac SeiZleboda qalis socialuri,
ojaxuri mdgomareobisa da asakis gansazRvra. samkaulis masalad, umTavresad, gamoiyene-
boda firuzi, lali, marjani da feradi mina. gasaTxovari axalgazrda qalebi ufro mcire
zomis, naklebad gadatvirTul sayureebsa da yelsabamebs atarebdnen, gaTxovili qalebi ki
masiur samkaulebs [samsonia i. 2005: 82].
yelsabamis originaluri nairsaxeoba iyo mZivebad asxmuli Turquli monetebi. igi, rogorc
samkauli, gaTxovili qalis Semkulobis erT-erTi damaxasiaTebeli niSani iyo. rac ufro
SeZlebuli ojaxidan iyo qali, mas ufro meti raodenobis monetebi hqonda yelsabamad asx-
muli. arsebobda monetebis Tavsamkaulad gamoyenebis tradiciac. monetebis garkveuli
raodenoba mimagrebuli iyo leCaqis an Sublis fenis im nawilze, romelic Sublze hqondaT
gadmoSvebuli [samsonia i. 2005: 83-87].
66
qalis samosis mniSvnelovani elementia Tavsaburavi, romelic aseve miuTiTebda misi mflo-
belis socialur statussa da ojaxur mdgomareobaze. aWaraSi, iseve rogorc saqarTvelos
sxva kuTxeebSi, qalis Tavdauxuravi siaruli sircxvilad iTvleboda. erTmaneTisagan gan-
sxvavdeboda gasaTxovari da gaTxovili qalebis Tavxurvis wesi. gogonas gaTxovebamde
SeeZlo patara TavsafriT an TavCiTiT siaruli, magram daniSnul an gaTxovil qals amis
ufleba ukve aRar hqonda [samsonia i. 1976: 90].
aWareli qalis Tavsaburavi Semadgeneli elementebis simravliT xasiaTdeba. Tavsaburavis
tradiciuli elementebis garda, rogorebicaa leCaqi, Tavsakravi, Toti [gvaTua n. 1967: 21],
osmaluri kulturis gavleniT damkvidrda Tavsaburavebi: fesi TefeluRi, duvaRi, vala
da Cadri, anu CarCabi [samsonia i. 2005: 119].
leCaqi qarTveli qalis Tavsaburavis tradiciuli elementi iyo. qalebi gaTxovebis Semdeg
Tavs leCaqiT iburavdnen da sicocxlis bolomde atarebdnen mas [baraTaSvili l. 1966: 131;
masalebi saqarTvelos Sinamrewvelobisa da wvrili xelosnobis istoriisaTvis. 1983: 260].
Cvenamde moRweuli masalis mixedviT leCaqi arsebobda: marmaSis, Salis, atlasis, blon-
dis, bursos da a.S. [gvaTua n. 1967: 27]. aWaraSi dabali fenis warmomadgenlebi dolbandis
leCaqsac xmarobdnen (sur. 7) [samsonia i. 2005: 105].
z. WiWinaZis cnobiT, islamis iZulebiT gavrcelebis Semdeg, niSnad mahmadianobisa, leCaqis
nacvlad savaldebulo gaxda fesi TefeluRis tareba [WiWinaZe z. 1913: 86]. es iyo naxevars-
feros formis qudi, romelsac gaTxovili qalebi atarebdnen. glexi qali Salis Zafisagan
Sinaqsov TefeluRs xmarobda, maRali wodebis qalebi ki - wiTeli maudisagan damzadebulsa
da monetebiT Semkul TefeluRs, romlis nimuSebic daculia s. janaSias saxelobis saqarT-
velos muzeumSi (sur. 8). XX s-Si Sekrebili eTnografiuli masaliT vlindeba, rom Tavsa-
buravis es saxeobad farTod ver gavrcelda da ver gandevna tradiciuli qarTuli Tavsa-
buravi – leCaqi [samsonia i. 1976: 95].
islamis iZulebiTi gavrcelebis Semdeg Tavsaburavis kompleqts daemata kidev erTi ele-
menti – Cadri, anu CarCabi, romliTac qalebi mTel sxeuls ifaravdnen da misi tareba saval-
debulo gaxda yvela qalisaTvis, ganurCevlad socialuri mdgomareobisa. gansxvaveba iyo
mxolod masalis xarisxSi [WiWinaZe z. 1913: 87]. qarTveli mogzaurebic aRniSnaven, rom md-
edrobiTi sqesis warmomadgenlebi mTlianad CadriT iyvnen dafarulni da eridebodnen
ucxo mamakacis, gansakuTrebiT, qristianebisa da ucxoelebis winaSe gamoCenas [saxokia T.
1950: 192; baqraZe d. 1987: 50]. swored esaa erT-erTi mizezi imisa, rom mogzaurTa CanawerebSi
metad mwiri cnobebi moipoveba aWareli qalis Cacmulobis Sesaxeb.
Cadris tarebis tradicia saqarTvelos arc erT kuTxeSi ar dasturdeba, garda mesxeT-ja-
vaxeTisa, sadac SeZlebuli qalebi atarebdnen Cadris saxesxvaobas – ehrams [baraTaSvili
l. 1966: 137].
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom aWaruli samosi qarTuli tradiciuli Cacmulobis originaluri sax-
eobaa, romelic xasiaTdeba lokaluri TaviseburebebiT. miuxedavad osmaluri kulturis
gavlenisa, SenarCunebul iqna tradiciuli, zogadqarTuli stili. rac Seexeba calkeul
elementebs, magaliTad Tavsaburavis nawilebs, isini mxolod droebiT ixmareboda da arse-
biTi gavlena ver moaxdina Cacmulobaze.

67
Mariam Khintibidze
Georgian National Museum
Simon Janashia Georgian Museum
3, Rustaveli Ave. 0105, Tbilisi, Georgia
E-mail: khint.tex@gmail.com
Social and Age-related Aspects in Clothes of Adjarian Woman

The conference thesis discusses the multi-layer complete set of the Adjarian woman’s clothes. The consisting
elements of costume, such as: Zubun-Paraga, Datekhili, Porka and Bedebiani, i.e. dress tight on chest, closed
and open blouse – Sikhma, Chataka, Ichlughi, Khirkha, belt, apron, etc. – will be discussed. The particular
attention will be paid to quite complex headgear and shoe of Adjarian woman.

In parallel with visual material the following will be discussed: the forms of Adjarian woman’s clothes, dominant
colors and accessories, based on which the secondary function of clothes is considered –according to the
types the social status of woman and age are defined.

The social status clothes and clothes accessories will be discussed.

A survey of forms, dominant colors and decorative accessories of woman’s clothing preserved in the museum
together with illustrative materials presented at the conference gives us the opportunity to discuss about the
secondary function of the clothing - a social status and age of its owner.

bibliografia

baraTaSvili l. 1966: masalebi XIX saukunis xalxuri tansacmlis istoriisaTvis mesxeT-


javaxeTidan. kr. masalebi saqarTvelos materialuri kulturis istoriisaTvis. Tbilisi.
bardaveliZe v., Citaia g. 1939: xevsuruli ornamenti. Tbilisi.
baqraZe d. 1987: arqeologiuri mogzauroba guriasa da aWaraSi, Tbilisi.
gvaTua n. 1967: Cacmulobis istoriidan. Tbilisi.
varSalomiZe j. 1979: ornamenti xeze. baTumi.
samsonia i. 1976: aWareli qalis Tavsaburavi. kr. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos yofa da
kultura. IV. Tbilisi. (red. al. robaqiZe).
samsonia i. 2005: xalxuri tansacmeli aWaraSi. baTumi.
samsonia i. 2009: tansacmeli da Cacmuloba, kr. samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos istoriis
narkvevebi. aWara. t. II. baTumi. (mT. red. a. kaxiZe).
samxreT dasavleT saqarTvelos kulturisa da yofis sakiTxebi 1973: t. I. Tbilisi. (red.
al. robaqiZe).
saxokia T. 1950: mogzaurobani. Tbilisi.
masalebi saqarTvelos Sinamrewvelobisa da wvrili xelosnobis istoriisaTvis. 1983 -
t. III. naw. 1. Tbilisi. (saerTo red. iv. javaxiSvili)
WiWinaZe z. 1913: musulman qarTveloba da maTi soflebi saqarTveloSi. tfilisi.

68
ilustraciebis aRweriloba

sur. 1. aWareli qalis datexili kaba. sem. simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumi.
kavkasiuri tansacmlisa da qsovilebis fondi. XX s-is II naxevari
sur. 2. aWareli qalis sixma. sem. simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumi. kavkasiuri
tansacmlisa da qsovilebis fondi. XX s-is II naxevari
sur. 3. aWareli qalis sartylebi. sem. simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumi.
kavkasiuri tansacmlisa da qsovilebis fondi. XX s-is II naxevari
sur. 4. aWareli qalis samkauli. CxutuneTis muzeumi. XX s-is II naxevari
sur. 5. aWareli qalis sixma. sem. simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumi. kavkasiuri
tansacmlisa da qsovilebis fondi. XX s-is II naxevari
sur. 6. aWareli qalis sixma. sem. simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumi. kavkasiuri
tansacmlisa da qsovilebis fondi. XX s-is II naxevari
sur. 7. aWareli qalis leCaqi. sem. simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumi. kavkasiuri
tansacmlisa da qsovilebis fondi. XX s-is II naxevari
sur. 8. aWareli qalis fesi TefeluRi. sem. simon janaSias saxelobis saqarTvelos muzeumi.
kavkasiuri tansacmlisa da qsovilebis fondi. XX s-is I naxevari

SemoklebaTa ganmarteba
sem. – saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi

69
sur. 1 Fig.

70
sur. 2 Fig.

71
sur. 3 Fig.

72
sur. 4 Fig.

73
sur. 5 Fig.

74
sur. 6 Fig.

75
sur. 7 Fig.

76
sur. 8 Fig.

77
Mmanana papiZe
saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi
Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumi
l. gudiaSvilis quCa #1, 0105, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo
elfosta: eka75@yandex.ru

XVII saukunis ucnobi ostatis mier moqarguli


gardamoxsnis restavracia – konservacia

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis akad. Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muze-


umSi saeklesio mxatvruli qargvis mravali nimuSia daculi. maT Sorisaa erTi gardamoxsna
(sxm/n№-2735), romlis avtori ucnobia. misi warmomavlobis Sesaxeb cnobebi sakmaod mwiria1.
stilistur- ikonografiuli analizis safuZvelze igi XVII s-iT TariRdeba (sur.1).
XVII s-is saqarTvelo iranisa da osmaleTis Zlier politikursa da ideologiur gavlenas
ganicdida. dampyroblebis gauTavebeli Semosevebisa da ganuwyveteli Sinaomebis Sedegad
nadgurdeboda kulturis mniSvnelovani Zeglebi, eklesia-monastrebi, iq daculi sagan-
Zuri. Mmiuxedavad amisa, am periodSi iwyeba qarTuli kulturis istoriis axali etapi: mim-
dinareobs eklesia-monastrebis aRdgena-mSenebloba, aRorZinebas iwyebs oqromWedloba,
xatwera da miniatiura. saeklesio xelovnebis იmdroindel dargTagan did interess iwvevs
naqargobac, kerZod, saeklesio daniSnulebis Zeglebi. warsulSi maTi simravle werilobi-
Ti wyaroebiTac dasturdeba [beriZe v. 1973: 382]. miuxedavad amisa, samwuxaroa, rom naqar-
gobis am nimuSTa umravlesobas Cvenamde ar mouRwevia: zogierTma dros ver gauZlo, zogi
mtris Semosevebisa da Zarcvis dros ganadgurda. cxadia, maT Soris arc gardamoxsnebia
gamonaklisi.
gardamoxsnebi gamoirCeva monumenturobiT, mravalfiguriani kompoziciebiT, romlebic
saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi SemuSavda da dakanonda am saeklesio nivTებიsTvis.
gardamoxsnis samSoblo bizantiaa, saidanac es nivTi sxva marTlmadideblur qveynebSi, maT
Soris saqarTveloSic gavrcelda. gardamoxsna simboluri mniSvnelobis saeklesio nivTia,
igive ardagi, romelsac marTlmadideblur eklesiaSi wiTeli paraskevisa da didi SabaTis
RvTismsaxurebis dros gamoabrZaneben sakurTxevlidan. igi simbolurad gamoxatavs im ti-
los, romliTac, oTxive saxarebis Tanaxmad, jvridan gardamoxsnili qriste `wargragna~
ioseb arimaTielma. maTes saxarebaSi naTqvamia: `da viTarca Semwuxrda, movida kaci mdidari
arimaTaiT, saxeliT ioseb, romelic igica mowafe yofil iyo iesu¡sa. Ease movida pilatesa
da gamoiTxova guami iesu¡si. maSin pilate ubrZana micemad guami igi misi. Dda moiRo guami
igi misi ioseb da wargragna igi armenaksa wmidasa. da dadva igi axalsa missa saflavsa, rom-
eli gamoekueTa kldisagan, da miagorva lodi didi karsa mas saflavisasa da warvida.~ [maTe.
27. 57-60]. werilobiTi wyaroebis mixedviT,Yardagi, ilitonad wodebuli, Tavdapirvelad,
yovelgvari gamosaxulebis gareSe yofila. droTa ganmavlobaSi masze gamosaxes jvridan
gardamoxsnili, sarecelze dasvenebuli qriste, romelic angelozebiTa da motirali ax-
loblebiTaa garSemortymuli.
rac Seexeba sarestavraciod gadmocemul gardamoxsnas, rogorc zemoT aRვniSne, cnobebi
misi warmomavlobis Sesaxeb TiTqmis ar mogvepoveba, garda axlaxan mowodebuli informa-

1 statia dasabeWdad mzad iyo, rom mkvlevarma l. togoniZem mogvawoda fotodokumenti, amoRebuli
filmidan `akakis mogzauroba raWa-leCxumSi”. Aam fotoze gamosaxulia zemoT aRniSnuli gardamoxsna. gairk-
va, rom igi warmomavlobiT raWidan, kerZod, barakonidan yofila, am informaciisTvis madlobas vuxdiT l.
togoniZes.
78
ciisa barakonis monastridan misi warmomavlobis Sesaxeb, Tumca is argumentirebul da-
zustebas mainc saWiroebs. sarestavracio gardamoxsna Sesrulebulia tilos qsovilze.
centrSi amoqargulia ardagze dasvenebuli macxovris figura. mis irgvliv Tavisufali are
Sevsebulia jvris formis yvavilebiT. Saravandedi moqargulia vercxlmkediT, macxovris
Tma da wver-ulvaSi - yavisferi abreSumis ZafiT. ferxTiT ioane maxareblis moxrili fig-
uraa. gardamoxsnis zeda nawilSi gamosaxuli ori angeloziა (sur.2). maT Soris ki - eqvs-
frTedebi. macxovris figuris qvemoT amoqargulia yovlismxedveli Tvali, eqvsfrTedebi
da angelozi samwerobliT xelSi. oTxive kuTxeSi tradiciulad maxarebelTa simboluri
gamosaxulebebia. Tavisufali are aqac Sevsebulia stilizebuli, muqi wiTeli cisfergula
da yviTelgula yvavilebiT. miwari naqargia yavisferi abreSumis ZafiT. `datirebis~ kompozi-
ciisa da misi personaJebis samosi moqargulia oqromkediT, muqi da baci Calisferi abreSu-
mis ZafiT, macxovris figura, personaJebis saxeebi, xelebi da terfebi ki - pirisferi ZafiT.
g
G ardamoxsnas irgvliv, kideebze, Semosdevs bambis wiTeli qsovიlis saolveli, romelic gan-
sxvavebuli struqturis qsoviliT iyo restavrirebuli (sur.3).
vizualuri dakvirvebis safuZvelze SeiZleba iTqvas, rom gardamoxsnis qarguloba Tavis
droze dasrulebuli ar iyo. amaze metyvelebs figurebi, romelTa mxolod zogierTi de-
talia moqarguli. Ggardamoxsna rom dausrulebelia, migvaniSnebs yviTeli da yavisferi
abreSumis grexili ZafiT Semovlebuli moCarCoeba, romlis mxolod fragmentebia Semor-
Cenili (sur.4). Mmiwari alag-alag gaxunebuli da dalaqavebulia. SeimCneva sanTlis naRven-
Tebic.
restavracia – konservaciis procesi davyavi ramdenime etapad: uwinaresad, movxseni wiTe-
li qsovilis moCarCoeba, romelic gardamoxსnis kideebze iyo Semovlebuli (sur.5). gamiC-
nda eWvi, rom igi faravda eqsponatis mniSvnelovan detals – warweras an ornaments. msgavsi
precedენti ukve iyo dafarnis restavraciis dros, rodesac gansxvavebuli qsoviliT iyo
dafaruli dafarnis sakmaod saintereso ornametნirebuli ole. samwuxarod, am gardamox-
snis moCarCoebis qveS aRmoCnda mxolod damwvari da fragmentebad Sekowiwebuli kideebi,
romlebic davakonserve.
restavraciis Semdeg etapze movxseni sarCuli, romlis SigniTac aRmoCnda sxvadasx-
va struqturis qsovilis ramdenime fena. rogorc gairkva, es yvelaferi sarCulis qveS
gamiznulad iyo damagrebuli nivTis gasamyareblad, raTa saeklesio msaxurebisas is ar da-
zianebuliyo.
Semdeg etapze daviwye zedmeti qsovilebisgan ukve gaTavisuflebuli, magram dabinZure-
buli da damtverili eqsponatis gawmenda. rogorc mSrali, ise kombinirebuli meTodiT
(igulisxmeba gamoxdili wylisa da spirtიs nazavis gamoyeneba, SefardebiT 2/1-ze. (sur.6).
Tanmimdevrulad aRvadgine yviTeli da yavisferi abreSumis grexili ZafiT Sesrulebuli
moCarCoeba Cem mierve damzadebuli Sesabamisi ferisa da struqturis ZafiT.
Cemi kolega restavratorebi dameTanxmebian, rom efeqturi restavracia yovelTvis Sei-
cavs konservaciis elementebs da calkeul SemTxvevaSi saWiroa mxolod sakonservacio sa-
muSaoebis Sesruleba.
imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom gardamoxსna samuzeumo eqsponatia da dRes ar gamoitaneba
saeklesio msaxurebis dros, gadavwyvite, damekonservebina misi arsebuli mdgomareoba da
aRar gamomeyenebina uxeSi struqturis qsovilebi mis gasamagreblad. Aamitom gardamoxsna
davamagre Txel safen qsovilsa da abreSumis Sesabamisi feris - yavisfer sarCulze. gar-
damoxsnis pirvandeli saxis SesanarCuneblad wiTeli da uxeSad restavrirebuli saolveli
Cavanacvle Sindisferi qsovilis saoლveliT (sur.7). D
Catarebuli sarestavracio - sakonservacio samuSaoebis Sedegad gardamoxsnis mdgomareo-
ba ukve Seesabameba Tanamedrove samuzeumo standarts, rac dasaSvebs xdis am eქsponatis
sagamofeno sivrceSi ganTavsebas.

79
MManana Papidze
Georgian National Museum

Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of Fine Arts

Restoration-conservation of the Shroud (Epitaphios)


by the 17th century Unknown Embroiderer.
Among the samples of artistic embroiderey preserved in Georgian National Museum Shalva Amiranashvili
Museum o Fine Arts is the Shroud (Epitahios) the provenance and authorship of which are unknown. The
object supposedly dates back to the late 17th century.

On the basis of visual observation it can be assumed that the Shroud had nevere been completed. There are
burnt remains on some spots which were covered by the shreds of fabrics of inappropriate texture during
earlier badly-done restoration. The object is torn, stained and contaminated.

During the restoration-conservation works were removed the mentioned shreds (cotton and synthetic fabrics)
which ere heavy and could thereby cause a new damage. The Shroud has been cleaned by combined method
and fixed to an appropriate new supporting textile.

In result of restoration-conservation process the condition of the object corresponds to museum standard that
makes it possible to display it in exhibition space.

bibliografia
beriZe v. 1973: qarTuli kultura da xelovneba XVI-XVII saukuneebSi. saqarTvelos iსtoriis
narkvevebi. t.IV. 357-386. Tbilisi (red. m. dumbaZe).
axali aRTqmua¡. 2003: Tbilisi.
beriZe v. 1973: qarTuli naqargobis istoriidan. gardamoxsnebi. Tbilisi.

ilustraciebis aRweriloba
sur. 1. gardamoxsna restavraciamde
sur. 2. gardamoxsnis fragmenti angelozis gamosaxulebiT
sur. 3. gardamoxsnis fragmenti restavraciamde
sur. 4. moCarCoebis fragmenti restavraciamde
sur. 5. gardamoxsna restavraciiს dros
sur. 6. gardamoxsnis ukana mxare restavraciis dros
sur. 7. gardamosxna restavraciis Semdeg

LLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Fig.1. Epitaphios before restoration.
Fig.2 Fragment of the Epitaphios. depicted Angel.
Fig.3 Fragment of the Epitaphios before restoration.
Fig.4 Fragment of the frame before restoration.
Fig.5 Epitaphios during restoration.
Fig.6 Back of the Epitaphios during restoration.
Fig.7 Epitaphios after restoration-conservation.
80
sur.1 Fig.

sur.3 Fig. sur.2 Fig.

sur.4 Fig.

81
sur.5 Fig.

sur.6 Fig.

sur.7 Fig.

82
eTer sulxaniSvili
saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi
Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumi
l. gudiaSvilis q. 1, 0105, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo
elfosta: esulxanishvili@gmail.com

qarTveli qalis tradiciuli samosis


erTi detali SeidiSi

qarTveli qalis tradiciuli samosi - grZeli kaba, damSvenebuli sartyliT, gulispiriTa


da CixtikopiT gavrcelebuli iyo XVIII-XIX ss-is saqarTveloSi. es moxdenili samosi
kompleqtis saxiTaa warmodgenili da aerTianebs Tavsaburavs, zeda (kaba, qaTibi da sxv.) da
qveda (qveSeTi - sacvali) samoss.
qveda samosi, anu sacvali (perangi, perangis toli, anu amxanagi, SeidiSi, Cixora da Rame
Casacmeli zedatani - `kofta~ ) saqarTveloSi feradi icodnen da X s-dan tanisamosis
aucilebel nawilad iyo miCneuli [javaxiSvili iv. 1962: 84]. qalis sacvlis kompleqtis
Semadgenelia SeidiSi –`perangis toli anu amxanagi~. [ciciSvili i. 1954: 61]
perangi abreSumis qsovilisagan ikereboda, misi `amxanagi~ SeidiSic abreSumis qsovilisa iyo
[CubinaSvili d. 1984: 1411], iv. javaxiSvili da ir. sonRulaSvili, exebian ra termin SeidiSs,
aRniSnaven, rom, Tavdapirvelad, es sityva qsovilis aRmniSvneli yofila, rac mziTvis
wignebSi daculi masaliTa da zepiri gadmocemebiT [javaxiSvili iv. 1983: 13] dasturdeba.
Qqalis es samosi, umetesad, am qsovilisgan ikereboda, ramac ganapiroba qalis „perangis
tolis“ meore saxelwodeba – SeidiSi.
saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumis
koleqciebSi daculi XVIII-XIX ss-is SeidiSebi, ZiriTadad, yanaozisaa . yanaozis SeidiSebis
mravalricxovneba badebs mosazrebas, rom, Tavdapirvelad, yanaozs SeidiSi erqva, magram
XVIII s-is mziTvis wignebSi termini yanaozi naxsenebi araa. zepiri gadmocemiT SeidiSi sqeli
yanaozia [sonRulaSvili ir. 2005: 256].
SeidiSi Sarvals waagavs (sur. 1). sawele rom ganieri yofiliyo, mas totebs Soris, ubeSi, did
xiStaks ugdebdnen. Signidan SeidiSs sarCuli hqonda gamodebulli. sawelesTan gadakecil
saTaveSi xonjars (sur. 2) uyridnen [gvaTua n. 1967: 39].
SeidiSis ufro detalur aRweras gvawvdis ir. sonRulaSvili: „SeidiSis Targi warmoadgens
totebad aRebuli qsovilis or gans. TiToeuli orad mokecilia da gasaker mxares, e.i.
lajebSi, qvevidan zemoTken, Suamde, an karga gadacilebiT, iribad an odnav mSvildurad
aWrilia. orive gans ubeSi, an orives erTad rombad gamoWrili namati aqvs orad mokecili,
an oradve mokecili TiTo samkuTxedi TiToeuls cal-calke. SeidiSis saTave ikvreboda
maTTvis sagangebod moqsovili abreSumis Zafis Wvirnariani xonjriT, magram gvxvdeba
Tavad Sarvali abreSumis qsovilisagan unda iyos Sekerili. azerbaijanis naxiCevanis mazris
somexi qalebis Sarvlis formis qveda sacvalic qarTuli SeidiSis Targis mixedviTaa
aWrili [tilke m. 2005: tab. 21], welSi xvanjriT ikvreboda da wiTeli abreSumis qsovilisa
iyo. totis boloebi gansxvavebulia rogorc qarTuli SeidiSis totis boloebis, aseve
arTvineli somexi qalis zemoT naxsenebi Sarvalisagan [tilke m. 2005: tab. 25].

83
salted qceuli saTavec, romelic aRar saWiroebs xonjars da ikvreba RiliT“ [sonRulaSvili
ir. 2005: 257].
sqeli da mtkice qsovilisgan nakeri ganierweliani SeidiSi xvanjriT mWidrod Sekvrisas
xSir naoWs isxamda, rac kabis qvedatanis lamazad dgomas uwyobda xels. qals cxenze
jdomis dros aucileblad unda scmoda SeidiSi, raTa dazRveuli yofiliyo qveda sacvlis
gamoCenisagan. ubeganiersa da grZeltotebian SeidiSs sacvlis zemodan icvamdnen.
SeidiSis boloebis gamoCena sircxvilad ar iTvleboda. qarTveli didebuli qalbatonebi
intensiurad xmarobdnen SeidiSs, razec muzeumSi daculi mravalricxovani koleqcia
mianiSnebs.
xelovnebis muzeumis koleqciis mniSvnelovani eqsponatia dedofal darejanis, erekle II-
is (1744-1798 ww.) meuRlis, SeidiSi (sur. 3. sxm/n # 2539), romelic saqarTvelos saistorio
saeTnografio sazogadoebisaTvis gadaucia ivane giorgis Ze avaliSvils, mis mierve
Sedgenili saTanado legendiT: `ivane avaliSvilis asulma maCablisam gadmomca qarTuli
saistorio da saeTnografio sazogadoebisaTvis SeidiSi aliSi farCisa sarCuliani. Cveni
ojaxi darwmunebulia, rom es SeidiSi naqonia darejan dedoflisa da eZaxian kidec `darejan
dedoflis SeidiSi”.
mariam batoniSvils daviT ciciSvilis meuRles mieRo Tavisi dedisagan darejan
dedoflisagan da man uZRvna Tavis rZals ivane ciciSvilis meuRles elisabeds; elisabedma
mziTevSi gaatana asuls darias estate ciciSvilis meuRles, aman Tavis asuls ekaterine
avaliSvilis meuRles, aman mziTevSi gaatana Tavis asuls elene maCablis meuRles,
romelmac Sesawiravad qarT. saistorio da saeTnografio sazogadoebisaTvis gadmomca.
zemoT moyvanili Sto darejan ded. momdinareobisa. rogorc zemoT vTqvi SeidiSi aliSi
farCisa da totebic oqromkedis babTisa aqvs.Aivane giorgis Ze avaliSvili. 1912 w. 10 marti~
[saistorio sazogadoebis muzeumis katalogi B. gv.3] (sur. 4).
SeidiSi ara marto qarTveli didebuli qalbatonebis, aramed glexi qalis Cacmulobis
aucilebeli detali iyo. maTi samosi SemadgenlobiTa da TargiT, garkveulwilad,
gansxvavdeboda erTmaneTisagan, magram gamokveTili sxvaoba qsovilis xarisxsa da
SemkulobaSi iyo.
arsebobs mosazreba, rom SeidiSi wina aRmosavleTSi monRolebis gamoCenasTan erTad
damkvidrda, rasac adasturebs XII-XIII ss-is iranis qaSanur WurWelze gamosaxuli monRoluri
tipis samosiT Semosili qalebi, romelTac koWebamde grZeli Sarvlebi - SeidiSebi
mosavT [xaratiSvili n. 2005: 254]. aseTi Sarvlebi kavkasiis xalxTa kostiumisTvisacaa
damaxasiaTebeli. qarTul SeidiSs formis mixedviT mxolod somxuri hgavs, magaliTad,
arTvineli somexi qalis Sarvali -
foxani, romelic imave Targis mixedviTaa Sesrulebuli, welSi RiliT ikvreba da totis
bolos napirebs oqrosferi buzmentis an sirmis CafariSi umSvenebs. naxiCevaneli somexi
qalis qveda sacvlis toti bolovdeba sxva feris SedarebiT viwro oleT . kavkasiuri
kostiumis mkvlevris maqs tilkes mier Caxatuli am regionis somexi qalis qveda sacvlis
bolos Savi feris ole Tavsa da SuaSi oqrosferi buzmentiTaa gawyobili [tilke m. 2005:
tab. 25]. qveda sacvlis es forma axlosaa qarTveli glexis qalis perangis amxanagis totis
daboloebasTan, romelsac „iqmoden viwrosa da Sekereven ori TiTis dadebas feradiT“
[batoniSvili i. 1990: 238].
muzeumis koleqciaSi daculi SeidiSebi, ZiriTadad, DAwiTeli, yviTeli, vardisferi,
alisferi, Svindisferi abreSumis qsovilisganaa Sekerili. maTi totis boloebi
daqargulia oqromkediT an vercxlmkediT, xSirad orive erTadaa gamoyenebuli.
zogjer feradovnebisaTvis cotaodeni abreSumis feradi Zaficaa CarTuli. SeidiSis
84
totis boloebis naqargoba Sesrulebulia namagri siTvis teqnikiT. qalebi natifi
naqargobiT Semkul SeidiSis totebs ar malavdnen, gansakuTrebiT, gasaTxovari qalebi,
kabis kalTebs zedmetad iwevdnen maRla. SeidiSis totis moqarguli boloebis gamoCeniT
mnaxvels aCvenebda, Tu ramdenad kargi xelsaqme icoda. kargi xelsaqmis mcodne qalis
samosi daxvewili da maRali gemovnebiT amoqarguli ornamentiT gamoirCeoda. rogorc
cnobilia, saqarTveloSi xelsaqmis codna qalisaTvis aucilebeli iyo. amitom misi samosis
maRalmxatvruli ornamentiT Semkoba Rirsebis sakiTxic iyo da Tavis mowonebis saSualebac.
SeidiSis daniSnulebasa da masalasTan erTad metad mniSvnelovania totis boloebis
naqargoba, romelic SeidiSis mxatvrul Rirebulebas gansazRvravda. swored amiT iyo
ganpirobebuli totis boloebis gamoCena.
feradovnebasa da masalis mravalferovnebasTan erTad SeidiSis naqargoba kompoziciis
TaviseburebiTac gamoirCeoda.Ddekoris ganlagebiTa da saxeebis sirTuliT is
gansxvavdeboda namagri siTviT naqargi sxva nimuSebis dekoratiuli motivisagan. Aamitom
ir. sonRulaSvilma mas miusadaga termini `SeidiSuri~. umTavresad, rogorc wesi, SeidiSis
totis boloebze naqargoba sam wyebad, anu registrebadaa dalagebuli.Kkideebis Sav miwarze,
umetesad, warmodgenilia geometriuli figurebis viwro ole. Nnapirebs Semosdevs martivi
- mcenareuli an geometriuli - klaknuri an texuriani viwro ole.Aam ori mosavlebis zemoT
iSleba farTo da rTuli, mcenareuli klaknuri, sadac xSirad CarTulia cxovelebis,
frinvelebis, Tevzebis, iSviaTad, adamianTa saxeebi (sur. 5,6).
SeidiSis napirebis oleebze, umTavresad, geometriuli saxeebia amoqarguli - samkuTxedebi
Tu sxva grafikuli figurebi. isini yovelTvis siTviTaa Sesrulebuli. SeidiSis totis
mosavlebis Sualeduri viwro ole wvrili mcenareuli klaknuris an zenaris saxiTaa
warmodgenili. mesame, farTo, ole mravalferovani stilizebuli mcenareuli saxeebiTaa
Semkuli. mcenareebs Soris Caqarguli frinvelebis, Tevzebis, irmebis, gvelebis figurebi
zogjer realisturi, zogjer ki stilizebuli saxiT arian gamosaxulni. naqargobis farTo
oleze warmodgenili gamosaxulebebi SeiZleba jgufebad daiyos. pirvel jgufSi, klaknuri
mcnareebis mwkrivSi, TiTo frinvelia (sur. 7), meoreSi - mcenareebis mwkrivSi, mcenareTa
wverze msxdomi, erTmaneTis momzirali frinvelebi (sur. 8), mesameSi – mcenareebs Soris
erTmwkrivad morbenali irmebi (sur. 9), meoTxe jgufis dekori daxveuli gvelebis saxiTaa
warmodgenili (sur. 10).Aam cxovelTa gamosaxulebebi stilizebulia da xveuli mcenaris
saxiT gvevlineba. marTalia, am cxovelTa gamosaxulebani stilizebuli da ornamentia,
magram naqargobaSi mainc SesaZlebelia maTi realuri saxis amokiTxva.
rogorc viciT, xelovnebis uamravi sxvadasxva nimuSis dekorSi gvxvdeba geometriuli,
mcenareuli, cxovelTa Tu frinvelTa gamosaxulebebi. isini dadasturebulia
kedlis mxatvrobaSi, reliefebze, Wedurobasa Tu xelnawerebSi. ornamentul motivTa
mravalferovneba saxasiaToa qarTuli naqargobisTvisac. SeidiSis totebis boloebis
naqargi kompoziciebis mravalnairobis miuxedavad, maTSi ornamentis ganawilebis `kanonika~
ucvlelia da mudam erT, mTlian stils qmnis. SeidiSis es „kanonikuri“ naqargoba saukuneebis
ganmavlobaSi saqarTveloSi xelovnebis sxvadasxva Zeglze farTod warmodgenili
ornamentuli dekoris calkeuli elementebis gadamuSaveba - Serwymis Sedegad warmoiSva.
SeidiSis naqargobaSi gamoyenebuli saxeebi msgavsia qarTuli tradiciuli ornamentisa.
amasTanave, sayuradReboa, rom Cveni qveynis arc erTi kuTxe ar iZleva arsebiT gansxvavebas
SeidiSis naqargobaSi. maTze gamoyvanili saxeebi erTi principiTaa dalagebuli.
sainteresoa g. CubinaSvilis mosazreba SeidiSis ornamentis Tavdapirveli magiuri
mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb [ir. sonRulaSvilis piradi fondi. saqme №3. aRwera №1. g.
CubinaSvilis sityva ir. sonRulaSvilis moxsenebis gamo. gv. 3]. gamosaxulebaTa magiur

85
daniSnulebaze saubrobs a. robaqiZec da aRniSnavs, rom SeidiSis boloze gamosaxuli Tevzi
ganayofierebasTanaa dakavSirebuli [Робакидзе А. 1948. 121]. droTa ganmavlobaSi ostat -
mqargvelebma aRaraferi icodnen am ornamentis magiuri datvirTvis Taobaze da maTTvis
mza kliSes - ornamentul saxeebs mxolod esTetikuri daniSnuleba hqonda.
qarTuli tradiciuli samosis ganviTarebis zogadi istoriidan cnobilia, rom misi
Semadgenloba da formebi XIX s-is II naxevarSi evropuli Cacmulobis gavleniT cvlilebas
ganicdis. TandaTanobiT aRar ixmareboda samosis sxvadasxva detali, maT Soris, SeidiSic.

Eter Sulkhanishvili
Georgian National Museum
On One Part (Sheidishi) of Georgian Woman’s Traditional clothes

Georgian National Museum Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of Fine Arts houses the rich collection of
the 18th-19th century Sheidishes (women’s underwear).
A Sheidishi is a part of women’s lingerie. In historical sources, namely, in so called Books of Dowry it
is referred to as a “comrade of undershirt”. Exquisite and richly decorated Sheidishes of noblewomen
were passed down even from generation to generation. Sheidishi was especially comfortable cloth-
ing for horseback riding.
One of the guardians of Georgian culture Irodion Songulashvili suggests Sheidishi to be originally
the name of textile used predominantely for sewing this part of lingerie. The Sheidishes kept in the
museum are mainly made from “kanaozi”(silk).
The ends of the Sheidishi legs were adorned with so called “sheidishi ornament” arranged in three
rows and a broad strap enclosing floral motifs as well as animals, birds and fishes. In embroidery of
Sheidishes are used gold thread couchwork, silver thread couchwork and satin stitch. Sometimes
color silk thread is also in usage. The patterns embroidered on the ends of the Sheidishi legs find par-
allels in the traditional ornaments typical for various fields of medieval Georgian art.

bibliografia

batoniSvili ioane. 1936: xumarswavla. Tbilisi.


gvaTua n. 1967: Cacmulobis istoriidan. Tbilisi
ir. sonRulaSvilis piradi fondi. saqme №3. aRwera №1. g. CubinaSvilis sityva ir. sonRu-
laSvilis moxsenebis gamo.
materialuri kulturis eTnografiuli leqsikoni. 2011. Tbilisi.
saistorio sazogadoebis muzeumis katalogi. qsovilebi. wigni № 4.
sonRulaSvili ir. 2005: SeidiSebi qarTul xelsaqmeSi. Nnarkvevebi. t. X. gv. 255-271. Tbilisi
(red-ebi: n. lomouri, g. marsagiSvili )
sulxan-saba orbeliani. 1993: leqsikoni qarTuli. t. II. Tbilisi.
tilke m. 2005: kavkasiis xalxTa kostiumebi. saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi. Tbilisi.

86
CubinaSvili d. 1984: qarTul – rusuli leqsikoni. Tbilisi
ciciSvili iv. 1954: masalebi qarTuli Cacmulobis istoriisaTvis. Tbilisi.
xaratiSvili n. 2005: muzeumis moamageni. narkvevebi. t. X. gv. 253-254. Tbilisi (red-i: n.
nadaraia )
javaxiSvili iv. 1962: masalebi qarTveli eris materialuri kulturis istoriisaTvis. t.
III. Tbilisi.
javaxiSvili iv. 1983: masalebi saqarTvelos Sinamrewvelobisa da xelosnobis
istoriisaTvis. t. III. nawili I. Tbilisi.
Робакидзе А. Т. 1948: К вопросу о некоторых пережитках култа рыбы (по материалам Триалетской
этнографической экспедиции). Ж. `Советская этнография~. №3. Ленинград.

ilustraciebis aRweriloba

sur. 1. SeidiSi
sur. 2 xonjari
sur. 3. dedofal darejanis SeidiSi
sur. 4. darejanis SeidiSis mflobelTa nusxa
sur. 5. ornamentuli dekori (adamianTa saxeebi)
sur. 6. ornamentuli dekori (Tevzebi)
sur. 7. ornamentuli dekori (TiTo frinveli)
sur. 8. ornamentuli dekori (momzirali frinvelebi)
sur. 9. ornamentuli dekori (mwkrivad morbenali irmebi)
sur. 10. ornamentuli dekori ( gvelebi)

DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Pic.1. Sheidishes
Pic.2. khonjar ( pack of sheidish)
Pic.3. sheidish of Queen Darejan
Pic.4.Darejan’s sheidish owners list.
Pic.5.Ornamental décor (human face)
Pic.6.Ornamental décor (fish)
Pic.7.Ornamental décor (each bird)
Pic.8.Ornamental décor (darling birds)
Pic.9.Ornamental décor (The rhythm of the deer)
Pic.10.ornamental décor (snakes)

87
sur. 1 Pic.

88
sur. 2 Pic.

sur. 3 Pic.

89
sur. 4 Pic.

90
sur. 5 Pic.

sur. 6 Pic.

sur. 7 Pic.

91
sur. 8 Pic.

sur. 9 Pic.

sur. 10 Pic.

92
ekaterine tyeSelaSvili
saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi
Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumi
l. gudiaSvilis q. 1, 0105, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo
elfosta: ekatkeshelashvili1975@gmail.com
giorgi abaSiZis gardamoxsnis restavracia - konservacia

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumis


naqargobisa da qsovilebis fondSi dacul Zveli qarTuli saeklesio naqargobis
mravalferovan ZeglTagan gamorCeulia gardamoxsnebi. erT-erTi maTgania giorgi abaSiZis
gardamoxsna, romelic XVIII s-iT TariRdeba (sur.1)1. miuxedavad mravalmxrivi dazianebisa,
Sesrulebis maRalmxatvruli doniTa da istoriuli mniSvnelobiT naqargobis am nimuSs
gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia ara mxolod qarTul, aramed msoflios kulturuli
memkvidreobis saganZurSi. swored es mniSvnelovani Zegli gadmomeca restavracia-
konservaciisaTvis. samuSaos dawyebamde eqsponati Seviswavle detalurad, davadgine
dazianebis adgilebi, xarisxi, masala da qargvis teqnika. Ees ki damexmara, SemerCia Sesatyvisi
sarestavracio meTodika, raTa saukuneebis win Seqmnili Zeglis iersaxe da misi Semqmneli
ostatis xelwera SemenarCunebina. cxadia, es iyo Cemi (da nebismieri restavratoris)
umTavresi amocana. Tumca, srulyofili restavraciisTvis arcTu umniSvneloa ZiriTadi
samuSaos dawyebamde Zeglis raobis, daniSnulebis, simbolikis garkveva, miT umetes, roca
sarestavracio eqsponati, rogorc iTqva, Zveli qarTuli saeklesio qargulobis erT-erTi
gamorCeuli nimuSia. Aamitom winamdebare werilSi, uwinaresad, am mimarTulebiT Catarebuli
kvlevis Sedegebs warmovadgen.
gardamoxsna sakmaod didi zomisaa: 186 x 114 sm. warweris Tanaxmad, igi 1705 wels imereTis
feodal giorgi abaSiZes Seuwiravs Walatyis jvarcmis saxelobis eklesiisaTvis. Walatye
Sua saukuneebis dasavleT saqarTveloSi qalaqi iyo. aq gadioda aRmosavleT saqarTvelosken
mimavali gza, romelic xels uwyobda qalaqis ekonomikur ganviTarebasa da dawinaurebas.
istoriul wyaroebSi Walatye pirvelad 1646 wels moixsenieba, rodesac igi samegrelos
mTavarma levan II dadianma daarbia. amis Semdeg, 1703 wels, osmalebma aafeTqes Walatyis sami
TavdacviTi nageboba – koSkebi da aaoxres jvarcmis eklesia. is imereTis mefe solomon I-ma
(1752-1784 ww.) ganaaxla, ris Semdeg igi eklesia-monastrad iwodeboda [beraZe T. 1987: 380].
dRes am eklesiis nangrevebiRaa SemorCenili.
gardamoxsna (berZnulad - Επιτάφιος,2 rusulad - плащаница3), saeklesio daniSnulebis nivTia,
igive wminda ardagi, romelsac marTlmadideblur eklesiaSi wiTeli paraskevisa da didi
SabaTis RvTismsaxurebis dros gamoabrZaneben. igi simbolurad gamoxatavs im qsovils -
ardags, (anu ,,armenaksa wmidasa”), romliTac, oTxive saxarebis Tanaxmad, ioseb arimaTielma
jvridan gardamoxsnili qriste ,,wargragna’’ saflavad dadebamde [beriZe v. 1983: 10].
gardamoxsnis warmomavloba bizantias ukavSirdeba, saidanac gavrcelda sxva
marTlmadideblur qveynebSi - serbeTSi, moldaveT-vlaxeTSi, ruseTsa da saqarTveloSic.
Tavdapirvelad, ardagis simbolod savsebiT sada, ,,ilitonad wodebuli tilo~ miiCneoda

1 sxm/n #784
2 Epitafios - ,,epi’’-ze ; ,,tafios’’ - lodi, dafa.
3 Настольная книга священнослужителя. гл. Церковная утварь М. 1983. т. IV стр. 528.

93
[beriZe v. 1983: 10], romelzec ar gamoisaxeboda saxarebis kompozicia. mogvianebiT, misi
simboluri daniSnulebidan gamomdinare, gardamoxsnaze daiwyes ,,qristes datirebis’’
kompoziciis gamosaxva da sabolood am saxiT damkvidrda is qristianul liturgiaSi.
rodidan daiwyes gardamoxsnebze ,,qristes tirilis~ scenebis qargva, cnobili araa,
savaraudod, es unda momxdariyo ara uadres XII-XIII ss-isa” [baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e.
..., 2011: 26]. Ggardamoxsnebis mTavari kompoziciaa „macxovris datireba“. araerT qarTul
gardamoxsnaze, sxva qveynebis gardamoxsnebisgan gansxvavebiT, centraluri kompoziciis
qvemoT gamosaxulia „aRdgomisa“ (qvemoT) da „macxovris amaRlebis“ (zemoT) kompoziciebi4.
maTSi asaxulia is „gza“, rasac gardamoxsna gaivlis taZarSi liturgiis aRsrulebis
dros. gardamoxsnebze warmodgenili kompoziciis ideur-azrobrivi centria jvridan
gardamoxsnili, lodze an sarecelze dasvenebuli qriste, romelic angelozebiTa da
mtirali WirisuflebiTaa garSemortymuli.
termini gardamoxsna pirvelad imereTis mefe bagrat III-is mefobis (1510-1565 ww.) periodSi
ganaxlebuli gardamoxsnis warweraSi gvxvdeba: „ama gardamoxsnis surviliT Semamkobels
... Seundnes RmerTman“. XVII s-dan am saxeliT amgvar ZeglTa moxsenieba sayovelTao xdeba.
manamde maT „saflavad dadebaΩ“ erqva, rac aseve warwerebiTaa damowmebuli. erTiani
saqarTvelos ukanaskneli mefe giorgi VIII-is (1446-1466 ww.) gardamoxsnaze weria: „...romlisa
brZanebiTa saflavad dadebaΩ ... Seimzada“ [baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e. ... 2011: 26]. TiTqmis
msgavsi warwera hqonia XVIs-is (SesaZloa, ufro adreulisac) CvenTvis ucnob gardamoxsnas,
romelic 1590 wels ruseTSi CautaniaT, 1871 wels ki xanZris Sedegad ganadgurebula.
imereTis mefe bagrat III-is gardamoxsna gaxda safuZveli Semdgomi periodis dasavleT
saqarTveloSi Seqmnili msgavsi gardamoxsnebisaTvis.5 erT-erTi maTgania e.w. giorgi
abaSiZis gardamoxsna, romelic Cveni kvlevisa da restavraciis sagania. bagrat III-isa
da giorgi abaSiZis saxelebTan dakavSirebul gardamoxsnebs Soris SeiniSneba stilur-
ikonografiuli msgavseba [beriZe v. 1983: 40]. abaSiZiseuli gardamoxsna TiTqmis
mTlianad imeorebs bagratiseuli gardamoxsnis kompozicias. uwinaresad, aRsaniSnavia
centrSi gamosaxul kompoziciaTa analogiuroba. orivegan warmodgenilia „datirebis“
samfiguriani kompozicia, sadac ideur-azrobrivi centri macxovris monumenturi
figuraa, flankirebuli mwuxare RvTismSoblisa da wm. ioane RvTismetyvelis figurebiT.
msgavsia maTi Cacmuloba, samosis feri. msgavseba SeiniSneba aseve maxarebelTa
simboloebis, angelozebis, cecxlovani borblebisa da qerubimebis ganlagebasa da
pozebSi. gardamoxsnis zeda registrSi sami ,,molivlive’’, mwuxare angelozia warmodgenili
[baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e. ... 2011: 35]. erT-erTs samwerobeli uWiravs xelSi. qveda
arezec angelozi, ,,Zalni’’ da qerubinia gamosaxuli. kuTxeebSi maxarebelTa simboluri
gamosaxulebebia, romelTac, mowiwebisa da Tayvaniscemis niSnad, saxarebebi macxovrisken
aqvT mimarTuli. am ori gardamoxsnis msgavsebas adasturebs aseve saqargavi masala da
maTi ferTa gama. orive gardamoxsnaze uxeSi tilos miwari muqi yavisferi Slili abreSumis
ZafiTaa mosiTvuli. msgavsia aseve mariamis endrosferi mosasxami, momwvano feris kvarTi,
ioanes amferive mosasxami, qristes welsaxvevi da SiSveli sxeuli. TvalSi gvxvdeba wiTeli
feris siWarbe [beriZe v. 1983: 41]. maxareblebi, angelozebi, qerubinebi da Tavad mnaTobebi
wiTeli abreSumis ZafiTa da vercxlmkediTaa mokalmuli. sisxliQqristes ferdsa da xel-
fexze wiTeli ferisaa. Bbagrat III-is gardamoxsnisgan gansxvavebiT, sadac maxarebelTa foni

4 Mmariam dedoflis gardamoxsna (1632-33_1680-82 ww.); zilfijanis gardamoxsna (1691 w); givi amilax-
vrisa da misi meuRlis _ Tamaris gardamoxsna ( 1678-79 _ 1694-95 ww.); kaxTa mefe xosros asulis, eleneyofili
ekaterines gardamoxsna (XVI s-is bolo mesamedi).
5 kaTalikos zaqaria qvarianis gardamoxsna (1657 _ 1660 ww.); ucnobi ostatis mier Sesrulebuli gar-
damoxsna (XVII s.).

94
liTonis ZafiTaa moqarguli, giorgi abaSiZis gardamoxsnaze fonisTvis gamoyenebulia
abreSumis Zafi. msgavsia TviT warweris sawyisi frazebic, romlebic aCarCoebs Sida
kompozicias. TumcaRa, SeiniSneba gansxvavebebic: abaSiZiseul gardamoxsnaze araa
„triptiqze“ mimaniSnebel figuraTa gamyofi xazebi; macxovris sxeuli haerSia _
sareclis gareSe; ardagze ki migvaniSnebs qristes figuris garSemo vercxlmkediTa da
abreSumis wiTeli ZafiT Sesrulebuli, vertikalur rigebad ganTavsebuli wvrili wnuli.
maxarebelTa simboluri gamosaxulebanic haerSia ,,gamokidebuli’’, rac, safiqrebelia,
SemTxveviTi araa. gardacvlili qristes sxeuli ficarze ki araa dasvenebuli, aramed ukve
zecaSia warmodgenili: ,,ufalma caSi daidga taxti da meufeba misi flobs yovelives’’ (fs.
102:19). wminda ficari, romelzec jvridan gardamoxsnili macxovari yofila dabrZanebuli,
gadmocemis Tanaxmad [Teoxarisi m. 1988: 10], XII s-Si bizantiis imperator manuel komnenoss
efesodan konstantinepolSi sakuTari mxrebiT uzidavs da eklesiaSi dausvenebia. dRes
wminda relikviad miCneuli es ficari konstantinepolSi (dRevandeli stamboli) qriste
pantokratoris eklesiaSi inaxeba, sadac TviT imperatoria dakrZaluli [baraTaSvili
g., berelaSvili e. ... 2011: 35]. XII s-is Semdgom naqarg gardamoxsnebze xSirad macxovari
ardagiT dafarul swored am ficarze dasvenebuli gamoisaxeboda. Tumca amas ver vityviT
naqargobis am nimuSze, sadac macxovari, rogorc zemoT ukve aRvniSneT, haerSi, sareclis
gareSea.
miuxedavad mqargvelis mier daSvebuli zogierTi uzustobisa, sakvlevi gardamoxsna
xasiaTdeba araerTi saintereso TaviseburebiT. siaxlea kompoziciaSi CarTuli da
dedaareze uxvad mimobneuli mnaTobebis siWarbe, uCveuloa aseve varskvlavebis
personificirebuli gamosaxulebebi, rac qarTuli qargulobis SesaniSnav Zeglze, e.w.
mwvane sakosze gvxvdeba, romelsac, Semwirvelebis vinaobidan gamomdinare, ,,abaSiZeebis
sakosad’’ moixsenieben6 [baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e. ... 2011: 207].
uCveuloa aseve mzisa da naxevarmTvaris mdebareoba da pozebi, romlebic Tayvaniscemis
niSnad macxovris ferxTiT arian „ganrTxmulni“. sididiT gamorCeuli mze moTavsebulia
qristes fexTa qveS, naxevarmTvare – macxovarsa da wm. ioane RvTismetyvels Soris –
pirdaRma. ciur sxeulTa amdagvari ganawilebiT ostatma „qristes datirebis~ kompoziciis
paralelurad gamiznulad fsalmunis frazis - „yoveli suli aqebdiT ufalsa“ [fs.: 148.
150] saxieri ilustrireba SemogvTavaza. albaT am sityvebs gulisxmobda mqargveli, roca
gardamoxsnaze macxovrisken mimarTuli mzis, mTvarisa da varskvlavebis personificirebuli
gamosaxulebebi ganaTavsa. varskvlavebi da, zogadad, mnaTobni qristianul xelovnebaSi
da, kerZod, winamdebare gardamoxsnaze, gamoyenebulia erTi mizniT - meored mosvlis
Jams RmerTis didebis saCveneblad. sxva gardamoxsnebis e.w. Ria sivrceebSi wreSi Cawerili
jvrebia gamosaxuli (giorgi VIII-is (1446-1466 ww.), givi amilaxvris (1678-1694 ww.); zogan ki –
mixakebi (Teimuraz muxran-batonis (XVIIs.), an varskvlava yvavilebi (imereTis mefe bagrat
III-is (1510-1565 ww.), kaxTa mefe xosros asulis, eleneyofili ekaterinesa (XVI s.) da zaqaria
qvarianis (1657-1660 ww.) gardamoxsnebze [beriZe v. 1983: tab. I; XI; XII; II; IV; VIII].7
abaSiZiseuli gardamoxsnis centralur kompozicias axlavs grZeli asomTavruli
warwera, romelic moCarCoebis rols asrulebs da Tavisi feradovnebiT ar gamoirCeva

6 mxedruliT Sesrulebuli misi saqtitoro warwera erTstriqoniania da sakosis saxeloebis mosavle-


bzea amoqarguli: ,,Rm(erT)o acxone abaSiZe giorgi, gan(a)Zliere Ze misi levan, beJan da malaqia R(merT)o acxone
abaSiZe giorgi da meuRle misi gulqan’’ [baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e. ... 2011: 207].
7 Ggiorgi VIII-is (1446-1466 ww.) - tab. I; givi amilaxvris (1678-1694 ww.) - tab.XI; Teimuraz muxran-batonis
(XVIIs.) - tab. XII; imereTis mefe bagrat III-is (1510-1565 ww.) - tab. II; kaxTa mefe xosros asulis, eleneyofili ekat-
erinesi XVI s.) - tab. IV; zaqaria qvarianis (1657-1660 ww.) - tab. VIII [beriZe v. 1983:].

95
saerTo fonisagan. misi miwari muqi yavisferi (SavSi gardamavali) atlasisaa. warweraSi
moxseniebulni arian qtitorebi - giorgi abaSiZe, ,,ufliswul cixisTavad’’ wodebuli
da Tanamecxedre misi gulqani - asuli mourav beJan lorTqifaniZisa, Aaseve maTi Svilebi:
levani, beJani da malaqia.
teqstis Sesavali nawili mTlianad emTxveva bagrat III-is gardamoxsnis warweris nawils,
sadac troparis sityvebia moxmobili:
1. q S~ nirmn:. is~b:. Zelisag~n:. g~rdamoxsna:. uxwneli:. guami: S~ ni:. q~e:.
darmenakiTa:. w~iTa:. wr~gragna:. s~rnelebiTa:. Semurvili:. axalsa
sflavsa:. dagdva:. a~d:. Ã~:. hyo:. aRdga: oi.
2. da mo~niWa:. sf~lsa:. didi:. wyl~ba
q SeweviT RisaTa:. m~e:. ufliswul: cixisTa[vman] da gvarad: abaSiZemn:
batonm~n:. g~i:. T~a mecxedrem~n: C~mn:. lorTqifaniZis:. asulmn tmn gulqan
SevakervineT:. ese:. gardamoxsna:. Cn~is:. codvilis: solis saoxad da Zisa:.
Cnisa levanisa:. da beJanis:. aRsazrdelad:. vinca
1. C~n: T~s: Sndoba brZanoT R~n: Tqnc:. Seg~nd~s:. ram~nca:. Zem~n:. k~cisamn:.
C~ns Sv~ls anu:. sflavs:. es
2. gmouxnas:. mered:. m~oslvas:.sic C~ni: c~dis:. pasuxis:. mimcemi:. iyos.: R~isa.
Seikera: T~a:. nnbrsa sic
3. q~ksa:. tJg
,,q. S(ue)nierm(a)n i(o)s(e)b Zelisag(a)n g(a)rdamoxsna ux(r)wneli guami S(e)ni, q(rist)e da (a)
rmenakiTa w(mid)iTa w(a)rgragna s(u)rnelebiTa Semurvili, axalsa s(a)flavsa dagdva, a(rame)
d £(el)hyo aRdgo(ma) u(flisa)i. da m(o)aniWa s(o)f(e)lsa didi wy(a)l(o)ba.
q. Sewev(n)iT(a) R(vT)isaÁTa, me ufliswul cixisTavman da gvarad abaSiZem(a)n batonm(a)
n g(iorg)i, Ta(na)mecxedrem(a)n C(em)m(a)n lorTqifaniZis asulm(a)n (ba)t(on)m(a)n gulqan
SevakervineT ese gardamoxsna C(ve)nis codvilis sulis saoxad da Zisa C(ve)nisa levanisa da
beJanis aRsazrdelad. vinca C(ve)nT(Â)s S(e)ndoba brZanoT, R(merTma)n Tq(ve)nc Seg(i)nd(o)s.
ram(a)nca Zem(a)n k(a)cisam(a)n C(ve)ns Sv(i)ls anu s(a)flavs es g(a)mo(u)xsnas, me(o)red mosvlas
C(ve)ni c(o)d(v)is pasuxis mimcemi iyos R(vT)isa. Seikera T(ues)a noembrisa, q(oroni)k(on)s
tJg” [ = 1705 w. ]; [ beriZe v. 1983 : 28 ].8
rogorc zemoT aRvniSne, restavraciis dawyebamde eqsponati detalurad Seviswavle.
gardamoxsna Zlier iyo dazianebuli: dedaareze miwari Tavisi nafeniT, ramdenime adgilas
mTlianad amoglejilia. centraluri kompoziciis yavisferi abreSumis ZafiT mosiTvuli
foni - mraval adgilas gacrecili da gadaxresili. gansakuTrebiT savalalo mdgomareobaSi
iyo warweris irgvliv arsebuli qsovili, romelic zogan Zafebad iyo daSlili, zogan ki -
nakluli saxiT moRweuli (sur.2.). naqarg detalebsa da qsovilze sakmaod bevrgan moCanda
sanTlis naRvenTebi da uxeSad restavrirebuli detalebi, kerZod, sarestavracio masalad
gamoyenebuli iyo sxvadasxva feris (muqi yavisferi da Savi atlasi), struqturis, sisqisa
da zomis Seusabamo, patar-patara sadublikacio qsovilebi; gardamoxsnis warweris miwaris
aRsadgenad Seuferebeli da ara identuri sarestavracio ZafebiT (zogan Savi abreSumis

8 v.beriZes SeniSvna aqvs gakeTebuli asomTavruli warweris teqstSi asoebis naklulobaze, Tumca unda
aRiniSnos, rom warwera sruliad uvnebladaa Cvenamde moRweuli.

96
ZafiT) Sesrulebuli detalebi gamoikveTa. qsovilis daSlis, anu misaqseli Zafis gacrecis,
Sedegad, umetesad, Canda atlasis qsovilis Semadgeneli sxvadasxva tonalobis Waobisferi
saqseli Zafi, rac restavracia-konservaciis dros moiTxovda amave feris samagri Zafis
gamoyenebas. zogan asomTavruli warweris garSemo dRes ukve Zafebad daSlili qsovili
pirdapir iyo damagrebuli tilos safuZvelze. ramdenime adgilas ki sadublikacio qsovili
moqceuli iyo ara miwarisa da tilos safuZvels Soris, aramed pirdapir iyo dafenili
warweris safuZvlad gamoyenebuli qsovilis qveS. sabednierod, vercxlis TmiT naqargi
asoebi sruliad dauzianeblad gadarCa.
sakonservacio samuSaoebis Catarebamde gardamoxsna ,,daisva’’ naturaluri tilos
sakmaod Txel qsovilze (sur.3), raTa eqsponati ar „damZimebuliyo“, ar gasqelebuliyo, ar
gauxeSebuliyo. eqsponati gaiwminda sanTlis naRvenTebisa da mtvrisagan. moixsna Zveli,
uxeSad Sesrulebuli, restavraciis dros gamoyenebuli patar-patara sadublikacio
qsovilebi, aseve airRva Seusabamo feris samagri Zafebi (tab. I-4,5,6). aRniSnuli Zafebi
saTiTaod CaiWra da Zalian frTxilad moixsna, raTa Tavidan amecilebina isedac Zafebad
daSlili qsovilis dazianeba.
SeirCa saTanado ferisa da struqturis sarestavracio masala, gazis sakonservacio
qsovili eqsponatis Sesaferisad SeiReba.
gansakuTrebiT rTuli aRmoCnda warweris fonis restavracia-konservacia. rogorc ukve
aRvniSne, asomTavruli warweris irgvliv qsovili daxeuli, daZenZili da nakluli iyo.
ramdenadac warweraSi asoebi mcire zomisaa (2 sm) da SewiaRebuli, rTuli iyo mis irgvliv
qsovilis restavracia-konservacia. sirTules qargulobis teqnikis (namagri siTvis)
Taviseburebac ganapirobebda, radgan fonad SerCeul qsovils simyarisaTvis safuZvlad
tilos qsovils ufendnen. amis Semdeg masze liTonis ZafebiT iqargeboda esa Tu is
kompozicia, scena an warwera, risi meSveobiTac es ori qsovili erTiandeboda.
Cemi mizani iyo dazianebuli qsovilis aRdgena imgvarad, rom warweris safuZvlad
gamoyenebuli tilos nafeni ar gamoCeniliyo abreSumis sadublikacio axali qsovilis
qveS. amisTvis saWiro gaxda axali meTodis SemuSaveba. warwerisaTvis sagangebod momzadda
Semdegi saxis trafaretebi: warweras zemodan gadavafare celofani, zed amovxaze
warwera. amoxazuli asoebi amovWeri da aseTi saxiT „damuSavebuli“ trafareti davamagre
sarestavraciod SerCeul naturaluri abreSumis qsovilze. Aamis Semdeg maszec amovxaze
amoWrili asoebi da sarestavracio qsovilzec igive gavimeore (tab. II-7,8,9,10).Ggamzadebuli
qsovili or, zogjer sam nawilad gaiWra (gardamoxsnis erT gverdze warwera or rigadaa
ganawilebuli), ris Semdegac igi ganTavsda abreSumis zeda qsovilsa da tilos safuZvels
Soris, vercxlmkediT Sesrulebuli asomTavruli warweris konturis gaswvriv (tab. III-
11,12).
Semdgom daviwye konservacia. Tavdapirvelad, salambi gviristis teqnikis gamoyenebiT
qsovilebs Soris Casmuli sakonservacio axali masala gazis qsovilisgan gamorRveuli
ZafiT davamagre, romlis unazesi struqtura yvelaze kargad miesadaga gardamoxsnis
qsovilis faqturas (tab. IV-13,14). qsovilis daSlis Sedegad erTmaneTSi gadaxlarTuli
Zafebi wvrili nemsis meSveobiT ,,daivarcxna’’, ris Semdegac dazianebuli kerebis konturis
Sesabamisad gviristis bmulebiT aRvadgine misi miwaris qsovili (tab. V-15,16,17,18).
Ggardamoxsnis dazianebis xarisxisa da sirTulidan gamomdinare, restavracia jer kidev
mimdinareobs.

97
Ekaterine Tkeshelashvili
The Georgian National Muzeum, Shalva Amiranashvili Muzeum of Fine Arts
1 L. Gudiashvili St.0105, Tbilisi, Georgia
E-mail: ekatkeshelashvili1975@gmail.com

Restoration and Conservation of Epitaphios by Giorgi Abashidze

A few years ago I was offered by the staff of the Embroidery and Textile Collections of Georgian National
Museum Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of Fine Arts to work on the 18th century Epitaphios (SKHM/N 784). I was
responsible for its restoration and conservation.

The textile material around the inscriptions on the framing of the Epitaphios was badly damaged and
missing. Because of small size of the letterings (2cm), it was complicated task to carry out the restoration and
conservation works around them.

Our aim was the restoration of the damaged textile materials in such a way that the canvas textile used as
a background for the inscriptions should not be visible. We decided to prepare particular patterns for the
inscription and to attach them on the natural silk fabric which was thereafter placedbetween the upper silk
fabric and background linen.

At the following stage we began the process of conservation. We restored the background textile according to
the contours of the areas that were damaged by the tied stitches.

The process of restoration and conservation has been continuing because of the complexity of the damages.

B
bibliografia

beriZe v. 1983: qarTuli naqargobis istoriidan. gardamoxsnebi. Tbilisi.


beraZe T. 1987: Walatyis jvarcmis eklesia. qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia. t. XI. Ggv.380.
Tbilisi.
Teoxarisi m. 1988: patmosis monastris saganZuri. (frangulidan Targmna i.koSoriZem).
xelnaweri.
baraTaSvili g., berelaSvili e., kecxoveli m., meliqiSvili i., nadaraia n.,
sulxaniSvili e., 2011: qarTuli naqargoba. Tbilisi.
Настольная книга священнослужителя. 1983: гл. Церковная утварь . т. IV. Москва.

ilustraciebis aRweriloba

sur.1. giorgi abaSiZis gardamoxsna. XVIIIs.


sur 2.giorgi abaSiZis gardamoxsnaze arsebuli dazianebebi
sur. 3. eqsponatis ganTavseba naturaluri tilos qsovilze
98
tab. I
sur. 4,5,6. Zveli restavraciis Sedegad arsebuli sadublikacio qsovilisa da Zafebis
moxsnis procesi
tab. II
sur. 7,8,9,10. trafaretebis damzadebis amsaxveli fotoebi
tab. III
sur. 11,12. axali sadublikacio qsovilis ganTavseba abreSumis zeda qsovilsa da tilos
safuZvels Soris
tab. IV
sur. 13,14. restavracia-konservaciis procesi
tab. V
sur. 15,16,17,18. foto restavraciamde da restavraciis Semdeg

LISTS OF ILLUSTRATION

Fig.1. Epitaphios by Giorgi Abashidze XVIII


Fig 2. Damages on the Epitaphios by Giorgi Abashidze
Fig. 3.The process of setting the item on natural silk textile
Tab. I
Fig. 4,5,6. The process of removing the old textile and ropes.
Tab. II
Fig. 7,8,9,10. The process of preparing the patterns
Tab. III
Fig. 11,12. The process of setting new textile among the silk textile and background canvas linen
Tab. IV
Fig. 13,14. The process of restoration and conservation
Tab. V
Fig. 15,16,17,18. Images of the item before and after restoration

99
sur. 1 Fig.

sur. 2 Fig.

100
sur. 3 Fig.

Tab. I

sur. 4 Fig.

101
sur. 5 Fig.

sur. 6 Fig.

102
Tab. II

sur. 7 Fig.

sur. 8 Fig.

103
sur. 9 Fig.

sur. 10 Fig.

104
Tab. III

sur. 11 Fig.

sur. 12 Fig.

Tab. IV

105
sur. 13 Fig.

sur. 14 Fig.

106
tab. V

sur. 15 Fig.

sur. 16 Fig.

107
sur. 17Fig.

sur. 18 Fig.

108
xelovnebaTmcodneoba

nana javSanaSvili

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumi


Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumi
l. gudiaSvilis q. 1, 0105, Tbilisi, saqarTvelo
elfosta: nana.javsh@hotmail.com

feriscvalebis xatis budis restavracia-konservacia

saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis Salva amiranaSvilis saxelobis xelovnebis muzeumis


naqargobisa da qsovilebis fondSi daculia feriscvalebis xatis bude (sxm/n. sainv. #1377.
73x51 sm) (sur.1). Eeqsponati tipologiurad naqargobisa da qsovilebis koleqciis saeklesio
daniSnulebis nivTTa jgufs miekuTvneba. muzeumSi xatis budis erTmaneTisagan zomiTa da
formiT gansxvavebuli sxva nimuSebic inaxeba. maTi umetesoba sada da martivia. zogadad,
xatis budis Seqmna xatis dazianebisagan dacvis aucileblobam ganapiroba. muzeumis erT-
erT sainventaro wignSi feriscvalebis xatis budis Sesaxeb arsebuli monacemebis mixed-
viT, nivTi 1914 wels eqvTime TayaiSvilma gadasca saistorio-saeTnografio sazogadoebis
muzeums (am sazogadoebis Tavmjdomare iyo eq. TayaiSvili). misi warmomavlobis adgilia
kaxeTi, Telavis feriscvalebis eklesia. Semdgom es eqsponati dasaxelebuli muzeumis sxva
memkvidreobasTan erTad saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumis sakuTreba gaxda.
feriscvalebis xatis bude daTariRebuli Zeglia. masze mxedruliT amoqargulia isto-
riuli (saqtitoro) warwera: ,,q Semogwire mcire ese STasacmelad xatsa feriscvalebisasa
uRirsman mxevalman Senman sruliad saqarTvelos uflis wulis giorgis Tana memcxedreman
cicis Svilis asulman mariam sadRegrZelod Cvenad ZeTa da asulTa CvenTa aRsazrdelad da
sulisa Cvnisa saxsrad febervlis. (sic) kz. qks. CR Jz:.~ warweraSi moxseniebuli piri aris
qarTl-kaxeTis mefe giorgi XII (1798-1800ww.) [dumbaZe m. 1973 : 803], xolo Semwirvelia misi
meuRle mariami, giorgi ciciSvilis asuli, saqarTvelos ukanaskneli dedofali (1768-1850
ww.) [berZniSvili m. 1983:89]. xatis budis Sewirulobis TariRi – 1797 weli Seesabameba giorgi
XII-is ufliswulobis periodis dasasruls.
eqsponati, saxelwodebiT ,,bude xatisa~, saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumis naqargobisa da
qsovilebis fondis Zvel sainventaro wignSi Setanilia muzeumis TanamSromel an. maxaraS-
vilis mier. igive saxelwodeba meordeba 1984 wels am eqsponatisaTvis Sedgenil pasportsa
da Semdgom saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumis naqargobisa da qsovilebis fondis ganaxle-
bul sainventaro wignSi. Tavdapirvel wyaroSi, ssss-is muzeumis sainventaro wignSi ki, mas
ewodeba ,,xatis Casacmeli~1. es saxelwodeba TiTqmis analogiuria xatis budis warweraSi
aRniSnulisa _ ,,STasacmelad xatsa~.
sityva ,,STasacmeli~ da TviT eqsponatis forma miuTiTebs mis daniSnulebaze: xats de-
ben misi zomis Sesatyvisad nakeri da daqarguli qsovilis budeSi. sakuTriv xatis Casadeb

1 ssss an s4 – SemoklebiT ase aRiniSneboda saistorio-saeTnografio sazogadoebis muzeumis saxelwo-


deba.

109
nawils aqvs jibis moyvaniloba da marTkuTxaa (sur.2). maszea amoqarguli zemoT aRniSnuli
warwera (49x15,5 sm). am detalis gagrZeleba - budis zurgis mxaris sada qsovilis monakve-
Ti - xats gasdevs sigrZeze, Semdeg zemodan efineba da mTlianad faravs mas. eqsponatis am
nawilze naqargi kompoziciaa (50x50 sm). rogorc warwera, ise naqargobac xatis budis zeda-
pirzea ganTavsebuli. ეს nawilebi erTmaneTs Sesakravi maryuJebiT uerTdeba. Sindisfer
qsovilze oqromkediT, vercxlmkediTa da namagri siTvis teqnikiT Sesrulebuli naqargo-
ba gamoirCeva daxvewilobiT, feradovnebiTa da maRalmxatvrulobiT. aRniSnuli kompozi-
cia oTxkuTxaa da sqematuri. kompoziciis Tema da centraluri gamosaxuleba ,,ayvavebuli
jvaria~. mis garSemo darCenili sivrce pirobiTad oTxad nawildeba. TiToeul meoTxedSi
erTi da igive mcenareuli saxeebiT, yvavilebiTa da foTlebiT Semkuli ornamentia gan-
Tavsebuli. mcenareTa konturebi vercxlmkediT, xolo Sida sivrce feradi abreSumis Zaf-
iTaa naqargi. centralur kompozicias stilizebuli foTlebisa da yvavilebis ritmuli
monacvleobiT damSvenebuli ole Semosdevs. kompozicia SinaarsiT simboluria.
restavraciamdeli daTvalierebiT gairkva, rom nivTi dazianebulia, darRveuli aqvs
mTlianoba. amis mizezi saeklesio msaxurebisas misi xSiri gamoyeneba da siZvelea.
eqsponatSi sami ZiriTadi nawilia: 1. muqi Sindisferi atlasis zedapiri naqargi da sada,
mouqargavi detalebiT, 2. TeTri tilos qsovili da 3. Ria mwvane abreSumis (yanaozi) sar-
Culi.
Ddazianebis xarisxiT, miwaris qsovilis rogorc naqarg, ise sada nawilebze arsebuli xarve-
zebi rTulia. dekoratiul detalze mcenareul ornamentebs Soris moqceul qsovilis
nawilebze gacrecili da naxevrad daSlili adgilebia (sur.3a,b), warweris gaswvriv ki aRin-
iSneba horizontalurad ganviTarebuli Sladoba (sur.4). liTonis Zafebi odnav gacveTil-
ia, magram naqargoba TiTqmis dauzianebelia, mxolod CarCos Semadgeneli naqargi zolebia
ramdenime adgilas darRveuli da gadatexili. atlass tilos safuZveli aqvs dadebuli gas-
amyareblad. sarCulsa da atlasis sada nawilze arsebuli dazianebebic daSlili adgilebis
saxiTaa formirebuli. eqsponatis Semadgenel qsovilTagan atlasi inarCunebs, zogadad,
qsovilisaTvis damaxasiaTebel rbil struqturas. Tumca, sarestavracio budis qsovili
araerTgvarovania da nawilobriv daSlili. odnav gamomSralia tilos safuZvelic, sarCu-
li ki – sagrZnoblad. sarCulad gamoyenebuli abreSumis qsovilis saxeoba – yanaozi cno-
bilia naklebmdgradobiTa da gamZleobiT. am eqsponatis stabiluroba saSualo xarisxisaa.
samive qsovilze aRiniSneba muqi da Ria Seferilobis laqebi. Sesakravebi deformirebulia
da nakluli. dakargulia maTi gamaerTianebeli, Camketi detali.
eqsponatis mdgomareobis zemoaRniSnuli struqturuli da zedapiruli maxasiaTeblebi qm-
nis problemaTa erTobliobas. isini unda mogvardes restavracia-konservaciis dros eta-
pobrivad da Tanmimdevruli dagegmviT. restavratorTa mizania, sarestavracio eqspona-
tisTvis Sesaferisi Zafebisa da dublikatebis gamoyenebiT, specialuri bmuladebiTa da
namagrebiT Semcirdes qsovilebis Slis Seuqcevadi procesis swrafi ganviTareba, aRdges
eqsponatis Tavdapirveli forma, gamoswordes arsebuli dazianebis Sedegi. aqedan gamom-
dinare, Cemi mizani iyo naqargsa da sada detalebze fiqsirebul dazianebaTa konservacia
maTi Semdgomi daSlis SesaCereblad, warweriani nawilis daSlili gverdiTa detalebis aR-
dgena (sur.5a,b), sarCulis restavracia da eqsponatis gamTlianeba.
rogorc wesi, restavracias win uswrebs eqsponatis momzadeba: restavraciamdeli aucile-
beli fotodokumentaciis Seqmnis Semdeg eqsponati iwmindeba. am mxriv, Cvens muzeumSi dam-
kvidrebulia e.w. kombinirebuli meTodi, romelic etapobrivad jer mSrali, Semdeg sveli
wesiT gawmendas gulisxmobs [papiZe m. 2015:430]. mSrali gawmendisaTvis aucilebeli saSu-
alebebiT – funjisa da dapresili bambis diskis gamoyenebiT gavaTavisufle mtvris feni-

110
sa da cvilis narCenebisagan eqsponati. am xatis budisa da, zogadad, msgavsi eqsponatebis
gawmendis dros gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eTmoba TviTon naqargobas. gasaTvaliswinebe-
lia oqrosa da vercxlis TmiT, vercxlmkediTa da oqromkediT qargvis Tavisebureba - maT
samagrad abreSumis Zafis Tanamonawileoba. savaraudoa, droTa ganmavlobaSi, gamoSrobis
paralelurad, samagri Zafis daWimulobis momateba da dazianebis axali keris gaCena. amitom
gawmendisas didi sifrTxile marTebs restavrators. darCenili mtvris mocilebis mizniT,
dasaSvebia gawmendis dasruleba gamoxdili wylisa da spirtis ganzavebul xsnarSi dasvele-
buli da kargad gawuruli dolbandis msubuqi zedapiruli gamoyenebiT. aqve davsZen, rom
pirveladi kombinirebuli gawmendis Semdeg, ukve restavraciis dros, eqsponatTan intensi-
uri SexebiT damatebiT mimdinareobs qsovilis boCkoebidan daleqili mtvris nawilakebis
gamoTavisuflebac. muzeumis restavratorTa gamocdilebiT, qsovilis ramdenime feniani
msgavsi eqsponatebis gawmendisas swored kombinirebuli wesis gamoyenebaa umjobesi. maTi
sveli wesiT Rrma gawmenda dauSvebelia. Mmocemul SemTxvevaSi, eqsponatisTvis gamoyenebu-
li qsovilis samive saxeobis (atlasi, tilo, yanaozi) faqturul sxvaobas emateba siZvelis
faqtoric, amitom is gansxvavebulad reagirebs siTxesTan kontaqtze. Tu sveli wesiT Rrma
gawmendas davuSvebT, es maTSi mimdinare negatiuri procesebis gaaqtiurebas gamoiwvevs.
eqsponati dazaraldeba vizualurad. zogadad, zedmeti teni da siTxe azianebs Zveli,
gamomSrali qsovilis boWkos. nacvlad ganaxlebisa, miiReba ukuSedegi – qsovilis gamoS-
roba, destruqturizacia da daSlis progresireba2.

2 sveli wesiT Rrma gawmenda tenianoba-simSralis xarisxis kvlevis safuZvelze xorcieldeba da mxolod
gansazRvruli nivTebis restavraciis dros gamoiyeneba. sarestavracio centrebSi, sadac laboratoriulad
Seiswavleba qsovilebis mdgomareoba, Sesabamisad SeirCeva saWiro saSualebebi teqstilis eqsponatebis mo-
sawesrigeblad, maTze arsebuli sxvadasxva warmoSobis laqebis gasauferuleblad. magaliTisTvis SemiZlia
davasaxelo ukrainis nacionaluri samecniero-kvleviTi sarestavracio centri, sadac Zveli qsovilebi da
naqargi nivTebi, saWiroebisa da SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi, iwmindeba sveli wesiT ara marto zedapirulad,
aramed siRrmiseuladac (wmendis am meTodologiaTa Sesaxeb informacias gavecani 2014 wels ukrainis nacio-
nalur samecniero-kvleviT sarestavracio centrSi restavratorTaTvis sakvalifikacio kategoriebis mimni-
Webel komisiaSi muSaobisas).
laboratoriuli struqtura farTo SesaZleblobebis, restavraciasTan dakavSirebuli gansxvavebuli dargis
specialistebis CarTulobis mqone sistemaa. saqarTvelos erovnul muzeumSi, kerZod, s. janaSias saxelobis
muzeumSi, daculia laboratoriul kvlevaze dafuZnebuli akad. i. e. grabaris saxelobis sruliad ruseTis
samxatvro samecniero-sarestavracio centrSi XX s-is 70-ian wlebSi restavrirebuli eqsponatebi (qarTl-kax-
eTis mefe Teimuraz II-is samarxidan mopovebuli samosi) [http://www.museumconservation.ru/publications/ventsel first textile
restorer/index.php]. arqeologiuri da am SemTxvevaSi, samarxiseuli teqstilis gawmenda qimikosis saqmea da gansx-
vavebuli teqnologiiT xorcieldeba. zogadad, wmenda da restavracia zRvruli SesaZleblobebis procesebia.
aRniSnuli kompleqtis magaliTze TvalsaCinoa, gawmendisa da restavraciis Semdgomi rogorc dadebiTi, aseve
arasasurveli efeqti – gaxevebuli qsovili.
asakobrivi faqtori – nivTis damzadebis dro saSualebas iZleva, zogierTi sakiTxis gaTvaliswinebiTa da
aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi sveli wesiT Rrma gawmendis meTodi gamoviyenoT. saqme exeba nivTebs, romlebic XX
s-is pirvel naxevarSia damzadebuli. aRniSnulTan dakavSirebiT, qsovilebisa da naqargobis movla-dacvaze
pasuxismgebeli TanamSromlebisa da restavratorebis TavSekavebuli poziciis miuxedavad, zogjer viTareba
gvkarnaxobs sveli meTodis swored am wesiT movawesrigoT eqsponatebi. Cven gvaqvs misi gamoyenebis erTeuli
magaliTebi. 2014 wels saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis i. griSaSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis istoriisa da s. ja-
naSias saxelobis muzeumebis teqstilis koleqciaze muSaobisas gamovlinda, rogorc gawmendis, ise restavra-
ciis TvalsazrisiT Zlier dazianebuli nivTebis jgufi: №e-1890, leCaqi (rest. n. javSanaSvili), №e-1889, leCaqi
(rest. n. soxaSvili), №10-52-/82, sisiti, №10-52/80 sisiti (rest. m. xubuluri). eqsponatebis struqturis, maTi
damzadebis qronologiuri CarCoebis gaTvaliswinebiTa (savaraudod, XIX s-is bolo – XX s-is pirveli mesame-
di) da Zlieri damtvervis gamo, rasac siZvele da warsulSi Senaxvis arasaTanado pirobebi iwvevs, aseve Catare-
buli kombinirebuli gawmendis araefeqturobidan gamomdinare, Sida sarestavracio sabWos gadawyvetilebiT,
aRniSnuli nivTebi gaiwminda sveli wesiT (gamoxdili wyali, sabavSvo sapnis fxvnili). am SemTxvevaSi gamoyeneb-
uli meTodi marTebuli gamodga; nawilobriv aRdga qsovilebSi tenianobis balansi, Semdgomi restavraciis
saSualebiT ki eqsponatebs daubrundaT saeqspozicio saxe. droTa ganmavlobaSi, amgvari midgoma saWiroebs
monitorings miRebul RonisZiebaTa efeqturobis dasadgenad, miRweuli Sedegis xelaxal gadaxedvasa da dak-
virvebas. qsovilebis gawmenda sapasuxismgeblo procesia. samuzeumo sivrceSi teqstilis aTasobiT nimuSi ar-
sebobs. maTi klasifikaciis, Semadgenlobis, mdgomareobisa da asakis gaTvaliswinebiT, unda Camoyalibdes am
koleqciebisaTvis mizanSewonili gawmendis saTanadod SerCeuli sistema. zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare, Cveni

111
eqsponatis restavraciamdeli fotodokumentaciisa da gawmendis Semdgom etapze yur-
adRebis centrSi sarestavracio masalis SerCevaa. teqstilis eqsponatebi Seqmnilia ga-
sul saukuneebSi, rodesac warmoeba mxolod bunebriv nedleuls (seli, abreSumi, bamba, xe,
oqro, vercxli da a.S.) iyenebda. restavraciis dros swored naturaluri masalis gamoy-
enebaa mizanSewonili. muzeumis restavratorTa saqmianobisas, marTalia, ar gamoiricxeba
naxevrad xelovnuri Zafisa da qsovilis gamoyeneba, magram upiratesoba naturalur masa-
las eZleva3. mniSvnelovania eqsponatis ZiriTadi qsovilis – miwaris restavracia, romlis
drosac miuRebelia naturaluris nacvlad naxevrad xelovnuri qsoviliT dublireba. is
ukidures SemTxvevaSi da, umetesad, eqsponatebisaTvis saWiro sarCulebis aRdgena-damza-
debis dros gamoiyeneba4. restavracia warimarTeba swored miwars misadagebuli sadub-
likacio qsovilis saTanadod SerCevis safuZvelze. aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi qsovili
iRebeba. saWiro feris misaRebad gamoiyeneba rogorc sinTetikuri, ise bunebrivi, mcena-
reuli saRebavebi. upiratesoba am ukanasknels eniWeba5.
rac Seexeba feriscvalebis xatis budis sadublikacio masalas, rogorc zemoT aRvniSne,
eqsponatis qsovilTagan aRdgenas saWiroebda atlasis zedapiri da yanaozis sarCuli.
dazianebaTa simravliT gamoirCeoda atlasis qsovili. zogadad, restavraciisaTvis arasa-
surveli faqtori iyo webovani fenac, romelic naqarg nawils zurgis mxridan hqonda ga-
dasmuli da Semxmari. is sarestavracio Zafis qsovilSi gatarebas aferxebda. dazianeba-
Ta gaCenac nawilobriv mas ukavSirdeba. atlasis qsovili, Tavis mxriv, moicavda sam, er-
Timeorisgan gamijnul sarestavracio ares: naqarg dekoratiuls, warweriansa da unaqargo
sada nawilebs. sada nawilis restavracia-konservaciisaTvis moviZie arambzinvare satinis
(bamba) qsovili. es faqtura gamiznulad SevarCie, radgan eqsponatiseul atlass mxolod
nawilobriv hqonda SenarCunebuli Tavdapirveli iersaxe. is, siZvelisa da cveTis gamo,
araTanabari ferisa da gaxunebuli iyo. aseTi SerCeviT SevniRbe kontrastuli sxvaoba Zv-
elsa da axal qsovils Soris. sadublikacio masala funqciurad Semavsebeli saSualebaa,

codna am sferoSi Sevseba-daxvewas, sxva muzeumebis praqtikaSi arsebul gamocdilebaTa, Tanamedrove teqnol-
ogiebis Seswavla-gaziarebas moiTxovs.
3 naturaluri warmoSobis sadublikacio masalebis gamoyenebis praqtika naqargobisa da qsovilebis
restavraciis seqtoris Camoyalibebis Tanadroulia, magram mas organizebuli saxe XX s-is 80-iani wlebidan
eZleva. samuzeumo cxovrebaSi mizanmimarTulad yuradRebis centrSi moeqca teqstilis eqsponatebis restavra-
ciis maqsimaluri xelSewyoba, dazianebuli nivTebisa da, gansakuTrebiT, Zvirfasi saeklesio naqargobis kole-
qciis aRdgena, saamisod saWiro resursebisa da masalebis moZieba. gamovlinda, rom arsebiTi nabiji jer kidev
ar iyo gadadgmuli. maT Soris, garda calkeulad ganxorcielebuli RonisZiebebisa, xelovnebis muzeumis ad-
ministraciam SeiZina quTaisis qsovilebis fabrikaSi damzadebuli sxvadasxva faqturis sada, TeTri abreSu-
mis didi metraJi. am saqmeSi wamyvani roli naqargobisa da qsovilebis ganyofilebam Seasrula ganyofilebis
gamgis, m. kecxovelis xelmZRvanelobiT. gaweul RonisZiebaTa da restavratorTa Zalisxmevis Sedegad ganxor-
cielda iseTi masStaburi samuSaoebi, rogoricaa ,,sveticxovlis didi gardamoxsnisa~ (XIV s. rest. n. svaniZe)
da ,,ubisis gardamoxsnis~ (XVI s. rest. m. xubuluri) restavracia, daigegma amJamad mimdinare ,,giorgi abaSiZis
gardamoxsnis~ (XVIII s. rest. e. tyeSelaSvili) restavracia. am namuSevrebSi TvalsaCinoa sadublikacio masalis
saWiro Tanxvedra miwaris qsovilTan. naxsenebi adgilobrivi warmoebis qsovilebi Tvisebrivad uaxlovdeba
Zveli abreSumis teqstils, rac istoriulad mzaddeboda saqarTveloSi. swored es sadublikacio qsovilebi
warmoadgenda ZiriTad sabaziso masalas, ramac ganapiroba aRniSnuli wlebis momdevno, saqarTvelos istoriis
rTul periodSi, sarestavracio saqmis ganviTarebis uwyvetoba.
4 amgvari SezRudva uaxloes warsulSi postsabWoTa sivrceSi momxdari politikuri cvlilebebiTaa
gamowveuli, ramac saqarTveloSi safeiqro warmoebis dargi daazarala. igulisxmeba qsovilebis mwarmoebeli
didi organizaciebis - quTaisis qs. fabrikisa da Tbilisis abreSumis sawarmoo gaerTianebis gauqmeba.
5 bunebrivi, mcenareuli saSualebebiT Rebva sarestavracio praqtikis ganuyofeli nawilia. zogadad,
muzeumis profilidan gamomdinare, Zveli tradiciuli Rebva sxva qveynebis samuzeumo sivrceebSic inarCu-
nebs aqtualobas. am mxriv, sanimuSoa ukrainis nacionaluri samecniero-kvleviTi sarestavracio centri. aq
teqstilis eqsponatebis restavracia mxolod naturalur masalas efuZneba. mzadaa specialuri katalogi, sa-
dac mcenareTa gamoyenebiT yvela saWiro feris miRebis nimuSi da qsovilebis Rebvis teqnologiaa mocemuli. am
saqmes Sesabamisi kvalifikaciis specialisti uZRveba.

112
roca saqme nakluli adgilebis aRdgenas exeba. Ees meTodi gamoviyene atlasis zedapiris
sada nawilze arsebuli msgavsi dazianebebis restavraciisas. atlasTan SedarebiT odnav
Txeli, naklebi simWidrovis mqone bambis qsovilis sadublikacio safuZveli moxerxebuli
saSualeba aRmoCnda Semdgomi konservacia-fiqsaciisaTvis. naqarg zedapirze qsovilis
nakluli adgilebi Sevavse identuri feris abreSumis qsovilis fragmentebiT. Ria mwvane
abreSumis qsovilis sarCulis dazianebebi aRvadgine Sesabamisi naxevrad xelovnuri abre-
Sumis qsoviliT. restavrators evaleba, daicvas zomiereba sadublikacio safuZvlis gam-
oyenebisas. aseTi dublikatis dafena SeiZleba iyos konkretul-lokaluri daniSnulebis,
mimarTuli erTi romelime xarvezis gamosasworeblad da masStaburic – aseTive saxis da-
zianebisas. ukanasknel SemTxvevaSi dafena xorcieldeba vrcel, zogjer, eqsponatis mTel
perimetrze. sasurvelia, sadublikacio fena struqturulad eqsponatiseul qsovilze Tx-
eli iyos da sisqiT mas ar aRematebodes. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, qsovilis fragmentuli
,,Cadgmisa~ Tu dafenis Semdeg misi damateba moculobis zrdas gamoiwvevs da eqsponati gas-
qeldeba. es SeniSvna saerToa rogorc zedapiris, ise samagri qsovilisa da sarCulis dub-
likaciasTan mimarTebiT.
atlasis zedapiris sada monakveTis restavraciis mizniT, sarRvevi kauWis saSualebiT
gavxseni masze arsebuli nakeri, romelic mis Semadgenel mcire zomisa da did detalebs
erTmaneTTan akavSirebda. maTi SeerTebis adgilas qsovili SedarebiT kargad iyo daculi.
Semdgom swored es dauzianebeli napirebi gadavaadgile da ganvaTavse warwerisa da naqa-
rgi kompoziciis mimdebared, radgan sada nawilze maTi gadasvlis adgilebi gacrecili da
daSlili iyo, Tan axlda qsovilis garkveuli danakargi. rTul viTarebaSi swori koordina-
cia metad mniSvnelovania. restavraciisas restavratoris mier eqsponatze Sesrulebuli
nebismieri qmedeba unda gamomdinareobdes saWiroebidan, cvlileba ki dasabuTdes. Mmsgavsi
sakiTxebi ara erTpirovnulad, aramed Sesabamisi kompetenciis mkvlevrebTan SeTanxmebiT
unda gadawydes. ukve naxsenebi gadanacvlebiT Sevecade, gameumjobesebina eqsponatis vi-
zualuri mxare, dublikatiT Sevsebuli nawili ki naklebad TvalsaCino – zurgis mxares
ganvaTavse (sur.6).
eqsponatis sada nawilis mcire zomis detali warsulSi ramdenimejer aRudgeniaT. amaze
miuTiTebs, daSlili adgilebis gamagrebis mizniT, masSi sxvadasxva dros Cakerebuli da
ZiriTadisagan gansxvavebuli qsovilis CanarTebi. aseTi cvlilebis Sedegad aRniSnuli
detali, faqtobrivad samad iyo gayofili sigrZiv (sur.7a,b,g). amgvari araprofesiuli
restavracia, SesaZlebelia, nivTis muzeumSi moxvedramde Sesrulda. sagulisxmoa sainven-
taro wignebSi gakeTebuli Canawerebi. isini nivTis swored restavraciamdel mdgomareobas
aRwers. maTSi xazgasmulia am eqsponatis Zlieri dazianeba daZenZva-dakemsvis saxiT. nacv-
lad erT safuZvelze gamTlianebisa, erTimeoresTan axlomdebare ori dazianebis gamo-
sasworeblad erTimeorisgan damoukidebeli amdenive dublikatia gamoyenebuli. movxse-
ni arasasurveli qsovilis CanarTebi. amas garda, movarRvie sada, did nawilze arsebuli
mogrZo, uxeSad gadakerili adgilic. gamosworebis mizniT, misi mopirdapire mxareebi,
romelTa Soris daSlili qsovilis zoma erT santimetrs aRwevda, ara safuZvlis meSveobiT,
aramed napirebis erTmaneTTan mitaniT iyo gaerTianebuli. amgvarma midgomam aRniSnul
monakveTze qsovilis SekumSva da defeqturi moWimva gamoiwvia. atlasis sada nawilis mcire
zomis detals mTliani safuZveli davufine, did nawils ki – mxolod daSlili napiris gas-
wvriv (sur.8a,b). saWiro zomis safuZvlis dafenis Semdeg Sesabamisi sarestavracio ZafiT
aRvadgine isini. rac Seexeba restavraciis Sesrulebis teqnikas, is gulisxmobs dazianebu-
li napirebis fiqsacias SerCeul safuZvelze. namagri iqmneba nemsis mWidro zigzagiseburi
moZraobiT qsovilTa Soris sibrtyeze, romlis drosac Zafi nemsis saSualebiT magrdeba
safuZvelze da Sida mxridan `eWideba~ zedapirs.Aase xdeba dublikatisa da sarestavracio
nawilis gaTanabreba, erTian qsovilad `gardaqmna~.
113
eqsponatis warwerian nawilze dazianeba orgvari iyo: erTi mxriv – horizontalurad
daSlili da, meore mxriv - mcire zomis gacrecili adgilebi. am ukanasknelTa umetesoba
gavamagre dazianebis sigrZeze gadaWimuli Zafis bmuliT, romelic SeZlebisdagvarad
Tanabari intervalebiT (2-3 mm) Cavamagre6. ar Sevxebivar naklebad TvalsaCino mcire xarve-
zebs. muzeumis sarestavracio praqtikaSi miRebulia Sexeduleba, rom msgavs viTarebaSi
dazianebis sawyis stadiaze nemsiTa da ZafiT damuSavebas SeuZlia gaaaqtiuros konserva-
ciis sapirispiro daSlis procesi. amitom umjobesia maTi xeluxleblad datoveba da Semd-
gom dazianebis ganviTarebis Sesabamisad reagireba. imave wesiT movaxdine horizontaluri
Slis konservaciac. am SemTxvevaSic sarestavracio Zafis bmuladebi naxevis sapirispiro
wyobiT ganvalage da aseve mcire intervalebis monacvleobiT Cavamagre (sur.9). zemoaRniS-
nuli sakonservacio teqnikiT mosaxerxebelia bmulis rogorc erTeulad Camagreba, aseve
SesaZlebelia winaswar ramdenime paraleluri bmuladis (4-6) ganlageba sarestavracio
monakveTze da Semdeg maTi Tanmimdevruli fiqsacia. namagri teqnikis am meTodis gamoy-
enebisas, sasurvelia, samuSao Sesruldes wvrili sarestavracio ZafiT. mocemuli eqspona-
tis SemTxvevaSi konservaciisaTvis abreSumis qsovilis daSlili Zafi gamoviyene. naqargi
kompoziciis detalze, umetesad, meore saxis dazianebebi iyo ganviTarebuli da mTlianad
moicavda mas. am naxevrad daSlil, gacrecil adgilebSi mxolod misaqselis Zafis mWidro
mwkrivi iyo darCenili7. maTi aseTi wyobisa da mdgomareobis gamo, momavalSi misaqselis
Zafis ganlevis safrTxis gaTvaliswinebiT, dazianebaTa konservacia zemoaRniSnuli meTo-
diT Sevasrule (sur.10). gacrecili nawilebi droTa ganmavlobaSi iSleba da maT nacv-
lad qsovilze, ase vTqvaT, carieli adgilebi rCeba. es am tipis dazianebis bolo stadi-
aa. sarestavracio eqsponatis dekoratiul nawilze dafiqsirda ramdenime aseTi adgili,
saidanac moCanda tilos safuZveli. amgvar dazianebas nakluli adgili ewodeba. misi zoma
qsovilis danakargis mixedviT ganisazRvreba da, Sesabamisad, formirdeba didi da mcire
moculobis nakluli adgilebi. aseTi dazianeba xSiria teqstilis eqsponatebSi. sadub-
likacio qsovilebze saubrisas dazianebis aRniSnuli tipi araerTgzis vaxsene da, rogorc
ukve aRvniSne, am konkretuli xarvezebis gamosasworeblad abreSumis qsovilis fragmente-
bi gamoviyene (sur.11a,b.g).
zemoaRniSnuli problemis gadasaWrelad restavraciis es xerxi yovelTvis araa marTe-
buli. naqargi ornamentebiT danawevrebuli zedapiris arsebobisas da ZiriTadi qsovilis
didi danakargis dros Tu, imavdroulad, saxezea naqargobis cveTa, axali dublikati mx-
olod gaaZlierebs sxvaobasa da Seusabamobas siZvelesTan. aseT viTarebaSi miRebulia ara
miwaris ganaxleba, aramed daSlili adgilebis ,,martivi~, blandiseburi namagriT fiqsa-
cia8 (sur.12a,b). am gziTac SeiZleba TvalsaCino gaxdes eqsponatis mxatvruli Rirebule-
bebi: daniSnuleba, forma, kompozicia, dekoratiuloba, Zafisa da qsovilis saxeoba, fera-
dovneba, qargvis teqnika da sxv. nakluli adgilebis aRdgena, zogadad, problemuria da mis
gadasawyvetad teqstilis restavraciaSi calsaxad dadgenili erTi wesi ar arsebobs. misi
gadaWra dazianebuli nivTis mdgomareobazea damokidebuli da aRniSnul RirebulebaTa
gaTvaliswinebiT unda mogvardes. am da sxva mniSvnelovani sakiTxebis gasarkvevad orien-
tiri isev restavrirebuli eqsponatebia.

6 konservaciis aRniSnuli wesi Cem mier aris SemuSavebuli muzeumSi dacul erT-erT eqsponatze, sxm/n. #
4354 dafarnaze, arsebuli qargvis teqnikisa da misi msgavsi sarestavracio teqnikis, e. w. bulonuri wertilebis,
safuZvelze (am ukanasknelis Sesaxeb informacia mogvawoda saqarTvelos erovnuli muzeumis TanamSromelma
(konservatorma) nino ColoyaSvilma, risTvisac vuxdi madlobas.)
7 misaqselisa da qselis Zafebis gansazRvraSi damexmara atlasis qsovilis erT mxares SemorCenili nawi-
buris mcire zomis fragmenti.
8 sxm/n. #1315, dorispiri (rest. m. xubuluri).

114
rac Seexeba CarCos Semadgeneli naqargi zolebis dazianebebs, isini rRvevis wertilebSi Ca-
vamagre. restavraciis TvalsazrisiT, nakluli naqargoba xelSeuxebelia. TviT Zveli saqa-
rgi masalis arsebobis SemTxvevaSic ki SeuZlebeli da dauSvebelia avtoriseuli xelweris
gameorebis mcdeloba. originalobis dacva, moRweuli saxiT misi Tavdapirvelobis Senar-
Cuneba konservaciis mTavari mizania. am principidan gamomdinare, Sesabamisad, gadavwyvite
eqsponatis dazianebuli Sesakravis restavraciis sakiTxi. sakmarisi miniSnebis uqonlobis
gamo, ori nawilisgan Sedgenili Sesakravis ara aRdgena, aramed mocemuli saxiT misi fiqsa-
cia-gamagreba iyo swori arCevani.
sarCulis SenarCunebisa da konservaciisas, Tu is Sedis eqsponatis SemadgenlobaSi an misi
damateba aucilebelia eqsponatis dacvis mizniT, restavratori xelmZRvanelobs am mxriv
Camoyalibebuli gamocdilebiT. eqsponatiseuli Zveli sarCuli ganixileba ara gankerZoe-
bulad, aramed miiCneva im siZvelis nawilad, rasac nivTi da misi Seqmnis istoriuli dro
warmoadgens. saeklesio nivTebisTvis, ZiriTadad, sada feris martivi sarCulebia gamoy-
enebuli. gvxvdeba feriT, formiTa da faqturiT gansxvavebuli sarCulebi, aseve maTi sx-
vadasxva saxis qsovilis kombinaciiT ,,awyobili~ rogorc sada, ise dekoratiuli saxe-
obebic. sainteresoa feriscvalebis xatis budis magaliTze gare da Sida nawilebis fer-
Ta Sewyvilebisa da dabalansebis amdagvari xerxi: muqi Sindisferi miwarisa – Ria mwvane
sarCulTan. es mxatvrulad SeTanxmebuli wyvilia. Tu SemTxveviTobas gamovricxavT da
mas erT mTlian mxatvrul nawarmoebad gaviazrebT, dasaSvebad mimaCnia, saeklesio naqar-
gobaSi dadgenil ferTa qristianul-marTlmadidebluri simbolikac davimowmo. xelovne-
baTmcodne i. meliqiSvilis kvlevis mixedviT, saeklesio samosSi gamoyenebuli mwvane feri
maradiuli cxovrebis feria [http://www.ambioni.ge/saeklesio-samosi]. aqedan gamomdinare,
mocemul eqsponatSi mwvane feris monawileobiT xazgasmulia naqarg mcenareul kompozi-
ciaSi gamosaxuli ,,ayvavebuli jvris~ maradiulobis idea.
Zveli sarCulebis movla, romelic aseve aucilebelia eqsponatTa restavraciisas, gulisx-
mobs mtvrisagan maTs gasufTavebas. siZvelisa da xSiri gamoyenebis gamo, umetesad, sarCu-
lis ganapira zedapiris qsovilTan mimagrebis adgilebia dazianebuli. maTs aRsadgenad
Sesabamis dublikatebs viyenebT, rogorc es feriscvalebis xatis budis restavraciisas
ganvaxorciele (sur.13a,b). Zlier gacveTili sarCulis SemTxvevaSi misi demontaJi aucile-
belia. aseTi sarCuli aRar icavs eqsponatis ZiriTad nawils. qsovilis daSlili boCkoebis-
gan droTa ganmavlobaSi iqmneba mtvris datkepnili fena. adgilze misi datoveba safrTxes
uqmnis namagr Zafebs, romelTac naqargoba emyareba, mTlianad ki – eqsponats. saWiro cvli-
leba ara Zvelis restavracias, piriqiT, daSlili sarCulis moxsna-demontaJsa da axlis Se-
qmnas moiTxovs. msgavs viTarebaSi restavratori mimarTavs qsovilis feris, formisa da ma-
salis identifikacias. warsulSi maT restavratorebi xeluxleblad tovebdnen da damate-
biT tilos sarCulsac urTavdnen, rac uaryofiTad aisaxeboda eqsponatebis struqturasa
da iersaxeze (sur.14a,b). amJamad konservaciis es arasasurveli xerxi Cven mier sabolood
uaryofilia.
feriscvalebis xatis budis restavracia misi mTlianobis aRdgeniTa da sainventaro nom-
ris maniSneblis darTviT dasrulda (sur.15). eqsponatis restavracia-konservaciis ganuy-
ofeli nawilia misi etapobrivi da Tanmdevi fotofiqsacia, rogorc saWiro mtkicebuleba
Sesrulebuli saqmianobis Sesaxeb. am eqsponatis restavraciis amsaxvel fotodokumenta-
ciaSi Tavmoyrilia restavracia-konservaciis yvela sakvanZo etapi. eqsponatis aRdgenis
Sesaxeb msjelobisas ki saWirod miviCnie da paralelurad ganvixile teqstilis restavra-
cia-konservaciasTan dakavSirebuli zogadi xasiaTis araerTi problema. momavalSi maTi
gaTvaliswineba aucileblad gaaumjobesebs samuzeumo faseulobebis gadasarCenad gaweu-
li Sromis xarisxsa da Sedegs.

115
Nana Javshanashvili

The Georgian National Museum


Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of Fine Arts
1, Gudiashvili St. 0105, Tbilisi Georgia
E – mail: nana.javsh@hotmail.com

Restoration-conservation of the Case of the “Transfiguration” Icon

The case of the”Trasfiguration” icon kept in Georgian National Museum Shalva Amiranashvili Museum of Fine
Arts can be considered the frst class exhibit due both to its historical and artistic value. This item was made in
the last quarter of the 18th century for keeping the icon.

Regular use of the objects during church service caused their damage. Therefore Georgian craftsmen produced
small-size embroidered cases for protecting them. One of such objects is the piece presented in our paper.

Cleaning and restoration of fabrics and embroidery patterns are very difficult processes requiring initial
examination of the degree of damage, as well as the material and technique of execution to be followed
by restoration based on practical habits and the latest theoretical and technological knowledge that have
been obtained in this field over years. The paper aims at sharing the views corroborated during research and
practical work.

While restoring the case of the «Transfiguration» icon, we first examined a typology of fixed damages by
comparative methods applied to already restored objects being previously similar to the one under restoration.
We have cleaned the icon’s case by using the combined cleaning method which involves only a surface and
thereby does not cause a violation of the structural body of the artifact.

Samples of Georgian embroidery are executed with the technique of satin stitch. It is important to select
a natural dublicate for the “ground” i.e. main fabric of the artwork when we aim at restoring an original
appearance of the object athough sometimes there is needed to conserve certain spots in order to retain the
artifact’s authentic look.

The case of « The Transfiguration Icon» is restored by this principle.

bibliografia
dumbaZe m. 1973: qarTl-kaxeTis saxelmwifos gauqmeba da ruseTTan SeerTeba. saqarTvelos
istoriis narkvevebi. t. IV. gv.802-843. Tbilisi (saredaqcio kolegia: g. meliqiSvili (mT. re-
daqtori), i. anTelava, v. dondua, m. dumbaZe, i. kaWarava, S. mesxia, n. sturua, a. surgulaZe).
berZniSvili m. 1983: masalebi XIX saukunis pirveli naxevris qarTuli sazogadoebriobis
istoriisaTvis. t. II. Tbilisi.
papiZe m. 2015: saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumSi daculi mitris restavracia-konserva-
cia. semm.VI.(51-B). gv. 430. Tbilisi
http://www.museumconservation.rum/publications/venstel first textile restorer/index.php
http://www.ambioni.ge/saeklesio-samosi. WeliZe q. 2011: saeklesio samosi. `ambioni~ sazogadoe-
briv-religiuri internetJurnali

116
ilustraciebis aRweriloba

sur. 1. feriscvalebis xatis bude restavraciamde


sur. 2. xatis Casadebi nawili
sur. 3.a,b dazianebebi: gacrecili, naxevrad daSlili da nakluli adgilebi
sur. 4. dazianeba: horizontalurad daSlili adgilebi
sur. 5.a,b warweriani detalis dazianebuli gverdiTa nawilebi
sur. 6. eqsponatis sada detali restavraciis Semdeg
sur. 7.a,b,g eqsponatis sada detalis mcire zomis nawili restavraciamde (a,b) da restavra-
ciis procesSi (g)
sur. 8. eqsponatis sada detalis didi zomis nawili restavraciamde (a) da restavraciis
Semdeg (b)
sur. 9. dazianebis konservaciis procesi
sur. 10. eqsponatis dekoratiuli detali restavracia-konservaciis Semdeg
sur. 11.a,b,g nakluli adgili - restavraciamde (a), restavraciis procesSi (b) da restavra-
ciis Semdeg (g)
sur. 12. a,b dazianebuli miwari konservaciamde (a) da konservaciis Semdeg (detali) (b)
sur. 13. a,b sarCuli – restavraciis Semdeg (a,b)
sur. 14. sarCulis araswori konservaciis nimuSebi (a,b)
sur. 15. feriscvalebis xatis bude restavraciis Semdeg

LLIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Fig. 1. The case of the Transfiguration Icon before restoration


Fig. 2. The piece to put into the case
Fig. 3. a,b Demages: shattered, partly destroyed, missing some points
Fig. 4. Demaged: Horizontally destroyed places
Fig. 5. a,b The demaged lateral parts with inscriptions
Fig. 6. The frugal detail of the exhibit after restoration
Fig. 7. a,b,g A small part of a frugal detail of the exhibit before restoration (a,b) and in the process of restora-
tion (g)
Fig. 8. a,b,g A bigger part of a frugal detail before restoration (a) and after restoration (b)
Fig. 9. Conservation process of the demaged part
Fig. 10. Ornamental detail of the exhibit after restoration- conservation
Fig. 11. a,b,g The missing place – before restoration (a) and in the process of restoration (b)
Fig. 12. a,b The demaged main textile (atlas) before conservation (a) and after conservation (b)
Fig. 13. a,b. The lining – after restoration (a,b)
Fig. 14. a,b. The sample of the false conservation
Fig. 15. The case of the Transfiguration Icon after restoration
117
sur. 1 Fig.

sur. 2 Fig.

118
sur. 3 a,b a,b Fig.

sur. 4 Fig.

sur. 5 a,b a,b Fig.

119
sur. 6 Fig.

120
sur. 7 a,b,g a,b,g Fig.

sur. 8 a,b a,b Fig.

sur. 9 Fig.

121
sur. 10 Fig.

sur. 11 a,b,g a,b,g Fig.

sur. 12 a,b a,b Fig.

122
sur. 13 a,b a,b Fig.

sur. 14 a,b a,b Fig.

sur. 15 Fig.

123

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