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Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when

placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of electric

charges; positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like
charges repel and unlike attract. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral.
The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C). In electrical engineering, it is also
common to use the ampere-hour (Ah)

Electric charges create an electric field, if they are moving they also generate a magnetic field.
The combination of the electric and magnetic field is called the electromagnetic field, and its
interaction with charges is the source of the electromagnetic force,

Electric Potential & Potential Difference

Definition: The electrical potential is defined as the capability of the charged body to do work.
When the body is charged, either electric electrons are supplied to it, or they are removed from it.
In both the cases, the work is done. This work is stored in the body in the form of electric
potential. Thus, the body can do the work by exerting a force of attraction or repulsion on the
other charged particles.

The capacity of the charged body to do work determines the electrical potential on it. The
measure of the electrical potential is the work done to charge a body to one coulomb, i.e.,

Units: Since the work done is measured in joules and charge in coulombs, the unit of electric
potential is joules /coulombs, the unit of electric potential is joules/coulomb or volts.

Hence a body is said to have an electrical potential of 1 volt if one joule of work is done to
charge the body to one coulomb.

Electric Potential Difference

The electrical potential difference is defined as the amount of work done to carrying a unit
charge from one point to another in an electric field. In other words, the potential difference is
defined as the difference in the electric potential of the two charged bodies.

When a body is charged to a different electric potential as compared to the other charged body,
the two bodies are said to a potential difference. Both the bodies are under stress and strain and
try to attain minimum potential

Unit: The unit of potential difference is volt.

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (measured in volts),is the electrical intensity or "pressure"
developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator. A device that converts
other forms of energy into electrical energy (a "transducer") provides an emf at its output.(The
word "force" in this case is not used to mean mechanical force, as may be measured
in pounds or newton‟s.)
In electromagnetic induction, emf can be defined around a closed loop of conductor as the
electromagnetic work that would be done on an electric charge (an electron in this instance) if it
travels once around the loop.

Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by
moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and
electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma).
It is nothing but the rate at which charge is transferred per unit of time, it would be ratio of total
charge transferred to the required time for that. Hence, here

The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge
across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using a
device called an ammeter.
Electric currents cause Joule heating, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also
create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators.
The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers. In metals, one or
more electrons from each atom are loosely bound to the atom, and can move freely about within
the metal. These conduction electrons are the charge carriers in metal conductors.

Current is measured by a device called ammeter. Ammeter is connected series to load for
measuring current through load.

Circuit element: Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor


Resistance is the opposition that a substance offers to the flow of electric current. Resistance is
the hindrance to the flow of electrons in material. It is represented by R. The standard unit of
resistance is the ohm. Resistor is a material and resistance is property of resistance.

While a potential difference across the conductor encourages the flow of electrons, resistance
discourages it. The rate at which charge flows between two terminals is a combination of these
two factors.

Metal such as silver, copper and aluminum are good conductor of electricity and have less

Semiconductor materials such as silicon and germanium have semiconducting properties and
have resistance between good conductor and insulator (bad conductor)

Insulators such as wood, rubber, polythene etc have high resistance and less conducting property.

The resistance of conductor (wire) is directly proportional to length of conductor and inversely
proportional to its cross sectional area.

Calculating resistance
To calculate the resistance R of a wire, we need to know three things:

 its length – the longer the wire, the greater its resistance
 its cross-sectional area A – the greater the area, the less its
 the resistivity of the material r – the greater the resistivity, the
greater its resistance.

resistance = resistivity × length / area

The electrical resistivity (ρ) is the electrical resistance per unit length and per unit of cross-
sectional area at a specified temperature. It depends upon material of conductor. Electrical
resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a
fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric

Conductance is the property determines how easily a current can flow through a conductor. As
we know resistance is such a property of a conductor which resists the flow of current through it.

That means, electrical conductance is reciprocal property of resistance. Generally conductance is
denoted as,

Electrical conductivity or specific conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity, and

measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. Conductivity is generally denoted by

The resistance of conductor depends on temperature. Resistance of conductor at T is given by

R1=R0 (1+α x T1)

Where α= temperature coefficient of material and it is defined as increase in resistance per ohm
original resistance per degree Celsius rise in temperature.

R0= resistance at zero degree Celsius

R1= resistance at T1 temperature


It is property of a substance which opposes the change in current flowing through it. The
substances or material called inductor. It is also called coil or reactor. inductor consist of wire
usually twisted in coil

. When current flow through inductor, energy is stored temporarily in magnetic field of a coil.

Figure: symbol of inductor

Inductor is an electrical component that stores energy in magnetic field.
The inductor is made of a coil of conducting wire.
In an electrical circuit schematics, the inductor marked with the letter L.

The inductance is measured in units of Henry [L].
Inductor reduce current in AC circuits and short circuit in DC circuits.
Inductors in series
For several inductors in series the total equivalent inductance is:
LTotal = L1+L2+L3+...
Inductors in parallel
For several inductors in parallel the total equivalent inductance is:

Inductor's reactance
XL = ωL

What is capacitor
Capacitor is an electronic component that stores electric charge. The capacitor is made of 2 close
conductors (usually plates) that are separated by a dielectric material. The plates accumulate
electric charge when connected to power source. One plate accumulates positive charge and the
other plate accumulates negative charge.
The capacitance is the amount of electric charge that is stored in the capacitor at voltage of 1
The capacitance is measured in units of Farad (F).
The capacitor disconnects current in direct current (DC) circuits and short circuit in alternating
current (AC) circuits.
The capacitance (C) of the capacitor is equal to the electric charge (Q) divided by the voltage

C is the capacitance in farad (F)

Q is the electric charge in coulombs (C), that is stored on the capacitor
V is the voltage between the capacitor's plates in volts (V)
Capacitance of plates capacitor
The capacitance (C) of the plates capacitor is equal to the permittivity (ε) times the plate area (A)
divided by the gap or distance between the plates (d):

C is the capacitance of the capacitor, in farad (F).

ε is the permittivity of the capacitor's dialectic material, in farad per meter (F/m).
A is the area of the capacitor's plate in square meters (m2].
d is the distance between the capacitor's plates, in meters (m).
Capacitors in series

The total capacitance of capacitors in series, C1,C2,C3,.. :

Capacitors in parallel

The total capacitance of capacitors in parallel, C1,C2,C3,.. :

CTotal = C1+C2+C3+...
The capacitor's stored energy EC in joules (J) is equal to the capacitance C in farad (F)
times the square capacitor's voltage VC in volts (V) divided by 2:
EC = C × VC 2 / 2
Capacitor's reactance

Voltage source and current source

A Source is a device which converts mechanical, chemical, thermal or some other form of
energy into electrical energy. In other words, the source is an active network element meant for
generating electrical energy. The various types of sources available in the electrical network are
voltage source and current sources. A voltage source has a forcing function of emf whereas the
current source has a forcing function of current.


 Voltage Source
 Current Source

The current and voltage sources are further categorized as an ideal source or practical source.

Voltage Source
A voltage source is a two-terminal device whose voltage at any instant of time is constant and is
independent of the current drawn from it. Such a voltage source is called an Ideal Voltage
Source and have zero internal resistance. Practically an ideal voltage source cannot be obtained.

Sources having some amount of internal resistances are known as Practical Voltage Source.due
to this internal resistance; voltage drop takes place, and it causes the terminal voltage to reduce.
The smaller is the internal resistance (r) of a voltage source, the more closer it is to an Ideal
Source. The symbolic representation of the ideal and practical voltage source is shown below.

The figure A shown below shows the circuit diagram and characteristics of an ideal voltage

The figure B shown below gives the circuit diagram and characteristics of Practical Voltage

The example of voltage sources is batteries and alternators.

Current Source
The current sources are further categorized as Ideal and Practical current source.

An Ideal current source is a two-terminal circuit element which supplies the same current to
any load resistance connected across its terminals. It is important to keep in mind that the current
supplied by the current source is independent of the voltage of source terminals. It has infinite

A practical current source is represented as an ideal current source connected with the
resistance in parallel. The symbolic representation is shown below

Figure C shown below, show its characteristics.

Figure D shown below shows the characteristics of Practical Current Source.

The example of current sources is photoelectric cells, collector currents of transistors.

Independent Dependent Voltage and Current Source
The source which supplies the active power to the network is known as the electrical source. The
electrical source is of two types namely independent source and dependent source.
The Independent and Dependent source means, whether the voltage or current sources are
either depending upon some other source, or they are acting independently.

Energy Sources

There are two types of energy source direct sources and alternating sources.

Direct Source

The voltage and the current source are the direct sources. The direct source is further classified
as independent voltage and current source and dependent voltage and the current source.

Independent Voltage and Current Source

Independent sources are that which does not depend on any other quantity in the circuit. They are
two terminal devices and has a constant value, i.e. the voltage across the two terminals remains
constant irrespective of all circuit conditions.

The strength of voltage or current is not changed by any variation in the connected network the
source is said to be either independent voltage or independent current source. In this, the value of
voltage or current is fixed and is not adjustable

Dependent Voltage and Current Source
The source whose output voltage or current is not fixed but depends on the voltage or current in
another part of the circuit is called Dependent or Controlled source. They are four terminal
devices. When the strength of voltage or current changes in the source for any change in the
connected network, they are called dependent sources. The dependent sources are represented by
a diamond shape.

The dependent sources are further categorized as

Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS)

In voltage controlled voltage source the voltage source is dependent on any element of the

In the above figure, the voltage across the source terminal Vab is dependent on the voltage across
the terminal Vcd,

Voltage Controlled Current Source (VCCS)

In the voltage controlled current source, the current of the source iabdepends on the voltage
across the terminal cd (Vcd) as shown in the figure below.

Where ƞ is a constant known as transconductance and its unit is mho.

Current Controlled Voltage Source (CCVS)

In the current controlled voltage source voltage source of the network depends upon the
current of the network as shown in the figure below

Here the voltage of source Vab depends on the current of the branch cd

Where r is a constant.

Current Controlled Current Source (CCCS)

In the Current Controlled Current Source, the current source is dependent on the current of
the branch another branch as shown in the figure below

Where β is a constant

Alternating Sources

In the network applications, there are other types of sources also where voltage or current vary
with time sinusoidally or exponentially etc. are termed as alternating sources.

Electrical Energy:

Electrical energy is a form of energy resulting from the flow of electric charge. Energy is the
ability to do work or apply force to move an object. In the case of electrical energy, the force is
electrical attraction or repulsion between charged particles. Energy is measured in unit called


Electrical Energy = power x time,

Electrical energy is also measured in watt-hour. One watt hour is equal to a constant one watt
supply of power supplied over one hour (3600 seconds).

Electric power

Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is supplied to electric circuit or consumed by
load. Electrical power is measured in unit called watt.

Electrical power (P)

The power consumed by resistor R is given by

Where V= voltage across resistor and I= current flowing through resistor

Chapter -2
DC circuit Analysis
Ohms law

Ohm's law states that “the current flowing through a resistor is directly proportional to
the voltage applied across it, provided temperature remain constant”

Ohm's Law shows the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in a simple electrical
circuit. The easiest form of the equation is:

V = IR


 V is the voltage in volts (V)

 I is the current in amperes or amps (A)
 R is the resistance in ohms (Ω - Greek letter Omega)

The device that obeys ohms law is called ohmic device. Example of ohmic device are resistor.
The device that doesnot follow ohms law is called non-ohmic device .

Series and parallel circuits

A series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain, so the current has only one
path to take. The current is the same through each resistor. The total resistance of the circuit is
found by simply adding up the resistance values of the individual resistors:

Equivalent resistance of resistors in series: R = R1 + R2 + R3 + ...

Derivation of equivalent circuits

Parallel circuits

A parallel circuit is a circuit in which the resistors are arranged with their heads connected
together, and their tails connected together. The current in a parallel circuit breaks up, with some
flowing along each parallel branch and re-combining when the branches meet again. The voltage
across each resistor in parallel is the same.

The total resistance of a set of resistors in parallel is found by adding up the reciprocals of the
resistance values, and then taking the reciprocal of the total:

Equivalent resistance of resistors in parallel: 1 / R = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 +...

Derivation of equivalent resistance

Voltage divider rule

Kirchhoff’s First Law – The Current Law, (KCL)
Kirchhoff’s Current Law or KCL, states that the “total current or charge entering a junction or
node is exactly equal to the charge leaving the node as it has no other place to go except to
leave, as no charge is lost within the node“. In other words the algebraic sum of ALL the
currents entering and leaving a node must be equal to zero, I(exiting) + I(entering) = 0. This idea by
Kirchhoff is commonly known as the Conservation of Charge.

Kirchhoff’s Current Law

Here, the three currents entering the node, I1, I2, I3 are all positive in value and the two currents
leaving the node, I4 and I5 are negative in value. Then this means we can also rewrite the
equation as;
I1 + I2 + I3 – I4 – I5 = 0
The term Node in an electrical circuit generally refers to a connection or junction of two or more
current carrying paths or elements such as cables and components. Also for current to flow either
in or out of a node a closed circuit path must exist. We can use Kirchhoff‟s current law when
analyzing parallel circuits.

Kirchhoff’s Second Law – The Voltage Law, (KVL)

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law or KVL, states that “in any closed loop network, the total voltage
around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop” which is also
equal to zero. In other words the algebraic sum of all voltages within the loop must be equal to
zero. This idea by Kirchhoff is known as the Conservation of Energy.

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

Starting at any point in the loop continue in the same direction noting the direction of all the
voltage drops, either positive or negative, and returning back to the same starting point. It is
important to maintain the same direction either clockwise or anti-clockwise or the final voltage
sum will not be equal to zero. We can use Kirchhoff‟s voltage law when analyzing series

Common DC Circuit Theory Terms:

• Circuit – a circuit is a closed loop conducting path in which an electrical current flows.
• Path – a single line of connecting elements or sources.
• Node – a node is a junction, connection or terminal within a circuit were two or more
circuit elements are connected or joined together giving a connection point between two or
more branches. A node is indicated by a dot.
Node:-more than three branches joined together
• Branch – a branch is a single or group of components such as resistors or a source which
are connected between two nodes.
• Loop – a loop is a simple closed path in a circuit in which no circuit element or node is
encountered more than once.
• Mesh – a mesh is a single open loop that does not have a closed path. There are no
components inside a mesh.
Note that:
Components are said to be connected together in Series if the same current value flows
through all the components.
Components are said to be connected together in Parallel if they have the same voltage applied
across them.

Mesh Current Analysis

Mesh Current Analysis is a technique used to find the currents circulating around a loop or mesh
with in any closed path of a circuit. This analysis is based on KVL laws.

The steps of mesh current analysis

1. Assign a mesh current to each mesh.
2. Apply Kirchhoff‟s voltage law (KVL) around each mesh, in the same direction as the
mesh currents. If a resistor has two or more mesh currents through it, the total current
through the resistor is calculated as the algebraic sum of the mesh currents. In other
words, if a current flowing through the resistor has the same direction as the mesh current
of the loop; it has a positive sign, otherwise a negative sign in the sum. Voltage sources
are taken into account as usual, If their direction is the same as the mesh current, their
voltage is taken to be positive, otherwise negative, in the KVL equations.
3. Solve the resulting loop equations for the mesh currents.

4. Determine any requested current or voltage in the circuit using the mesh currents.

Q. Example: write mesh equation and solve for mesh current I1 and I2.. If R1=4 ohm,
R2=2 ohm and R3=51ohm, V1=24V and V2=7 V.

Apply KVL at loop 1

R1xI1+R3 x (I1-I2)-V1=0……….………………………… (1)
Apply KVL at loop 2
R2xI2+R3 x (I2-I1)+V2=0………………………………….(2)
Solve two equations to get values of I1 and I2
I1 = -5A and I2= -1A

Nodal Analysis of Electric Circuits
In this method, we set up and solve a system of equations in which the unknowns are
the voltages at the principal nodes of the circuit. From these nodal voltages the currents in the
various branches of the circuit are easily determined.

The steps in the nodal analysis method are:

 Count the number of principal nodes or junctions in the circuit. Call this number n.
(A principal node or junction is a point where 3 or more branches join. We will indicate
them in a circuit diagram with a red dot. Note that if a branch contains no voltage sources
or loads then that entire branch can be considered to be one node.)

 Number the nodes N1, N2, . . . , Nn and draw them on the circuit diagram. Call the
voltages at these nodes V1, V2, . . . , Vn, respectively.

 Choose one of the nodes to be the reference node or ground and assign it a voltage of

 For each node except the reference node write down Kirchoff's Current Law in the
form "thealgebraic sum of the currents flowing out of a node equals zero". (By algebraic
sum we mean that a current flowing into a node is to be considered a negative current
flowing out of the node.)

For example, for the node to the right KCL yields the equation:

Ia + Ib + Ic = 0

Express the current in each branch in terms of the nodal voltages at

each end of the branch using Ohm's Law (I = V / R).

Here are some examples:

The current downward out of node 1 depends on the voltage difference V1 - V3 and the
resistance in the branch. V1 and V3 are the voltage at node N1 and N3 respectively

In this case the voltage difference across the resistance is V1 - V2 minus the voltage
across the voltage source. Thus the downward current is as shown.

In this case the voltage difference across the resistance must be 100 volts greater than the
difference V1 - V2. Thus the downward current is as shown.

Example 1: Use nodal analysis to find the voltage at each node of this circuit.

 Note that the "pair of nodes" at the bottom is actually 1 extended node. Thus the number
of nodes is 3.

 We will number the nodes as

shown to the right.

 We will choose node 2 as the reference node and assign it a voltage of zero.

 Write down Kirchoff's Current Law for each node. Call V1 the voltage at node 1, V3 the
voltage at node 3, and remember that V2 = 0. The result is the following system of

The first equation results from KCL applied at node 1 and the second equation results
from KCL applied at node 3. Collecting terms this becomes:

This form for the system of equations could have been gotten immediately by using the
inspection method.

 Solving the system of equations using Gaussian elimination or some other method gives
the following voltages:

V1=68.2 volts and V3=27.3 volts

Thevenin’s Theorem
Thevenin’s Theorem states that “Any linear circuit containing several voltages and
resistances can be replaced by just one single voltage(Vth) in series with a single
resistance(Rth) connected across the load“.

Vth= thevenin voltage , and is open circuit voltage between A and B.

Rth = equivalent resistance seen from load terminal and by removing load resistance,
replacing voltage source by short circuit and current source by open circuit.

Thevenin equivalent circuit is

Steps to Analyze Electric Circuit through Thevenin’s Theorem

1. Open the load resistor.
2. Calculate / measure the open circuit voltage. This is the Thevenin Voltage (VTH).
3. Open current sources and short voltage sources.
4. Calculate /measure the Open Circuit Resistance. This is the Thevenin Resistance (RTH).
5. Now, redraw the circuit with measured open circuit Voltage (VTH) in Step (2) as voltage source and
measured open circuit resistance (RTH) in step (4) as a series resistance and connect the load resistor
which we had removed in Step (1). This is the equivalent Thevenin circuit of that linear electric
network or complex circuitwhich had to be simplified and analyzed by Thevenin’s Theorem. You
have done.
6. Now find the Total current flowing through load resistor by using the Ohm‟s Law: IT = VTH/ (RTH +
Solved Example by Thevenin’s Theorem:

Find VTH, RTH and the load current flowing through and load voltage across the load resistor
5kΩ in fig (1) by using Thevenin’s Theorem.


Step 1.
Open the 5kΩ load resistor (Fig 2).

Step 2.
Calculate / measure the open circuit voltage. This is the Thevenin Voltage (VTH). Fig (3).
We have already removed the load resistor from figure 1, so the circuit became an open
circuit as shown in fig 2. Now we have to calculate the Thevenin‟s Voltage. Since 3mA current
flows in both 12kΩ and 4kΩ resistors as this is a series circuit because current will not flow in
the 8kΩ resistor as it is open.
So 12V (3mA x 4kΩ) will appear across the 4kΩ resistor. We also know that current is not
flowing through the 8kΩ resistor as it is open circuit, but the 8kΩ resistor is in parallel with 4k
resistor. So the same voltage i.e. 12V will appear across the 8kΩ resistor as well as 4kΩ
resistor. Therefore 12V will appear across the AB terminals. So,
VTH = 12V

Step 3.
Open current sources and short voltage sources as shown below. Fig (4)

Step 4.
Calculate / measure the open circuit resistance. This is the Thevenin Resistance (RTH)
We have removed the 48V DC source to zero as equivalent i.e. 48V DC source has been
replaced with a short in step 3 (as shown in figure 3). We can see that 8kΩ resistor is in series
with a parallel connection of 4kΩ resistor and 12k Ω resistor. i.e.:
8kΩ + (4k Ω || 12kΩ) ….. (|| = in parallel with)

RTH = 8kΩ + [(4kΩ x 12kΩ) / (4kΩ + 12kΩ)]

RTH = 8kΩ + 3kΩ

RTH = 11kΩ

Step 5.
Connect the RTHin series with Voltage Source VTH and re-connect the load resistor. This is
shown in fig (6) i.e. Thevenin circuit with load resistor. This the Thevenin‟s equivalent circuit

Step 6.
Now apply the last step i.e Ohm‟s law . Calculate the total load current & load voltage as
shown in fig 6.
IL = VTH / (RTH + RL)
= 12V / (11kΩ + 5kΩ) → = 12/16kΩ
IL= 0.75mA
VL = 0.75mA x 5kΩ
VL= 3.75V

Nortons Theorem
Norton on the other hand reduces his circuit down to a single resistance in parallel with a
constant current source.
Nortons Theorem states that “Any linear circuit containing several energy sources and
resistances can be replaced by a single Constant Current source(Is or In) in parallel with a
Single Resistor(Rs or Rn)“.
Where Is = current obtained by short circuiting load terminal
Rn= Equivalent resistance seen by removing load and short circuiting voltage source & open
circuiting current source .

Nortons Theorem Summary

The basic procedure for solving a circuit using Nortons Theorem is as follows:
 1. Remove the load resistor RL or component concerned.
 2. Find RS by shorting all voltage sources or by open circuiting all the current sources.
 3. Find IS by placing a shorting link on the output terminals A and B.
 4. Find the current flowing through the load resistor RL.

In a circuit, power supplied to the load is at its maximum when the load resistance is equal to the
source resistance. The application of the maximum power transfer theorem can be applied to
either simple and complicated linear circuits having a variable load and is used to find the load
resistance that leads to transfer of maximum power to the load.

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Maximum power transfer theorem can be applicable in complex network as follows- A

resistive load in a resistive network will abstract maximum power when the load resistance is
equal to the resistance viewed by the load as it looks back to the network. Actually this is
nothing but the resistance presented to the output terminals of the network. This is actually
Thevenin equivalent resistance as we explained in Thevenin's theorem if we consider the whole
network as a voltage source. Similarly, if we consider the network as current source, this
resistance will be Norton equivalent resistance as we explained in Norton theorem.

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem for DC circuits

This theorem describes the condition for maximum power transfer from an active network to an
external load resistance. It states that in a linear, active, bilateral DC network, the maximum
power will be transferred from source to the load when the external load resistance equals to
the internal resistance of the source.This theorem can be developed with reference to practical
current or voltage source.

Explanation of Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

We can find the maximum power transfer with the use of Thevenin‟s equivalent circuit. Now we
will replace the electrical system which we are considered as complex part with its Thevenin‟s
equivalent circuit as shown in below.

From the above circuit, the current flowing through the load, „I‟ is given as

In the above equation RL is a variable, therefore the condition for maximum power delivered to
the load is determined by differentiating load power with respect to the load resistance and
equating it to zero.

This is the condition for maximum power transfer, which states that power delivered to the load
is maximum, when the load resistance RL matches with Thevenin‟s resistance RTH of the
Under this condition, power transfer to the load is

The above equation shows that the efficiency is 50% under maximum power transfer condition.
Due to this 50 percent efficiency, maximum power transfer is not always desirable. For a given
values the Thevenin‟s voltage and Thevenin‟s resistance, the variation of power delivered to the
load with varying load resistance is shown in below figure.

Chapter -5

Electromagnetic Theory

Electromagnetism is the phenomenon which deals with the interaction between an Electric field
and a Magnetic Field. Stationary charges in a system lead to an Electric field and moving
charges in a system lead to a Magnetic field. The direction of Electric field and Magnetic field is
always perpendicular to each other, and the wave travels at the speed of light

Magnetic Field and Importance of Magnetic Field

The magnetic field is a field, produced by electric charges in motion. It is a field of force
causing a force on material like iron when placed in the vicinity of the field. Magnetic field does
not require any medium to propagate; it can propagate even in a vacuum. Also, the energy
storing capacity of the magnetic field is greater than the electric field, this distinguishes magnetic
field from the electric field, and therefore it is utilised in almost every electromechanical devices
like transformers, motors and generators.


For example, a current carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around the
conductor, whose direction is determined by Right-Hand Screw Rule(right hand thumb
rule) and the strength of field can be varied in accordance with the amount of current
flowing in the conductor around the coil.

Electromagnets are utilized in various industries for various production and

manufacturing processes. The magnetic field has both North pole and a South pole.
Monopole does not exist for a magnetic field, unlike electric field where a charge can be
isolated. The field line forms a closed loop, as it emanates from North and terminates to
South outside a magnet and from South Pole to North Pole inside a magnet.

Magnetic Flux
We define magnetic flux as the total number of magnetic lines of force in a magnetic field

Properties of Magnetic Flux

1. Magnetic flux of a filed is considered as the total number of magnetic lines of force in the
field. These are also called magnetic flux lines.
2. Each magnetic flux line is closed loop.
3. Each magnetic flux line starts from North Pole of a magnet and comes to the south pole
through the field and continues from south pole to north pole in the body of the magnet.
4. No two flux lines cross each other.
5. Two similar lines of force travel side by side but repeal each other.
6. The lines of force are stretched like elastic cord.

Magnetic Flux Density

The number of magnetic lines of force passing through a unit area surface perpendicular
to the magnetic field is called magnetic flux density.

If total φ Weber flux perpendicularly through a surface of area A m2, Magnetic flux
density of the field would be

We generally represent magnetic flux density by capital letter B.

Magnetic Permeability
Definition of Magnetic Permeability
Magnetic permeability is the ability of a material to respond to how much electromagnetic flux
it can support to pass through itself within an applied electromagnetic field. In other word
magnetic permeability of a material is the degree of magnetization capability.

Permeability in Free Space

Permeability in free pace is denoted as μ0. Its value is 4ᴫ × 10-7 H/m. This value of
permeability is taken as standard value that is treated as permeability constant.

Permeability of another Medium or Substance

Permeability of another medium or substance is denoted as μ only. Relative permeability is the
ratio of permeability of any substance to that of free space and it is denoted as μr, i.e.

So, permeability of any medium or material is

Factors Effecting on Permeability

As permeability of any material depends on several factors:

1. Humidity
2. Temperature
3. Position in the medium
4. Frequency of the applied field

B-H curve or hysteresis loop

What is Hysteresis loop?

Consider a completely demagnetized ferromagnetic material. [Completely Demagnetised

material is the one in which B=H =0].
It will be subjected to increasing values of magnetic field strength H and the corresponding flux
density B measured.
The result is shown in the below figure by the curve o-a-b.

At the point b, if the field intensity (H) is increased further the flux density(B) will not increase
any more.
This is called saturation ( the material is said to be saturated). In this figure b-y is called
assaturation flux density.
Now if the field intensity (H) is decreased, the flux density (B) will follow the curve b-c.
When field intensity (H) is reduced to zero, flux remains in the iron.
This is called as remanent flux density or remanence.
It is shown in the figure as o-c.

 Now if the H is increased in the opposite direction, the flux density decreases as will.
 It will decrease until the point d. Here the flux density (B) is zero.
 The magnetic field strength (points between 0 and d) required to remove the residual
magnetism, i.e. reduce B to zero. It is called the coercive force.
 Now if the H is increased further in the reverse direction causes the flux density to
increase in the reverse direction till the saturation point ( here point-e).
 If H is varied backwards from 0x to 0y, the flux density(B) follows the curve e-f-g-b,
similar to curve b-c-d-e.
 From the figure the clear that the flux density changes lag behind the changes in the
magnetic field strength.
 This effect is called Hysteresis.
 The closed figure b-c-d-e-f-g-b is called the Hysteresis Loop (or the B/H Loop).

Importance of Hysteresis Loop

The main advantages of hysteresis loop are given below.

1. Smaller hysteresis loop area symbolizes less hysteresis loss.

2. Hysteresis loop provides the value of retentivity and coercivity of a material. Thus the way to
choose perfect material to make permanent magnet, core of machines becomes easier.
3. From B-H graph, residual magnetism can be determined and thus choosing of material for
electromagnets is easy.

When an electric current flown through a wire, a magnetic field is built up around the wire itself.
The direction of the magnetic field can be found by using right hand rule or the right hand screw
The right hand rule states as follows:
“Grasp the wire in the right hand, with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current. The
fingers will curl around the wire in the direction of the magnetic field”.

Fig. 7. Right hand rule (or right hand screw rule).

Force on A Current-carrying Conductor

When a conductor carrying a current is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a
magnetic force.

 The direction of this force is always right angles to the plane containing both the conductor
and the magnetic field, and is predicted by Fleming‟s Left-Hand Rule.

Factors affecting magnetic force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field:

 Strength of the magnetic field
 Current flowing through the wire
 Length of the wire

F=BIlsinθF=BIlsinθ, where

 F is force acting on a current carrying conductor,B is magnetic flux density (magnetic field
 I is magnitude of current flowing through the conductor,
 l is length of conductor,
 θ is angle that conductor makes with the magnetic field.

When the conductor is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the force will be maximum.

When it is parallel to the magnetic field, the force will be zero.

Magnetic Circuit
A magnetic circuit is considered as the path in space through which magnetic flux passes.

A magnetic circuit is made up of one or more closed loop paths containing

a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets
and confined to the path by magneticcores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like
iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path.

The magnetic circuits are containing one or more closed loops which contain magnetic flux. The
magnetic flux is usually created from North Pole to South Pole of a permanent magnet, when the
permanent magnet consists of ferromagnetic materials like iron. So, the closed path which is
following by the magnetic flux is called magnetic circuit.

Magneto motive force is “the ability creates a magnetic flux in magnetic circuit”.
The mathematical representation of Magneto Motive Force (MMF) is

Here, φ is magnetic flux and R is reluctance.

The magneto motive force is analogous to voltage or electro motive force. In electrical fields the
voltage is
The unit of magneto motive force is Ampere–turns.

Definition of RELUCTANCE
: the opposition offered in a magnetic circuit to magnetic flux; specifically : the ratio of
the magnetic potential difference(mmf) to the corresponding flux.

Comparing magnetic circuit with electrical


“The phenomenon whereby an e.m.f. and hence current is induced in any conductor which is cut
across or is cut by a magnetic flux is known as electromagnetic induction”.
Faraday’s First Law. It states as follows:
“Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an e.m.f. is always induced in it”.
“Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, an e.m.f. is induced in that conductor”.

[Usually, a minus sign is given to the right-hand side expression to signify the fact that
the induced e.m.f. sets up current in such a direction that magnetic effect produced by it opposes
the very cause producing it.]

Direction of induced e.m.f. and current:

The direction of the induced current may be found easily by applying either Fleming‟s right-hand
Rule (Fig. 31) or Lenz‟s law. Fleming’s rule is used where induced e.m.f. is due to flux-
cutting (i.e., dynamically induced e.m.f.) and Lenz’s law when it is due to change by flux-
linkages (i.e., statically induced e.m.f.).
– Len’s law. Fig.32 shows induction of an e.m.f. in a simple circuit. The direction of the
induced e.m.f. is determined by Lenz‟s law, which states that the current produced by the
induced e.m.f. opposes the change of flux.

Lenz‟s law may also be stated as follows:
In all cases of electromagnetic induction, an induced voltage will cause a current to flow in
a closed circuit in such a direction that the magnetic field which is caused by that current will
oppose the change that produced the current”.

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