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charges; positive and negative (commonly carried by protons and electrons respectively). Like

charges repel and unlike attract. An object with an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral.

The SI derived unit of electric charge is the coulomb (C). In electrical engineering, it is also

common to use the ampere-hour (Ah)

Electric charges create an electric field, if they are moving they also generate a magnetic field.

The combination of the electric and magnetic field is called the electromagnetic field, and its

interaction with charges is the source of the electromagnetic force,

Definition: The electrical potential is defined as the capability of the charged body to do work.

When the body is charged, either electric electrons are supplied to it, or they are removed from it.

In both the cases, the work is done. This work is stored in the body in the form of electric

potential. Thus, the body can do the work by exerting a force of attraction or repulsion on the

other charged particles.

The capacity of the charged body to do work determines the electrical potential on it. The

measure of the electrical potential is the work done to charge a body to one coulomb, i.e.,

1

Units: Since the work done is measured in joules and charge in coulombs, the unit of electric

potential is joules /coulombs, the unit of electric potential is joules/coulomb or volts.

Hence a body is said to have an electrical potential of 1 volt if one joule of work is done to

charge the body to one coulomb.

The electrical potential difference is defined as the amount of work done to carrying a unit

charge from one point to another in an electric field. In other words, the potential difference is

defined as the difference in the electric potential of the two charged bodies.

When a body is charged to a different electric potential as compared to the other charged body,

the two bodies are said to a potential difference. Both the bodies are under stress and strain and

try to attain minimum potential

2

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (measured in volts),is the electrical intensity or "pressure"

developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator. A device that converts

other forms of energy into electrical energy (a "transducer") provides an emf at its output.(The

word "force" in this case is not used to mean mechanical force, as may be measured

in pounds or newton‟s.)

In electromagnetic induction, emf can be defined around a closed loop of conductor as the

electromagnetic work that would be done on an electric charge (an electron in this instance) if it

travels once around the loop.

Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by

moving electrons in a wire. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or by both ions and

electrons such as in an ionised gas (plasma).

It is nothing but the rate at which charge is transferred per unit of time, it would be ratio of total

charge transferred to the required time for that. Hence, here

The SI unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which is the flow of electric charge

across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. Electric current is measured using a

device called an ammeter.

Electric currents cause Joule heating, which creates light in incandescent light bulbs. They also

create magnetic fields, which are used in motors, inductors and generators.

The moving charged particles in an electric current are called charge carriers. In metals, one or

more electrons from each atom are loosely bound to the atom, and can move freely about within

the metal. These conduction electrons are the charge carriers in metal conductors.

Current is measured by a device called ammeter. Ammeter is connected series to load for

measuring current through load.

Resistance

Resistance is the opposition that a substance offers to the flow of electric current. Resistance is

the hindrance to the flow of electrons in material. It is represented by R. The standard unit of

resistance is the ohm. Resistor is a material and resistance is property of resistance.

3

While a potential difference across the conductor encourages the flow of electrons, resistance

discourages it. The rate at which charge flows between two terminals is a combination of these

two factors.

Metal such as silver, copper and aluminum are good conductor of electricity and have less

resistance.

Semiconductor materials such as silicon and germanium have semiconducting properties and

have resistance between good conductor and insulator (bad conductor)

Insulators such as wood, rubber, polythene etc have high resistance and less conducting property.

The resistance of conductor (wire) is directly proportional to length of conductor and inversely

proportional to its cross sectional area.

Calculating resistance

To calculate the resistance R of a wire, we need to know three things:

its length – the longer the wire, the greater its resistance

its cross-sectional area A – the greater the area, the less its

resistance

the resistivity of the material r – the greater the resistivity, the

greater its resistance.

The electrical resistivity (ρ) is the electrical resistance per unit length and per unit of cross-

sectional area at a specified temperature. It depends upon material of conductor. Electrical

resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a

fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric

current.

Conductance is the property determines how easily a current can flow through a conductor. As

we know resistance is such a property of a conductor which resists the flow of current through it.

4

That means, electrical conductance is reciprocal property of resistance. Generally conductance is

denoted as,

measures a material's ability to conduct an electric current. Conductivity is generally denoted by

Where α= temperature coefficient of material and it is defined as increase in resistance per ohm

original resistance per degree Celsius rise in temperature.

Inductance

It is property of a substance which opposes the change in current flowing through it. The

substances or material called inductor. It is also called coil or reactor. inductor consist of wire

usually twisted in coil

. When current flow through inductor, energy is stored temporarily in magnetic field of a coil.

Inductor

Inductor is an electrical component that stores energy in magnetic field.

The inductor is made of a coil of conducting wire.

In an electrical circuit schematics, the inductor marked with the letter L.

5

The inductance is measured in units of Henry [L].

Inductor reduce current in AC circuits and short circuit in DC circuits.

Inductors in series

For several inductors in series the total equivalent inductance is:

LTotal = L1+L2+L3+...

Inductors in parallel

For several inductors in parallel the total equivalent inductance is:

Inductor's reactance

XL = ωL

What is capacitor

Capacitor is an electronic component that stores electric charge. The capacitor is made of 2 close

conductors (usually plates) that are separated by a dielectric material. The plates accumulate

electric charge when connected to power source. One plate accumulates positive charge and the

other plate accumulates negative charge.

The capacitance is the amount of electric charge that is stored in the capacitor at voltage of 1

Volt.

The capacitance is measured in units of Farad (F).

The capacitor disconnects current in direct current (DC) circuits and short circuit in alternating

current (AC) circuits.

Capacitance

The capacitance (C) of the capacitor is equal to the electric charge (Q) divided by the voltage

(V):

Q is the electric charge in coulombs (C), that is stored on the capacitor

V is the voltage between the capacitor's plates in volts (V)

Capacitance of plates capacitor

The capacitance (C) of the plates capacitor is equal to the permittivity (ε) times the plate area (A)

divided by the gap or distance between the plates (d):

ε is the permittivity of the capacitor's dialectic material, in farad per meter (F/m).

A is the area of the capacitor's plate in square meters (m2].

6

d is the distance between the capacitor's plates, in meters (m).

Capacitors in series

Capacitors in parallel

CTotal = C1+C2+C3+...

The capacitor's stored energy EC in joules (J) is equal to the capacitance C in farad (F)

times the square capacitor's voltage VC in volts (V) divided by 2:

EC = C × VC 2 / 2

Capacitor's reactance

A Source is a device which converts mechanical, chemical, thermal or some other form of

energy into electrical energy. In other words, the source is an active network element meant for

generating electrical energy. The various types of sources available in the electrical network are

voltage source and current sources. A voltage source has a forcing function of emf whereas the

current source has a forcing function of current.

7

Contents:

Voltage Source

Current Source

The current and voltage sources are further categorized as an ideal source or practical source.

Voltage Source

A voltage source is a two-terminal device whose voltage at any instant of time is constant and is

independent of the current drawn from it. Such a voltage source is called an Ideal Voltage

Source and have zero internal resistance. Practically an ideal voltage source cannot be obtained.

Sources having some amount of internal resistances are known as Practical Voltage Source.due

to this internal resistance; voltage drop takes place, and it causes the terminal voltage to reduce.

The smaller is the internal resistance (r) of a voltage source, the more closer it is to an Ideal

Source. The symbolic representation of the ideal and practical voltage source is shown below.

8

The figure A shown below shows the circuit diagram and characteristics of an ideal voltage

source.

The figure B shown below gives the circuit diagram and characteristics of Practical Voltage

Source

Current Source

The current sources are further categorized as Ideal and Practical current source.

An Ideal current source is a two-terminal circuit element which supplies the same current to

any load resistance connected across its terminals. It is important to keep in mind that the current

supplied by the current source is independent of the voltage of source terminals. It has infinite

resistance.

9

A practical current source is represented as an ideal current source connected with the

resistance in parallel. The symbolic representation is shown below

10

Independent Dependent Voltage and Current Source

The source which supplies the active power to the network is known as the electrical source. The

electrical source is of two types namely independent source and dependent source.

The Independent and Dependent source means, whether the voltage or current sources are

either depending upon some other source, or they are acting independently.

Energy Sources

There are two types of energy source direct sources and alternating sources.

Direct Source

The voltage and the current source are the direct sources. The direct source is further classified

as independent voltage and current source and dependent voltage and the current source.

Independent sources are that which does not depend on any other quantity in the circuit. They are

two terminal devices and has a constant value, i.e. the voltage across the two terminals remains

constant irrespective of all circuit conditions.

The strength of voltage or current is not changed by any variation in the connected network the

source is said to be either independent voltage or independent current source. In this, the value of

voltage or current is fixed and is not adjustable

11

Dependent Voltage and Current Source

The source whose output voltage or current is not fixed but depends on the voltage or current in

another part of the circuit is called Dependent or Controlled source. They are four terminal

devices. When the strength of voltage or current changes in the source for any change in the

connected network, they are called dependent sources. The dependent sources are represented by

a diamond shape.

In voltage controlled voltage source the voltage source is dependent on any element of the

circuit.

In the above figure, the voltage across the source terminal Vab is dependent on the voltage across

the terminal Vcd,

In the voltage controlled current source, the current of the source iabdepends on the voltage

across the terminal cd (Vcd) as shown in the figure below.

12

Where ƞ is a constant known as transconductance and its unit is mho.

In the current controlled voltage source voltage source of the network depends upon the

current of the network as shown in the figure below

Here the voltage of source Vab depends on the current of the branch cd

13

Where r is a constant.

In the Current Controlled Current Source, the current source is dependent on the current of

the branch another branch as shown in the figure below

Where β is a constant

Alternating Sources

In the network applications, there are other types of sources also where voltage or current vary

with time sinusoidally or exponentially etc. are termed as alternating sources.

14

Electrical Energy:

Electrical energy is a form of energy resulting from the flow of electric charge. Energy is the

ability to do work or apply force to move an object. In the case of electrical energy, the force is

electrical attraction or repulsion between charged particles. Energy is measured in unit called

joule.

Formula

Electrical energy is also measured in watt-hour. One watt hour is equal to a constant one watt

supply of power supplied over one hour (3600 seconds).

Electric power

Electric power is the rate at which electrical energy is supplied to electric circuit or consumed by

load. Electrical power is measured in unit called watt.

15

Chapter -2

DC circuit Analysis

Ohms law

Ohm's law states that “the current flowing through a resistor is directly proportional to

the voltage applied across it, provided temperature remain constant”

Ohm's Law shows the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance in a simple electrical

circuit. The easiest form of the equation is:

V = IR

Where:

I is the current in amperes or amps (A)

R is the resistance in ohms (Ω - Greek letter Omega)

The device that obeys ohms law is called ohmic device. Example of ohmic device are resistor.

The device that doesnot follow ohms law is called non-ohmic device .

16

Series and parallel circuits

A series circuit is a circuit in which resistors are arranged in a chain, so the current has only one

path to take. The current is the same through each resistor. The total resistance of the circuit is

found by simply adding up the resistance values of the individual resistors:

17

Parallel circuits

A parallel circuit is a circuit in which the resistors are arranged with their heads connected

together, and their tails connected together. The current in a parallel circuit breaks up, with some

flowing along each parallel branch and re-combining when the branches meet again. The voltage

across each resistor in parallel is the same.

The total resistance of a set of resistors in parallel is found by adding up the reciprocals of the

resistance values, and then taking the reciprocal of the total:

18

Voltage divider rule

19

20

Kirchhoff’s First Law – The Current Law, (KCL)

Kirchhoff’s Current Law or KCL, states that the “total current or charge entering a junction or

node is exactly equal to the charge leaving the node as it has no other place to go except to

leave, as no charge is lost within the node“. In other words the algebraic sum of ALL the

currents entering and leaving a node must be equal to zero, I(exiting) + I(entering) = 0. This idea by

Kirchhoff is commonly known as the Conservation of Charge.

Here, the three currents entering the node, I1, I2, I3 are all positive in value and the two currents

leaving the node, I4 and I5 are negative in value. Then this means we can also rewrite the

equation as;

I1 + I2 + I3 – I4 – I5 = 0

The term Node in an electrical circuit generally refers to a connection or junction of two or more

current carrying paths or elements such as cables and components. Also for current to flow either

in or out of a node a closed circuit path must exist. We can use Kirchhoff‟s current law when

analyzing parallel circuits.

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law or KVL, states that “in any closed loop network, the total voltage

around the loop is equal to the sum of all the voltage drops within the same loop” which is also

equal to zero. In other words the algebraic sum of all voltages within the loop must be equal to

zero. This idea by Kirchhoff is known as the Conservation of Energy.

21

Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law

Starting at any point in the loop continue in the same direction noting the direction of all the

voltage drops, either positive or negative, and returning back to the same starting point. It is

important to maintain the same direction either clockwise or anti-clockwise or the final voltage

sum will not be equal to zero. We can use Kirchhoff‟s voltage law when analyzing series

circuits.

• Circuit – a circuit is a closed loop conducting path in which an electrical current flows.

• Path – a single line of connecting elements or sources.

• Node – a node is a junction, connection or terminal within a circuit were two or more

circuit elements are connected or joined together giving a connection point between two or

more branches. A node is indicated by a dot.

Node:-more than three branches joined together

• Branch – a branch is a single or group of components such as resistors or a source which

are connected between two nodes.

• Loop – a loop is a simple closed path in a circuit in which no circuit element or node is

encountered more than once.

• Mesh – a mesh is a single open loop that does not have a closed path. There are no

components inside a mesh.

Note that:

Components are said to be connected together in Series if the same current value flows

through all the components.

Components are said to be connected together in Parallel if they have the same voltage applied

across them.

22

Mesh Current Analysis

Mesh Current Analysis is a technique used to find the currents circulating around a loop or mesh

with in any closed path of a circuit. This analysis is based on KVL laws.

1. Assign a mesh current to each mesh.

2. Apply Kirchhoff‟s voltage law (KVL) around each mesh, in the same direction as the

mesh currents. If a resistor has two or more mesh currents through it, the total current

through the resistor is calculated as the algebraic sum of the mesh currents. In other

words, if a current flowing through the resistor has the same direction as the mesh current

of the loop; it has a positive sign, otherwise a negative sign in the sum. Voltage sources

are taken into account as usual, If their direction is the same as the mesh current, their

voltage is taken to be positive, otherwise negative, in the KVL equations.

3. Solve the resulting loop equations for the mesh currents.

4. Determine any requested current or voltage in the circuit using the mesh currents.

Q. Example: write mesh equation and solve for mesh current I1 and I2.. If R1=4 ohm,

R2=2 ohm and R3=51ohm, V1=24V and V2=7 V.

R1xI1+R3 x (I1-I2)-V1=0……….………………………… (1)

Apply KVL at loop 2

R2xI2+R3 x (I2-I1)+V2=0………………………………….(2)

Solve two equations to get values of I1 and I2

I1 = -5A and I2= -1A

23

Nodal Analysis of Electric Circuits

In this method, we set up and solve a system of equations in which the unknowns are

the voltages at the principal nodes of the circuit. From these nodal voltages the currents in the

various branches of the circuit are easily determined.

Count the number of principal nodes or junctions in the circuit. Call this number n.

(A principal node or junction is a point where 3 or more branches join. We will indicate

them in a circuit diagram with a red dot. Note that if a branch contains no voltage sources

or loads then that entire branch can be considered to be one node.)

Number the nodes N1, N2, . . . , Nn and draw them on the circuit diagram. Call the

voltages at these nodes V1, V2, . . . , Vn, respectively.

Choose one of the nodes to be the reference node or ground and assign it a voltage of

zero.

For each node except the reference node write down Kirchoff's Current Law in the

form "thealgebraic sum of the currents flowing out of a node equals zero". (By algebraic

sum we mean that a current flowing into a node is to be considered a negative current

flowing out of the node.)

For example, for the node to the right KCL yields the equation:

Ia + Ib + Ic = 0

each end of the branch using Ohm's Law (I = V / R).

24

The current downward out of node 1 depends on the voltage difference V1 - V3 and the

resistance in the branch. V1 and V3 are the voltage at node N1 and N3 respectively

In this case the voltage difference across the resistance is V1 - V2 minus the voltage

across the voltage source. Thus the downward current is as shown.

In this case the voltage difference across the resistance must be 100 volts greater than the

difference V1 - V2. Thus the downward current is as shown.

Example 1: Use nodal analysis to find the voltage at each node of this circuit.

Solution:

25

Note that the "pair of nodes" at the bottom is actually 1 extended node. Thus the number

of nodes is 3.

shown to the right.

We will choose node 2 as the reference node and assign it a voltage of zero.

Write down Kirchoff's Current Law for each node. Call V1 the voltage at node 1, V3 the

voltage at node 3, and remember that V2 = 0. The result is the following system of

equations:

The first equation results from KCL applied at node 1 and the second equation results

from KCL applied at node 3. Collecting terms this becomes:

This form for the system of equations could have been gotten immediately by using the

inspection method.

Solving the system of equations using Gaussian elimination or some other method gives

the following voltages:

26

Thevenin’s Theorem

Thevenin’s Theorem states that “Any linear circuit containing several voltages and

resistances can be replaced by just one single voltage(Vth) in series with a single

resistance(Rth) connected across the load“.

Rth = equivalent resistance seen from load terminal and by removing load resistance,

replacing voltage source by short circuit and current source by open circuit.

1. Open the load resistor.

2. Calculate / measure the open circuit voltage. This is the Thevenin Voltage (VTH).

3. Open current sources and short voltage sources.

4. Calculate /measure the Open Circuit Resistance. This is the Thevenin Resistance (RTH).

5. Now, redraw the circuit with measured open circuit Voltage (VTH) in Step (2) as voltage source and

measured open circuit resistance (RTH) in step (4) as a series resistance and connect the load resistor

which we had removed in Step (1). This is the equivalent Thevenin circuit of that linear electric

network or complex circuitwhich had to be simplified and analyzed by Thevenin’s Theorem. You

have done.

6. Now find the Total current flowing through load resistor by using the Ohm‟s Law: IT = VTH/ (RTH +

RL).

Solved Example by Thevenin’s Theorem:

Example:

27

Find VTH, RTH and the load current flowing through and load voltage across the load resistor

5kΩ in fig (1) by using Thevenin’s Theorem.

Solution:-

Step 1.

Open the 5kΩ load resistor (Fig 2).

Step 2.

Calculate / measure the open circuit voltage. This is the Thevenin Voltage (VTH). Fig (3).

We have already removed the load resistor from figure 1, so the circuit became an open

circuit as shown in fig 2. Now we have to calculate the Thevenin‟s Voltage. Since 3mA current

flows in both 12kΩ and 4kΩ resistors as this is a series circuit because current will not flow in

the 8kΩ resistor as it is open.

So 12V (3mA x 4kΩ) will appear across the 4kΩ resistor. We also know that current is not

flowing through the 8kΩ resistor as it is open circuit, but the 8kΩ resistor is in parallel with 4k

resistor. So the same voltage i.e. 12V will appear across the 8kΩ resistor as well as 4kΩ

resistor. Therefore 12V will appear across the AB terminals. So,

VTH = 12V

28

Step 3.

Open current sources and short voltage sources as shown below. Fig (4)

Step 4.

Calculate / measure the open circuit resistance. This is the Thevenin Resistance (RTH)

We have removed the 48V DC source to zero as equivalent i.e. 48V DC source has been

replaced with a short in step 3 (as shown in figure 3). We can see that 8kΩ resistor is in series

with a parallel connection of 4kΩ resistor and 12k Ω resistor. i.e.:

8kΩ + (4k Ω || 12kΩ) ….. (|| = in parallel with)

RTH = 11kΩ

29

Step 5.

Connect the RTHin series with Voltage Source VTH and re-connect the load resistor. This is

shown in fig (6) i.e. Thevenin circuit with load resistor. This the Thevenin‟s equivalent circuit

Step 6.

Now apply the last step i.e Ohm‟s law . Calculate the total load current & load voltage as

shown in fig 6.

IL = VTH / (RTH + RL)

= 12V / (11kΩ + 5kΩ) → = 12/16kΩ

IL= 0.75mA

And

VL = ILx RL

VL = 0.75mA x 5kΩ

VL= 3.75V

30

31

Nortons Theorem

Norton on the other hand reduces his circuit down to a single resistance in parallel with a

constant current source.

Nortons Theorem states that “Any linear circuit containing several energy sources and

resistances can be replaced by a single Constant Current source(Is or In) in parallel with a

Single Resistor(Rs or Rn)“.

Where Is = current obtained by short circuiting load terminal

Rn= Equivalent resistance seen by removing load and short circuiting voltage source & open

circuiting current source .

The basic procedure for solving a circuit using Nortons Theorem is as follows:

1. Remove the load resistor RL or component concerned.

2. Find RS by shorting all voltage sources or by open circuiting all the current sources.

3. Find IS by placing a shorting link on the output terminals A and B.

4. Find the current flowing through the load resistor RL.

32

In a circuit, power supplied to the load is at its maximum when the load resistance is equal to the

source resistance. The application of the maximum power transfer theorem can be applied to

either simple and complicated linear circuits having a variable load and is used to find the load

resistance that leads to transfer of maximum power to the load.

33

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

resistive load in a resistive network will abstract maximum power when the load resistance is

equal to the resistance viewed by the load as it looks back to the network. Actually this is

nothing but the resistance presented to the output terminals of the network. This is actually

Thevenin equivalent resistance as we explained in Thevenin's theorem if we consider the whole

network as a voltage source. Similarly, if we consider the network as current source, this

resistance will be Norton equivalent resistance as we explained in Norton theorem.

This theorem describes the condition for maximum power transfer from an active network to an

external load resistance. It states that in a linear, active, bilateral DC network, the maximum

power will be transferred from source to the load when the external load resistance equals to

the internal resistance of the source.This theorem can be developed with reference to practical

current or voltage source.

We can find the maximum power transfer with the use of Thevenin‟s equivalent circuit. Now we

will replace the electrical system which we are considered as complex part with its Thevenin‟s

equivalent circuit as shown in below.

From the above circuit, the current flowing through the load, „I‟ is given as

34

In the above equation RL is a variable, therefore the condition for maximum power delivered to

the load is determined by differentiating load power with respect to the load resistance and

equating it to zero.

This is the condition for maximum power transfer, which states that power delivered to the load

is maximum, when the load resistance RL matches with Thevenin‟s resistance RTH of the

network.

Under this condition, power transfer to the load is

The above equation shows that the efficiency is 50% under maximum power transfer condition.

Due to this 50 percent efficiency, maximum power transfer is not always desirable. For a given

values the Thevenin‟s voltage and Thevenin‟s resistance, the variation of power delivered to the

load with varying load resistance is shown in below figure.

35

Chapter -5

Electromagnetic Theory

Electromagnetism is the phenomenon which deals with the interaction between an Electric field

and a Magnetic Field. Stationary charges in a system lead to an Electric field and moving

charges in a system lead to a Magnetic field. The direction of Electric field and Magnetic field is

always perpendicular to each other, and the wave travels at the speed of light

The magnetic field is a field, produced by electric charges in motion. It is a field of force

causing a force on material like iron when placed in the vicinity of the field. Magnetic field does

not require any medium to propagate; it can propagate even in a vacuum. Also, the energy

storing capacity of the magnetic field is greater than the electric field, this distinguishes magnetic

field from the electric field, and therefore it is utilised in almost every electromechanical devices

like transformers, motors and generators.

36

t

For example, a current carrying conductor produces a magnetic field around the

conductor, whose direction is determined by Right-Hand Screw Rule(right hand thumb

rule) and the strength of field can be varied in accordance with the amount of current

flowing in the conductor around the coil.

manufacturing processes. The magnetic field has both North pole and a South pole.

Monopole does not exist for a magnetic field, unlike electric field where a charge can be

isolated. The field line forms a closed loop, as it emanates from North and terminates to

South outside a magnet and from South Pole to North Pole inside a magnet.

37

Magnetic Flux

We define magnetic flux as the total number of magnetic lines of force in a magnetic field

1. Magnetic flux of a filed is considered as the total number of magnetic lines of force in the

field. These are also called magnetic flux lines.

2. Each magnetic flux line is closed loop.

3. Each magnetic flux line starts from North Pole of a magnet and comes to the south pole

through the field and continues from south pole to north pole in the body of the magnet.

4. No two flux lines cross each other.

5. Two similar lines of force travel side by side but repeal each other.

6. The lines of force are stretched like elastic cord.

The number of magnetic lines of force passing through a unit area surface perpendicular

to the magnetic field is called magnetic flux density.

If total φ Weber flux perpendicularly through a surface of area A m2, Magnetic flux

density of the field would be

Magnetic Permeability

Definition of Magnetic Permeability

Magnetic permeability is the ability of a material to respond to how much electromagnetic flux

it can support to pass through itself within an applied electromagnetic field. In other word

magnetic permeability of a material is the degree of magnetization capability.

38

Permeability in Free Space

Permeability in free pace is denoted as μ0. Its value is 4ᴫ × 10-7 H/m. This value of

permeability is taken as standard value that is treated as permeability constant.

Permeability of another medium or substance is denoted as μ only. Relative permeability is the

ratio of permeability of any substance to that of free space and it is denoted as μr, i.e.

As permeability of any material depends on several factors:

1. Humidity

2. Temperature

3. Position in the medium

4. Frequency of the applied field

material is the one in which B=H =0].

It will be subjected to increasing values of magnetic field strength H and the corresponding flux

density B measured.

The result is shown in the below figure by the curve o-a-b.

39

At the point b, if the field intensity (H) is increased further the flux density(B) will not increase

any more.

This is called saturation ( the material is said to be saturated). In this figure b-y is called

assaturation flux density.

Now if the field intensity (H) is decreased, the flux density (B) will follow the curve b-c.

When field intensity (H) is reduced to zero, flux remains in the iron.

This is called as remanent flux density or remanence.

It is shown in the figure as o-c.

Now if the H is increased in the opposite direction, the flux density decreases as will.

It will decrease until the point d. Here the flux density (B) is zero.

The magnetic field strength (points between 0 and d) required to remove the residual

magnetism, i.e. reduce B to zero. It is called the coercive force.

Now if the H is increased further in the reverse direction causes the flux density to

increase in the reverse direction till the saturation point ( here point-e).

If H is varied backwards from 0x to 0y, the flux density(B) follows the curve e-f-g-b,

similar to curve b-c-d-e.

From the figure the clear that the flux density changes lag behind the changes in the

magnetic field strength.

This effect is called Hysteresis.

The closed figure b-c-d-e-f-g-b is called the Hysteresis Loop (or the B/H Loop).

The main advantages of hysteresis loop are given below.

2. Hysteresis loop provides the value of retentivity and coercivity of a material. Thus the way to

choose perfect material to make permanent magnet, core of machines becomes easier.

3. From B-H graph, residual magnetism can be determined and thus choosing of material for

electromagnets is easy.

40

MAGNETIC FIELD DUE TO CURRENT CARRYING CONDUCTOR

When an electric current flown through a wire, a magnetic field is built up around the wire itself.

The direction of the magnetic field can be found by using right hand rule or the right hand screw

rule.

The right hand rule states as follows:

“Grasp the wire in the right hand, with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current. The

fingers will curl around the wire in the direction of the magnetic field”.

When a conductor carrying a current is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a

magnetic force.

The direction of this force is always right angles to the plane containing both the conductor

and the magnetic field, and is predicted by Fleming‟s Left-Hand Rule.

41

Strength of the magnetic field

Current flowing through the wire

Length of the wire

F=BIlsinθF=BIlsinθ, where

F is force acting on a current carrying conductor,B is magnetic flux density (magnetic field

strength),

I is magnitude of current flowing through the conductor,

l is length of conductor,

θ is angle that conductor makes with the magnetic field.

When the conductor is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the force will be maximum.

42

Magnetic Circuit

A magnetic circuit is considered as the path in space through which magnetic flux passes.

a magnetic flux. The flux is usually generated by permanent magnets or electromagnets

and confined to the path by magneticcores consisting of ferromagnetic materials like

iron, although there may be air gaps or other materials in the path.

The magnetic circuits are containing one or more closed loops which contain magnetic flux. The

magnetic flux is usually created from North Pole to South Pole of a permanent magnet, when the

permanent magnet consists of ferromagnetic materials like iron. So, the closed path which is

following by the magnetic flux is called magnetic circuit.

Magneto motive force is “the ability creates a magnetic flux in magnetic circuit”.

The mathematical representation of Magneto Motive Force (MMF) is

The magneto motive force is analogous to voltage or electro motive force. In electrical fields the

voltage is

.

The unit of magneto motive force is Ampere–turns.

Definition of RELUCTANCE

: the opposition offered in a magnetic circuit to magnetic flux; specifically : the ratio of

the magnetic potential difference(mmf) to the corresponding flux.

43

Comparing magnetic circuit with electrical

“The phenomenon whereby an e.m.f. and hence current is induced in any conductor which is cut

across or is cut by a magnetic flux is known as electromagnetic induction”.

Faraday’s First Law. It states as follows:

“Whenever the magnetic flux linked with a circuit changes, an e.m.f. is always induced in it”.

Or

“Whenever a conductor cuts magnetic flux, an e.m.f. is induced in that conductor”.

44

[Usually, a minus sign is given to the right-hand side expression to signify the fact that

the induced e.m.f. sets up current in such a direction that magnetic effect produced by it opposes

the very cause producing it.]

The direction of the induced current may be found easily by applying either Fleming‟s right-hand

Rule (Fig. 31) or Lenz‟s law. Fleming’s rule is used where induced e.m.f. is due to flux-

cutting (i.e., dynamically induced e.m.f.) and Lenz’s law when it is due to change by flux-

linkages (i.e., statically induced e.m.f.).

– Len’s law. Fig.32 shows induction of an e.m.f. in a simple circuit. The direction of the

induced e.m.f. is determined by Lenz‟s law, which states that the current produced by the

induced e.m.f. opposes the change of flux.

45

Lenz‟s law may also be stated as follows:

In all cases of electromagnetic induction, an induced voltage will cause a current to flow in

a closed circuit in such a direction that the magnetic field which is caused by that current will

oppose the change that produced the current”.

46

Solve the old question Paper ( theory

+Numerical)

47

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