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Cylinder Pressure Data Acquisition

and Heat Release Analysis
on a Personal Computer
T. K. Hayes
and l. D. Savage
University of Illinois
at Urbana--Champaign
S. C. Sorenson
Technical University
of Denmark
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ISSN 0148·7191
Copyrighl1986 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
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Cylinder Pressure Data Acquisition
and Heat Release Analysis
on a Personal Computer
T. K. Hayes
and L. D. Savage
University of illinois
at Urbana-Champaign
S. C. Sorenson
Technical University
of Denmark

The availability and low price of ated at reduced speeds. Developments in
personal computers with suitable interface data acquisition technology has made it pos-
equipment has made it practical to use such sible to el iminate the tape recorder from
a system for cyl inder pressure data acqui- the process and acquire data directly into a
sition. With this objective, procedures computer.
have been developed to measure and record The personal computer or any computer
cylinder pressure on an individual crank which can be solely dedicated for acquiring
angle basis and obtain an average cylinder data, is a useful instrument for internal
pressure trace usi ng an App 1e I[ Pl us combust i on eng i ne research. The output of
personal computer. These procedures as well the personal computer dedicated to the test
as methods for checking the quality of cell, can be transferred to a multi-user
cylinder pressure data are described. A mainframe computer for detailed engine anal-
simplified heat release analysis technique ysis. This is attractive from an educational
for an approximate first look at the data viewpoint since it makes it possible to per-
quality is presented. Comparisons are made form data acqui s it ion and graphi ca1
between the result of this analysis, the presentation of data in a location near the
Kri eger-Borman heat release ana lys is wh i ch test cellon a single, inexpensive machine.
uses complete chemical equilibrium. The It is the purpose of this paper to des-
comparison is made to show the suitabil ity cribe the application of a personal computer
of the simplified analysis in judging the to the acquisition of instantaneous cylinder
quality of the pressure data. pressure data and a simplified heat release
calculation used to diagnose the qual ity of
the pressure data. The results of this
One of the most useful tools in engine com- simplified analysis are compared to the re-
bustion research is the analysis of pressure sults obtained from the comprehensive anal-
time histories for determination of the ap- ysis made using the Krieger-Borman method
parent rate of heat release. Some initial with complete chemical eqUilibrium. This
efforts in this line were those by was done to jUdge the suitabil ity of the
Schwietzer (1)* and Austen and Lyn (2). The simple heat release analysis.
most significant work was that by Krieger
and Borman (3), which coupled the heat re- EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS
lease analysis concept to detai led chemical The engine used for obtaining the
equilibrium properties using a high-speed cylinder pressure data was a Case Model
digital computer. Their work forms the IBBD, 4-cyl inder, four-stroke direct injec-
basi s for a 1arge port ion of the heat re- tion diesel engine. Engine specifications
lease analysis performed with engines to- are given in Table 1. The engine was equip-
day. ped with an AVL Model BQP5DOca water-cooled,
Average pressure traces of 100 to 300 piezoelectric pressure transducer, the sur-
consecutive engine cycles have traditionally face of which was coated with RTV rubber to
been used as an input to heat release pro- reduce possible effects from radiant heat
grams. This has often been performed using transfer (4). The transducer charge was
FM tape recorders and digitizers which oper- converted to a voltage by a Kistler Model
Copyright 1986 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.
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Table 1 Engine dimensions and A simple flowchart of the data acquisi-
operating conditions tion program is shown in Fig. 1. At the
start of the program, the engine volumes and
volume derivatives as functions of crank
Bore angle were read into the program from mag-
96.4 mm netic disc. This saved computational time
Stroke 104.8 mm
Displacement during the heat release section of the pro-
3.0B liters gram. The output file name as well as en-
Compression ratio 16.5:1
Speed gine speed, load, and intake manifold pres-
1800 rpm sure were entered at the start of the data
Brake mean effective pressure 50-600 kPa
Intake pressure acquisition run.
760 mm Hg A machine language subroutine was used
Coolant temperature 82"C
Oil temperature to arm, read, and store the data from the
71 "C A/D card. This sUbroutine was written in
machine language in order to achieve the
necessary speed to acquire data at each
crank angle. The computer had limited ran-
504 charge amplifier. The output of this dom access memory and it was not possible to
unit was routed through a simple voltage store all of the pressure records for later
offset circuit to ensure that the pressure sorting and averaging. Consequently, the
signal voltage was always positive, before machine language sUbroutine used a procedure
going to the A/D card. for calculating an "on-the-fly" average
The injection line pressure was pressure time history. This subroutine in-
measured with an AVL Model 41DP500K stra i n volved several steps:
gage pressure transducer. Thi s unit was
mounted in the injection 1ine approximately
10 cm from the injection nozzle. The strain Load Vol, dVOL/da
gage output was run through a signal amp- From Disc
lifier and then routed to the A/D card.
The computer used was an Apple II plus V
with 48 kilobytes of internal memory and one Set Output File Name
disc drive. In addition to the internal Load, Speed, and Intake
memory, the computer was fitted with a Manifold Pressure
Saturn System 128 ki lobyte extended memory
card. This was used to store the disc
operating system software and released
approximately 10 kilobytes of internal Call Binary
memory, allowing more room for programming, Data Acquisition
data storage, and graphics display. Program
The analog pressure signals were
digitized with a 16-channel Interactive
Structures Corporation Model AI-l3, 12 bit
A/O converter. It occupied a backplane slot Read Data from
in the computer and had a trigger feature Memory and Reference
which allowed a single A/D read to be syn- Cylinder Pressure
chroni zed wi th an external event. The A/O
unit had a conversion time of 20 micro-
seconds which corresponds to a maximum data
acquisition rate of 50 kHz. When binary
Run Simple
software was added to arm, read, and store Heat Release
the data from the card, the maximum data

acquisition rate dropped between 16 and 17
kHz with the Apple II Plus computer.
The external triggering timebase was Graph Heat
provided by a B.E.I. optical shaft en- Release Curve
coder. This unit was mounted on the front

of the crankshaft and provided a TTL signal
for every degree of engine rotation. A
second channel on the encoder provided a
single TTL signal per encoder revolution.
This was orientated with top-dead-center of
NO to
Yes loutput I
the instrumented cyl inder to correlate the
pressure data with cylinder volume.

Figure 1 Cylinder Pressure Data

Acquisition Program Flowchart.
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1. Measure the pressure when triggered After exiting the subroutine, the bi-
by the signal from the crank angle nary data was read into the main program and
transducer. converted to pressures. The piezoelectric
pressure transducer measures relative pres-
2. Recall the stored sum of the pres- sure changes and the cylinder pressure must
sures for that given crank angle. be referenced to a known pressure. In this
case the intake manifold pressure was used
3. Add the current pressure to the as the reference value. The cylinder pres-
previous sum. sure 40 degrees before the end of the intake
stroke was set equal to the intake manifold
4. Replace the new sum in the appro- pressure. When the cyl inder and injection
priate memory location. 1i ne pressures were read into the main pro-
gram, the heat release section was run and a
5. Advance the crank angle counter in heat release diagram was produced. This was
the program. used as an indication of the qual ity of the
pressure data.
6. Repeat the procedure for the next At the same time, maximum cylinder
crank angle. pressure, rate of pressure ri se, and thei r
locations were determined. The start of in-
7. At the end of the entire data jection was determined from the 1ine pres-
acquisition process, divide each of sure data. The normally accepted procedure
the sums by the number of cycles. is to use needle 1 ift measurements to de-
termine the start of injection, but this
There were two 1 imitat ions encountered proved to be impractical due to instrumenta-
in this procedure. The first was the time tion problems with the particular injectors
required for the AID card to make the used. After examining the heat release
measurement. The second limitation en- curve, a decision was made to store the
countered was the amount of time requ ired pressure data permanent lyon magnet i c di sc
for the computer to execute the program or to retake the data at the same test
steps for the above procedure or the soft- poi nt. The execut ion time of the program
ware limitation. For the current applica- from the start of the data run to the output
tion, the total time required to acquire and of the heat release curve was approximately
process the measurement and get ready for two minutes.
the next measurement 1imited the data
acqui sition procedure to a speed of approx- HEAT RELEASE ANALYSIS
imate ly 2000 rpm for the measurement of one A simple heat release model based on a
data channel at intervals of one crank angle first law of thermodynamics analysis without
degree. Should the engine exceed the speed chemical equilibrium (5) was used in the
defined by these limitations, the results data acquisition program. A short program
would be obvious since the data would be run time and low internal memory usage
acquired at every other crank angle. The dictated this model's simplicity. It was
speed 1 imitations are dependent on the used to diagnose the quality of the cylinder
particular type of computer and AID con- pressure data before moving to the next data
verter used. point; it was not for a final detailed anal-
It was possible to achieve further in- ysis of the combustion process. The follow-
creases in maximum engine speed using a pro- ing assumptions were made in the model:
cedure by which measurements were taken for
one cycle and stored but not averaged until 1. Uniform properties throughout the
a complete engine cycle had been measured. combustion chamber.
Oata acquisition was then interrupted for
the next cycle while the results from the 2. Specific heat of air, a function of
last cycle were added to the stored, summed temperature.
results from all of the previous cycles.
With this procedure, the limiting engine 3. Heat transfer to the wall modeled
speed could be increased to approximately by a uniform heat transfer coef-
2700 rpm. ficient.
This results in an increase in speed
for the acquisition process since it reduces 4. Constant and equal wall temperature
the number of calculations performed before for all surfaces.
the computer is ready to receive the next
pressure value. It does have the dis- 5. Effects of combustion are simulated
advantage that the results are not taken for by an equivalent heat transfer
consecutive cycles. If the engine is rate.
stable, this should not present a statis-
tical problem if cyclic variations are to be 6. No dissociation of chemi ca 1
distributed according to a normal distribu- species.
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The Eichelberg correlation was used to
model the heat transfer to the combustion
chamber surface (6). The combustion chamber
was assumed to be 450°C and the heat trans- {3 04473 + 1.33805T 0.488256T 2
• 1000
fer area was calculated assuming a cylin- 1 x 106
drical disc for the combustion chamber. The (4)
following inputs were required for the 0.0855475T 3
simple heat release model: + 0.005701327T 4j R
1 x 109 1 x 10 12
1. Engine rpm,
for T > 1000 K
2. An experimental cyl i nder pressure
history, and
where T = temperature (OK) and R = universal
3. An estimate of the initial mass in gas constant (KJ/Kmol).
the combustion chamber.
The initial mass in the chamber was cal- I~ order to determine its suitability,
culated using the ideal gas law with the the Slmple Heat Release Analysis was Com-
temperature of the air at 350 K at the clos- pared to a more comprehensive model based on
ing of the intake valve. This assumption the Krieger and 80rman Method (3). This
was used for all engine loads. program was run on a CDC CY8ER 175 com-
puter. The following assumpt ions were used
Under these assumpt ions, the fi rst 1aw in this model:
of thermodynami cs can be solved for the ap-
parent heat release rate: 1. Thermodynamic equilibrium at each
crank angle.
Q _V_ dP + -1.- P dV _ Q (1)
app = y - 1 de y - 1 de w 2. A homogeneous mixture of air and
combustion products.
where P = cylinder pressure, Qapp = apparent
heat transfer (release) rate, Qw = heat 3. 8urning takes place incrementally
transfer to the gas from the wall, V = and was modeled as a uniform heat
cylinder volume, y = specific heat ratio, addition.
and e = crank angle degree.
This equation can be solved using 4. All of the fuel was convertei to
measured cylinder pressure and rate of pres- products of combustion.
sure change calculated from the experimental
data along with cylinder volume and rate of 5. Heat transfer to the combustion
change of cylinder volume as calculated from chamber walls was modeled by a uni-
the slider crank equation. The equations form heat transfer coefficient.
for the specific heats are given below (7):
6. Constant and steady combustion
chamber wall temperatures.
y ( _ CP _ ) (2)
C - R This heat release program, which was
P ~ritten by Faletti (8) had the option of us-
lng either the Woschni or the Eichelberg
Heat Transfer Correlations. The Eichelberg
{3.6359 - 1.33736T + 3.29421T 2 Correlation was chosen in order to make a
1000 1 x 10 6 comparison with the simple heat release out-
(3) put.
3 This program requires several inputs
1.91142T + 0.275462T 4 }R prior to execution:
1 x 109 1 x 10 12
1. Engine RPM.
for T < 1000 K
2. An experimental cylinder pressure
3. Combust i on chamber surface temper-
4. Initial mass and composition in the
combustion chamber.
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The combustion chamber surface temper- The mass burning rate curves in Fig. 2
ature was estimated to be 450°C for all for a BMEP of 50 KPa show that both models
cases. This was the value used in the indicate the injection and vaporization of
simple analysis. The initial mass and com- the Diesel fuel as shown by the dip in the
position in the cylinder was found using a curve before ·the start of combustion. Both
complete Diesel simulation which included models predict the same point for the start
intake and exhaust effects (9). of combustion. During the premixed phase of
The computer program calculated the combustion the simple model indicates higher
equil i bri um thermodynami c properti es of the mass burning rates by 29 percent, and that
mixture in the combustion chamber at each this phase of combustion OCCUrs for a longer
crank angle. This program differed from the period of time. The simple model under-
original by Krieger and Borman in that the predicts the Krieger and Borman model during
equilibrium composition of combustion the diffusion controlled combustion.
products were calculated with a subroutine The fraction of mass burned curves for
developed by Strehlow (10) and the thermo- a BMEP of 50 kPa, Fig. 3 indicates that the
dynamic properties of the mixtures were cal- simple model predicts a higher fraction of
culated with a subroutine developed by the mass burned during premixed combus-
Savage (11). These subroutines were used tion. The lower mass burning rates observed
instead of the curve fits developed by during the diffusion burn in Fig. 2 cor-
Krieger, Borman and Dlikara (12). respond to the fact that the simple model
predicts only 90 percent of the mass
RESULTS burns.
The major differences between the two
heat-release models were: o.eo
Bmep= 50 Kpa
- - Simple lAIr
1. The Krieger and Borman model used O.HI - - Krieger 6, Barmen
the initial cylinder mass obtained 0.14
from a Diesel engine simulation. 0.12
The simple model used a rough est- 0.10
imate for the initial mass. \

2. The Kri eger and Borman model i n- j

cludes dissociation and complete 0.04
chemistry while the simple model 0.02
used air as the working fluid. 0.00
I -
-,Oe: -""""
Both models had the following points in 340. 360. 380. 400. '20
Cronk Angle (Deg.)
1. The Eichelberg Heat Transfer Cor- Figure 2 Comparison of Normalized Mass
relation. Burning Rates at a BMEP of
50 kPa. The Simple Heat Release
2. 450°C combustion chamber surface Model using an Assumed Initial
temperature. Mass.

-- --
3. The same experimental cylinder 1.0 r----~----,----~:_:::-=--.......,
pressure data. 1$
Noting these points a comparison of 5 0.8
both heat re 1ease models was made to de-
termine the validity of the simple method as
a tool to evaluate the quality of the
experimental pressure data.
Figures 2 through 7 show the comparison ~ 0.4

of the heat release models. The apparent c

heat release rate was normalized by dividing .2
b o.e
Bmep= 50 Kpo
it by the mass of fuel injected per cycle o - - Slmplll I Atr
- - Krloger 6' Borman
and the lower heating value of the fuel. It
is plotted in Figs. 2, 4, and 6 as a
u.. J
340, 3150. 360. 400. 420.
normalized mass burning rate. The mass Crank Angle (Deg.)
burning rate curves were numerically in-
tegrated using the trapezoidal rule to pro- Figure 3 Comparison of the Fraction of
duce the fraction of mass burned curves Mass Burned Curves at a BMEP of
shown in Figs. 3, 5, and 7. 50 kPa. An Assumed Initial Mass
was used in the Simple Heat
Release Model.
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Figure 4, the mass burning rate for a At a BMEP of 600 kPa, Fig. 6, both
BMEP of 300 kPa indicates both models pre- models again show fuel vaporization and the
dict the injection and vaporization of the same start of combustion. The simple model
Oiesel fuel, as well as the same start of predicts 47 percent higher mass burning
combustion. The simple model predicts 44 rates and a longer duration for premixed
percent hi gher burni ng rates, and a longer combustion. The simple model predicts
duration for premixed combustion. Both higher initial burning rates during the dif-
models predict equal mass burning rates for fusion controlled combustion but the two
diffusion controlled combustion. models come in closer agreement towards the
At 300 kPa, the fraction of mass burned end of the diffusion combustion. These
curves, Fig. 5, the simple model predicts a facts are also shown in Fig. 7 where it is
higher percentage of the mass consumed in evident that the simple model over predicts
the premix phase. The simple model greatly the heat released since the fraction of mass
over predicts the heat released as the shown burned approaches one well before combustion
by the fact that the fraction of mass burned is complete.
curve reaches a value of one before combus- The initial mass in the cylinder ob-
tion is complete. tained from the engine simulation in the
Krieger and Borman analysis was used in the
simple analysis. This was done to determine
the effect of the rough estimate of the in-
itial mass on the output of the simple
method. Figures Band 9 show the results of
changing the initial mass.
0.20 r----~----,_---_r---___, 0.20 ,----~----,_---_r---......,
0.18 Bmep= 300 Kpo 0.18
- - Simple /p.!r
0.115 - - Krlcgor 6: Borman 0.16

0.14 0.14

0.12 1\ 0,12
0.10 u 0.10

1\ o
.... 0.08
\ ~ 0,05 \
\~ i
0.02 )
....... '"
\....: -..!....... ~,...",--.~
0.00 A=--= I
=.-'-- --- -----::::::="""=;e.,.=--i o 0.00 1=,...,."---- _'::::~~=~""'=--l
-.01!340. -.01!.'-;;------,c:!:=----=---~=_--__7.!
360. 380. 400. 420. 340. 360. 380. 400. 420.
Cronk Angle (Deg.) Cronk Angle (Deg.)
Figure 4 Comparison of Normalized Mass Figure 6 Comparison of Normalized Mass
Burning Rates at a BMEP of Burning Rates at a BMEP of
300 kPa. The Simple Heat Release 600 kPa. The Simple Heat Release
Model using an Assumed Initial Model using an Assumed Initial
Mass. Mass.



./ --- --- ---


0.8 /
./ -- --- ---
III / /
0.6 - /
::;; ::;; /
0 0,4 ( ""
0 0.' I
0 r Bmep= 300 Kpo
Bmep= 600 Kpo
¥ - - SImp!" I Air
o.e r - - SImple I AIr
- - Krloger 6 Borman ....
0 - - Krloger &. Borman
"- 0,0 "- 0.0
340. 360. 380. 400. 420. 340. 360. 380. 400. 420.
Crank Angle (Deg.) Crank Angle (Deg,)
Figure 5 Comparison of the Fraction of Figure 7 Comparison of the Fraction of
Mass Burned Curves at a BMEP of Mass Burned Curves at a BMEP of
300 kPa. An Assumed Initial Mass 600 kPa. An Assumed Initial Mass
was used in the Simple Heat was used in the Simple Heat
Release Model. Re 1ease Mode 1.
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o.eo 1.0
~ 0.18 Bmep= 50 Kpa <l)
0> - - Simplo lAIr C
<l) 0.1lS "- 0.8
a - - Krlogor 6: Bormen

0.14 "
~ Ul
0.12 Ul
0 0.10 Ii 0
I "-
0 0,4

::;; 0.04 l C
" L :;:: Bmep= 50 Kpa

:::-- .
} 0
- - Simplo I Air
- - KrlOllor & Barmen
u.. 0.0
340. 3150. 380. 400. 420. 340. 3150. 380. 400. 420.
Crank Angle (Oeg,) Crank Angle (Oeg.)

(a) (a)

a.eo 1.0
Bmep= 300 Kpa "0
~ 0.18 <l)
0> - - Simplo lAIr C
<l) O.1e - - Krlogllr 6: Borman "- 0.8
0.14 "
O.1e Ul
Ul 0.8
U 0.10
0.08 1\ "- 0,4
I) \. C
Bmep= 300 Kpa
- - Simplo I Air
a 0.00 "- - - KrlOllor 6: Borman
-.oe u.. 0.0
340. 3150. 380. 400. 420. 340. 3lS0. 380. 400. 420.
Crank Angle (Deg,) Crank Angle (Oeg.)

(b) (b)

Bmep= 600 Kpa
- - Simple lAir
- - Krlogllr 6 Borman


0.8 /,
/: - --=

0 0.' ;;
0.10 ::;; ;;
11. "-
0 0.' I'
j c ,1
l .2 Bmep= 600 Kpa
0.02 } .
0 0.'
- - Slmplll I Air
0.00 - - - - 0
- - Krloger & Barmon
-.02 0.0
340. 3150. 380. 400. 420. 340. 360. a80. 400. 420.
Crank Angle (Oeg.) Crank Angle (Oeg.)

(e) (e)

Figure 8 Comparison of Normalized Mass Figure g Comparison of the Fraction of

Burning Rates at Various BMEPs. Mass Burned Curves at Various
Both Heat Release Models using BMEPs. Both Heat Release Models
the Initial Mass from an Engine using the Initial Mass from an
Simulation. Engine Simulation.
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The mass burning rate curves, Figs. 1. Procedures have been developed to
8a,b,c, shOl' very good qual itative and acquire cycle averaged cylinder
quantitative agreement between the pressure, or other cyclic engine
methods. At all loads, the Krieger and measurements on a personal computer
Borman method pred i cts slightly hi gher mass of a small size.
burning rates during the initial phase of
the premixed combustion. At all loads, both 2. A simplified heat release analysis
methods predict the same burning rates dur- for diesel engines using the tem-
ing the diffusion controlled combustion. perature dependent specific heats
The fraction of mass burned curves, of air has been shown to be an ad-
Figs. 9a,b,c, show that the Krieger and equate method of evaluating the
Borman method predicts a higher fraction of quality of the cylinder pressure
the mass burned during premixed combus- data.
tion. The fraction of mass curves from the
simple analysis do not vary more than 4 per- 3. The heat release analysis is sens-
cent from the Krieger and Borman results. itive to the values of initial
cylinder mass and residual frac-
DISCUSS ION tion. Improved methods for
The results show that qualitatively the estimating these quantities need to
simple model agrees well with the more com- be developed. These methods must
prehensive Krieger and Borman model. The be in a form compatible with the
simple model over predicts the heat release capabi 1iti es of the personal com-
rates for premixed combustion at all loads, puter to be used i n a mOre
and at loads of 300 and 600 kPa over pre- quantitative manner.
dicted the total energy released.
The simple model does indicate the cor- ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
rect start of combustion as well as the ef- This work was supported by the Illinois
fects of fuel vaporization. It also shows Department of Energy and Natural Re-
the progression from mainly premixed combus- sources.
tion at low loads to a combination of pre-
mixed and diffusion controlled combustion at
high loads as expected with a Diesel REFERENCES
The major difference between the simple 1. SChwietzer, P., "The Tangent Method of
and Krieger and Borman models aside from Analysis of Indicator Cards of Internal
chemistry and dissociation was the estimate Combustion Engines," Bulletin No. 35,
of the initial mass in the system. A rough Penn State Univ., Sept. 1926, as refer-
estimate was used instead of a engine simu- enced in Obert, E. F., Internal Combus-
lation in order to reduce the program run- tion Engines, Harper and Row Publishers,
ning time. Judging from the results ob- New York, 1973.
tained by substituting the initial mass from
the engine simulation into the simple anal- 2. Austen, A. E. W., and W. 1. Lyn, "The
ysis, a better method for predicting the in- Appl ication of Heat Release Analysis to
itial mass in the system should be investi- Engine Combustion StUdy," CIMAC, p.
gated. 1067, 1962.

3. Krieger, R. 8., and G. L. Borman, "The

CONCLUSIONS Computation of Apparent Heat Release for
The results presented indicate that a Internal Combustion Engines," ASME Paper
personal computer can be used to acquire 66-WA-DGP-4, 1966.
single degree pressure data from low speed
Diesel engines. The simple heat release was 4. Lancaster, D. R., R. B. Krieger, and J.
shown to be a good diagnostic indicator for H. Li eni sch, "Measurement and Analys i s
the quality of the cylinder pressure data. of En9ine Pressure Data," SAE Trans-
The heat release model appears to be as good actions, Vol. 84, p. 155, 1975, Paper
an indicator of cylinder pressure errors as 750026.
the logarithmic pressure-volume diagram pro-
posed by Lancaster (4). This computer sys- 5. Sorenson, S. C., "Simple Computer
tem with its apparent heat release analysis Simulations for Internal Combustion
diagnostic can be used to obtain a signif- Engine Instruction," International
icant amount of data at a relatively low Journal of Mechanical Engineering Educa-
price. In summary: tion, Vol. 9, p. 237, 1981.

6. Eichelberg, G., "Some New Investigations

on Old Combustion Engine Problems,"
Engineering, Vol. 148, p. 463, 1939.
Downloaded from SAE International by Indian Institute of Technology - Chennai, Tuesday, March 14, 2017

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