Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 50

issue

2018

september

sulaiman

report,

azim

mr

I

construction

tutor:

building

issue 2018 september sulaiman report, azim mr I construction tutor: building
issue 2018 september sulaiman report, azim mr I construction tutor: building

REMMENT LUCAS

REM

KOOLHAAS

ARCHITECTURAL

THEORIST

URBANIST

PROFESSOR IN

REM KOOLHAAS ARCHITECTURAL THEORIST URBANIST PROFESSOR IN PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DESIGN I N HARVARD

PRACTICE OF

ARCHITECTURE

AND URBAN

DESIGN

IN HARVARD

UNIVERSITY

ARCHITECTURAL THEORIST URBANIST PROFESSOR IN PRACTICE OF ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DESIGN I N HARVARD UNIVERSITY 04
FOUNDED IN NETHERLANDS N N O I 2 0 W 0 0 FOUNDED TIME 100
FOUNDED IN NETHERLANDS N N O I 2 0 W 0 0 FOUNDED TIME 100

FOUNDED

FOUNDED IN NETHERLANDS N N O I 2 0 W 0 0 FOUNDED TIME 100 The

IN

NETHERLANDS

N N O I 2 0 W 0 0
N
N
O
I
2
0
W
0
0

FOUNDED

FOUNDED IN NETHERLANDS N N O I 2 0 W 0 0 FOUNDED TIME 100 The
TIME 100 The THE World’s Most Influential People
TIME
100
The THE
World’s Most
Influential
People

2008

TIMETIME

MADELON VRIESENDORP ARTIST WIFE
MADELON
VRIESENDORP
ARTIST
WIFE
TIME 100 The THE World’s Most Influential People 2 0 0 8 TIME TIME MADELON VRIESENDORP

06

06

HISTORYHISTORY

HISTORY HISTORY OMA collaborated with Porto Office of Metropolitan Architecture, the scene agency Ducks scéno, the
HISTORY HISTORY OMA collaborated with Porto Office of Metropolitan Architecture, the scene agency Ducks scéno, the

OMA collaborated with Porto Office of Metropolitan Architecture, the scene agency Ducks scéno, the acoustician Renz Van Luxemburg and AFA, while the interiors were designed by Inside Outside (Petra Blaisse). The site was once a staging area for trams. Construction occurred in the next four years and cost 100 million Euros. Casa da Música is opened to the public on 14 April 2005, featuring a 1300-seat auditorium suffused with dayligh. Casa da Música is the only concert hall in the world with two walls made entirely of glass. Nicolai Ouroussoff (top left), architecture critic from the New York Times, classified it as the "most attractive project the architect Rem Koolhaas has ever built" and indicated that it's "a building whose intellectual ardour is matched by its sensual beauty". In September 2008, the Casa da Música hosted the Orquestra Nacional do Porto, which took part in explorative public presentations, where performed music was captured alongside musician's and conductor's expressive gestures. Casa da Musica is a multi-purpose music and arts space comprising two main auditoriums, rehearsal rooms and recording studios for the Porto National Opera. A 150-seat restaurant on the building rooftop was opened in August 2006.“Casa da Musica has received its first award – RIBA’s 2007 European Award.

CONCEPTCONCEPT

With Koolhaas’ reputation for the provocative, it was obvious that he would try to subvert the traditional rectangular ‘shoe-box’ shaped music hall convention. After researching, however, the acoustic quality of existing concert halls Koolhaas was forced to conclude that the best halls in the world have a shoe box shape. So that’s what the Casa da Musica got. However, that’s not to say Koolhaas didn’t let his invention run riot. The main auditorium is suffused with daylight from the two walls made entirely of glass, an oddity in the music world as glass scatters sound in random directions. However, Koolhaas’ ingenuity overcame the problem by making the glass ripple in tightly curved folds, and setting two glass sheets a metre apart to insulate the hall from exterior noise. “The main auditorium is suffused with daylight from the two walls made entirely of glass.” Addressing the idea that most cultural institutions only benefit a minority of people in any given place, Casa da Musica has been designed so that the building reveals its contents to the city, and everyone inside also has breathtaking views of the city and the sea. The façade is of concrete and glass. The 400mm thick faceted shell of the building bears the load. It holds the longitudinal direction and acts as an internal stiffening diaphragm for providing structural stability. The Casa da Musica is designed to create relationship between the concert hall and the public inside and outside the building.

da Musica is designed to create relationship between the concert hall and the public inside and
da Musica is designed to create relationship between the concert hall and the public inside and

08

ORTHO

GRAPHIC

ORTHO GRAPHIC
ORTHO GRAPHIC

FACADEFACADE

FACADE FACADE The chiselled sculptural form of the white concrete shell houses the main 1,300 seat

The chiselled sculptural form of the white concrete shell houses the main 1,300 seat concert hall, a small 350 seat hall, rehearsal rooms, and recording studios for the Oporto National Orchestra. A terrace carved out of the sloping roofline and huge cut-out in the concrete skin connects the building to city.

The structural heart of the building is formed by four massive walls that extend from
The structural heart of the building
is formed by four massive walls that
extend from the base to the roof and
connect the tilted external walls
with the core of the structure. The
two one meter thick walls of the
main auditorium act as internal
diaphragms tying the shell together
in the longitudinal direction. The
principal materials are white
concrete, corrugated glass,
travertine, plywood, and aluminium.
direction. The principal materials are white concrete, corrugated glass, travertine, plywood, and aluminium. 10
direction. The principal materials are white concrete, corrugated glass, travertine, plywood, and aluminium. 10
The principal materials used for the building are white concrete, travertine, corrugated glass, aluminium and
The principal materials used for the building are white concrete, travertine, corrugated glass, aluminium and
The principal materials used for the building are white concrete, travertine, corrugated glass, aluminium and

The principal materials used for the building are white concrete, travertine, corrugated glass, aluminium and plywood.

We highlight the fact that we are dealing here with a building made of white concrete which is, to a large extent, exposed. The concrete is simultaneously the structure and the final finishing of the job. This fact makes it particularly important for the structure to function well in practice. Indeed, maintaining the good appearance of exposed white concrete is to a large part done by controlling crack width by ensuring the forces at the limit of use are correctly quantified. The correct specification of the concrete is particularly important and great care must be taken in the shuttering and distribution steel work with the job always being kept clean and the workers always concentrating fully on their work. After some research work involving the project team and Secil’s technical staff it was possible to define a specification which would enable the obtaining of a concrete with the colour, final finishing, workability and strength characteristics sought. The concrete was of strength class C40/50, had a minimum dose of 380 kg/m3 of 42.5 class white BR I cement, coarse calcareous inert materials, fine calcareous and granitic sands and a very fine grained calcareous filler. It is the presence of the granitic sand that makes the colour of the concrete slightly greyish and not yellowish as often happens when it is tried to make a concrete as white as possible. Given the special characteristics of this job, notably the concreting of large exterior panels with inclination angles of up to 48º with the horizontal, the contract specifications required the previous construction of several prototypes in white concrete.

the horizontal, the contract specifications required the previous construction of several prototypes in white concrete. 11
the horizontal, the contract specifications required the previous construction of several prototypes in white concrete. 11
the horizontal, the contract specifications required the previous construction of several prototypes in white concrete. 11

MAIN MAIN

AUDITORIUM AUDITORIUM

The acoustic isolation of the main auditorium is done by means of separating this from the rest of the structure. This separation is referred to as being a “box within a box”. In this separation the floor, walls and ceiling of the auditorium only come into contact with the building’s structure through resilient mounts. The floor layer is of reinforced concrete, the walls are structural steel, and the ceiling is made of a composite slab supported on metallic beams. The sizing of the referred mounts was done in such a way that the frequency of the mass – spring – mass system is less than 10 Hz. Each of the two large spaces at the extreme ends of the main auditorium is, for acoustic reasons, made of two glass walls 6.5m apart. The spaces are 23.2m wide. The East space is 12.30m high and the West space is 14.70m high. The glass walls consist of three stacked panels of “s” curved. The upper two are suspended from the roof while the lower one is supported on the base. Wind-load resistance is achieved by the wavy glass section spanning between two discreet horizontal trusses, located at the lower and upper thirds of the height, between the two glass planes. For horizontal loads, the glass panels hang over the vertical space between open-web girders or between these and the base or the roof.

open-web girders or between these and the base or the roof. The walls in the large

The walls in the large hall are lined with plywood panels that are embossed with a gold-leaf pattern that is an enlargement of the grain of the plywood itself. The main auditorium, shaped like a simple shoebox, is enclosed at both ends by two layers of “corrugated” glass walls. The glass, corrugated for optimal acoustics and sheer beauty, brings diffused daylight into the auditorium.ach of the two large spaces at the extreme ends of the main auditorium – glass.

The walls in the large hall are lined with plywood panels that are embossed with a gold-leaf pattern that is an enlargement of the grain of the plywood itself. The main auditorium, shaped like a simple shoebox, is enclosed at both ends by two layers of “corrugated” glass walls. The glass, corrugated for optimal acoustics and sheer beauty, brings diffused daylight into the auditorium.ach of the two large spaces at the extreme ends of the main auditorium – glass.

spaces at the extreme ends of the main auditorium – glass. On the South side there
spaces at the extreme ends of the main auditorium – glass. On the South side there

On the South side there is the large volume of the entrance gallery which is interrupted at its upper part by the small auditorium. Between this gallery and the south longitudinal wall of the auditorium there is also a 7 m wide zone for vertical and horizontal circulation and support spaces. This strip is bounded to the South by a 0.35m thick partition wall with a number of major openings. The vertical support for the South side slabs, which in the gallery zone are between the foundations and the access stair level to the main auditorium and in the referred circulation zone up to the roof, is provided by the exterior shell, the main South longitudinal wall, the referred partition wall and also the inclined pillar which trajects the gallery space. At a higher level spanning over the space between the exterior shell and the South longitudinal wall, is the small auditorium. Its main structural elements are two wall-beams 0.45m thick of variable height. The ceiling and floor layers are made of slabs with composite steel and concrete supported on metal beams.

height. The ceiling and floor layers are made of slabs with composite steel and concrete supported
14
14
14
14

HISTORYHISTORY

HISTORY HISTORY To support the rapid expansion of China Central Television (CCTV) in 2002 launched an
HISTORY HISTORY To support the rapid expansion of China Central Television (CCTV) in 2002 launched an

To support the rapid expansion of China Central Television (CCTV) in 2002 launched an international competition to design the building that would be headquartered in Beijing. The winner was the architectural firm OMA Rem Koolhaas, accompanied by engineering firm Arup and Architecture Design Institute of East China (top right). The structural design of the CCTV posed many technical challenges for large international team that dictated the design through global collaboration, transcending time zones, physical distances, cultures, cost centres, and even an outbreak of SARS. Finally, the team gave a complex design on time and was approved by the panel of experts from the Chinese Ministry of Construction. CCTV headquarters was officially opened by the President on January 1, 2008, during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, although the works were not completed until May 2012.

CONCEPTCONCEPT

Designed by OMA as a reinvention of the skyscraper as a loop, construction on the building began in 2004. A loop design inspired by a bent needle resembling a typical skyscraper becoming a loop. At approximately 473, 000m2, CCTV – accommodating TV studios, offices, broadcasting and production facilities – is OMA’s largest ever project and its first major building in China. CCTV defies the skyscraper’s typical quest for ultimate height. Rising from a common platform, two towers lean towards each other and eventually merge in a perpendicular, 75- metre cantilever. The design combines the entire process of TV-making – formerly scattered in various locations across the city – into a loop of interconnected activities. The design has reconfigured the hierarchy of normal skyscraper.

the city – into a loop of interconnected activities. The design has reconfigured the hierarchy of

ORTHO

GRAPHIC

ORTHO GRAPHIC 18
ORTHO GRAPHIC 18
ORTHO GRAPHIC 18
ORTHO GRAPHIC 18
ORTHO GRAPHIC 18
ORTHO GRAPHIC 18

EXOSKELETONEXOSKELETON

EXOSKELETON EXOSKELETON The grid system on the building are designed diagonally on purpose to encounter gravitational

The grid system on the building are designed diagonally on purpose to encounter gravitational and lateral loads. The positioning of the columns and diagonal tubes reflects the distribution of forces in the surface skin of the building. The columns of the diagrid have the same exposed width, but the depth varies according to the load, while the diagonals are all 1m × 60cm plate girders, with only the steel thickness varying. A butterfly plate links perimeter columns, braces and beams. The irregular geometry of steel structure facade gives it stability to cope with different load conditions.

DIAGRID FRAMING SYSTEM A diagrid ‘exoskeleton’ system was adopted on the external faces of the

DIAGRID FRAMING SYSTEM A diagrid ‘exoskeleton’ system was adopted on the external faces of the building to give a tube structure that resists gravity and other lateral forces.

Steel is chosen for this steel other than timber or reinforced concrete is due to steel’s tensile strength primarily. The main purpose of inclusion of steel is resist tensile stress in particular regions of the building that may cause structural failure or cracking. Load transfer primarily happens through this system causing internal cores to bear minimal gravity loads, floor slabs do not have to transfer loads and floor plates do not have to be same shape each floor. This diagrid framing system allows internal space to be bigger due to lesser internal columns required.

space to be bigger due to lesser internal columns required. The diagrid system design is based

The diagrid system design is based on the strength required in different parts of the buildings. The density of the diagonal grid framing follows the strength of the areas in the building where weaker spots have a higher density of grid framing and vice versa. This structure system reduces the material required normally by 20% compared to typical moment frame methods. The architects too used this system at the facade for aesthetic purposes as it is pleasing to the eye. Better ability to redistribute loads than other frame system if failure of one portion does not mean complete structural failure. Butterfly plates are used for the structural system which assist a smooth load transfer between the structural steel beams.

plates are used for the structural system which assist a smooth load transfer between the structural

INTERNAL INTERNAL

STRUCTURE STRUCTURE

INTERNAL INTERNAL STRUCTURE STRUCTURE Steel is for piles which is used to withstand the forces of
INTERNAL INTERNAL STRUCTURE STRUCTURE Steel is for piles which is used to withstand the forces of

Steel is for piles which is used to withstand the forces of the building transferred down to the foundation which steel resist high tensile stress. Concrete is a versatile construction material: it is plastic and malleable when newly mixed, yet strong and durable when hardened. This is why this material is used throughout its internal as well as the foundation of the building.

its internal as well as the foundation of the building. Trusses are used s a load
its internal as well as the foundation of the building. Trusses are used s a load

Trusses are used s a load transfer assistance. Some trusses are placed to strengthen weak spots throughout the building especially the high stress areas of the building. It is linked up with the external diagrid columns with internal steel core via pin-joints. Trusses span the bottom two floors of the overhang, loads above are transferred to these trusses, which subsequently transfer loads to the diagrid system. Major trusses located at the building base, called the podium, to support the above loads. Reinforced concrete slabs are used as floors’ slabs which do not support much weight due to the trusses’ support and weight distribution.

These spaces are crafted by dividing the open spaces

the

trusses, piles and cores.

that

is

created

by

the

exoskeleton

structure,

that is created by the exoskeleton structure, The lobbies are mainly open spaces with minimal structures
that is created by the exoskeleton structure, The lobbies are mainly open spaces with minimal structures

The lobbies are mainly open spaces with minimal structures in the spaces which creates a bigger spatial experience. Material used are mostly timber and marble which give a softer and more harmony look and feel in the space to contrast out the industrial feeling which the glass windows and the steel structure give.

Office spaces are kept minimal in terms of material use in decorating the interior space
Office spaces are kept minimal in terms of material use in decorating the interior space

Office spaces are kept minimal in terms of material use in decorating the interior space which are not needed for a formal working space. The working space has used carpets and typical modular ceilings with mostly light colours to complement the brightness and a bigger spatial feeling with glass facade and windows which provide maximum sunlight due to the steel structures.

which provide maximum sunlight due to the steel structures. Public spaces in the building for leisure
which provide maximum sunlight due to the steel structures. Public spaces in the building for leisure

Public spaces in the building for leisure and tourists spots have high ceilings, big glass surroundings and revealed structures to allow users to appreciate the view outside the building, the sunlight which penetrated through the glass facade and also the structure engineering of the building.

23

HISTORYHISTORY

HISTORY HISTORY In 2007, the building was voted #108 on the American Institute of Architects' list
HISTORY HISTORY In 2007, the building was voted #108 on the American Institute of Architects' list

In 2007, the building was voted #108 on the American Institute of Architects' list of Americans' 150 favorite structures in the US. It was one of two Seattle buildings included on the list of 150 structures, the other being Safeco Field. 11-story (185 feet or 56.9 meters high) glass and steel building in downtown Seattle, Washington. Rem Koolhaas and Joshua Prince-Ramus (top right) of OMA/LMN were the principal architects, Magnusson Klemencic Associates was the structural engineer with Arup; Arup also provided mechanical, electrical, and plumbing engineering, as well as, fire/life safety, security, IT and communications, and audio visual consulting; and Hoffman Construction Company of Portland, Oregon, was the general contractor.

CARNEGIE LIBRARY, 1960
CARNEGIE LIBRARY,
1960

The Seattle Carnegie Library, the first library located in its own dedicated building at Fourth Avenue and Madison Street, opened in 1906.In 1946, the library was extended to 55,000 square feet. However, due to city population, it eventually became too small and cramped, it had doubled the number of city population. Second Seattle Library was built at the site of old Carnegie Library with 5 stories and 206,000 square feet in 1960, featuring international style architecture and expanded interior, with feature such as drive-thru service to offset the lack of available parking. Library face the same issue just like the first Seattle library. It became cramped and two-thirds of its material were held in storage area inaccessible to patrons.

Seattle library. It became cramped and two-thirds of its material were held in storage area inaccessible

CONCEPTCONCEPT

Addressing the idea that most cultural institutions only benefit a minority of people in any given place, Casa da Musica has been designed so that the building reveals its contents to the city, and everyone inside also has breathtaking views of the city and the sea. The façade is of concrete and glass. The 400mm thick faceted shell of the building bears the load. It holds the longitudinal direction and acts as an internal stiffening diaphragm for providing structural stability. The Casa da Musica is designed to create relationship between the concert hall and the public inside and outside the building.

da Musica is designed to create relationship between the concert hall and the public inside and

ORTHO

GRAPHIC

ORTHO GRAPHIC 26

FACADEFACADE

FACADE FACADE MULLIN MULLIN SYSTEM SYSTEM Incorporates a diamond module that marries the most efficient use

MULLIN MULLIN

SYSTEM SYSTEM

Incorporates a diamond module that marries the most efficient use of non-standard glass panel shapes with adequate steel spanning capacity. A thinner overall depth with a thickened aluminum section to allow for greater spanning ability and fewer support connections. Engineered mullion system relies on only two connection points per diamond. Adding efficiency to the curtain wall system, the utilization of seismic steel

on only two connection points per diamond. Adding efficiency to the curtain wall system, the utilization

Curtain wall glazing system is comprised of numerous components, each requiring function both separately and as a complete assembly. The curtain wall system is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, utilized to keep the weather out and the occupants in. The structure is also composed of both load-bearing and seismic systems.

to keep the weather out and the occupants in. The structure is also composed of both

In waterproofing the building against Seattle’s rainy climate, Seele designed three levels of defense into the system:

1) the exterior aluminum mullion cap with pre-molded silicone gaskets, 2) insulated glazing panels with flexible butyl tape applied along every joint between panels, and 3) silicone gasket molded to fit the interior surface of the mullion body. While the mullion cap, seals and glass keep most of the water from entering the system, the next two layers channel any remaining moisture to weep holes along the lower edge of each façade.

Even standing water caught at the lower vertex of each diamond is addressed by tooling a slight ramp in the sealant joints of adjacent mullions allowing for the water’s release. To verify these measures actually worked as designed, a portion of the building was built at full scale and forced to undergo extreme weather testing in controlled conditions.

to undergo extreme weather testing in controlled conditions. Integral to the design development of the curtain
to undergo extreme weather testing in controlled conditions. Integral to the design development of the curtain

Integral to the design development of the curtain wall was the envelope’s thermal performance. Except for the roof, louvers, and exposed concrete foundation walls, the exterior envelope is comprised entirely of vision glass. This posed a considerable challenge to the design team given the current energy codes and required thermal properties the curtain wall system would need to achieve. The entire envelope, including all of its component parts, was considered in the energy calculations. To help meet the required performance level, approximately half of the insulated glazing panels were fabricated with airspaces containing krypton gas and newly developed high performance low-E coatings. In addition, to combat increased solar heat gain experienced during the summer months, an aluminum expanded metal mesh interlayer was chosen for the glass panels receiving the most sun. The mesh’s mini-louvers provide shielding of direct sun while at the same time providing views to the exterior through the mesh. Not only ideal for shading, the micro diamond pattern of the metal mesh mimics the larger diamond pattern of the curtain wall mullions. Originally envisioned to be laminated between sheets of glass, the metal mesh floats within a 2 mm airspace in the final design. Clear low-iron glass is used in front of the mesh to brighten its appearance when viewed from the exterior.

HEADQUARTERSHEADQUARTERS

HEADQUARTERS HEADQUARTERS 29
HEADQUARTERS HEADQUARTERS 29
Insulated glazed glass units contains a glass is separated into two or three layers by

Insulated glazed glass units contains a glass is separated into two or three layers by air or vacuum. They cannot allow heat through it because of air between the layers and acts as good insulators. These are also called as double glazed units that are used in most part of the space.

STEELSTEEL
STEELSTEEL

Carbon steel is dull and matte in appearance and is vulnerable to corrosion. Carbon steel can contain other alloys, such as manganese, silicon, and copper. There are three main types of carbon steel:

low carbon steel, medium carbon steel, and high carbon steel. These are used to support the exterior glass

CONCRETECONCRETE

are used to support the exterior glass CONCRETE CONCRETE This building also used a lot of

This building also used a lot of regular concrete. Regular concrete is the lay term for concrete that is produced by following the mixing

instructions that are

y

published on packets of cement, typically using sand or other common material as the aggregate, and often mixed in improvised containers. The ingredients in any particular mix depends on the nature of the application.

c

o

m

m

o

n

l

31

HISTORYHISTORY

HISTORY HISTORY Prof. Jong-Sang Lee proposes the establishment of the MoA and the Samsung Cultural foundation

Prof. Jong-Sang Lee proposes the establishment of the MoA and the Samsung Cultural foundation promises to fund the creation of the museum in 1995. The Seoul National University Campus Planning Committee selects the location for the future museum. In 1996, officials from the Samsung Foundation of Culture and Rem Koolhaas conduct a field

schematic design completed in 1997. In 2004, the construction of the

investigation of the building’s site. The structure begins and completed in 2005.

In 2004, the construction of the investigation of the building’s site. The structure begins and completed

CONCEPTCONCEPT

The design for the Seoul National University Museum is driven by the relationship of the campus to the community and serve as a link between them. The mass restructured in this way is floating in the air, supported by its concrete core and cantilevered steel frame. It has the special building’s feature and provides the spectacular entry square.

core and cantilevered steel frame. It has the special building’s feature and provides the spectacular entry

ORTHO

GRAPHIC

ORTHO GRAPHIC 34
ORTHO GRAPHIC 34
ORTHO GRAPHIC 34

FACADEFACADE

FACADE FACADE Facade of building is mainly covered by u-profile glass. U-profile glass is selected as

Facade of building is mainly covered by u-profile glass. U-profile glass is selected as for whole facade to harmonize the building as one U-profile glass allow the light to enter the building and brighten the spaces, such lecture, auditorium, exhibition

The mass restructured in this way is floating in the air, supported by its precast
The
mass
restructured
in
this
way
is
floating in the air,
supported by its
precast concrete
core
and
c
a n t i l e v e r e d
steel
frame.
It
has
the
special
b
u
i
l
d
i
n
g
s
feature
and
provides
the
s
p e c t a c u l a r
entry square.
U-GLASS U glass is a U shaped cast glass. Cast in sheet form whilst still
U-GLASS U glass is a U shaped cast glass. Cast in sheet form whilst still

U-GLASS U glass is a U shaped cast glass. Cast in sheet form whilst still molten, it is rolled and side wings are formed to create U shaped profile. It is higher thermal efficiency than double glazing. It has high light scattering efficiency which has good lighting effects. They can provide light transmittance and good sound insulation, but also they can have vary patterns for options and they have very beautiful appearances.

and good sound insulation, but also they can have vary patterns for options and they have

STAIRCASESTAIRCASE

STAIRCASE STAIRCASE Reinforced concrete is composed material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and

Reinforced concrete is composed material in which concrete’s relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Reinforcing schemes are generally designed to resist tensile stresses in particular regions of the concrete that might cause unacceptable cracking and/or structural failure. That is why they uses reinforced concrete at the stair and also the structure mass of the whole building.

The most important fact that having square twisted bars of metal packed in thoroughly developed
The most important fact that having square
twisted bars of metal packed in thoroughly
developed concrete make for a very strong and
sturdy building component. This is required to
withstand a number of different factors
including wind, weight, gravitational pull and
several other factors that impact the building
both horizontally and vertically.The base of the
building is created using reinforced concrete
which provides a dense and solid foundation to
the overall structure. With the foundation and
initial floors created with reinforced concrete,
the rest of the structure is built using steel to
provide flexibility. This is a great way of reducing
the overall weight of the building and is seen to
be particularly effective in terms of maintaining
structural integrity; especially in any kind of
seismic activity.

DANPALONDANPALON PANELPANEL

DANPALON DANPALON PANEL PANEL Danpalon is the complete daylighting solution offering exceptional quality of light,
DANPALON DANPALON PANEL PANEL Danpalon is the complete daylighting solution offering exceptional quality of light,

Danpalon is the complete daylighting solution offering exceptional quality of light, thermal insulation and UV protection with a rich non-industrial visual appeal. The Danpalon system offers substantial physiological and psychological benefits in all work and living spaces. This material is high insulation, soundproof, anti-sweating provide good interior and duct spaces. Danpalon is also a light weight materials, so it lowers the weight load.

also a light weight materials, so it lowers the weight load. Circulation through the building is

Circulation through the building is a continuation of the defining slice, internally the path bifurcate and spirals inward. As one enters the building the circulation affords connections to the different programs.

39

HISTORYHISTORY

HISTORY HISTORY De Rotterdam is conceived as a vertical city: three interconnected mixed-use towers accommodating offices,

De Rotterdam is conceived as a vertical city:

three interconnected mixed-use towers accommodating offices, apartments, a hotel, conference facilities, shops, restaurants, and cafes. The towers are part of the ongoing redevelopment of the old harbor district of Wilhelminapier, next to the Erasmus Bridge, and aim to reinstate the vibrant urban activity – trade, transport, leisure – once familiar to the neighborhood. De Rotterdam is named after one of the ships on the Holland America Line (top), which departed from the Wilhelminapier in decades past, carrying thousands of Europeans emigrating to the US.

past, carrying thousands of Europeans emigrating to the US. “Despite its scale and apparent solidity, the
past, carrying thousands of Europeans emigrating to the US. “Despite its scale and apparent solidity, the

CONCEPTCONCEPT

De Rotterdam consists of three connected towers that appear as stacked and shifted volumes upon a base plinth. The architectural concept produces more than sheer size: urban density and diversity – both in the program and the form – are the guiding principles of the project. De Rotterdam’s stacked towers are arranged in a subtly irregular cluster that refuses to resolve into a singular form, and produces intriguing new views from different perspectives. Similarly, the definition of the building changes according to its multiple uses internally.

different perspectives. Similarly, the definition of the building changes according to its multiple uses internally. 41

ORTHO

GRAPHIC

ORTHO GRAPHIC 42
ORTHO GRAPHIC 42
ORTHO GRAPHIC 42
ORTHO GRAPHIC 42
ORTHO GRAPHIC 42

FACADEFACADE

FACADE FACADE The façade design has been kept neutral and transparent; the d y n a
The façade design has been kept neutral and transparent; the d y n a m
The façade design
has been kept
neutral
and
transparent; the
d y
n
a
m
i
c
appearance of the
building
is
determined by the
varied day cycles
of the different
programs. The
deep mullions
allow the glazed
facades to appear
more open or
closed, depending
on
the
perspective.

De Rotterdam has a glass façade with vertical aluminium mullions, which accommodate the varied requirements of each programme. The depth of the mullions is 150mm, while the grid is 900mm-deep. The maximum glass percentage, width of the mullions, floor height and spandrel height differ depending on each programme. The façade of the housing tower consists of sliding doors and windows while low-rise offices and hotel façades have operable mullions. Construction of the façades took place unit by unit. A typical façade unit is 1,800mm wide and one storey-high.

CURTAINCURTAIN WALLWALL

CURTAIN CURTAIN WALL WALL Stick system curtain wall glass façade with vertical aluminium mullions, which accommodate
CURTAIN CURTAIN WALL WALL Stick system curtain wall glass façade with vertical aluminium mullions, which accommodate
CURTAIN CURTAIN WALL WALL Stick system curtain wall glass façade with vertical aluminium mullions, which accommodate

Stick system curtain wall glass façade with vertical aluminium mullions, which accommodate the varied requirements of each programme. The depth of the mullions is 150mm, while the grid is 900mm-deep. The maximum glass percentage, width of the mullions, floor height and spandrel height differ depending on each programme. The façade of the housing tower consists of sliding doors and windows while low-rise offices and hotel façades have operable mullions. Construction of the façades took place unit by unit. A typical façade unit is 1,800mm wide and one storey-high. This slighlines are slimmer than Unitized Curtain Walling, enabling maximum skylight to enter the building. Igniting the interior space inside while also having a glazing effect from the outside with visible or concealed screws.

SPATIAL SPATIAL

EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE

All spaces have floor to ceiling windows and the building ‘opens’ to its surroundings; the busy shipping route, the Maas, the Erasmus Bridge and the Rotterdam skyline. The façade design has been kept neutral and transparent. The deep mullions allow the glazed facades to appear more open or closed, depending on the perspective. With thousands of floor to ceiling windows, tons of natural lighting take over the space inside, giving the users a sense of both being indoor and outdoor, that might boost the working productivity, while not being bored with artificial lighting.

both being indoor and outdoor, that might boost the working productivity, while not being bored with
both being indoor and outdoor, that might boost the working productivity, while not being bored with
both being indoor and outdoor, that might boost the working productivity, while not being bored with

ATRIUMATRIUM

ATRIUM ATRIUM Transfer structures are often times used in tall buildings, usually for transferring high forces
ATRIUM ATRIUM Transfer structures are often times used in tall buildings, usually for transferring high forces
ATRIUM ATRIUM Transfer structures are often times used in tall buildings, usually for transferring high forces

Transfer structures are often times used in tall buildings, usually for transferring high forces and loads to other structures that can resist them. Steel transfer structures are used to make the concrete columns and floors. For example, a transfer beam can transfer loads from stories above to stories below. Parallel chord trusses, such as lattice girders or floor girders, are usually used for the transfer structure.

Like the strut and tie truss model, the steel transfer truss consists of axially loaded members which only transfer axial forces through pinned joints. The trusses are lighter in self-weight and can transfer loads over large spans. Because the steel transfer structures are much thinner compared to concrete beams, they allow tons of natural lighting into the building.

SPATIAL SPATIAL

EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE

SPATIAL SPATIAL EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE Focusing on the atrium, steel transfer structures are used to support the
SPATIAL SPATIAL EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE Focusing on the atrium, steel transfer structures are used to support the
SPATIAL SPATIAL EXPERIENCE EXPERIENCE Focusing on the atrium, steel transfer structures are used to support the

Focusing on the atrium, steel transfer structures are used to support the glass panel sheltering the area below. The steel transfer structure are thin and light-weight and enabling large amount of skylight to enter while still serving its purpose of withstanding load. With natural light shining in and high ceilings give more space for human body to feel small in comparison to the space, so inducing a feeling of great space/ more openness. When a person enters the building, the space immediately opens up to high volume ceiling, that is also made of clear glass, looking all the way up to the floor 200 feets above. You enter into a lofty lobby space, where banks of escalators rise through a seven-storey atrium, past glazed walls of car parking – a grittiness that jars nicely with the world of silver marble below.

CONCLUSION

What really interests Koolhaas is the reality of the contemporary city; that is the subject of Mutations , a spectacular exhibition that he has organised which opened last week at the Arc en Reve in Bordeaux. It is an exploration of the world of shopping malls and airports, of urbanism Lagos and Shenzen style. The message, delivered in Koolhaas's punchy sound bites, is that we had better get on with it, and start to deal with such places as they are, rather than as architects would like them to be. The most commonly used construction materials in his buildings are reinforced concrete, as it has many beneficial effects in terms of construction. For instance, Reinforced concrete has a high compressive strength compared to other building materials. Due to the provided reinforcement, reinforced concrete can also withstand a good amount tensile stress. Fire and weather resistance of reinforced concrete is fair. The reinforced concrete building system is more durable than any other building system. Besides that, Koolhas also tends to use facades like curtain walls as he likes to keep the interior of the building sufficiently lit. Not allowing any space to be dimmed. Using curtain walls, it can keep the weather out and occupants in, natural lighting is able to feel the space, giving the users a feel of openness and calmness. From the exterior, glazing effect can be seen, giving the buildings a whole modern look, attracting passers by to take another closer look at his buildings.

REFERENCE

LIST

1. Professir Anne Nichols (2014),

http://faculty.arch.tamu.edu/media/cms_page_media/4433/Seoul%20National%20U

niversity%20Museum%20of%20ArtPresent.pdf

2. Arcspace (2012),

https://arcspace.com/feature/seoul-national-university-museum/

3.

https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/seattle-public-library/

4.

http://oma.eu/projects/seattle-central-library

5.

http://oma.eu/projects/de-rotterdam,

6.

https://www.archdaily.com/451377/de-rotterdam-oma,

7.

http://derotterdam.nl/

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/nov/18/rem-koolhaas-de-rotter

dam-building

8.

https://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/de-rotterdam/

9.

http://www.afaconsult.com/uploads/FicheirosImprensa/2919_1_EN.pdf

10.

https://www.slideshare.net/peterbach/cctv-building-a-structural-design-overvie

w

Peter Bach, Civil Engineer, Researcher at Monash University Published on Nov 26, 2009

11. "CCTV Headquarters / OMA" 21 May 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 27 Sep 2018.

https://www.archdaily.com/236175/cctv-headquarters-oma/

12. : https://en.wikiarquitectura.com/building/cctv-headquarters/

13. AD Editorial Team. "A Rare Look Inside OMA's CCTV Building in Beijing" 16 Apr

2015. ArchDaily. Accessed 27 Sep 2018.

<https://www.archdaily.com/620101/a-rare-look-inside-oma-s-cctv-building-in-b

eijing/>

14.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De_Rotterdam,

15.

http://oma.eu/projects/de-rotterdam,

16.

https://www.archdaily.com/451377/de-rotterdam-oma,

17.

http://derotterdam.nl/

18.

https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2013/nov/18/rem-koolhaas-de-rotter

dam-building



Rate your team members on the relative contributions that were made in preparing and submitting your group project In rating your peers, use 1 to 5 point scale Every single group member is to fill in this form and be honest and not favor anyone. Form is to be submitted along with the respective submission

Student/ Peer Evaluation Form

5 = excellent | 4 = good | 3 = average | 2 = below
5 = excellent
| 4 = good
| 3 = average
| 2 = below average
|
1 = poor
STUDENT’S NAME
:
ASSIGNMENT
: …………………………………………
MODULE : ……………………………………………………………
Reliable
with
Contribution
of
useful
Names
Participation
in group
deadlines
for
Quality/
ideas
to the and
discussion
Leadership qualities
Total scores
discussion
or meetings
progress
and meeting work
final in
work Quantity
done
group
work
submission
If given the
opportunity, would
you want to work
with this team
member again?
(Y/N)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Student’s Signature

0330502

0331524

pei

wei

jia

tan

wen

|

tan

0330551

0330950|

a dhan

yong

mohamad

gin

poon

wan

siah

yu

han

0330963

a dhan yong mohamad gin poon wan siah yu han 0330963 | cheong hao yue printed

|

cheong

hao

yue

dhan yong mohamad gin poon wan siah yu han 0330963 | cheong hao yue printed 0330829

printed

0330829

in

china

|

daryl

goon

kin

kit

0331623

dhan yong mohamad gin poon wan siah yu han 0330963 | cheong hao yue printed 0330829