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12/5/2018 (PDF) Oil & Gas Sector of Pakistan and Sustainable Development

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stan and Sustainable Development

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Saleh
· COMSATS University Islamabad

ntry which is blessed up with enormous reserves of natural resources. The economy of Pakistan is growing at the rate of 2.7%,
he growth demands higher energy consumption. The major energy sources of Pakistan are oil, gas and hydel energy which are
untry. Pakistan has the reserves of oil (0.31 billion barrels), gas (30 TCF), coal (185 billion tons) and shale gas reserves of 51
these resources Pakistan is an agri country and has a strong potential to produce energy through biomass and agriwaste. Also
dge from solar energy and can produce 2.3 million mega watts per annum. Also the country can produce energy from biofuels
and resources for cultivation. But possessing all these resources we are still lacking in fulfilling our energy demand due to
ith the total reserves of 0.31 billion barrels of oil we are not able to fulfill the demand of oil through home resources because the
the country is only 59.08 thousand bbl/day and the consumption is 426.72 thousands bbl/day, rest of the demand is fulfilled by
son behind is less exploration and production. While in the gas sector we have 30 TCF reserves of gas and the natural gas
wing rapidly. Due to sudden increase in CNG the current supply of natural gas is not meeting the energy demand in gas sector.
g the worst shortage of oil, gas and electricity. The reason behind is improper channelizing of energy, less exploration activities
r, inappropriate distribution of resources, poor management, law and order situation and bad governance. Pakistan can
gy crisis which it is facing by optimizing the indigenous resources, adopting alternate energy technologies, focusing on the
and improving the government policy to grab the foreign investments. Besides the conventional energy resources Pakistan has
oduce energy through different alternate energy resources. Pakistan produces two million tons molasses per year that is a
to produce ethanolfuels for transport sector. Also by the cultivation of Jatropha crucas plants we can produce a large amount of
otives. Also having the edge of sunlight country has potential to produce solar energy. By allocating biogas units in rural areas
adopting fuel cell technology and by biomass to energy production we can overcome the energy crisis by utilizing local
and gas sector of a country is an important part of its economy. The oil and gas sector of Pakistan has massive share in the
Development of oil and gas sector is the key to boost up a country’s economy. Government is trying to offer a better and
hat should meet to the international standards to attract the foreign investments in the country. The need for fulfilling the energy
e law and order situation in the country for the sake of foreign investments, proper optimization of the sources, improvement in
icy focus, adequate rationalizing of oil and gas prices and focus management for utilization of resources.

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12/5/2018 (PDF) Oil & Gas Sector of Pakistan and Sustainable Development

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+3

Source: U.S EIA 2011 Source: Energy year book 2012 MAJOR CONSUMERS OF OIL &
Pakistan GAS PRODUCTS

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 ! 

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https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278751135_Oil_Gas_Sector_of_Pakistan_and_Sustainable_Development 3/49
12/5/2018 (PDF) Oil & Gas Sector of Pakistan and Sustainable Development

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

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12/5/2018 (PDF) Oil & Gas Sector of Pakistan and Sustainable Development

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age

the Author

Saleh is a young researcher and chemical engineering professional


e expertise in renewable energy technologies. He is a sound
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her See
in the› field of See
Renewable & sustainable energy technologies.
ffiliatedall with several allresearch

organizations and societies of the Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
This4 References 7 Figures
book is a combined work which he has conducted with the
ons of REAP (Renewable & Alternate Energy Resources of
n), RINP (Research Institute of Natural Resources of Pakistan),
(Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies).

Saleh
rsaleh.com

age

Measures and Equivalents

Kilometer (km) = 1,000 meters = 0.6214 miles (mi)


Cubic Meter (m3) = 1,000 liter
Cubic Meter (m3) = 35.33 cubic feet
Thousand Cubic Feet (MCF) = 28.30 m3
Billion Cubic Feet (bcf) = 28.30 million m3
Million Cubic Feet (MMCF) = 1.081 GigaJoules (GJ)
Million Cubic Feet (MMCF) = 1. 025 billion British Thermal Unit (billion BTU)
Mega Joule (MJ) = 1 million Joules
000,000 Joules = 948 BTU
Kilocalorie (kcal) = 3.97 BTU
barrel (bbl) = 159 liter
Cubic Meter = 6.29 bbl
Ton = 1,000 Kilogram (kg)
Kilogram (kg) = 2.2046 pounds (lb)
MMT = 1 million ton

Abbreviations and Acronyms

EDB Alternate Energy Development Board


OPD Barrels of Oil per Da y
TU British Thermal Unit
NG Compressed Natural Gas
A Energy Information Administration
L Exploration License
A Environmental Protection Agency
WT Existing Well Testing
ATA Federally Administered Tribal Areas
DP Gross Domestic Production
HPL Government Holdings Private Limited
IC International Petroleum Investment Company
P Independent Power Producers
R Improved Petroleum Recovery
CR Khalifa Coastal Refinery
ESC Karachi Electric Supply Company
W Kilo Watts
G Liquefied Petroleum Gas
MCFD Millions of cubic feet per day
W Mega Watts
GL Natural Gas Liquids
UST National University of Science & Technology

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age

GDCL Oil & Gas Development Company


GRA Oil & Gas regulatory Authority
ARCO Pak Arab Oil Refinery
CRET Pakistan Council for Renewable Energy Technologies
DDC Pakistan Dair y Development Company
PCO Pakistan Electric Supply Company
MY Pipri Marshall Yard
OL Pakistan Oil Fields Ltd.
L Pakistan Petroleum Ltd.
O Pakistan State Oil Company.
DF Refuse Derived Fuel
FO Residual Furnace Oil
SPN Rural Support Program Network
PL Spud Energy Petroleum Limited
RF Solid Recovered Fuel
CF Trillion Cubic Feet
OE Tons of Oil Equivalent
APDA Water And Power Development Authority
MP Waste Management Program

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a g See
e all › See all › Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
4 References 7 Figures

age

REWARD
is a country which is endowed with a multitude of natural resources.
’s Economy is growing at a rate of 2.7% which consequently entails higher
onsumption. Presently, three major energy sources have been identified (i)

as (iii) Hydel which are being used to fulfill the energy needs of the growing
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as (iii) Hydel which are being used to fulfill the energy needs of the growing
y. The current figure of Pakistan’s energy resources stands at: oil (0.31
See all
arrels), gas› (30 TCF),
Seecoal
all › (185 billion tons) and shale gas reserves (51 Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
4 References 7 Figures
akistan is an agri economy which holds a large potential to produce energy
biomass & agri waste. Moreover the country can produce energy from
using its own land and resources for cultivation. Additionally, Pakistan also
otential to produce solar energy of up to 2.3 million mega watts per annum.
all the resources & potential Pakistan is still facing problems of severe
hortages & is unable to fulfill its energy requirements.
al reserves of 0.31 billion barrels of oil we are unable to fulfill the demand
rough home resources. The production of oil in the country is only 59.08
bbl/day and the consumption is 426.72 thousands bbl/day where the
in demand is fulfilled by importing oil .We opt for importing oil due to less
on & exploration at home country. While the Country’s gas reserves stand
CF reserves in the face of growing consumption of natural gas we are
cing serious shortages in this sector where the current supply natural gas is
ing the energy demand in gas sector.
holds a strong potential to produce energy by several alternate means.
the conventional energy resources Pakistan has the capability to produce
hrough different alternate energy resources. Pakistan produces two million
asses per year that is a reasonable amount to produce ethanol fuels for
sector.
as the potential to produce a large amount of biodiesel for automotives by
vation of Jatropha crucas plants. Also having the edge of sunlight country,
tential to produce solar energy. By utilizing local resources; using biomass
gy production, allocating biogas units in rural areas and at grid levels and
fuel cell technology we can overcome the energy crisis to a great extent.

age

is undergoing the worst shortage of oil, gas and electricity. The reason
his is improper channelizing of energy, fewer exploration activities in oil
sector, inappropriate distribution of resources, poor management, unstable
order situation and bad governance.
e oil & gas sector has a massive share in the country’s economic growth this
lds great significance. Development of oil and gas sector is the key to boost
ntry’s economic growth.
to fulfill the energy needs of the economy it is essential to improve law and
uation in the country for the sake of attracting foreign investments, promote
rage proper optimization of the resources, inculcate improvement in the
ent policy focus, focus on adequate rationalizing of oil and gas prices & opt
tive management for utilization of resources.
k contains a wide statistical data analysis with a complete study of prospect
inable growth in pakistan

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age

CONTENTS

. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………....1
1.1. ENERGY OVERVIEW OF PAKISTAN
1.1.1. OIL
1.1.2. COAL
1.1.3. GAS
1.2. CURRENT STATUS OF OIL & GAS SECTOR
. OIL SECTOR………………………………………………….………1
2.1. BACKGROUND
2.2. PAKISTAN’S OIL SECTOR OVERVIEW
2.3. CURRENT STATUS OF OIL SECTOR IN PAKISTAN
2.4. OIL CONSUMPTION BY USER SECTOR
. GAS SECTOR………………………………………………………….1
3.1. BACKGROUND
3.2. PAKISTAN’S GAS SECTOR OVERVIEW
3.3. CURRENT STATUS OF GAS SECTOR IN PAKISTAN
3.4. GAS CONSUMPTION BY USER SECTOR
3.5. MAJOR CONSUMERS OF OIL & GAS PRODUCTS
. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN OIL & GAS SECTOR….2
4.1. CRISIS
4.1.1. ELECTRICITY SHORT FALL
4.1.2. SHORTAGE IN OIL & GAS SECTOR
4.2. ALTERNATE ENERGY RESOURCES
4.2.1. ETHANOLFUELS
4.2.2. BIODIESEL(JATROPHA OIL
4.2.3. COAL GASIFICATION (THARCOAL PROJECT
4.2.4. SOLAR ENERGY
4.2.5. BIOGAS (BIOMASS DIGESTION

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4.2.6. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY
See all ›
4.2.7. See all › FUELS
RDF/SRF Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
4.2.8.
4 References SHALE GAS RESERVES
7 Figures
4.3. GOVERNMENT POLICY FOCUS
. FUTURE PROJECTS IN OIL & GAS SECTOR………………….3
5.1. UCH-II DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Page

CONTENTS
JHAL MAGSI DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
SINJHORO DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
NASHPA/MELA DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
NUR/BAGLA DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
NUR/BAGLA GAS CONDENSATE FIELD
MARU & RETI GAS FIELD
JAKHRO GAS CONDENSATE FIELD
SARA WEST GAS FIELD
PAKIRAN GAS PIPE LINE PROJECT
KHALIFA COASTAL REFINERY PROJECT
BIODIESEL CULTIVATION PROJECT
IL & GAS SECTOR AND THE ECONOMY………………3
ENERGY BALANCE
ECONOMIC IMPACT
LUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………..4

F FIGURES
ENCES

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Page

1.INTRODUCTION

has considerable oil and gas resources that can help to accelerate growth on
inent if used strategically. As new resources are being discovered
ively, they are not equally distributed; indeed. Economy of Pakistan is
steadily. This growth demands higher energy consumption and
ently exerting high pressure on country’s economy. Pakistan mainly
upon oil and gas resources to fulfill energy requirements. Home resources
e not enough to quench energy thirst of the growing economy. In the result
has to import massive quantity of oil and oil based products from Middle
ntries. As natural gas is playing an important role in power sector, gas
are also becoming energy deficient. Currently in oil upstream and
eam sector there are some local and international companies are involved
rnment is trying to establish such policies that it will be able to bring more
onal and global investors in this sector but the rapid speed of change, high
f uncertainty and ambiguous political situation of the country acquaints
nt challenges and risk to foreign investment .Purpose of writing this report
ghlight the present position of petroleum industry in Pakistan and its
g anticipations keeping in view the economical, geological and political
ns of the region.

NERGY OVERVIEW OF PAKISTAN


an’s economy is growing at very high rate & this growth rate demands high
consumption also, thus it is exerting pressure on the confined energy
s of the country also. Pakistan has three primary energy resources of oil,
as and hydel energy, which are as the back bone of country in energy sector.
e resources are being exploited to fulfill the energy requirement of country.
to confined resources of oil and gas and political nature of hydel energy,
has to import ample quantity of oil and petroleum products from Middle
ecially from Saudi Arabia. Contribution of the natural gas in country’s

Page

se is the major that is about 50 percent of the total energy consumption and
coming years without higher production and current critical situation of gas
country has to look towards imported gas from some other countries to

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increasing gas requirements.


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4 References
h country is blessed7 with
Figures
the huge potential of hydel energy but due to
issues of the country they are not being utilized to their full extent.

given a primary energy mix of Pakistan;

Figure-1 [1]

re represents the total supply and the consuming sectors of energy. So oil &
urces are the dominant sources for the energy as far as concern. As the
has a large reservoir of coal but that has high content of sulfur hence, that
mported to produce energy.

upply of the energy is 64 million tons of oil equivalent .In which following
ail of every resource. [1]

AL

oven reserves of coal are 185 billion tones. Production is 3.1 million tones.
ption is 7.8 million tones. Imports are 4.7 million tones.

Page

ource potential is 27 billion barrels. Crude oil refining capacity is 13 million

ption is 19.6 million tones. Imports are 18.6 million tones.

ource potential is 282 TCF. Production is 4 BCF/day.

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4 References 7 Figures production
consumption
imports

Anuual consumption,
Coal Productio &oilimports of natural resou
Gas rces in million
TOE Figure-2
Source: U.S EIA 2011

URRENT STATUS OF OIL & G AS SECTOR

gas sector is most dynamic, and one of the core industrial sectors all over
d. Some countries are specially gifted by the nature in this regard that they
forms of oil and gas present beneath the land they own. USA, Central Asia,
rld, some parts of Africa and the adjoining areas are some of the localities
he crude oil and gas is found. When we come to Pakistan, we see that
is blessed with enormous resources and Pakistan is also good at oil and gas

Page

he Sui place, the Baluchistan region and some areas of Sindh contain bulk
of these resources.
ortunately the resources are not properly channelized in Pakistan rather
ompanies are playing more part in exploration and production. The demand
sing rapidly and the local production is too low despite the fact that Pakistan
otential of oil and gas production itself.

Pakistan is a governmental institution that is too involved in oil and gas


on, as well as services. The situation is not that good; some efforts should
rly made in this to fill the demand supply gap. Local potential should be
Government should itself allocate funds for exploration, production while
ces local companies should be encourages.

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Page

2.OIL SECTOR

ng to EIA2012 (U.S Energy information Administration) the proved oil


of Pakistan are 0.31 billion barrels. The major part of the oil production
rom the proven reserves of country located in the southern half of the
with the three largest oil producing fields located in the Southern Indus
Additional producing fields are located in the Upper and Middle Indus
2]

KGROUND

Gas sector of Pakistan has seen impressive growth since the independence
troleum products production was limited. There was no production at all at
. In national development the petroleum industry has played a key role over
50years by making large indigenous gas discoveries. The gas is being
to the consumers by the sources through transmission networks of 9,843
rs and 71,863 kilometers of natural gas distribution system.[3] Pakistan
out 15% of its oil demand from local sources. Pakistan has been considered
oleum valley. In 1886 first well was drilled at Kundal in the upper region of
lley. Then in the following years Shallow wells were drilled, at Khattan
stan) oil production at small scale was starts from 1886. In 1915, the first
cial oil discovery was made at Potwar basin (Punjab) [4].

s Government of Pakistan created Oil and Gas Development Company


(OGDCL) , which accommodated a successful path in the discovery of oil
eserves with in the country. In 1973 after the oil crisis, notable discoveries
de by the private sector and OGDCL.

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Page

ISTAN’S OIL SECTOR OVERVIEW


crude

Up to 2012
oil

consumption

Exploratory
production

production

Discovered
Refinery
capacity
Imports

Wells
Total
Total

Oil
oil

62.09 59.08 426.72 634.43 286


69
housand thousand thousand thousand thousand 78
(OIL
barrels/da barrels/da barrels/da barrels/da barrels/da 5
)
y y y y y

3
U.S EIA 2011
Energy year book of Pakistan 2012

RRENT STATUS OF OIL SECTOR IN PAKISTAN

ng to energy year book Pakistan 2012, 16 exploratory and 34 developmental


re drilled for oil exploration and the efforts resulted with two discoveries
made by OGDCL. The average oil production during 2011 was 65,866
barrels per day. [5]

ort of petroleum products was increased by 10.7% while crude oil import
d 3.3% as compared to the last year. This increase in POL was mainly due
se in the imports of motor spirit, aviation fuel and furnace oil by 96%, 19%
respectively. This year the refineries production was decreased by 1.3% as
d to the previous years. [5]

umption was decreased by1.3% during the year 2011. In the list of oil
rs the oil consumed by industry and govt. sectors are increased by 38% and
pectively while it is decreased in agriculture, power and domestic sectors by

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% and 5% respectively. Consumption of oil in cement industry is also
d by 51% as compared to the last year. [6]

y in Pakistan the energy supply by the means of crude oil, petroleum


and LPG is 21,014 thousands TOE and by the means of natural gas energy
s 30,683 thousands TOE from the indigenous sources and imports of
And the imports in oil sector are 22,320 thousands TOE. [7]

L CONSUMPTION BY USER SECTOR

tan Transport sector is the major consumer of petroleum products that


47.40% of the total oil consumptions. The second consumer of oil is power
hich consumes 40% oil. Then comes the industrial sector that consumes
The remaining oil is consumed by the agriculture and residential sector.

art of oil consumptions during year2011-2012 according to Energy year


Pakistan 2012 is given below.

Oil Consumption
1% 2%
0%
7% Transport
Power
47% agriculture
Industrial
43%
Domestic
Other govt.

Source: Energy year book 2012 Pakistan

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3.GAS SECTOR

ng to EIA2012 (U.S Energy information Administration) the proved gas


of Pakistan are 30 trillion cubic feet. Up to 50% requirement of country’s
s fulfilled from natural gas resources present in the country. Currently
has no imports in gas industry total gas consumed by the consumer sector
ced from the country’s oil fields.

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gas field is the biggest gas field of Pakistan, located in Blauchistan near Sui.
gas field was discovered in 1952 and its exploration was started
cially in 1955. This gas fields is responsible for the 26% gas production of
The remaining reserves of natural gas are about 800 billion cubic feet and
production is 4032 million cubic feet per day.

rating company for the Pakistan gas fields is Pakistan Petroleum Limited

KISTAN’S GAS SECTOR OVERVIEW

Gas
Total Proved

Natural
Gas production

consumption

Net Imports
Reserves

Natural
Total

1400 1400
30 Trillion Cubic feet 0.00
billion cubic feet billion cubic feet
U.S EIA 2011

Page

RRENT STATUS OF GAS SECTOR

ng to energy year book Pakistan 2012, 16 exploratory and 34 developmental


ere drilled for oil exploration and the drilling efforts resulted with two
ies for natural gas made by OGDCL. There are no imports of oil are in
n till now, total production and consumption of natural gas is 1400 billion
et annually, during the year 2011-2012 the production of natural gas was
llion cubic feet per day, Last year the daily production was 4,063 million
t per day. Hence production of natural gas is decreased by 0.007%.

AS CONSUMPTION BY USER SECTOR

duction & consumption in Pakistan till 2010 was38.41 billion cu m, There


mports and exports are in regulation till now. [8] In natural gas industry the
nsumer is power sector which accounts for 27% of overall consumption,
jor consumers are general industry, fertilizer sector, transport sector and
consumer which consume 24%, 14%, 9% and 19% respectively. A pie
natural gas consumptions during the year 2010-2011 is given below
g to the Energy Year Book 2012.

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SeeGas
all › Consumers
Commercial
See all › 3%
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Gen.
Domestic Industry
19% 23%
Cement
Transport (CNG) 1%
9% Fertilizer
(feedstock)
14%
power
27%
Fertilizer ( fuel)
4%

Figure-6
JOR CONSUMERS OF OIL & GAS PRODUCTS

Page

ector major consumers are power industry and transport.43.1% consumption


wer industry and 47.3% petroleum products are consumed for facilitating
port. [9]

n the gas sector consumers chart is given above. As a whole the major
rs of the oil and gas sector are transport, power and the industrial sector.

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4.SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN OIL & GAS SECTOR

ld is moving towards energy crisis globally, the reason behind that is the
n the availability of economical and cheap oil. The main reason of current
risis is the lack of power generation which is due to shortage of oil & gas
s, and this can be optimized by properly utilizing our indigenous resources
dopting the new technology that is being exploited by the whole world.
is a land of God gifted resources, if it properly utilize its own resources than
o need of imports for fulfilling its energy requirements. The transport sector
me the major consumer of natural gas in last ten years due to CNG driven
that caused a forceful reason for the shortage of natural gas in the fertilizer,
nd general industries sector. Also increasing demand of electricity forced the
y to import oil and oil based products to fulfill its energy needs. By managing
gas resources and adopting renewable and sustainable energy technologies
o sustainable development in the oil and gas sector of Pakistan. Further on
being faced by Pakistan, their reasoning, alternate energy resources and the
ent policy focus are discussed.

SIS

out half a Decade Pakistan is suffering from energy crisis. The power crisis
me unbearable nowadays. Despite of having a large amount of resources
imports a heavy amount of hydrocarbon fuels to fulfill its energy needs. As
the country had excess power capacity of 4,000 megawatts. But
ately the situation has got worst. According to a research Pakistan lies in a
om where the belt of high enthalpy geothermal resources passes. Hence
ergy resources can be exploited for the betterment in oil and gas sector and
e the energy crisis which the country is facing.

son for the deficiency of energy in Pakistan seems due to lack of


bility, crooked priorities and poor management. The current situation of
rises in the oil and gas sector and power sectors are as;

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4.1.1. ELECTRICITY SHORTFALL

According to Pakistan electric supply company PEPCO current


requirement of electricity in the country is 18713MW, while the
generation of electrical power is only 13550MW and the capacity of
producing electricity in Pakistan is about 19661MW through private
and government power sector. Pakistan is facing a shortfall of 5163MW
which is a serious downfall. The oil stock position at RFO operable
power plants is critically low.[10] The reason for shortfall is due to
insufficient feeding of oil to power plants and shortage of gas. And that
is due to the delay in payments to oil suppliers and IPP’s.

Due to the payment disputes between WAPDA, PSO, Power companies


and oil refineries load shedding is increased. WAPDA has to pay PSO
and power companies about 56.91 billion rupees for oil and electricity
purchase respectively. And PSO has to pay the oil refineries about 39.8
billion rupees. And due to insufficient funds PSO is not able to pay oil
for insufficient funds. WAPDA has not received its payments by FATA
and many areas of Khyber Pakhtun Kha for electricity supply, thus it is
lacking in payments to PSO for oil purchase. By resolving the payment
issues facing by WAPDA and PSO, country can overcome the problems
in the power sector to generate electricity.

4.1.2. SHORTAGE IN OIL & GAS SECTOR

Currently the oil industry of Pakistan is not facing any type of


permanent shortage in public sector, however the artificial shortage of
oil is occasionally caused by some elements temporarily due to pricing
of petroleum products for the sake of profiting and blackmailing. While
in the power sector the situation is changed. As the stock of oil is at
critical level so, the power sector is facing a serious crisis due to the
disputes between PSO and WAPDA as discussed above.

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On the other hand despite of having total gas reserves on 27th number
in the world, Pakistan is facing worst shortage of natural gas. The
reason behind this shortage is the depleting of old gas fields, no new

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exploration and production, highest CNG consumption,


See all ›
mismanagement See
andallpoor
› rationing of gas. The reserves of Sui and Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
4Qadirpur
Referencesare gas
7 Figures
fields are depleting, negligible exploration and
production with respect to demand of natural gas, Pakistan as become
world’s largest country of having most CNG driven vehicles, these all
are the factors that collectively gave birth to the serious gas shortage in
the country. Along with managing all these factors government should
have to make decisions and revised policies for the sake of long term
solution of natural gas in the country.

Currently the demand of natural gas in Pakistan is 5190.5MMCFD out


of which 3895.5MMCFD is fulfilled by internal resources. Hence, a
shortfall of 1295MMCFD is facing by Pakistan. While in the oil sector
according to U.S EIA last year consumption of oil & oil based products
was 426.72 thousand barrels per day out of which only 62.09 thousand
barrel day was produced from the internal resources and 364.63
thousand barrel per day were the imports. [11]

Nowadays Pakistan is through a bad law and order situation which is


the main reason for the dearth in the development of exploration and
production of oil & gas reserves, Also reasonable pricing of gas, proper
rationalizing of gas in different consumer sectors and by adopting
renewable energy technology for the transport sector which is the major
consumer of natural gas we can overcome the gas shortage and crisis
which we are facing.

Page

LTERNATE ENERGY RESOURCES

e energy is the rising issue of current world’s economy. Being a


fully enriched with alternate energy resources Pakistan gains the
ity to produce renewable energy up to maximum extent. There are different
that can be adopted to eradicate or minimize the current energy crisis.

hanolfuels
odiesel (Jatropha oil)
oal Gasification (Tharcoal project)
lar Energy
ogas (Biomass digestion)
el Cell Technology

DF/SRF Fuels
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DF/SRF Fuels
aleSee
Gasallreserves
› See all › Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
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ETAHNOLFUELS

uel is the most regular bio fuel worldwide specifically in Brazil and U.S.
uels are manufactured by the fermentation of sugars processed from wheat,
nes, sugar beet, corn & molasses or from any sugar or starch that is used for
uction of alcoholic beverages. And the production of molasses in Pakistan
illion tons annually that is reasonable quantity for producing alcohol fuels
an. [12]

lacement of petrol the ethanol fuels can be easily used in gasoline engines,
an be blended with the gasoline to any ratio.[13] The energy density of
fuels is lesser than the gasoline, means it consumes more fuel in mass &
o produce the same amount of energy.

ntage that the ethanolfuels have on the gasoline that they have high octane
so they produce no knocking in the engines, and increased thermal

Page

y. By using only the 10% blend of ethanol with oil we can minimize 30-40
arrels import of petrol. [14]

BIODIESEL (JATROPHA OIL)

y the oil extracted from the jatropha curcas seeds is used for producing
in Philippines and Brazil. Jatropha curcas is an oil containing tree, which
asily farm in mild dry places. In Pakistan Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and
eas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwah are ideal places for its farming. It can also be
n already used land regions.

ha is cultivated in bushes it can produce 0.8 to 1.0 Kg/meter of live fence.


wing up to a mature tree jatropha requires 4-5 years. In the conditions of rain
elds 0.35 to 0.375 gallons per tree and if 3-5 liters water is supplied
ly than the production amount doubles [15]. One acre of jatropha plant is
o produce two tons of biodiesel. In Pakistan students of National University
ce & Technology (NUST) have produced low price biodiesel produced from
plant.

e to produce one liter is Rs 25 which is much cheaper than the current


m rates. A model farm of jatropha cultivation of 15 acres has also maintained
UST. They have a target to cultivate 4-5 million trees of jatropha this year,
r, many of the vehicles and power generators of NUST are running on
fuel. The government of Pakistan should pay attention to this project with
oncern, So the country can cut down the heavy expenses of oil imports.

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COAL GASIFICATION
See all › (See
THARCOAL
all › PROJECT)
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Gas comprises 43% of the overall energy mix of Pakistan and coal comprises
[16]. While in the whole world coal contributes 39% to meet the power and
equirements [17]. Pakistan has coal reserves of 186 billion tones [18] out of
85 billion tones are present in the Thar Desert, Sindh Province. Thar coal is
argest coal field in the world. Currently the production of coal in Pakistan is
n tons annually.

Page

e two options to utilize the Thar coal to meet the energy requirements either
combustion or by gasification. Quality of Thar coal is B-grade and due to
mental & pollution aspects it can’t be directly burned. So Coal gasification
er and relatively new technique commonly named as underground coal
ion. By this method coal is gasified in the mines where it found and the
gas is used to generate the electricity.

s leading nuclear scientist Dr Samar Mubarakmand chairman of the


g board of Thar coal project said that by underground gasification technique
ration of electricity will be 3-4 rupees per unit and the price of diesel will
$40 per barrel [19]. By utilizing the Thar coal resources Pakistan can
e its energy crisis with in 10 years and eradicate its imports, the need is to
the government policy focus so that it should provide increasing investment
ities to the foreign companies for the development & production.

SOLAR ENERGY

ergy is produced by gathering sunlight and converting it into the form of


energy. The energy collected from sunlight can be converted into
y either by using photovoltaics or by concentrated solar power. According
y Pakistan has capacity to generate 2.3 million mega watts energy per annum
solar systems. [20]

lso an impressive alternative way for the country to overcome its energy
Pakistan recently a Korean Company has started a project of generating
based on solar energy, the project requires 4 acre land per MW electricity
on. PCRET has also installed 300 solar photovoltaic systems with overall
of 100KW which is enough for lightening 500 houses, mosques streets &
EDB is also working for the propagation of the solar energy; in this regard
e exempted the solar panels from taxation.

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BIOGAS (BIOMASS DIGESTION)

s a gas mixture which is produced by the anaerobic fermentation of organic


he key components of biogas are methane gas (CH 4) and carbon dioxide
Methane gas is combustible gas and can be used for the heating purposes.
material for producing biogas is agriwaste, animals waste and all types of
wastes. In the economy of Pakistan agriculture has key importance.

or Pakistan biogas is a very valuable alternate renewable energy source.


has a large amount of animals that produce 652 million Kg manure daily
m cattle & buffalo. This amount of manure can be used to produce 16.3
m3 gas daily and 21 million tons biofertilizer annually. [21] Government of
is working on different small scale as well as large scale biogas production
projects. Currently different agencies like PDDC Pakistan Dairy
ment Company, PCRET Pakistan Council For Renewable Energy
ogy, RSPN Rural Support Program Network are working for the
ion of this renewable energy technology. Recently PCRET has installed 368
lants in rural areas of country, KESC Karachi Electric Supply Company is
working on one of the largest biogas project of the world, which will produce
W electricity on the basis of digesting 300 tons manure daily. [22]

significant economical, social and environmental benefits of biogas


gy it should be implemented on large scale. Government should take
through PCRET and AEDB for the propagation and funding of biogas
gy.

FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGY

l is an electrochemical device which converts the chemical energy of


n oxygen reaction in to electrical energy. The reaction of the process is
mal hence produces some heat and the only byproduct of the fuel cell is non
ter which drinkable. It requires steady supply of oxygen and hydrogen for
us production of electricity. Atmosphere oxygen is acceptable for the fuel

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P a gSee
e all › See all › Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
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ation, but the supply of hydrogen is needed which does not freely exists in
hus hydrogen can be retrieved from a large variety of different sources we
our country such as biogas, natural gas, reformed liquid fuels, alcohols and
as. On the other hand there are some types of fuel cells that can be directly
types of fuels.

le towards its large scale production is the initial cost, that is 4000 US$/KW.
d due to lack of infrastructure for providing hydrogen is the other problem
facing by the acceptance of fuel cell. On fuel cell technologies in Pakistan
wer (Pvt) Limited is working with (AEDB) Alternate Energy Development
nce 2001.As a resulting effort two fuel cells have been imported in Pakistan
e fuel cell labs are under the development process. As compared to other
le energy technologies fuel cell technology is not so cost effective but it has
onmental hazards, it is the technology that is 100% environment friendly.

RDF FUEL/SRF FUEL

fuse Derived Fuel) or SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) is a fuel that is produced
hing and then de moisturizing of municipal solid waste using waste
on technology. Major part of RDF fuel is consisting of combustible
ents present within the solid municipal waste such as biodegradable waste
ics. RDF fuel processing plants can be planted at the municipal solid waste
also they may be located at remote locations. It is being commercially
in England, U.S and Sweden on full scale. They run their local power plants
fuel. In Pakistan there is not any utilizing of waste for energy purposes. In
solid waste generation is 23,171,463 tons per year (estimated according to
kistan) [24] and the growth rate per year is 2.61%.

tan a private company has started the project of refuse derived fuel
on at Rawalpindi with the help of waste management of Pakistan (WMP) at
is by purchasing the solid waste from the Rawalpindi’s administration. The
l is not only a source of revenue and energy but also helps in the cleanliness
untry. This technology will help in both ways, as an energy sources as well
cleanliness of the land due to lifting of garbage on daily basis. Government

Page

tress on the local waste management companies to initiate the waste to


rojects for the betterment of energy downfall of the country.

SHALE GAS RESERVES

as or tight gas is actually the natural gas formed from being trapped within
mations. Pakistan has a large reservoir of shale gas which is an alternate
ource and addition to the current natural gas reserves.

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ng toSee all Energy


U.S › See all › Administration assessment Pakistan has the
information Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
of 451References
trillion cubic7feet
Figures
of shale gas. [25] Shale gas was discovered in
in about 2008 by an American George Mitchell, since then Pakistan has
explore the shale gas reserves because none of any local or foreign is agreed
he shale gas exploration. Government is still working for the exploration of
s, in this gas government has formed a policy for the exploration and
on of shale gas in Pakistan to attract local as well as foreign investment.

on behind no investment is the gas pricing in Pakistan and the law and order
on the country. The gas price in Pakistan is lower than the other petroleum
and fuels also the law and order situation in Pakistan is very poor which
e interest of local and foreign investors. The exploration of shale gas will
country greatly in producing cheap domestic gas, saving the foreign
e spent on imports of hydrocarbon fuels, reducing electricity crisis and in
g the economy of the country.

OVERNMENT POLICY FOCUS

as sector is the major part of the Pakistan’s overall energy mix and meets
% of the energy needs.Hence a high priority should be given to this sector.
ernments have followed up consistent policies aimed to promote foreign
nts in exploration and production sector to exploit the indigenous fossil fuel
of country for the benefit of the nation.

son for improvement in government policy focus is to cut down the heavy
Pakistan’s commercial resources for exploitable energy are oil, natural gas,

Page

hydropower. The current annual energy supply is about 65.01 million TOE,
& gas sector meets 78% of these requirements [26]. The remaining
ents are fulfilled by coal, hydropower, liquefied petroleum gas, nuclear and
power.

ment should provide the policy package with competitive incentives to attract
gn investment also government should provide complete safeguard and
he safety of the investors. In order to incentivize the previous policy
ent has revised its policy for the enhancement of exploration and production
in the country. In the production and exploration policy of 2012
ent has focused the following objectives for the development in oil and gas
Pakistan.

a) To expedite the exploration and production activities for the sake of


being self dependent in energy by increasing oil and gas production.

b) To improve the direct foreign investment by improving its terms of


investments in the upstream sector.

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c) To attract the involvement of Pakistani oil and gas companies in the


See all ›
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4 References 7 Figures

d) To train the local professionals in exploration and production sector up


to international standards and providing friendly conditions for their
retaining in the country.

e) To enhance the exploration and production activities in the onshore


frontier areas by offering internationally competitive packages.

f) To ensure a perfect management of resources.

Page

g) To conduct the exploration of oil and gas resources in a socially,


environmentally and economically sustainable and responsible manner.

h) To provide the energy secure by improving the domestic exploration.

i) To ensure the security of the investors and providing them a complete


a safeguard.

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Page

5.FUTURE PROJECTS OF OIL & GAS SECTOR

H-II DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

The UCH gas field is situated in Blauchistan


about 67km in southeast of Dera Bugti. This
field was discovered by Pakistan Petroleum
Ltd in 1955, but due to its low BTU content,
it was not developed. The field was
reactivated by OGDCL in 1980s. Till now
OGDCL has drilled 15 wells and currently
they are supplying 220-225 MMcfd per day to
the UCH power plant via a pipeline of 47 km,
Figure-7 which is the first mega lower heating value gas
fired power plant of 586MW.

detailed study on the UCH gas field, OGDCL has formed a development
ncrease the gas production from 220 to 380 MMcfd per day. This project
the drilling of additional 15 development wells, assembling of a gas
g plant and the installation of dehydration and hydrogen sulphide (H2S)
ng with gas delivery station. So far about 14 development wells have been
Engineers and consultants are preparing Design documents. By February,
supply from UCH-II is expected. [27]

D-TAY INTEGRATED DEVELOPMENT PROJECT


KPD-TAY Plant is located in Sindh, about 25 km
from Hyderabad city. OGDCL has decided to
setup this project by itself in two phases. Under
the phase-I, 100 MMcfd dehydrated gas will be
supplied to SSGL’s network, without extracting
LPG from it and with 8% carbon dioxide content.
A gas transport line from Kunnar plant to
Figure-8

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Page

o of 30 km and of Dia 24” has been laid by SSGL. OGDCL has completed
-1 project in October, 2011.

ply of gas from the field has been started from the field on January 12, 212.
-II full processing of raw gas is included which involves extraction of LPG
oval of CO2 content from the gas and supply to SSGL’s network. Activities
ase-II project are fully in the progress. Deadline for the phase-II project is
onths. For the engagement of a consultant LOI has been issued. The
production by the completion of the project is Oil: 4,400 BOPD, Gas:
cfd, LPG: 387 M.Tons/day and NGL: 400 BOPD. [27]

HAL MAGSI DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

gsi is situated in Jhal Magsi district, Blauchistan. This is a joint development


f OGDCL (56%), GHPL (20%) and POL (24%), and OGDCL is working
rator. The project is currently under implementation, in which compression,
ion H2S removal plant is required. On the completion of this project
production is 15 MMcfd by February, 2013. [27]

NJHORO DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

horo field is situated in the Sanghar district of Sindh province, and is a joint
ment project of OGDCL (62.5%), OPI (15%) and GHPL (22.5%), and
is serving as an operator. This project involves the relocation of Ex-
plant, planting of feed gas compressors at Sinjhoro, gathering facilities
tion and an amine plant.The expected production on the completion of the
s OIL: 3000-3500 BOPD, GAS: 25-31 MMcfd, LPG: 120-140 M.tons per
e is to be completed in two phases and estimation for its completion is
er, 2012. [27]

ASHPA/ MELA DEVELOPMENT PROJECT

Mela field is situated in District Kohat, and is a joint development project


CL (65%), PPL (30%), GHPL (5%) and OGDCL is serving as an operator.
ect is currently under implementation, in which installation full processing

Page

ncluding LPG plant and compression of gas. LOI has been issued for the
ent of a consultant. [27]

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UR/BAGLA DEVELOPMENT
4 References 7 Figures
PROJECT

agla fields will be developed based on the track without problems by the
tion and installation of production facilities. Gas from Nur gas / Bagla will
ssed through the membrane plant and the dehydrated gas will be supplied
CL till 2012.[27]

UR & BAGLA GAS CONDENSATE FIELD

eld is situated about 150 Km in East of Karachi at Thatta Exploration Block


Province. The nearest city from Bagla is Golarchi that is about 28 Km.

d was discovered by Phillips Petroleum Exploration Limited in December


n production testing gas / condensate was discovered in lower Goru
on. Later on the Bagla well# 01 was Plug and Abandoned due to oozing of
e nearby area from the well. Drilling of the Bagla # 02 was started on 7th
08 and completed on 8th Nov, 2008. The well produced gas / condensate
wer Goru Formation. [27]

ARU AND RETI GAS FIELD

d is located in District Ghotki in Sindh province. OGDCL is the working


owner and operator of Guddu Exploration License (EL). The working
of various JV partners in Guddu EL is OGDCL 70%, Spud Energy
m Limited (SEPL) 13.5%, Improve Petroleum Recovery (IPR) 11.5% and
ment Holdings Private Ltd (GHPL) 05%. The discovery of the field was
August 2009. Four wells have been drilled. Total reserves of these fields are
F. In order to appraise the field, the field will be put on Extended Well
EWT). About 12 MMSCFD untreated gas will be allocated to M/s Engro
fertilizer plant at Daharki. OGDCL will complete its in-field facilities in
2012. Gas supply to Engro will be after completion of pipeline from Maru-

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Engro Plant at Daharki. This pipeline will be constructed and maintained


o. [27]

KHRO GAS CONDENSATE FIELD

ro field is located in District Sanghar in Sindh province. It is Joint venture


OGDCL (77.5%) and Government Holding Private Limited (22.5%).
has planned to develop the field on standalone bases. About 6 MMSCFD
ed gas will be supplied to M/S SSGCL and 238 barrels condensate per day
ry. The first sale gas from the field will be available in first week of April,
7]

ARA WEST GAS FIELD


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West field is situated in District Sukhur of Sindh province. Anciently the
s discovered by M/s 7Tullow
4 References Figures
in 1996. Later the ownership of the field was
ver to OGDCL in 2007. OGDCL has drilled two development wells. The
m this field contains high CO2 contents and low heating value (85-120
F). Govt is planning to allocate gas from this field to M/s Engro. About 120
D gas from this field will be processed to a heating value of 300 BTU/SCF
MSCFD and supplied to M/s Engro. After gas allocation by the Govt,
will supply gas to Engro within 02 years. [27]

AK-IRAN GAS PIPE LINE PROJECT

Iran gas pipeline also known as the peace pipe line or IP pipeline is a pipe
eliver gas from Iran to Pakistan. [28] Total length of the whole pipeline is
m which starts from Asalouyeh and by passing through Blaouchistan and
will end up in the Multan area. The estimated completing time for this
s December 2014. The major length of the pipeline passes through Iran
of 1172 kilo meters, out of which Iran has already completed 900 km
f 56 inch diameter pipeline from Asalouyeh to Iran Shehr. [29]

Page

eline has the capacity to conduct 750mmcfd gas volume which will help in
ng 4000 MW electricity, along with providing more job opportunities in the
d areas of Sindh and Blauchistan. Pakistan has issued a tender for laying gas
in its territory to a German company rejecting the U.S pressure for the Pak
pipeline project. Pak Iran gas pipeline project was started to overcome the
risis which we are facing currently. But according to the increasing demand
l gas and the power consumption rate the full capacity of the pipeline will
meet the requirements by 2015. Government should focus on the
ntation of the long term projects to meet its energy requirements.

HALIFA COASTAL RE FINERY

coastal refinery is a project of oil refinery at Khalifa point, near Lasbela


n Blauchistan. The capacity of this refinery is 250,000bbl/day which is
nt to the 13 millions petroleum products in a year. It will be the biggest
of Pakistan. [30] The estimated cost of this project is 6 billion US$. In
to refinery, this project also includes a 250 MW natural gas fired power
rid station, a small city to accommodate the refinery workers and a sea port
is project was approved by the government in October 2007.The owners of
nery are IPIC International Petroleum Investment Company of Abu Dhabi
nd PARCO Pak Arab Oil Refinery (24%). This project was suspended
imes and continued, but recently as of January 2012, due to various issues
ect put on hold. The reasons behind the delay of this project are lack of gas
ack of security and issues related to the governance and economy, such as
debt which has stopped the further investments if IPIC in Pakistan.[31]. First
project was suspended by the IPIC due to the hurdles between the

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ent of Pakistan and the IPIC on the extension of service contract of
See all ›of PARCO
g director See all ›
Rasheed Jung in 2008. Then for the second time the Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
was 4suspended
Referencesdue to7 Figures
the unclear dues of PARCO under the circular debt.
ng to the news sources in the finance ministry said that the President Asif
ari has appointed interior minister Rehman Malik to resolve the issue of
debt facing by PARCO. If the government of Pakistan succeed in
ishing this project and then it will be the biggest project in oil & gas sector
he largest foreign investment on the country. The current capacity of refining
an is 17.395 million tons per year and by adding the capacity of Khalifa
refinery this capacity will boost to 30 million per year [32]. Thus it will

Page

a better edge to the oil and gas sector of Pakistan in a way to overcome the
eeds.

13. BIODIESEL CULTIVATION PROJECT

he Pakistan State Oil company has signed memorandum of understanding


th the forest and wildlife department of government of Blauchistan for the
tablishment of a 5000 acres agricultural estate at Uthal for the cultivation of
odiesel. New business department of PSO had established a agricultural area
Pipri Marshalling Yard (PMY) in order to conduct a feasibility study
garding the cultivation of the Jatropha crucas plants and extraction of
odiesel from the seed s of that plant. Basing on the completion of plant life
cle and the extraction of biodiesel, after testing the fuel into the vehicles the
mpany has stepped towards mass cultivation. [33]

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Page

6. THE OIL & GAS SECTOR AND THE ECONOMY

NERGY BALANCE

as sector of Pakistan accounts for the 79% of commercial energy usage


ctricity for about 11.8%, and coal and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for
nce. Proven oil reserves are relatively very small (0.31 billion barrels
g to U.S EIA).And the imports of oil over the past year is 364.63 thousand
er day which results an import bill of 9.936 billion U.S$ [34]. On the other
reserves of natural gas are at 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) and there is a scope
ceful increase in gas production and consumption and hence in the share of
mmercial energy mix that is currently 47.6% [35].

ributions of hydro electricity and coal in the overall energy production are
w, although the country’s ample hydro power potential and massive coal
in Sindh province. Under this scenario, it is become a need to variegate the
of energy supply, apart from the petroleum products on the basis of strategic
s financial considerations.

sport sector is largest consumer of petroleum products 47.1 % [36] followed


r generation 43.1% and general industry 7.2%.

ONOMIC IMPACT
gas sector of a country impacts on a
Share of oil & gas sector in
s economy in four ways; share in GDP, total exports
state revenues, share in total investments
e in total exports. According to a report
Oil &
by World Bank, in Pakistan GDP was Gas
74.80 billion U.S dollars in 2010. The Sector
25%
lue off Pakistan is roughly 0.29 % Total
nt to the world’s economy. exports
75%
of Pakistan during last year were 25.35
.S$ and share of petroleum sector is 6.43 Figure-9
ollars.

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P a gSee
e all › See all › Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
4 References 7 Figures

y imports of Pakistan are 37.57


Share of oil & gas sector in total
.S$ [37] out of which 9.936 billion imports
ent on the imports of petroleum
which is a negative impact on the
Oil &
y of the country.
Gas
Sector
26%
Total
Imports
74%

Figure-10

eign investments in Pakistan during last


Share of oil & gas sector in
re 1739 million U.S dollars. And the total investments
oil & gas sector in the total investments
million US$. [38]
Oil &
Gas
Sector
Total
34%
invest
ments
66%

Figure-11

Page

Share of oil & gas sector in total


revenue
revenue of Pakistan during last year
billion US$ and the share of oil and
r was 9.5 billion US$.[39]
Oil &
Gas Total
Sector Revenue
48% 52%

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Figure-12
4 References 7 Figures

e the major indicators of the oil and gas sector on the economy of Pakistan.
and gas sector of Pakistan has a significant share in the revenues of the
Sustainable development in the sector will aid the country’s economy lift.

Page

7.CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

is a country which is blessed up with the enormous reservoirs of natural


s. But the country is still surrounded by the various energy problems. There
al reasons behind the current energy scenario that has been created in last
s. Pakistan is facing worst shortage of oil, gas and electricity that directly
the country’s economy. The main reasons behind this scenario are lack of
ment with the increasing demands, bad governance, poor management of
esources, less exploration of new resources, political controversies, no
of new technologies and lack of local professionals.

has enough resources of oil and gas to overcome the energy shortage which
rently facing, the major reason of shortage in gas sector is improper
on of gas in to consumer sector. The sudden rise in the consumption of
as in the transport sector affected the gas sector and resulted to the shortage
the industrial sector and caused economy downfall. And due to no new
on and production in oil sector country is facing shortage of oil too.

e large reserves of coal in the Thar region Blaouchistan which are not been
d d l k f f i l li i l i dl k fi
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d yet due to lack of professionals, political issues and lack of investments.
shale
Seegas
all ›reserves are
Seeinalllarge
› amount but still not exploited yet due to no Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
nts.4Khalifa
ReferencesCoastal 7Refinery
Figures project is also surrounded by the management
s.

mendations:

c need for the sustainable development in the oil and gas sector is better
ent policy with competitive incentives for the investors to grab the foreign
nts for the development in the upstream sector.

as sector the first priority in the consumers sector should be given to the
, textile and general industries sector, as they have significant share in the
s economy. While for the transport sector the government should adopt new
gies such as biodiesel, ethanolfuels, fuelcell technology, solar energy etc.

Page

agri country government should encourage the planting of biogas units and
of biogas for the cooking and heating purposes also the waste to energy
gy in the urban area for the energy production
olar energy should be maximized at the grid stations level to meet the energy
, as the country has the sound climate for the solar energy production.

l reserves should be exploited either by the coal gasification technology or


oal liquefaction technology.
genous resources should be utilized properly for the sake of power
on. And the resources should be forced to reduce the dependence on
crude oil by adopting renewable energy technologies.
aste management companies should adopt waste to energy techniques to
he burden on the oil and gas sector.

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Page

OF FIGURES

mposition of Overall Energy Mix of Pakistan 2012


nnual consumption Production and imports of natural resources of Pakistan
uring 2012
kistan’s Oil Sector overview
nsumption Of Oil by user sector in Pakistan
kistan’s Gas sector overview
nsumption of Gas by user sector in Pakistan
CH-II Development project by OGDCL Pakistan
PD-TAY Integrated development project by OGDCL Pakistan
are of Oil and Gas sector in total imports of Pakistan
are of Oil and Gas sector in total exports of Pakistan
are of Oil and Gas sector in total investments of Pakistan
are of Oil and Gas sector in total revenue of Pakistan

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Page

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th
International Pakistan Oil & Gas energy exhibition 8-10 May 2012
tp://www.pogeepakistan.com/OIL%20&%20GAS.pdf
s ENERGY Information administration
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EVELOPMENT OF UNCONVENTIONAL RESERVOIRS IN
AKISTAN Dr. M. Saeed Khan Jadoon
GDCL, Islamabad Presentation on Pakistan energy conference
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ATUS OF PETROLEUM SECTOR IN PAKISTAN - A REVIEW Adeel
hmad, Mithilesh Kumar Jha, Energy Field of Study, School of
nvironment, Resources and Development http://www.ogbus.ru/eng/
ergy year book of Pakistan 2012
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kistan economy profile 2012 oil production & consumption
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tp://pakistantimes.net/pt/detail.php?newsId=8007
oduction of molasses in Pakistan by Pakistan defence.
tp://www.defence.pk/forums/economy-development/10237-bio-fuel-
kistan.html
hanol Blends http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/ethanol_blends.html
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Page

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tp://www.defence.pk/forums/economy-development/10237-bio-fuel-

kistan html
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kistan.html
odiesel production NUST
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students
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tp://www.apnatime.com/9125/2011/05/04/general/nust-inroduces-cheap- Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
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odiesel-alternate-energy/
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mportance of Coal In Pakistan’s Development by Ghazanfar Javid
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waid_Importance_of_Coal.pdf
S Energy Information Administration
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ess release by Dr Samar Mubarakmand
tp://www.geo.tv/GeoDetail.aspx?ID=48874
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12_pg5_5
nistry of Finance, Government of Pakistan. Pakistan economic survey
10-11; n.d..Available:http://finance.gov.pk/survey0910.html
ESC biogas project
tp://www.kesc.com.pk/en/article/mediacenter/current-news/kesc-fast-
orking-on-one-of-the-worlds-largest-biogas-projects.html
el cell technology in Pakistan
tp://www.cleanpower.com.pk/pro_fuel_cell.php
nnual waste production; Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency
tp://www.environment.gov.pk/info.htm
ale Gas Revolution For Abundant & Cheap Energy in Pakistan By: Riaz
aq http://www.pakalumni.com/profiles/blogs/shale-gas-revolution-for-
undant-cheap-energy-in-pakistan
kistan Exploration &Production policy 2012 http://www.mpnr.gov.pk/
ture development projects of OGDCL
tp://www.ogdcl.com/projects/Future-Project.htm

Page

k Iran Gas Pipeline project en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran–


akistan_gas_pipeline
k-Iran Gas Pipeline Project By:Zaheerul Hassan
tp://paktribune.com/articles/US-Dirty-Tricks-%5E-Pak-Iran-Gas-Pipeline-
2879.html
alifa Coastal Refinery Project By: Zafar Bhutta
tp://tribune.com.pk/story/244842/increasing-capacity-parco-set-to-
prove-investment-in-6b-refinery/
oblems to Khalifa coastal refiney project by Business recorder
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ain-in-doldrums.html
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odiesel cultivation project by: Pakistan State Oil Company


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odiesel cultivation project by: Pakistan State Oil Company
tp://www.psopk.com/media/news_detail.php?nid=195
See all › See all ›
l imports swell by Imran Ali Kundi http://www.nation.com.pk/pakistan- Download citation Share Download full-text PDF
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ws-newspaper-daily-english-online/business/29-Mar-2012/oil-import-bill-
wells-by-38pc-to-9-93b
kistan energy year book 2011
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tp://events.hamariweb.com/exhibitions/detail.aspx?id=46
p://tribune.com.pk/story/387076/budget-govt-hopes-to-fetch-revenues-of-
300b-from-oil-gas-industry/
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ces

stan and Sustainable Development

References (4)

0-11

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Mi i t f Fi
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rvey 2010-11Available:http://finance.gov.pk/survey0910.html 23.KESC biogas project


k/en/article/mediacenter/current-news/kesc-fastworking-on-one-of-the-worlds-largest-biogas-projects .html 24.Fuel cell…
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ak-Iran-Gas-Pipeline- 242879.html 31.Khalifa Coastal Refinery Project By: Zafar Bhutta


tory/244842/increasing-capacity-parco-set-to- approve-investment-in-6b-refinery
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gy Exhibition ,EGO Pakistan 2012 http://events.hamariweb.com/exhibitions/detail.aspx?id=46


k/story/387076/budget-govt-hopes-to-fetch-revenues-of- rs300b-from-oil-gas-industry

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s Management April 21, 2018

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